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Sample records for rats fed vitamin

  1. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Dietzel, L.; Horn, J.

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineralmixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K 3 in the water or K 1 parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat

  2. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N C; Dietzel, L; Horn, J [Freie Universitaet, Berlin(West). Fachbereich Veterinaermedizin

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineral mixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K/sub 3/ in the water or K/sub 1/ parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat.

  3. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an

  4. Vitamin E decreases extra-hepatic menaquinone-4 concentrations in rats fed menadione or phylloquinone.

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    Farley, Sherry M; Leonard, Scott W; Labut, Edwin M; Raines, Hannah F; Card, David J; Harrington, Dominic J; Mustacich, Debbie J; Traber, Maret G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism for increased bleeding and decreased vitamin K status accompanying vitamin E supplementation is unknown. We hypothesized that elevated hepatic α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations may stimulate vitamin K metabolism and excretion. Furthermore, α-T may interfere with the side chain removal of phylloquinone (PK) to form menadione (MN) as an intermediate for synthesis of tissue-specific menaquinone-4 (MK-4). In order to investigate these hypotheses, rats were fed phylloquinone (PK) or menadione (MN) containing diets (2 μmol/kg) for 2.5 weeks. From day 10, rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of either α-T (100 mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 24 h after the seventh injection. Irrespective of diet, α-T injections decreased MK-4 concentrations in brain, lung, kidney, and heart; and PK in lung. These decreases were not accompanied by increased excretion of urinary 5C- or 7C-aglycone vitamin K metabolites, however, the urinary α-T metabolite (α-CEHC) increased ≥ 100-fold. Moreover, α-T increases were accompanied by downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and modified expression of tissue ATP-binding cassette transporters. Thus, in rats, high tissue α-T depleted tissue MK-4 without significantly increasing urinary vitamin K metabolite excretion. Changes in tissue MK-4 and PK levels may be a result of altered regulation of transporters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Vitamin E and experimental caries in rats fed a cariogenic diet and zinc].

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    Rapisarda, E; Longo, A

    1981-01-01

    A cariogenic diet with zinc and vitamin E administered to rats for 90 days led to a reduction in caries of 21.87% by comparison with animals fed with the cariogenic diet only, and 3.12% by comparison with those that received the diet plus zinc. Although the details of the mechanism of action of vitamin E are not fully known, it is felt that its demonstrated cariostatic effect depends on its antioxidant activity and its protection of the sulphydryl groups of some enzyme system, together with its direct intervention in cell respiration. Since both vitamin E and zinc activate NAD-dependent LDH, their simultaneous administration enhances their individual cariostatic effects by bringing about a lower accumulation of lactic acid in the bacterial plaque.

  6. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

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    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  7. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

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    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  8. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

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    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  9. Induction of monooxygenases and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats fed a diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamines A, C, E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmagambetov, T.Zh.; Amirov, B.B.; Kuanysheva, T.G.; Sharmanov, T.Sh.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of diet on induction of monooxygenases and distribution of radioactivity from 2- 14 C-lysine in fractions of liver homogenate, muscle homogenate and blood of male rats treated with phenobarbital was studied. 2- 14 C-lysin was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the first injection of phenobarbital. It was demonstrated that monooxygenase induction, increase of relative liver weight and incorporation of radioactivity from 2- 14 C-lysine into fractions of liver homogenate in phenobarbital-treated rats fed diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamins A, C, E were more pronounced as compared with the similarly treated rats which were fed a balanced diet. The possibility of mobilization of deficient essencial components to liver from other organs and tissues for maintenance of monooxygenase induction iis discussed

  10. Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Lipid Profile in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats in the Presence and Absence of Vitamin C

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    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The daily stress and shift working cause insomnia. In other hands, fatty food consumption increased this disorder. The aim of present study is evaluation additive effect of partial insomnia and high fatty diet with or without vitamin C on serum lipid profile in rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty six rats in 7 groups (8 rats each group were conducted for study during 26 days as: 1: normal diet+normal sleep, 2: high fatty diet+normal sleep, 3: normal diet+insomnia, 4: high fatty diet+insomnia, 5: high fatty diet+normal sleep+vitamin C, 6: high fatty diet+insomnia+vitamin C, 7: normal diet+insomnia+ vitamin C. The lipid profile was examined at end of study. Results: Results shown the high fatty diet+insomnia increased triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level and decreased HDL level with comparison to high fatty diet+normal sleep group. But only insomnia did not change serum lipid profile. High fatty diet increased level of cholesterol (p<0.05. The normal diet increased body weight but high fatty diet decreased it significantly. Liver weight ratio was elevated by high fatty diet+insomnia. The vitamin C decreased cholesterol and increased HDL level in group of rats which received high fatty diet+insomnia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study shown the only insomnia did not affect on serum lipid profile while insomnia along with high fatty diet increased lipid high risk factors in blood.

  11. Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Lipid Profile in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats in the Presence and Absence of Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Najafzadeh; Mohammad-Kazem Gharibnaseri; Ali Shahriyari; Hamideh Akbari-Aliabad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The daily stress and shift working cause insomnia. In other hands, fatty food consumption increased this disorder. The aim of present study is evaluation additive effect of partial insomnia and high fatty diet with or without vitamin C on serum lipid profile in rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty six rats in 7 groups (8 rats each group) were conducted for study during 26 days as: 1: normal diet+normal sleep, 2: high fatty diet+normal sleep, 3: normal diet+insomnia, 4: high fatty die...

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure alters [14C]arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas and platelets of rats fed various levels of selenium and vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were placed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 3 ppm selenium and 0 or 20 ppm vitamin E for 41-43 wk. Selenium deficiency decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered both aortic prostacyclin (PGI2) and platelet thromboxane (TXA2) production compared to selenium- and vitamin E-supplemented animals. Vitamin E deficiency increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased aortic PGI2 synthesis. Rats exposed daily for 31-32 wk to fresh smoke from a UK 2R1 reference cigarette had carboxyhemoglobin levels of 0.75 +/- 0.12 and 4.73 +/- 0.12% in sham- and smoke-exposed groups, respectively. Animals chronically exposed to cigarette smoke displayed a nearly twofold increase in pulmonary arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Smoke exposure produced a 26-33% decrease in aortic PGI2 synthesis compared to shams in the Se3E20, Se0.03E20, and Se3E0 groups. Smoking also increased platelet thromboxane 91% and 98% in the Se3E20 and Se3E0 groups compared to shams. It is concluded that cigarette-smoke exposure and selenium or vitamin E deficiency alter aortic PGI2 and platelet TXA2 production

  13. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chen Hsing; Yang, Chweishiun; Patel, S.R.; Stevens, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the effect of dietary vitamin D restriction on serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, measured by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Both WKY and SHR were fed a vitamin D-deficient or a vitamin D-supplemented diet beginning at 4 wk of age. In vitamin D-supplemented animals, the serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] concentration of WKY was similar to the level of SHR. Plasma calcium concentration was not different between WKY and SHR. In animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 of SHR was significantly lower than that of WKY. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level was markedly decreased in both WKY and SHR. The SHR, but not the WKY, developed hypocalcemia. Despite hypocalcemia, fasting urinary Ca 2+ excretion of SHR exceeded that of WKY. They conclude that the lower 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 level in SHR fed a vitamin D-deficient diet may be due to a defect in the synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The low level of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is associated with renal wasting of calcium and hypocalcemia in SHR

  14. Mitogen response of B cells, but not T cells, is impaired in adult vitamin A-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekum, A. M.; Wong Yen Kong, L. R.; Gijbels, M. J.; Tielen, F. J.; Roholl, P. J.; Brouwer, A.; Hendriks, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the mitogen response of splenic B and T lymphocytes was determined in adult vitamin A-deficient rats. Female weanling Brown Norway/Billingham-Rijswijk (BN/BiRij) and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified, essentially vitamin A-free diet, which resulted in

  15. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkut, S.

    1978-01-01

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  16. Inhibition of vitamin D2-induced arteriosclerosis in rats by depletion of complement with cobra venom factor.

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    Pang, A S; Minta, J O

    1980-01-01

    Widespread calcerous deposits developed in the aorta, heart and kidneys of rats fed for 4 days with purina chow and high doses of vitamin D2 (200,000 IU/kg body wt/day). Decomplementation of rats with highly purified cobra venom factor (CoF) prior to vitamin D2 feeding, almost completely prevented calcium deposition in the aorta and arteritis. The mortality rate in the CoF-treated vitamin D2-fed rats was much lower than in untreated rats. These findings suggest that the complement system may be recruited in the pathogenesis of vitamin D2-induced arteriosclerosis.

  17. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

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    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  18. Relationship of vitamin A utilization rate to vitamin A status in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, J.B.; Green, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed diets providing either 45 μg retinal equivalents (REq)/d for 4 wks, then 12 μg/d for 11 wks (HI; n = 9); or 0 μg/d for 7 wks, then 2 μg/d for 6 wks (LO; n = 8); or 0 μg/d for 7 wks, then 2 μg REq + 240 μg retinoic acid/d for 6 wks (RA; n = 6). At this time, plasma retinol (ROH) concentrations averaged 48.9 +/- 7.2, 10.3 +/- 1.7 and 8.5 +/- 0.9 μg/dl, respectively; and liver retinoid levels were 984.9 +/- 146.2, 3 H-ROH in its physiological transport complex. Vitamin A utilization rates (disposal rates, DR) were estimated from the inverse of the area under the tracer disappearance curve obtained by nonlinear, least-squares regression. Group average DR were 12.2 (HI), 1.8 (LO), and 1.2 (RA) μg REq/d. Since in similar studies the DR was 6.9 μg/d in rats consuming approx. 9 μg REq/d, and with liver stores of approx. 73 μg, the authors data suggest that vitamin A utilization rate adjusts to stores and/or dietary input, and that rats with virtually no liver vitamin A reserves and chronically fed marginal levels of vitamin A, are able to adapt by decreasing vitamin A utilization

  19. Induction of monooxygenases and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats fed a diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamine A, C and E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmagambetov, T.Zh.; Amirov, B.B.; Kuanysheva, T.K.; Sharmanov, T.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of diet on induction of monooxygenases and distribution of label from 2- 14 C-lysine in fractions of liver homogenate, muscle homogenate and blood of male rats treated with phenobarbital (80 mg/rg, three days) was studied. 2- 14 C-lysine was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the first injection of phenobarbital. It was demonstrated that monooxygenase induction, increase of relative liver weight and incorporation of label from 2- 14 C-lysine into fractions of liver homogenate in phenobarbital-treated rats were more pronounced as compared with the similarly trated rats that were fed a balanced diet. The possibility of mobilization of deficient essential components to liver from other organs and tissues for maintenance of monooxygenase induction is discussed

  20. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

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    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  1. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  2. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

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    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  3. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

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    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  4. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

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    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  5. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

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    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  6. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian First Nation formula-fed infants

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    Melissa L. Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations for supplementation in formula-fed infants. Objective. The objective of this report is to bring attention to the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in high risk, formula fed infants. Design. A retrospective chart review was used to create this clinical case series. Results. Severe vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in six formula-fed infants over a two-and-a-half year period. All six infants presented with seizures and they resided in First Nation communities located at latitude 54 in the province of Manitoba. While these infants had several risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, they were all receiving cow's milk based formula supplemented with 400 IU/L of vitamin D. Conclusion. This report suggests that current practice with regards to vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate, especially for high-risk infants. Health care professionals providing service to infants in a similar situation should be aware of this preventable condition. Hopefully this would contribute to its prevention, diagnosis and management.

  7. Effects of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride upon vitamin A status of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, K.; Prabhudesai, M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ethanol (ET) and carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ) upon tissue vitamin A, liver lipids, liver cytochrome P 450 and hepatic morphology were investigated. After a two week feeding period, young male rats were divided into four groups. For 5 weeks one group of rats (n=18) received ET in liquid diets (30% of calories) while another (n=8) was exposed to CCL 4 inhalation twice a week along with phenobarbitol in the diet. All groups received the NRC recommended level for vitamin A. Comparison of ET and its pair-fed control group revealed; decreased hepatic vitamin A, no change in serum vitamin A, increased % liver lipid and cytochrome P 450 with minimal fat accumulation in hepatocytes. Comparison of CCL 4 group with pair-fed controls showed; increased serum vitamin A, decreased hepatic vitamin A, increased cytochrome P 450 , marked hepatic fat accumulation, hepatic cell necrosis and early cirrhosis. Thus, CCL 4 , which is a more potent hepatotoxin as evidenced by a more elevated cytochrome P 450 and distorted liver morphology, not only reduced liver vitamin A, but also increased serum vitamin A. The hepatic response to CCL 4 may mimic a more cirrhotic condition such as that resulting from longer-termed ET intake

  8. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabar, I.; Kostial, K.

    1981-01-01

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115 sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  10. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  11. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  12. On redistribution of alimentary vitamin E within irradiated rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranich, A.V.; Chajkina, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The data were presented concerning the content of lipopigments, vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain and liver of rats. Excess vitamin E delivered with food was shown to be bound in tissues into complex with MDA. It was suggested that it was a labile form that reserves vitamin E. Irradiation of rats caused impairment of these complex and release of vitamin E, as well a decrease in the lipopigment fluorescence and increase in the MDA content

  13. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with fat and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paiva Paula Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the influence of diets with inclusion of protected fat and vitamin E on performance, yield and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs with different weights. Thirty-two non-castrated Santa Ines lambs were fed diets with a ratio of 40% forage and 60% concentrate ad libitum, with presence or absence of protected fat and/or vitamin E, in a total of four diets. Two weights of early containment were also considered: between 20 and 25 kg and between 30 and 35 kg. All animals were slaughtered at 84 days of confinement. Animals fed diets without addition of protected fat, regardless of the use of vitamin E, had the highest intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash, and decreased intake of ether extract. The variables investigated did not affect daily weight gain and total gain. Feed conversion was better for the lighter confined animals not fed protected fat. The heavier feedlot lambs fed diets with vitamin E showed higher cold carcass. The warm carcass for the lighter animals confined fed with vitamin E, and the heavier ones, fed with protected fat and vitamin E, showed the best yields of cold carcass. Objective measures of the carcass cold had the highest mean for heavier feedlot lambs. The addition of fat in the diet reduces the intake of dry matter and increases the ether extract. Although the inclusion of vitamin has no effect on intake of nutrients, it protects the carcasses from losses during cooling, and weight differences at containment directly reflect the measures of the carcasses.

  15. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  16. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  17. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    14 C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  18. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  19. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  20. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations......Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  1. Attenuation of acoustic and tactile startle responses of vitamin B-6 deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C

    1987-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficient rats exhibit changes in behavior, sensory function, and other nervous system abnormalities such as convulsive seizures and motor disturbances. Sensorimotor reactivity was evaluated quantitatively by measuring auditory and tactile startle responses in 12 week old female Long-Evans rats fed a diet devoid of added vitamin B-6 (DEF) or a control diet, either ad lib (AL-CON) or pair-fed to deficient rats (PF-CON). Deficiency was confirmed with a tryptophan-load test administered to a separate group of rats fed simultaneously according to the same protocol. At week 18, body weight and feed efficiency were different among groups (p less than 0.001), and were lowest in DEF. Amplitude of response to both acoustic and tactile stimuli was depressed in DEF compared to both control groups, which generally did not differ in response. This effect was seen most dramatically in responses to the acoustic stimulus (p = 0.034), and especially to the first presentation (p = 0.017). Latency to maximum response was not affected by diet. Possible mechanisms for this nervous system abnormality, not previously reported in vitamin B-6 deficiency, are discussed.

  2. [Vitamin K supplementation in the exclusively breast-fed infant: how much, how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zix-Kieffer, I

    2008-09-01

    There are various ways to prevent late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in exclusively breast-fed infants. The French paediatric society recommends weekly doses of 2mg of mixed micellar preparation of vitamin K during the entire period of exclusive breastfeeding, i.e. 24 doses for a period of six months, which matches recommendations for optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding by the French paediatric society, WHO and AAP. This significantly exceeds recommendations in other European countries. We describe the risks of vitamin K deficiency; we provide a review of recent literature about administrating vitamin K in other countries, and give a recommendation for daily practice that seems to be acceptable. Nevertheless, a comprehensive randomised prospective study is needed in France to answer the question of the best ways of preventing vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

  3. Influence of low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid on blood lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, S K; Rakha, Aruna

    2005-07-01

    In the recent past, low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid have been developed and are marketed under different brands claiming them as heart friendly. The influence of these eggs (smart eggs) on lipid profile of rats was evaluated in comparison to that of the standard eggs. Data of 4 week dietary treatment revealed that total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol increased only 22% in rats fed on diet containing 4 smart eggs per kg of semi-synthetic diet in contrast to the increase of more than 100 % when fed on diet containing standard eggs. The results suggest that it is not the low cholesterol content alone but also vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids present in smart eggs that act synergically to prevent a substantial change in blood lipid profile and impose no serious risk to the health of the consumers.

  4. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  5. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  6. Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation

  7. The effect of vitamin A and vitamin C on postoperative adhesion formation: A rat model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Keleidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin A and C, as the agents that improve wound healing, on the adhesion formation process. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were used. They underwent midline laparotomy, for repair of a peritoneal injury, and were then assigned to four groups. Group 1 (Vitamin A received 2000 units/kg intramuscular injection of vitamin A daily, post surgery, for two weeks; Group 2 (Vitamin C received 100 mg/kg oral vitamin C daily, after laparotomy, for two weeks; Group 3 (vitamins A and C received 2000 units/kg intramuscular injection of vitamin A and 100 mg/kg oral vitamin C daily, after laparotomy, for two weeks, and Group four (Sham rats did not receive any drugs. The adhesion, inflammation, fibrosis scores, and wound integrity were evaluated after two weeks. Results: Rats in the vitamin C group had the lowest mean adhesion formation score (1 ± 0.27 and the values of p were < 0.0001 for the vitamin A group and vitamin A and C groups and 0.003 for the sham group. Vitamin C also had the lowest fibrosis score (0.50 ± 0.17 among the study groups and the values of p were < 0.0001 for the vitamin A group and vitamin A and C groups and 0.002 for the sham group. The mean inflammation score did not differ significantly among the study groups. The wound disruption strength was the highest in the vitamin C group and the difference was statistically significant in the sham group (1188.69 ± 281.92 vs. 893.04 ± 187.46, p : 0.003. Conclusion: Administration of oral vitamin C reduces adhesion formation and improves wound healing

  8. The level of orally ingested vitamin C affected the expression of vitamin C transporters and vitamin C accumulation in the livers of ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yasuko; Ueta, Etsuko; Kodama, Satoru; Sannoumaru, Yasuko; Miyake, Noriko; Sone, Hirohito; Fujiwara, Yoko; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Kondo, Kazuo; Inagaki, Masahiro; Namba, Eiji; Kurata, Tadao; Suzuki, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vitamin C administration on vitamin C-specific transporters in ODS/ShiJcl-od/od rat livers. The vitamin C-specific transporter levels increased in the livers of the rats not administered vitamin C and decreased in the livers of those administered vitamin C at 100 mg/d, indicating that these transporter levels can be influenced by the amount of vitamin C administered.

  9. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended...

  10. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  11. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  12. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  13. Survival and growth of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae fed on vitamin C-enriched Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research was conducted to evaluate effect of the administration of Artemia enriched with vitamin C on the survival, total body length, and average body weight of Pangasionodon sp. larvae. Artemia were enriched with either 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/L vitamin C immersed in the culture medium for 13 hours. Two days old larvae were fed on enriched Artemia 12 times/day for seven days. At the end of feeding experiment, it was found that fish fed on Artemia enriched with 100 mg/L culture medium had the highest survival, total length and body weight, respectively 76.17±12.78%, 1.63±0.34 cm, and 20.6±3.8 mg. Keywords: survival, growth, Artemia, vitamin C, catfish, Pangasionodon sp.  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Artemia yang diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup, panjang total, dan bobot tubuh larva ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pada penelitian ini, Artemia diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis 0, 50, 100, atau 150 mg/L media pengayaan. Larva yang berumur dua hari diberi pakan Artemia hasil pengayaan sebanyak 12 kali sehari selama tujuh hari masa pemeliharaan. Pada akhir percobaan, didapatkan bahwa larva ikan yang diberi Artemia diperkaya vitamin C dosis 100 mg/L media pengayaan memberikan kelangsungan hidup 76,17±12,78%, panjang total 1,63±0,34 cm, dan bobot tubuh paling tinggi 20,6±3,8 mg. Kata kunci: kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan, Artemia, vitamin C, ikan patin, Pangasionodon sp. 

  14. Vitamin D toxicity of dietary origin in cats fed a natural complementary kitten food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series describes two young sibling cats and an additional unrelated cat, from two separate households, that developed hypercalcaemia associated with hypervitaminosis D. Excessive vitamin D concentrations were identified in a natural complementary tinned kitten food that was fed to all three cats as part of their diet. In one of the cases, there was clinical evidence of soft tissue mineralisation. The hypercalcaemia and soft tissue mineralisation resolved following withdrawal of the affected food and medical management of the hypercalcaemia. Relevance and novel information This case series demonstrates the importance of obtaining a thorough dietary history in patients presenting with hypercalcaemia and the measurement of vitamin D metabolites when investigating such cases. Complementary foods may have the potential to induce nutritional toxicity even when fed with complete, nutritionally balanced diets.

  15. The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched Defatted Rapeseed and/or Vitamin E Supplementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rýdlová, M.; Růnová, K.; Száková, J.; Fučíková, A.; Hakenová, A.; Mlejnek, Petr; Zídek, Václav; Tremlová, J.; Mestek, O.; Kaňa, A.; Zídková, J.; Melčová, M.; Truhlářová, K.; Tlustoš, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 6759810. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04580S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive-rats * blood-pressure * oxidative stress * iodine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  16. Identification of The First Limiting Amino Acid In Cooked Polished White Rice Fed To Weanling Holtzman Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellova Masrizal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male weanling rats (91 g were utilized to study the nutritional adequacy of cooked polished white rice. Rats were individually housed, and allowed ad libitum access to one of six treatment diets. Treatment diets were 1 polished white rice plus 10% casein and 0.18% methionine, CAS, 2 polished white rice, WHR, 3 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, LYS, 4 polished white rice plus0.40% methionine, MET, 5 polished white rice plus 0.30% threonine, THR, 6 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, 0.40% methionine, and 0.40% threonine, COM. Rice was cooked prior diet formulation using a 3 to 1 ratio of water to rice. Vitamins (AIN-76 and AIN minerals were added to all diets to meet NRC (1978 requirements. Rats fed CAS diets were significantly heavier on d 21 (P<0.05 than rats on COM, LYS, MET, THR, or WHR diets, (219.9 vs. 171.6, 153.2, 153.2, 148.3, or 155.4 g respectively. Supplementation of the most deficient essential amino acids, lysine (LYS or methionine (MET did not improve (P>0.05 rat performance over WHR fed rats, Average daily gain (ADG for CAS was 6.1 g/d and ADG for LYS and MET was 3.0 g/d. The addition of threonine (THR significantly (P<0.05 reduced ADG when compared to WHR diets (2.7 vs. 3.0 g/d. When rats were fed to COM diet significant (P<0.05 improvement in ADG was observed compared to WHR fed rats (4.8 vs. 3.0 g/d. The increased gains achieved with COM diet and the poor gains observed with the single amino acid diets (LYS, MET, or THR would suggest that polished white rice is limiting in more than one essential amino acid.

  17. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding regulates hypercholesterolaemia through transcriptional regulation of reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes in obese rat model of WNIN/GR-Ob strain

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    Shanmugam M Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatic scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL receptor, is involved in the selective uptake of HDL-associated esterified cholesterol (EC, thereby regulates cholesterol homoeostasis and improves reverse cholesterol transport. Previously, we reported in euglycaemic obese rats (WNIN/Ob strain that feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet normalized hypercholesterolaemia, possibly through hepatic SR-B1-mediated pathway. This study was aimed to test whether it would be possible to normalize hypercholesterolaemia in glucose-intolerant obese rat model (WNIN/GR/Ob through similar mechanism by feeding identical vitamin A-enriched diet. Methods: In this study, 30 wk old male lean and obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain were divided into two groups and received either stock diet or vitamin A-enriched diet (2.6 mg or 129 mg vitamin A/kg diet for 14 wk. Blood and other tissues were collected for various biochemical analyses. Results: Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding decreased hypercholesterolaemia and normalized abnormally elevated plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C levels in obese rats as compared to stock diet-fed obese groups. Further, decreased free cholesterol (FC and increased esterified cholesterol (EC contents of plasma cholesterol were observed, which were reflected in higher EC to FC ratio of vitamin A-enriched diet-fed obese rats. However, neither lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity of plasma nor its expression (both gene and protein in the liver were altered. On the contrary, hepatic cholesterol levels significantly increased in vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats. Hepatic SR-B1 expression (both mRNA and protein remained unaltered among groups. Vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats showed a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA levels, while the expression of genes involved in HDL synthesis, namely, ATP-binding cassette protein 1 (ABCA1 and

  18. Null activity of selenium and vitamin e as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Rao, K V N; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of selenium and vitamin E as inhibitors of prostate carcinogenesis, four chemoprevention studies using a common protocol were done in a rat model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. After stimulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate followed by testosterone propionate, male Wistar-Unilever rats received a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) followed by chronic androgen stimulation via subcutaneous implantation of testosterone pellets. At 1 week post-MNU, groups of carcinogen-treated rats (39-44/group) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with l-selenomethionine (3 or 1.5 mg/kg diet; study 1), dl-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 4,000 or 2,000 mg/kg diet; study 2), l-selenomethionine + vitamin E (3 + 2,000 mg/kg diet or 3 + 500 mg/kg diet; study 3), or selenized yeast (target selenium levels of 9 or 3 mg/kg diet; study 4). Each chemoprevention study was terminated at 13 months post-MNU, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathologic evaluation. No statistically significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence were identified in any group receiving dietary supplementation with selenium and/or vitamin E. These data do not support the hypotheses that selenium and vitamin E are potent cancer chemopreventive agents in the prostate, and when considered with the recent clinical data reported in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), show the predictive nature of this animal model for human prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Combined effects of treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium on the skin of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, B B; Basaraner, H; Yanardag, R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium (Se) on the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups: control, control + antioxidants, diabetic, diabetic + antioxidants groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. Vitamin C (250 mg/kg), vitamin E (250 mg/kg) and Se (0.2 mg/kg) were given by gavage technique to rats of one diabetic and one control group for 30 days. In the diabetic group, the levels of serum urea and creatinine, skin lipid peroxidation and nonenzymatic glycosylation levels increased, but skin glutathione levels decreased. Treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and Se reversed these effects. The present study showed that vitamin C, vitamin E and Se exerted antioxidant effects and consequently may prevent skin damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  20. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

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    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  1. Nitrogen sparing by 2-ketoisocaproate in parenterally fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Matthews, D.E.; Walser, M.

    1990-01-01

    In rats receiving total parenteral nutrition with or without sodium 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC; 2.48 g.kg-1.day-1), L-[1- 13 C]leucine and [1- 14 C]KIC were constantly infused for 6 h. CO 2 production, 14 CO 2 production, 13 CO 2 enrichment, urinary urea nitrogen (N) plus ammonia N and total urinary N were measured. Whole body protein synthesis (S) was calculated in non-KIC-infused rats and also in unfed rats infused with [1- 14 C]leucine from fractional oxidation of labeled leucine (1-F), where F is fractional utilization for protein synthesis, and urea N plus ammonia N excretion (C) as S = C x F/(1-F). Addition of KIC caused a significant reduction in N excretion and a significant improvement in N balance. Fractional oxidation of labeled KIC increased, whereas fractional utilization of labeled KIC for protein synthesis decreased, but the extent of incorporation of infused KIC into newly synthesized protein (as leucine) amounted to at least 40% of the total rate of leucine incorporation into newly synthesized whole body protein. We conclude that addition of KIC spares N in parenterally fed rats and becomes a major source of leucine for protein synthesis

  2. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  3. Effects of Vitamin D Restricted Diet Administered during Perinatal and Postnatal Periods on the Penis of Wistar Rats

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    Flávia Fernandes-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D restricted diet on the Wistar rats offspring penis morphology. Mother rats received either standard diet (SC or vitamin D restricted (VitD diet. At birth, offspring were divided into SC/SC (from SC mothers, fed with SC diet and VitD/VitD (from VitD mothers, fed with VitD diet. After euthanasia the penises were processed for histomorphometric analysis. The VitD/VitD offspring displayed metabolic changes and reduction in the cross-sectional area of the penis, corpus cavernosum, tunica albuginea, and increased area of the corpus spongiosum. The connective tissue, smooth muscle, and cell proliferation percentages were greater in the corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring. The percentages of sinusoidal spaces and elastic fibers in the corpus cavernosum decreased. The elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring were reduced. Vitamin D restriction during perinatal and postnatal periods induced metabolic and structural changes and represented important risk factors for erectile dysfunction in the penis of the adult offspring. These findings suggest that vitamin D is an important micronutrient in maintaining the cytoarchitecture of the penis.

  4. Vitamin-E reduces the oxidative damage on delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase induced by lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramirez, A; Cerbón-Solórzano, J; Maldonado-Vega, M; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2007-09-01

    Lead intoxication induces oxidative damage on lipids and proteins. In the present paper we study in vivo and in vitro the antioxidant effect of vitamin-E and trolox, on the oxidative effects of lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Vitamin-E simultaneously administered to erythrocytes treated with lead was capable to prevent the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and lipid oxidation. Partial but important protective effects were found when vitamin-E was administered either after or before lead exposure in rats. In vitro, the antioxidant trolox protected delta-ALA-D activity against damage induced by lead or menadione. These results indicate that vitamin-E could be useful in order to protect membrane-lipids and, notably, to prevent protein oxidation produced by lead intoxication.

  5. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  6. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  7. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  8. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

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    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [ 14 C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14 C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  10. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  11. Vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children with special needs: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, Hayley; Das, Geeta; Mughal, M Zulf

    2017-12-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children. Vitamin D status was measured in 32 children aged five to 16 years recruited from special schools in Manchester, UK (53° 48 ' N). All children were receiving a nutritionally complete, commercially prepared enteral feed via gastrostomy, and had been established on this regimen for over 12 months. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured at the end of winter. Children with serum concentrations of 25OHD >50 nmol/L were considered to be sufficient, and those with concentrations 50 nmol/L). One subject was vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD vitamin D insufficient (serum 25OHD >25 nmol/L - vitamin D derived from enteral feeds was 9.45 μg/day; range 3.5-30; 13 children (41%) received less than 10 μg of vitamin D per day from their enteral feed. Nutritionally complete gastrostomy feeds may be protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of children with special needs. We recommend that all children over 1 year of age receive 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D, as recommended by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

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    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  13. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  14. Impact of Western and Mediterranean Diets and Vitamin D on Muscle Fibers of Sedentary Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. Decreased serum levels of Vitamin D (VitD) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their mutual relationship were also reported. We aimed to evaluate whether different dietary profiles, containing or not VitD, may exert different effects on muscle molecular morphology. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats were fed for 10 weeks in order to detect early defects induced by different dietary regimens: regular diet (R); regular diet with vitamin D supplementation (R-DS) and regular diet with vitamin D restriction (R-DR); high-fat butter-based diets (HFB-DS and HFB-DR) with 41% energy from fat; high-fat extra-virgin olive oil-based diets (HFEVO-DS and HFEVO-DR) with 41% energy from fat. IL-1β, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and VitD-receptor (VDR) expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Muscle fiber perimeter was measured by histology and morphometric analysis. Results: The muscle fibers of the HEVO-DS rats were hypertrophic, comparable to those of the R-DS rats. An inverse correlation existed between the dietary fat content and the perimeter of the muscle fibers (p < 0.01). In the HFB-DR rats, the muscle fibers appeared hypotrophic with an increase of IL-1β and a dramatic decrease of IGF-1 expression. Conclusions: High-fat western diet could impair muscle metabolism and lay the ground for subsequent muscle damage. VitD associated with a Mediterranean diet showed trophic action on the muscle fibers. PMID:29462978

  15. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  16. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  17. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  18. Vitamin A and feeding statuses modulate the insulin-regulated gene expression in Zucker lean and fatty primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Unattended hepatic insulin resistance predisposes individuals to dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and many other metabolic complications. The mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance at the gene expression level remains unrevealed. To examine the effects of vitamin A (VA, total energy intake and feeding conditions on the insulin-regulated gene expression in primary hepatocytes of Zucker lean (ZL and fatty (ZF rats, we analyze the expression levels of hepatic model genes in response to the treatments of insulin and retinoic acid (RA. We report that the insulin- and RA-regulated glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expressions are impaired in hepatocytes of ZF rats fed chow or a VA sufficient (VAS diet ad libitum. The impairments are partially corrected when ZF rats are fed a VA deficient (VAD diet ad libitum or pair-fed a VAS diet to the intake of their VAD counterparts in non-fasting conditions. Interestingly in the pair-fed ZL and ZF rats, transient overeating on the last day of pair-feeding regimen changes the expression levels of some VA catabolic genes, and impairs the insulin- and RA-regulated gene expression in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that VA and feeding statuses modulate the hepatic insulin sensitivity at the gene expression level.

  19. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  20. Effects of Dietary Brazilian Palm Oil (Mauritia flexuosa L. on Cholesterol Profile and Vitamin A and E Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have been carried out to establish the nutritional differences between crude and refined vegetable oils; however, the impact of the consumption of these foods on metabolism, in particular the effect of buriti oil, needs to be further evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and murine parameters and the vitamin A and E status in young rats fed with diets supplemented with crude or refined buriti oil. The animals (n = 30 were randomized into three groups receiving diet added of soybean oil (control, crude buriti oil (CBO and refined buriti oil (RBO for 28 days. Rats fed with diet added of refined buriti oil (RBO showed reduced total cholesterol (up to 60.27%, LDL (64.75%, triglycerides (55.47% and enzyme aspartate transaminase (21.57% compared to those fed with diet added of crude oil. Serum and hepatic retinol and tocopherol were higher by two to three times in CBO and RBO groups compared to the control group, but no differences were observed for murine parameters. The results indicate that buriti oil is an important source of the antioxidant vitamins A and E, and refined buriti oil is suggested as alternative to improve the lipid profile of healthy rats.

  1. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  3. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The fate of exogenous 14 C-arachidonic acid ( 14 C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of 14 C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused 14 C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of 14 C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of 14 C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of 14 C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols

  4. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  5. Vitamin C deficiency exerts paradoxical cardiovascular effects in osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergely, Catherine; Goirand, Françoise; Ecarnot-Laubriet, Aline; Renard, Céline; Moreau, Daniel; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Dumas, Monique; Rochette, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be a very efficient water-soluble antioxidant, for which several new cardiovascular properties were recently described. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo the effects of a severe depletion of vitamin C on cardiac and vascular variables and reperfusion arrhythmias. For this purpose, we used a mutant strain of Wistar rats, osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS). After 15 d of consuming a vitamin C-deficient diet, ODS rats had a 90% decrease in plasma and tissue levels of ascorbate compared with ODS vitamin C-supplemented rats and normal Wistar rats. However, plasma antioxidant capacity, proteins, alpha-tocopherol, urate, catecholamines, lipids, and nitrate were not influenced by the vitamin C deficiency in ODS rats. Moreover, there was no difference between ODS vitamin C-deficient and -supplemented rats in heart rate and arterial pressure. After 5 min of an in vivo regional myocardial ischemia, various severe arrhythmias were observed, but their intensities were not modified by vitamin C in vitamin C-deficient ODS rats. The vascular reactivity, measured in vitro on thoracic arteries, was not altered by ascorbate deficiency in ODS rats. These unexpected results suggest that unidentified compensatory mechanisms play a role in maintaining normal cardiac function and vascular reactivity in vitamin C-deficient rats.

  6. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  7. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  8. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed

  9. Methyl vitamins contribute to obesogenic effects of a high multivitamin gestational diet and epigenetic alterations in hypothalamic feeding pathways in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Huot, Pedro S P; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Kubant, Ruslan; Dodington, David W; Ward, Wendy E; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-03-01

    High multivitamin (HV, tenfold AIN-93G) gestational diets fed to Wistar rats increase food intake, obesity, and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in the offspring. We hypothesized that methyl vitamins, and specifically folate, in the HV gestational diet contribute to the obesogenic phenotypes consistent with their epigenetic effects on hypothalamic food intake regulatory mechanisms. Male offspring of dams fed the AIN-93G diet with high methyl vitamins (HMethyl; tenfold folate, vitamins B12, and B6) (Study 1) and HV with recommended folate (HVRF) (Study 2) were compared with those from HV and recommended vitamin (RV) fed dams. All offspring were weaned to a high fat diet for 8 wks. HMethyl diet, similar to HV, and compared to RV, resulted in higher food intake, body weight, and metabolic disturbances. Removing folate additions to the HV diet in HVRF offspring normalized the obesogenic phenotype. Methyl vitamins, and folate in HV diets, altered hypothalamic gene expression toward increased food intake concurrent with DNA methylation and leptin and insulin receptor signaling dysfunction. Methyl vitamins in HV gestational diets contribute to obesogenic phenotypes and epigenetic alterations in the hypothalamic feeding pathways in the offspring. Folate alone accounts for many of these effects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity: study on the effect of vitamin A on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129 mg/kg diet on 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. Methods Male, 5-month-old, lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain (n = 16 for each phenotype were divided into two subgroups consisting of 8 rats of each phenotype. Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6 mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129 mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks. Food and water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, tissues were collected and 11β-HSD1 activity was assayed in liver and visceral fat. Results Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11β-HSD1, decreased in liver of vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver × receptor α (LXRα, a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. Conclusions This study suggests that chronic consumption of vitamin A-enriched diet decreases 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Decreased 11β-HSD1 activity by vitamin A may result in decreased levels of active glucocorticoids in adipose tissue and possibly

  11. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted 67 Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of 67 Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of 67 Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of 67 Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamins E and C on Endosulfan-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Kargar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day, or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the testis were determined. Results: Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan.Conclusion: The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  13. Protective effect of vitamins e and C on endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Tavasuli, Ali Reza; Heidary, Yazdan; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Kargar, Hussain

    2012-09-01

    The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each). The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day) alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day), or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testis were determined. Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP) and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan. The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  14. Research on garlic capsule and selenium-vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C applied in therapy of acute hepatocellular damage in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Kehinde Akintunde; Olakunle Enock Bolarin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the toxicity of lisinopril in liver of male rats and its reversal effect of garlic capsule (GAR) and selenium-vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C (SACE). Methods: Thirty five adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 7 animals per group. Group I serves as the control, animals in Groups II, III, IV and V received 28 mg/kg body weight of lisinopril via oral route. Group III was co-treated with GAR at therapeutic dose of 250 mg/kg body weight per day. ...

  15. Effect of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol implantation on bone metabolism in female rats fed 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.; Sherman, S.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used in two experiments to test the effects of 17-B estradiol (E 2 ) via silastic tubing implants on 3 H-labelled tetracycline (TC) incorporation into bone. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was the dietary source of vitamin D in a low calcium (.2%) semipurified eggwhite diet. In experiment I, the Ovx + E 2 animals showed a significantly (p 3 H TC uptake in scapula during a 2-week labelling experiment. An increase in 3 H TC content resulted (p 2 was implanted in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 fed Ovx rats. However, the calcium content was not significantly different. The effect of dietary 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and E 2 implantation appears to be additive. Optimal action of the Vitamin D endocrine system may be dependent on presence of E 2

  16. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  17. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with vehicle...

  18. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  20. The influence of presumable radioprotectors on vitamin E redox system in irradiated rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranich, A.V.; Pochernyaeva, V.F.; Dubinskaya, G.M.; Mishchinko, V.P.; Mironova, N.G.; Gugalo, V.P.; Nazarets, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    In experiments with mature Wistar male rats under irradiation by dose of 5 Gy the effect of emoxypine, citomedine and echinacea purpurea on the content of liposoluble vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E and its metabolites (quinone and oxidized tocopherol) in blood plasma, spleen, liver and testes was studied. It was shown the drugs under study mobilized the internal reserves of these vitamins and promoted effective functioning of vitamin E redox system. Mechanisms of their action are different. The drugs might be used as radioprotectors, but they exhaust the reserves of the liposoluble vitamins. Therefore they should be used in a combination with vitamin preparations

  1. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  2. Fed, but not Fasted, Adrenalectomized Rats Survive the Stress of Hemorrhage and Hypovolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Neves, Robert B.; Ha, Taryn; Chew, Gordon; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently shown that conscious adrenalectomized rats exhibit nearly normal recovery of arterial blood pressure during the 5 h after hemorrhage. In those experiments, it appeared that a previous reduction in food intake might have compromised the recovery of blood pressure and increased mortality. These experiments were designed to test in conscious sham-adrenalectomized (control) and adrenalectomized rats prepared with indwelling arterial and venous cannulae: 1. The effects of a 20- to 24-h fast (compared to rats fed ab libitum) on the mobilization of plasma substrates and recovery of arterial blood pressure after a 15 ml/kg - 5 min hemorrhage, and 2. Vascular responsivity to pressor agents in fed or fasted groups before or 2 h after hemorrhage. In all rats hemorrhage resulted in decreased arterial pressure and heart rate. Arterial pressure recovered to near normal in both fed and fasted control groups and in the led adrenalectomized rats, and all of these rats survived for 24 h after stress. By contrast, in the fasted adrenalectomized rats, arterial pressure recovered only during the first 1.5 - 2 h and then failed, resulting in 100% mortality by 3-5 h. Compared to the other three groups, in which substrate levels either increased or remained fairly stable, plasma glucose and beta-hydoxybutyrate concentrations fell steadily, from 1.5-2 h after hemorrhage until death occurred in the fasted adrenalectomized rats. Basal ACTH concentrations were elevated cormpared to control values in both adrenalectomized groups (fed and fasted). Hemorrhage caused increases in plasma ACTH in all groups; the magnitude of the responses did not differ among the groups. The dilution of Evans' blue dve after hemorrhage (used as an index of fluid movement into the vascular space) was not different in contol and adrenalectomized rats (either fed or fasted). There were no differences in pressor responses to phenylephrine, vasopressin, or angiotensin-II between the fed and fasted

  3. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr + (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential. (author)

  4. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr/sup +/ (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential.

  5. Effects of excess biotin administration on the growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effects of excess biotin administration on growth and water-soluble vitamin metabolism, weaning rats were fed on a 20% casein diet containing 0.00002% biotin, or same diet with 0.04, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, 0.80 or 1.0% added biotin for 28 days. More than 0.08% biotin administration decreased the food intake and body weight gain compared with the levels in control rats. An accumulation of biotin in such tissues as the liver, brain and kidney increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the both bound and free biotin contents in the liver also increased in a dose-dependent manner. An excess administration of biotin did not affect the urinary excretion of other water-soluble vitamins, suggesting no effect on the metabolism of other water-soluble vitamins. The results of the food intake and body weight gain indicated that the lowest observed adverse effect level for young rats was 79.2 mg/kg body weight/day, while the no observed adverse effect level was 38.4 mg/kg/day. These results suggested immediately setting a tolerable upper intake level for biotin.

  6. [Effects of excess folic acid on growth and metabolism of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    In order to determine the tolerable upper intake level of folic acid in humans, we investigated the effects of excessive folic acid administration on the body weight gain, food intake, tissue weight, and metabolism of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0002% folic acid (control diet) or the same diet with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% folic acid for 29 days. The body weight gains and food intakes did not differ among the four groups. Diarrhea was not seen even in the 1.0% group. Excess folic acid did not affect the tissue weights of the brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, or testis, or urinary excretion of other B-group vitamins. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% folic acid did not affect the food intake, body weight gain, tissue weight, or urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats.

  7. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  8. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  9. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  10. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  11. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  12. Formation of fatty acid esterified vitamin D3 in rat skin by exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, K.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of fatty acid esters of vitamin D3 was demonstrated in rat skin exposed to artificial ultraviolet rays by using multi-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This result indicated that the fatty acid esters of 7-dehydrocholesterol in rat skin (at least 80% of 7-dehydrocholesterol in rat skin is esterified) is also isomerized into vitamin D3 ester in vivo. The initial percentage of the esterified form was 84.3% and this did not significantly change up to the time when about half of the skin total vitamin D3 disappeared (2 days). Consequently, it was speculated that the vitamin D3 ester was delivered into the blood circulation from skin without having been hydrolyzed. This was supported by the presence of vitamin D3 ester in rat plasma exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In addition, in connection with the study of the restriction of vitamin D3 synthesis, distribution of total vitamin D3 in rat skin exposed to ultraviolet irradiation in vivo was compared with that in isolated skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation. The dermal layer of the isolated skin contained about 4 times more total vitamin D3 than that of in vivo skin. This finding suggests not only that ultraviolet rays could not penetrate deeply into the in vivo skin, but that the restriction of cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 observed in vivo may arise from this reduced penetration of ultraviolet rays

  13. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  14. Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Joe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

  15. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... ghum and millets. It consists of amylopectin, a branched- chain polymer of glucose, and amylose, a straight-chain .... diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) tubes for hematological studies. .... cially for people with diabetes such foods are known to ... consists of oligosaccharides, vitamins, essential amino acids ...

  16. Subtle abnormalities of gait detected early in vitamin B6 deficiency in aged and weanling rats with hind leg gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C; Cochary, E F; Sadowski, J A

    1990-04-01

    Motor abnormalities have been observed in every species made vitamin B6 deficient, and have been detected and quantified early in vitamin B6 deficiency in young adult female Long-Evans rats with hind leg gait analysis. Our objective was to determine if hind leg gait analysis could be used to detect vitamin B6 deficiency in weanling (3 weeks) and aged (23 months) Fischer 344 male rats. Rats (n = 10 per group) were fed: the control diet ad libitum (AL-CON); the control diet devoid of added pyridoxine hydrochloride (DEF); or the control diet pair-fed to DEF (PF-CON). At 10 weeks, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentration confirmed deficiency in both age groups. Gait abnormalities were detected in the absence of gross motor disturbances in both aged and weanling DEF rats at 2-3 weeks. Width of step was significantly reduced (16%, p less than 0.003) in DEF aged rats compared to AL- and PF-CON. This pattern of response was similar to that reported previously in young adult rats. In weanling rats, pair feeding alone reduced mean width of step (+/- SEM) by 25% compared to ad libitum feeding (2.7 +/- 0.1 vs 3.6 +/- 0.1 cm for PF- vs AL-CON, respectively, p less than 0.05). In DEF weanling rats, width (3.0 +/- 0.1 cm) was increased compared to PF-CON (11%, p less than 0.05) but decreased compared to AL-CON (16%, p less than 0.05). Width of step was significantly altered early in B6 deficiency in rats of different ages and strains and in both sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B 12 (2000μgkg -1 ). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg -1 ). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B 12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B 12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B 12

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  19. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  2. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  3. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  4. Effects of excess pantothenic acid administration on the other water-soluble vitamin metabolisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Takahashi, Chisato; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    2005-12-01

    To acquire the data concerning the tolerable upper intake level which prevents health problems from an excessive intake of pantothenic acid, an animal experiment was done. Rats of the Wistar strain (male, 3 wk old) were fed on a diet which contains 0%, 0.0016% (control group), 1%, or 3% calcium pantothenate for 29 d. The amount of weight increase, the food intake, and the organ weights were measured, as well as the pantothenic acid contents in urine, the liver and blood. Moreover, to learn the influence of excessive pantothenic acid on other water-soluble vitamin metabolism, thiamin, riboflavin, a vitamin B6 catabolite, the niacin catabolites, and ascorbic acid in urine were measured. As for the 3% addition group, enlargement of the testis, diarrhea, and hair damage were observed, and the amount of weight increase and the food intake were less than those of the control group. However, abnormality was not seen in the 1% addition group. The amount of pantothenic acid in urine, the liver, and blood showed a high correlation with intake level of pantothenic acid. It was only for 4-pyridoxic acid, a vitamin B6 catabolite, in urine that a remarkable difference was observed against the control group. Moreover, the (2-Py+4-Py)/MNA excretion ratio for these metabolites of the nicotinamide also indicated a low value in the 3% pantothenic acid group. As for the calcium pantothenate, it was found that the 3% level in the diet was the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and the 1% level was the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL).

  5. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  6. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on cholesterogenesis in rats fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Iwami, Tamako

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic cholesterol contents in rats fed a 70% or 20% casein diet with or without pyridoxine was determined. In the case of the 70% casein group, pyridoxine-deficient rats showed a higher content than the control. The increment was mainly due to the accumulation of an ester form of the cholesterol. On the other hand, pyridoxine-deficient rats in the 20% casein group showed a slightly lower content. The cholesterol content in liver microsomal fractions was lower in the 20%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group and serum cholesterol level was lower in the 70%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group than those in respective control groups. Incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into cholesterol was studied using liver slices, and significant stimulation was observed in pyridoxine-deficient rat fed a 20% or 70% casein diet. There was no difference in intestinal cholesterogenesis between the control and the deficient groups. (auth.)

  7. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  8. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  9. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  10. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism

  11. Effects of vitamin E on the NF-κB pathway in rats treated with the peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfee-Mason, Karen G.; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a diverse group of nongenotoxic compounds, which induce hepatic tumors in rodents. The mechanisms leading to hepatic tumors have not been elucidated, but oxidative stress may play a role in the process. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that peroxisome proliferators activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and that this activation is mediated at least in part by oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that increased dietary vitamin E would decrease NF-κB DNA binding in rodents treated with ciprofibrate (CIP). In this study, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet containing varying levels of vitamin E (10, 50, 250 ppm α-tocopherol acetate). After 28 days on the purified diet, seven animals per vitamin E group received 0.01% CIP in the diet for 10 days. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that CIP treatment increased DNA binding of NF-κB. Increased dietary α-tocopherol acetate inhibited CIP-induced NF-κB DNA binding. Because NF-κB translocates to the nucleus upon the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of IκB, we also used Western blots to measure cytosolic protein levels of IκBα and IκBβ, and the IκB kinases, IKKα and IKKβ. IκBα protein levels were decreased in all three CIP-treated groups, with the 10 ppm vitamin E diet also decreasing IκBα levels in control rats. No difference in IκBβ protein levels was observed among any of the groups. The CIP-treated rats generally had lower protein levels of IKKα and IKKβ. This study supports our working hypothesis that an increased antioxidant environment can inhibit CIP-mediated NF-κB induction

  12. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  13. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  14. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.

  15. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  16. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with

  17. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Vitamin B5 on Liver Enzyme Levels in Bile Duct Ligation Cholestatic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Emami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Accumulation of toxic bile salts in a bile duct ligation (BDL animal model plays a pivotal role in the induction of liver fibrosis. Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient, which acts as a cofactor in many detoxification system enzymes. In the present research, the antifibrotic effect of vitamin B5 was investigated on liver cholestasis induced by BDL in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups: Control, sham-operated, vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw, BDL, and BDL+vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw. After BDL, rats were given vitamin B5 via intragastric gavage for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from heart and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes, were measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the BDL animals, the serum activities of AST, ALT, and ALP significantly increased (p<0.001. Treatment of BDL rats with vitamin B5 significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that vitamin B5 has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in the cholestatic liver, which is likely due to the antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of this vitamin.

  19. Visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity in fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrin, D.G.; Britton, R.A.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male rats (avg wt. = 320 g) were used to assess the effect of severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) on visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity as measured by in vitro incorporation of U- 14 -C-VALINE ( 14 C-VAL) into isolated hepatocytes. Organ weights expressed as a percent of empty body weight for fed vs. fasted rats were; liver (5.21 +/- .54 vs 3.82 +/- .46), kidney (.87 +/- 0.6 vs .89 +/- .05), stomach (.60 +/- .06 vs .61 +/- .06), intestines (3.70 +/- .44 vs 3.41 +/- .37). No differences were observed in in vitro oxygen consumption (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs 16.1 +/- 3.3, umole min -1 g -1 dry tissue) or 14 -C VAL incorporation (4.93 +/- 1.28 vs 4.31 +/- 1.48, dpm min -1 mg -1 dry tissue) for hepatocytes from fed vs. fasted rats. Analysis of perfused liver tissue indicated fed rats had higher protein (152.1 +/- 16.3 vs 136.6 +/- 29.6, mg/g tissue) and RNA (8.81 +/- 1.66 vs 5.97 +/- 1.87, mg/g tissue) with lower DNA (2.19 +/- .31 vs 3.19 +/- .54, mg/g tissue) compared to fasted rats. Protein-nucleic acid ratios suggest liver tissue from fed rats had a greater capacity for protein synthesis compared to fasted rats, however, this was not evident from in vitro hepatocyte 14 -C VAL incorporation estimates. These data indicate that severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) affects visceral organ mass largely by reduced liver and gut size as well as decreased hepatic protein synthetic capacity

  20. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  2. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  3. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N.; Harrington, G.W.; Hart, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b 5 . DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of [ 14 C]NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 μCi/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O 6 -methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of 14 CO 2 and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from [ 14 C]NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage

  4. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  5. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  6. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  7. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  8. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  9. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Lin Chou

    Full Text Available Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group. Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L. These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  11. An experimental evaluation of the anti-atherogenic potential of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constitutent, eugenol, in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for systemic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Lipoperoxidation-mediated oxidative damage is believed to contribute strongly to the progression of atherogenesis. In the current investigation, putative anti-atherogenic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were sought in an experimental animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Atherogenic diet-fed rats that received either Piper betle extract orally (500mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol orally (5mg/kg b.wt) for 15days (commencing 30days after the atherogenic diet had been started) exhibited the following variations in different parameters, when compared to atherogenic diet-fed rats that received only saline: (1) significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in both serum and hepatic tissue samples; (2) lower mean serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase, alanine amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid-metabolizing enzymes (lipoprotein lipase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase; (3) significantly lower mean levels of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) and significantly higher mean levels of malondialdehyde in haemolysate and hepatic tissue samples. Histopathological findings suggested a protective effect of the Piper betle extract and a more pronounced protective effect of eugenol on the hepatic and aortic tissues of atherogenic diet-fed (presumed atherosclerotic) rats. These results strongly suggest that the Piper betle extract and its active constituent, eugenol, exhibit anti-atherogenic effects which may be due to their anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  12. Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on γ- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na 2 SeO 3 ) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-αtocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

  13. Increased Autolysis of μ-Calpain in Skeletal Muscles of Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsyna, Yulia V; Salmov, Nikolay N; Bobylev, Alexander G; Ulanova, Anna D; Kukushkin, Nikolay I; Podlubnaya, Zoya A; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan M

    2017-10-01

    Proteolysis can proceed via several distinct pathways such as the lysosomal, calcium-dependent, and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathways. Calpains are the main proteases that cleave a large variety of proteins, including the giant sarcomeric proteins, titin and nebulin. Chronic ethanol feeding for 6 weeks did not affect the activities of μ-calpain and m-calpain in the m. gastrocnemius. In our research, changes in μ-calpain activity were studied in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of chronically alcohol-fed rats after 6 months of alcohol intake. SDS-PAGE analysis was applied to detect changes in titin and nebulin contents. Titin phosphorylation analysis was performed using the fluorescent dye Pro-Q Diamond. Western blotting was used to determine μ-calpain autolysis as well as μ-calpain and calpastatin contents. The titin and nebulin mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. The amounts of the autolysed isoform (78 kDa) of full-length μ-calpain (80 kDa) increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of alcohol-fed rats. The calpastatin content increased in m. gastrocnemius. Decreased intact titin-1 (T1) and increased T2-proteolytic fragment contents were found in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of the alcohol-fed rats. The nebulin content decreased in the rat gastrocnemius muscle of the alcohol-fed group. The phosphorylation levels of T1 and T2 were increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus, and decreased titin and nebulin mRNA levels were observed in the m. gastrocnemius. The nebulin mRNA level was increased in the soleus muscle of the alcohol-fed rats. In summary, our data suggest that prolonged chronic alcohol consumption for 6 months resulted in increased autolysis of μ-calpain in rat skeletal muscles. These changes were accompanied by reduced titin and nebulin contents, titin hyperphosphorylation, and development of hindlimb muscle atrophy in the alcohol-fed rats. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. The influence of vitamin E supplementation on the oxidative status of rat liver

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    Đurašević S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested to see if the additional intake of vitamin E in the form of α-tocopheryl-succinate would improve liver antioxidative protection. Thus, we studied the tissue oxidative status in rats supplemented by two doses of the antioxidant over a four week period of time. Our results confirmed that the additional intake of vitamin E decreased the liver lipid peroxidation level and SOD activity level and preserved its vitamin C content. However, the hydrogen peroxide content and catalase activity remained unchanged, probably due to the mechanism of vitamin E liver metabolism. .

  15. Effect of enrofloxacin and chlorpyrifos on the levels of vitamins A and E in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodniewska, Anna; Barski, Dariusz; Giżejewska, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of enrofloxacin and chlorpyrifos, and their combination on vitamin A and E concentrations in the liver of rats. Results of this study indicated a reduction in the contents of vitamins A and E in the liver, which persisted for the entire period of the experiment. Vitamins A and E concentrations were slightly decreased (2-7%) in enrofloxacin-treated rats. In the group of rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos, a significant decrease in the level of vitamin A was observed up to the 24th hour, and for vitamin E up to the 3rd day from the discontinuation of intoxication with the compounds under study. In the enrofloxacin-chlorpyrifos co-exposure group reduced vitamins A and E level was also noted. The greatest fall in vitamin A level was observed after 3h, while the contents of vitamin E decreased progressively up to the 3rd day. Changes in this group were less pronounced in comparison to the animals intoxicated with chlorpyrifos only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin C and E chronic supplementation differentially affect hepatic insulin signaling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mennatallah A; Eid, Rania M H M; Hanafi, Mervat Y

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin C and vitamin E supplementations and their beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been subjected to countless controversial data. Hence, our aim is to investigate the hepatic molecular mechanisms of any diabetic predisposing risk of the chronic administration of different doses of vitamin E or vitamin C in rats. The rats were supplemented with different doses of vitamin C or vitamin E for eight months. Vitamin C and vitamin E increased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA). Vitamin C disrupted glucose tolerance by attenuating upstream hepatic insulin action through impairing the phosphorylation and activation of insulin receptor and its subsequent substrates; however, vitamin E showed its effect downstream insulin receptor in the insulin signaling pathway, reducing hepatic glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylated protein kinase (p-Akt). Moreover, both vitamins showed their antioxidant capabilities [nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), total and reduced glutathione] and their negative effect on Wnt pathway [phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β)], by altering the previously mentioned parameters, inevitably leading to severe reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) below the physiological levels. In conclusion, a detrimental effect of chronic antioxidant vitamins supplementation was detected; leading to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance obviously through different mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that the conventional view that vitamins promote health benefits and delay chronic illnesses and aging should be modified or applied with caution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats

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    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead (Pb2+ is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training. Results The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001. Conclusions According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

  18. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  19. Systemic distribution and speciation of diphenylarsinic acid fed to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranmandura, Hua; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Takano, Juniti; McKnight-Whitford, Tony; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Le, X. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is an environmental degradation product of diphenylarsine chloride or diphenylarsine cyanide, which were chemical warfare agents produced by Japan during the World War II. DPAA is now considered a dangerous environmental pollutant in Kamisu, Japan, where it is suspected of inducing health effects that include articulation disorders (cerebellar ataxia of the extremities and trunk), involuntary movements (myoclonus and tremor), and sleep disorders. In order to elucidate the toxic mechanism of DPAA, we focused on the distribution and metabolism of DPAA in rats. Systemic distribution of DPAA was determined by administering DPAA orally to rats at a single dose of 5.0 mg As/kg body weight, followed by speciation analysis of selected organs and body fluids. Most of the total arsenic burden was recovered in the urine (23% of the dose) and feces (27%), with the distribution in most other organs/tissues being less than 1%. However, compared with the typical distribution of inorganic dietary arsenic, DPAA administration resulted in elevated levels in the brain, testes and pancreas. In contrast to urine, in which DPAA was found mostly in its unmodified form, the tissues and organs contained arsenic that was mostly bound to non-soluble and soluble high molecular weight proteins. These bound arsenic species could be converted back to DPAA after oxidation with H 2 O 2 , suggesting that the DPAA bound to proteins had been reduced within the body and was in a trivalent oxidation state. Furthermore, we also detected two unknown arsenic metabolites in rat urine, which were assumed to be hydroxylated arsenic metabolites.

  20. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  1. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  2. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  3. Effects of B Vitamins Overload on Plasma Insulin Level and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Zhai, Mingzhu; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Chengrui; Jiang, Changyu

    2017-08-31

    It has been reported that nicotinamide-overload induces oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance, the key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of B vitamins in T2DM. Glucose tolerance tests were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of B vitamins. More specifically, insulin tolerance tests were also carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of Vitamin B3. We found that cumulative Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 administration significantly increased the plasma H₂O₂ levels associated with high insulin levels. Only Vitamin B3 reduced muscular and hepatic glycogen contents. Cumulative administration of nicotinic acid, another form of Vitamin B3, also significantly increased plasma insulin level and H₂O₂ generation. Moreover, cumulative administration of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide impaired glucose metabolism. This study suggested that excess Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 caused oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  4. Vitamin K1 attenuates bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kun; Sun, Quan; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin K1 is used as a liver protection drug for cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in China, but the mechanism of vitamin K1's action in liver fibrosis is unclear. In this study, a model of liver fibrosis was achieved via bile duct ligation in rats. The rats were then injected with vitamin K1, and the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and the fibrotic grade score, collagen content, the expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were measured on day 28 after ligation. The levels of the biochemical parameters, fibrotic score and collagen content were significantly reduced by treatment with vitamin K1 in bile duct-ligated rats. In addition, α-SMA and CK19 expression was significantly reduced by vitamin K1 treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggested that vitamin K1 may attenuate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation in bile duct-ligated rats.

  5. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  6. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  7. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  9. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  10. Effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on vitamin A catabolism and the regulation of vitamin A homeostasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH) are known to adversely affect vitamin A status resulting in the hepatic depletion and enhanced excretion of vitamin A. Increased renal and serum vitamin A content occurs subsequent to these PHAH-related alterations. Vitamin A, a highly regulated system, appears to undergo rapid compensatory changes to maintain homeostasis in response to nutritional, metabolic, or toxicologic conditions. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for these PHAH-related effects on vitamin A homeostasis. To this end, the toxin prototype of the PHAH class 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromo- or hexachloro-biphenyls were used in this study. Results presented in this study indirectly showed that PHAH caused enhanced hepatic and extrahepatic catabolism of intravenously administered 3 H-retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin as evidenced by increased inactive polar retinoids in liver, kidney, bile, and excreta. These polar retinoids were isolated from tissues and bile and are thought to represent oxidized and/or glucuronidated, elimination metabolites of vitamin A. PHAH increased the microsomal activity of cytochrome P-450 MFO and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase toward retinoic acid (RA), enzyme systems that are also known to be coordinately induced by PHAH. Increased serum and kidney vitamin A is likely a homeostatic response to PHAH-related increased target tissue catabolism. For serum, this was shown directly by the finding that PHAH caused decreased liver esterification of retinol recycled from the extrahepatic tissues and indirectly by the administration of the active target tissue metabolite, RA. After RA, both control and PHAH-treated rats lowered their serum vitamin A

  11. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  12. Vitamins C and E attenuate lipid dystrophy in tissues of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in the deviation of tissue lipid profiles and ways to reduce its effect using antioxidant vitamins C and E, thirty-six male albino rats (120-150g) were divided into six groups with six rats each. Group (1) received normal saline and served as control, Group (2) was ...

  13. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of vitamin C on cadmium-induced toxicity was investigated. Wister rats were exposed to ... and muscles of cadmium exposed rats (1.0- ..... Fauci, A.S., Braunwald, K., Isselbacher, K.J., Wilson,. J.D., Martin ...

  14. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  15. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  16. Effect of vitamin E on lead exposure-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodamoradi, Nasrin; Komaki, Alireza; Salehi, Iraj; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2015-05-15

    Chronic lead (Pb(2+)) exposure has been associated with learning and memory impairments, whereas vitamin E improves cognitive deficits. In this study, using a passive avoidance learning model in rats, we investigated the effects of vitamin E on Pb(2+) exposure-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. In the present study, 56 Wistar male rats (weighting 230-250g) were divided into eight groups (n=7). The Pb(2+) exposure involved gavages of lead acetate solution using three different doses (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) and the vitamin E consisted of three different doses (10, 25, 50μg/rat) for 30days. After the 30-day period, the rats were tested using a passive avoidance task (acquisition test). In a retrieval test conducted 48h after the training, step through latency (STL) and time in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded. The statistical analysis of data was performed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis. In all cases, differences were considered significant if plearning and the TDC, whereas it decreased the STL in the passive avoidance test. Administration of vitamin E ameliorated the effects of Pb(2+) on animal behavior in the passive avoidance learning and memory task. Our results indicate that impairments of learning and memory in Pb(2+)-exposed rats are dose dependent and can be inhibited by antioxidants such as vitamin E. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  18. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  19. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  20. [Effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Itoh, Keiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake level of pyridoxine-HCl in humans, we investigated the effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weight, and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0007% pyridoxine-HCl (control diet) or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.8% or 1.0% pyridoxine-HCl for 30 days. The body weight gain in the 0.8% and 1.0% groups, and the total food intake in the 1.0% group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The urinary excretion of pantothenic acid in the pyridoxine-HCl added groups were higher than that in the control group, while excessive pyridoxine-HCl intake did not affect the urinary excretion of other water-soluble vitamins. These results showed that the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for pyridoxine-HCl was 0.1% in diet, corresponding to 90 mg/kg body weight/day, and lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) was 0.5% in diet, corresponding to 450 mg/kg body weight/day.

  1. Search for phosphopeptides in the feces of axenic rats fed radioactive ovine casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, J.P.; Dubos, F.; Daburon, F.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive ovine casein was obtained by injecting 100 μCi of 14 C-Ser into the jugular vein of an ewe. The milk collected 17 and 24 h after this injection contained 12% of the radioactivity injected in protein form. The seryl residues were specificially labelled. This casein was used as the only protein source fed to axenic rats; 0.30% of the tracer ingested was found in the feces of those rats. Since phosphoserine represented 25% of the total casein seryl residues, the phosphopeptides may not be selectively unabsorbable [fr

  2. Very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride kinetics in acute and chronic carbohydrate-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Mamo, J.; Poapst, M.; Steiner, G.

    1988-01-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) kinetics were examined in rats maintained on either chow and water (control) or chow and a 10% carbohydrate drinking solution (fructose or glucose). The hexose solutions were available for an acute (16 h) or chronic (14 day) period. The acute fructose (AF), acute glucose (AG), and chronic fructose (CF) groups were hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) compared with control. Plasma TG concentration in chronic glucose (CG)-fed rats was similar to control. VLDL-TG was endogenously radiolabeled in donor rats with [2-3H]-glycerol. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was then determined by monitoring the clearance of plasma [3H]VLDL-TG in recipient animals. Donors and recipients were treated in an identical manner. AF and CF groups had an FCR significantly lower than rats given glucose for comparable periods. Both fructose groups and the AG group also had a lower FCR than control. In contrast, FCR in the CG group was significantly higher than controls. TG production rate (TGPR) in both AF and CF fed rats did not significantly differ from controls, suggesting that the HTG observed in these animals was solely from a catabolic defect. AG- and CG-treated glucose animals both had TGPR significantly higher than controls. Therefore, overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to the HTG associated with this carbohydrate

  3. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  4. Management of cisplatin toxicity and chromosomal aberration by vitamin E in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.; Mohamed, N.E.; Salama, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active antineoplastic drugs showing a broad therapeutic activity spectrum against different types of human neoplasms. To elvaute the subacute toxicity of the drug and to test the probable preventive effect of vitamin E in rats, forty-eight male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were classified into four groups, control, vitamin E, cisplatin and vitamin E with cisplatin. Vitamin E was administered orally at a dose of 2 mg/rat for two weeks prior to cisplatin intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg as a single dose) and then administration of vitamin E which was continued for two another weeks (end of experiment). The changes in body weight, counts of RBC and WBC, lipid peroxide, Na + , K + , chromosomal aberration and aldosterone hormone were recorded. Cisplatin administration caused 57.4% and 60% mortality at 3 and 5 weeks intervals. Regular intake of vitamin E induced significant role against the physiological disorders and chromosomal alterations occurred after cisplatin drug administration. The present study is directed to demonstrate the toxic effect of cisplatin on mortality, body weight, blood cells, aldosterone hormone, lipid peroxidation, Na + , K + , urea, creatinia as well as on chromosomal pattern and the efficacy of vitamin E in modulating cisplatin toxicity

  5. Concentration of hepatic vitamins A and E in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodniewska, A; Barski, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of antioxidant vitamins A and E in the liver of rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin. Chlorpyrifos (Group I) was administered at a dose of 0.04 LD50 (6 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days, and enrofloxacin (Group II) at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 5 consecutive days. The animals of group III were given both of the mentioned above compounds at the same manner as groups I and II, but enrofloxacin was applied to rats for the last 5 days of chlorpyrifos exposure (i.e. on day 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28). Chlorpyrifos and enrofloxacin were administered to rats intragastrically via a gastric tube. The quantitative determination of vitamins was made by the HPLC method. The results of this study indicated a reduction in the hepatic concentrations of vitamins A and E, compared to the control, which sustained for the entire period of the experiment. The four-week administration of chlorpyrifos to rats resulted in a significant decrease of vitamins in the initial period of the experiment, i.e. up to 24 hours after exposure. For vitamin A the maximum drop was observed after 24 hours (19.24%) and for vitamin E after 6 hours (23.19%). Enrofloxacin caused a slight (3-9%) reduction in the level of the analysed vitamins. In the chlorpyrifos-enrofloxacin co-exposure group reduced vitamins A and E levels were also noted, but changes in this group were less pronounced in comparison to the animals intoxicated with chlorpyrifos only. The decrease in the antioxidant vitamin levels, particularly noticeable in the chlorpyrifos- and the chlorpyrifos combined with enrofloxacin-treated groups, may result not only from the increase in the concentration of free radicals, but also from the intensification of the secondary stages of lipid peroxidation.

  6. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ornithine on ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwacki, S.; Wiechetek, M.; Souffrant, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ornithine on the ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from fed male Wistar rats was investigated. On the basis of the 15 N tracer technique, it was found that ornithine stimulated urea synthesis with an increased utilization of the exogenously marked ammonia for urea, but deminished its utilization in other N-metabolic processes. The results also showed that the stimulation of urea synthesis due to ornithine resulted from the utilization of both exogenous and endogenous sources. (author)

  8. [Assessment of the impact of vitamin and dietary fiber content in the diet on the characteristics of protective colon microbiota populations of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Yu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2015-01-01

    The content of lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the experiment in rats with varying levels of vitamins and dietary fiber was studied. The study was performed on 48 male weanling Wistar rats randomized into 8 groups, with the creation of vitamin deficiency (30 d.) and its further compensation (5 d.). Vitamin content in the semisynthetic diet in rats of the control group N 1 corresponded to 100% of a daily adequate intake. In the similar composition of the diet of the control group N 2 wheat bran was added in amount of 5% of the weight of the diet. In groups N 3–8 rats received a diet with the reduced amount of vitamin mixture by 5 times (20% of the adequate intake) and the total exclusion of tocopherol, thiamine and riboflavin from the mixture. The wheat bran (5% of diet mass) was added to the diets in Groups N 4, 6, 8. At the stage of compensation of deficiency rats were fed with the diets with increased content of vitamin mixture: Group 5–6 to 80% 7–8 to 200% (100 and 220% of the adequate intake, respectively), and the groups N 3–4 continued to receive deficient diet with or without wheat bran until the end of the experiment. After 35 days rats were anesthetized with ether, decapitated, necropsied and the cecum segments were selected for quantitative microbiological analysis of its contents. It has been shown that the addition of wheat bran to vitamin deficient diet lead to the reduction of the manifestation of physical sign of hypovitaminosis. It also eliminated the differences in the integrated index of growth and development of rats in comparison with the group without vitamin deficiency. It was found that the vitamin deficiency in the diet, regardless of the presence or absence of wheat bran, led to a significant reduction of the number of lactobacilli in the intestinal contents, but almost did not affect the number of normal and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The compensation of deficiency during 5 days lead to the increased number of

  9. Vitamin B12 supplement alleviates N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Areeba; Afroz, Nishat; Gupta, Umesh D; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-01-10

    Abstract Context: Altered vitamin B 12 levels have been correlated with hepatotoxicity; however, further evidence is required to establish its protective role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of vitamin B 12 supplement in protecting N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering NDMA in doses of 10 mg/kg body weight thrice a week for 21 days. Another group received equal doses (10 mg/kg body weight) of vitamin B 12 subsequent to NDMA treatment. Animals from either group were sacrificed weekly from the start of the treatment along with their respective controls. Progression of hepatic fibrosis, in addition to the effect of vitamin B 12 , was assessed biochemically for liver function biomarkers, liver glycogen, hydroxyproline (HP) and B 12 reserves along with histopathologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) as well immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Results and discussion: Elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, SALP, total bilirubin and HP was observed in NDMA treated rats, which was concomitant with remarkable depletion in liver glycogen and B 12 reserves (p < 0.05). Liver biopsies also demonstrated disrupted lobular architecture, collagen amassing and intense fibrosis by NDMA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of activated stellate cells that was dramatically increased up to day 21 in fibrotic rats. Following vitamin B 12 treatment, liver function biomarkers, glycogen contents and hepatic vitamin B 12 reserves were restored in fibrotic rats, significantly. Vitamin B 12 administration also facilitated restoration of normal liver architecture. Conclusion: These findings provide interesting new evidence in favor of protective role for vitamin B 12 against NDMA-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

  10. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  11. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M

    2018-03-08

    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, redox imbalance, inflammatory and apoptotic processes, protecting the myocardium of diabetic rats against acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  13. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone remodeling occurs during orthodontic treatment; this process enables tooth movement. Many factors can affect bone remodeling at the cellular level, such as nutritional supplements that can affect tooth movement. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin C on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 36 six-week male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225+32 g, which were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Rats in the case group received 1wt% vitamin C in their daily water. Opening springs were placed on the incisor teeth of both case and control groups. After 17 days, rats were sacrificed; the distance between the mesio-incisal angles of these teeth was measured with a digital caliper. Histological sections were made containing incisor teeth and alveolar bone and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The number of resorption lacunae was evaluated using light microscopy.Results: Our findings showed that the amount of tooth movement in the vitamin C group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001. The osteoclast counts were significantly higher in vitamin C group (P=0.036.Conclusion: Oral vitamin C can increase orthodontic tooth movement in rats with more osteoclast lacunae around root in the pressure area. 

  14. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, EA; van Gameren, MA; Kampinga, HH; Szabo, BG; Coppes, RP

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose

  15. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods ...

  16. Effect of Tetracycline and Vitamin E on Spatial Memory, Learning, and Depression in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Naderi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tetracyclines are antibiotics that are widely used. Tetracycline, easily passes the blood-brain barrier and protects the nervous system due to its specific chemical structure. Vitamin E is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. This vitamin helps prevent the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of tetracycline and vitamin E on spatial memory, learning, and depression.   Methods: In this experimental study, 21 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 each. The effect of tetracycline and vitamin E on memory, learning, and depression was investigated using 8-arm radial maze and elevated plus maze. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests. Statistical significance level was considered p<0.05.   Results: After 21 days of treatment, it was shown that tetracycline antibiotic has a significant effect on memory. Also Vitamin E significantly reduced depression and its protective effect decreased the adverse effect of tetracycline. In the treatment group, vitamin E along with tetracycline had a significant effect on memory loss.   Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that use of vitamin E can reduce depression by its antioxidant and protective effects. Tetracycline also significantly increases memory. Therefore, according to the results, it is suggested that tetracycline be used along with vitamin E to reduce negative effects of the drug.

  17. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later 125 I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. 125 I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia

  18. The Effect of Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration  and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration,  and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups  as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured  in the three groups. The obtained data  was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week  intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance  evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.

  19. Influence of neonatal vitamin A or vitamin D treatment on the concentration of biogenic amines and their metabolites in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, K; Gyenge, M; Folyovich, A; Csaba, G

    2009-04-01

    Newborn male rats were treated with a single dose of 3 mg vitamin A (retinol) or 0.05 mg vita-min D (cholecalciferol), and three months later five brain regions (frontopolar cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, striatum, and brainstem) were studied for tissue levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), and metabolites such as homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA). Vitamin A treatment as hormonal imprinting significantly decreased 5HIAA levels in each brain region. Vitamin D imprinting significantly elevated DA only in the brainstem and HVA levels in striatum and hypothalamus. Present and earlier brain-imprinting results (with brain-produced substances), show that the profound and life-long effect of neonatal hormonal imprinting on neurotransmitter production of the adult brain seems to be well established. As prophylactic treatment with these vitamins is frequent in the perinatal period, the imprinting effect of vitamin A and vitamin D must be taken into consideration.

  20. Metabolism of L-leucine-U-14C in young rats fed excess glycine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Tadauchi, Nobuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    As reported previously, while the growth-depressing effect of excess glycine was prevented by supplementing L-arginine and L-methionine, the degradation of glycine-U-(SUP 14)C into expired carbon dioxide was not accelerated by the supplement of both amino acids. However, it was found that the incorporation of the isotope into the lipids of livers and carcasses increased in the rats fed the excess glycine diet containing both amino acids. The lipid synthesis utilizing excess glycine may be accelerated by adding both amino acids to the 10% casein diet containing excess glycine. In the present experiment, the metabolic fate of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C was studied with the rats fed the excess glycine diet with or without L-arginine and L-methionine. 10% casein (10C), 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G), or 10C7G Supplemented with 1.4% L-arginine-HCL and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) was fed to each rat, and the diet suspension containing 4 sup(μ)Ci of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C per 100 g of body weight was fed forcibly after 12 hr fast. The radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide, TCA soluble fraction, protein, glycogen, lipids and urine, and the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma, livers and urine were measured. The body weight gain and food intake of the 10C7G group were much smaller than those of the other groups. The recovery of (SUP 14)C-radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide was much lower in the 10C7GArgMet group than that of the other groups. (Kako, I.)

  1. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, S.; Parker, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1)-induced γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  2. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  3. Synaptic Membrane Synthesis in Rats Depends on Dietary Sufficiency of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansev, Mehmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Sijben, John W C; Sevinc, Cansu; Broersen, Laus M; van Wijk, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Chronic consumption of a diet enriched with nutritional precursors of phospholipids, including uridine and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was shown previously to enhance levels of brain phospholipids and synaptic proteins in rodents. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium may directly affect the breakdown or synthesis of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated the necessity of antioxidants for the effectiveness of supplementation with uridine plus DHA and EPA (as fish oil) in rats. Rats were randomized to four treatment groups and received, for 6 weeks, one of four experimental diets, i.e., a diet low in antioxidants, a diet high in antioxidants, a diet low in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine, or a diet high in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine. On completion of dietary treatment, rats were sacrificed, and brain levels of phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and two enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis (choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, PCYT1A, and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase, CEPT1) were analyzed. Levels of phospholipids, the pre- and post-synaptic proteins Synapsin-1 and PSD95, and the enzymes PCYT1A and CEPT1 were significantly enhanced by combined supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine and antioxidants and not enhanced by supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine with insufficient antioxidant levels. Our data suggest that dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium are essential for the phospholipid precursors' effects on increasing levels of membrane phospholipids and synaptic proteins, the indirect indicators of synaptogenesis. Their concomitant supply may be relevant in Alzheimer's disease patients, because the disease is characterized by synapse loss and lower plasma and brain levels of phospholipid precursors and antioxidants.

  4. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  5. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  6. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  7. Imbalanced Diet Deficient in Calcium and Vitamin D- Induced Juvenile Osteopenia in Rats; the Potential Therapeutic Effect of Egyptian Moghat Roots Water Extract (Glossostemon bruguieri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Doaa A; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; El-Mallawany, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and validate a new juvenile osteopenic (JO) rat model then examine the efficacy of moghat (Glossostemon bruguieri) as an alternative reversal therapy for JO. Phytochemical screening analysis showed that moghat contains 5.8% alkaloids, 1.5% flavonoids and 13.2% total phenols. Juvenile osteopenia was induced in 15 days old Sprague- Dawley female rats by feeding them free Ca and vitamin D synthetic diet for 21 days. Osteopenic rats were either treated with moghat (0.8 g dried plant tissue/Kg body weight, orally), or with a reference nutritional supplements of calcium chloride (14 mg Ca/Kg) and vitamin D3 (7 IU/Kg), for extra 21 days. Both untreated and treated groups were compared to a control group that fed a regular pelleted food. Our results showed that osteopenic rats lost normal bone tissue architecture, 30 % of body mass, 54 % of bone mass and finally 93% of bone calcium mass. Furthermore, these rats showed a markedly increase in serum phosphate, PTH, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase activities and creatinine level as compared to the control group. Moghat administration was successfully reversed osteopenia by normalizing body and bone masses to the reference ranges, increased the bone calcium mass by 17 fold without any detectable side effects on liver and kidney physiological performance. Therefore, moghat could be considered as potent safe -JO- reversal extract.

  8. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  9. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases DNA damage and modify the expression of genes associated with hypertension in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D3 is a lipophilic micronutrient obtained from the diet (salmon, sardines, mackerel and cod liver oil or by the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol on skin after exposure to UVB radiation. This vitamin participates in several cellular processes, contributes to the maintenance of calcium concentrations, acts on phosphorus absorption, and is also related to the development and progression of chronic diseases. In hypertension, it is known that vitamin D3 act on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, regulates the gene expression and can induce or attenuate oxidative DNA damage. Vitamin D3 deficiency is present in 30-50% of human population (Pilz et al., 2009, and has been associated with increase of chromosomal instability and DNA damage (Nair-Shalliker; Armstrong; Fenech, 2012. Since experimental and clinical studies have suggested a relationship between vitamin D3 and blood pressure, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D3 deficiency or supplementation lead to an increase or decrease in DNA damage, regulates the expression of genes associated with hypertension and changes the systolic blood pressure. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, used as a model of human essential hypertension, and their normotensive controls (Wistar Kyoto – WKY were fed a control diet (vitamin D3 at 1.000 UI/kg, a deficient diet (vitamin D3 at 0 UI/kg or a supplemented diet (vitamin D3 at 10.000 UI/kg for 12 weeks. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in cardiac muscle tissue and blood tissue, following the methodology proposed by Singh et al. (1988 and Tice et al. (2000; gene expression of 84 genes was assessed by RT2ProfilerTM PCR Array in cardiac muscle tissue; and systolic blood pressure was measured weekly by a noninvasive method using tail plethysmography. In SHR and WKY rats, vitamin D3 deficiency increased DNA damage in the blood tissue and did not change the DNA damage in cardiac muscle tissue; vitamin D3 supplementation maintained the

  10. Pancreatic growth and cell turnover in the rat fed raw soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, P.S.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the pancreatic acinar cell was studied in rats fed raw soya flour (RSF) for up to a year. A second group of rats were fed a control diet. After 1 week of RSF feeding there was a 200% increase in tissue RNA and weight, indicating initial hypertrophy, which was maintained for the 1-year study period. By the second week and over the remainder of the period studied there was also a marked increase in total DNA, suggesting hyperplasia. Cell turnover, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA, was significantly higher in RSF-fed animals only from the second to fourth weeks; it then returned to control values. Autoradiography showed an 18-fold increase in duct cell labeling at the end of the first week and an 11-fold increase by the end of the second week. Acinar cell labeling doubled from the second to the twelfth week. These studies confirm previous reports that RSF produces pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. They furthermore show that there is initially marked stimulation of DNA synthesis in the duct cell compartment. The results suggest that cells with the morphologic characteristics of duct cells may be the precursors of acinar cells in hyperplastic pancreatic tissue

  11. Long-term Western diet fed apolipoprotein E-deficient rats exhibit only modest early atherosclerotic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoe tm1sage (Apoe -/-) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control...

  12. Effect of a multivitamin preparation supplemented with phytosterol on serum lipids and infarct size in rats fed with normal and high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although complex multivitamin products are widely used as dietary supplements to maintain health or as special medical food in certain diseases, the effects of these products were not investigated in hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, here we investigated if a preparation developed for human use containing different vitamins, minerals and trace elements enriched with phytosterol (VMTP) affects the severity of experimental hyperlipidemia as well as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal or cholesterol-enriched (2% cholesterol + 0.25% cholate) diet for 12 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. From week 8, rats in both groups were fed with a VMTP preparation or placebo for 4 weeks. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured at week 0, 8 and 12. At week 12, hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion to measure infarct size. Results At week 8, cholesterol-fed rats showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level as compared to normal animals, however, serum triglyceride level did not change. VMTP treatment significantly decreased serum cholesterol level in the hyperlipidemic group by week 12 without affecting triglyceride levels. However, VMTP did not show beneficial effect on infarct size. The inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the antioxidant uric acid were also not significantly different. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that treatment of hyperlipidemic subjects with a VMTP preparation reduces serum cholesterol, the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it does not provide cardioprotection. PMID:24063587

  13. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  14. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A. Rajeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA and Vitamin E (vit-Eon Acrylamide (ACR induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone. After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E

  15. Endosulfan-induced cardiotoxicity and free radical metabolism in rats: the protective effect of vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Suna; Kalender, Yusuf; Ogutcu, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Durak, Dilek; Acikgoz, Fatma

    2004-01-01

    Endosulfan is widely used in insect control and it is absorbed by both humans and animals through ingestion, inhalation and percutaneously. The aim of this work was to study antioxidant enzyme system which include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product of lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural changes that might occur in the heart tissue of adult male Wistar rats as a result of endosulfan intoxication. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week), endosulfan (2 mg/kg, per day, once a day in corn oil) and vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week)+endosulfan (2 mg/kg, per day, once a day in corn oil) combination were given to rats (n = 10/group) orally via gavage for 6 weeks. SOD, GPx, CAT activities and MDA level increased in the endosulfan-treated group heart tissue compared to control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). SOD, GPx activities and MDA level decreased in the vitamin E + endosulfan-treated group compared to endosulfan-treated group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Decrease of CAT activity was not significant statistically in the vitamin E + endosulfan-treated group compared to endosulfan-treated group. CAT activity increased in the vitamin E + endosulfan treated group compared to control group (P < 0.05). Increase of SOD, GPx activities and MDA levels were not significant statistically in the vitamin E + endosulfan-treated group compared to control group. In electron microscopic investigations while cytoplasmic edema and swelling and vacuolization of mitochondria of myocardial cells in endosulfan-treated group was observing, only a weak swelling of mitochondria of myocardial cells in vitamin E + endosulfan-treated group was observed. We conclude that vitamin E significantly reduce endosulfan-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

  16. Mechanisms involved in reproductive damage caused by gossypol in rats and protective effects of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia T Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gossypol is a chemical present in the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium sp. that reduces fertility in farm animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and may help to protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of gossypol in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E. Forty Wistar rats were used, divided into four experimental groups (n = 10: DMSO/ saline + corn oil; DMSO/saline + vitamin E; gossypol + corn oil; and gossypol + vitamin E. RESULTS: Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats treated with gossypol in that a significant decrease in epididy-mal sperm count was observed (P 0.05. The levels of reduced glutathione and pyridine nucleotides in testis homogen-ate were significantly reduced by gossypol (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively and this reduction was accompanied by increased levels of oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05. Vitamin E showed a preventive effect on the changes in the levels of these substances. Gossypol significantly increased the levels of malondialdehyde (P < 0.01, a lipid peroxida-tion indicator, whereas treatment with vitamin E inhibited the action of the gossypol. Vitamin E prevented a decrease in mitochondrial ATP induced by gossypol (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the reproductive dysfunction caused by gossypol may be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetic damage and that treatment with vitamin E can prevent the infertility caused by the toxin.

  17. Beneficial effects of enrichment of chicken meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and selenium on health parameters: a study on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczka, P; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A J; Czauderna, M; Smulikowska, S

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of chicken meat enriched with bioactive compounds such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAn-3), vitamin E (vE) and selenium (Se) can help prevent many diseases and can be used to deliver those substances to humans. This might be of importance as chicken meat consumption is increasing worldwide. The effects of enriching chicken meat with PUFAn-3, vE and Se through dietary interventions were studied in rats. Four groups of Ross 308 female broilers from day 22 to day 35 of age were fed control diet (L) that contained lard and 80 mg vE and 0.3 mg Se/kg, or diets that contained rape seeds and fish oil with the same level of Se and vE as in the control diet, the same level of Se as in the control and 150 mg vE/kg, or 150 mg of vE and 0.7 mg Se/kg. Broiler carcasses were boiled, deboned, lyophilized and pooled by group. Boiled edible components of chicken carcass (BECC) were included (240 g/kg) in the diets fed to four groups of ten 10-week-old Wistar male rats for 8 weeks. Inclusion of BECCs modulated dietary fatty acid profile in the rat diets. Feeding these diets did not influence parameters related to growth or relative weights of internal organs in the rats. Feeding BECCs with lower PUFAn-6/n-3 decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the rat brain and liver, and increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain lipids. Liver cholesterol level was similar among the experimental groups, whereas the concentration of vE in the liver of rats fed BECC with increased vE levels was higher than that in the rats fed BECC with the basal vE level. Haematological and biochemical parameters in blood were within the normal range for rats, but a few rats showed a tendency towards increased levels because of the higher vE and Se level. The health-promoting effect of feeding rats PUFAn-3 enriched BECC was more pronounced when an increased dietary level of vE was used, but the increased level of Se did not provide the rats with additional benefits. Thus, the

  18. Role of Vitamin E and/or High Protein Diet in Modulating Antioxidant Status and Certain Biochemical Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the modulator effect of vitamin E and/ or high protein diet on the gamma irradiation induced changes in antioxidant Status and certain biochemical parameters. Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy (single dose: 0.48 Gy/min) of whole body gamma radiation. Vitamin E (50 mg/kg body weight) was daily administrated to rats via stomach tube for 3 weeks before exposure to gamma radiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. Other animals fed daily on high protein diet for 3 weeks before irradiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. A combined administration of vitamin E and Feeding on high protein diet was daily applied to another rats group for 3 weeks before irradiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. The results obtained revealed that the administration of vitamin E and/or feeding on high protein diet were significantly reduced the changes. induced by gamma irradiation in blood antioxidant enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase: SOD and Catalase; CAT). concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH). Significant amelioration in the plasma level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of malondialdhyde (MDA) were observed. In addition, significant improvements were observed in liver function parameters (activities of serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and concentration of total protein and globulin. As well as, the changes in kidney function (serum creatinine and urea levels) were significantly improved. The improvements also extended to include the serum level of uric acid. Accordingly, it could be concluded that. via the adjustment of the antioxidant status, decreasing the releasing of lipid peroxides and the subsequent amending of different biochemical pathways. vitamin E and high protein diet could modulate the radiation injuries in

  19. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  1. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo; Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Tamura, Teiichi

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca 2+ ) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V max of the Ca 2+ pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca 2+ pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca 2+ pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author)

  2. Vitamin D insufficiency reduces the protective effect of bisphosphonate on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaglia, Silvina R; Pellegrini, Gretel G; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2006-10-01

    The present study was carried out to obtain an experimental model of vitamin D (vit D) insufficiency and established osteopenia (experiment 1) to then investigate whether vit D status, i.e. normal or insufficient, interferes with bone mass recovery resulting from bisphosphonate therapy (experiment 2). Rats (n = 40) underwent OVX (n = 32) or a sham operation (n = 8). The first 15 days post-surgery, all groups were kept under fluorescent tube lighting and fed a diet containing 200 IU% vit D (+D). They were then assigned during an additional 45 days to receive either +D or a diet lacking vit D (-D) and kept under 12 h light/dark cycles using fluorescent or red lighting. Serum 25HOD was significantly lower in -D rats (P < 0.0001). The type of lighting did not induce differences in 25OHD, calcium (sCa), phosphorus (sP), bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AL), CTX, bone density or histology. No osteoid was observed in undecalcified bone sections. Experiment 2 (105 days): rats were fed either +D or -D according to experiment 1 and were treated with either placebo or 16 mug olpadronate (OPD)/100 g rat/week during the last 45 days. Whereas 25HOD was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in -D/OPD than in +D/OPD rats, no significant differences in sCa, sP, b-AL or CTX were observed. OPD prevented the loss of lumbar spine (LS) and proximal tibia (PT) BMD and the decrease in bone volume (BV/TV) (P < 0.05) and in the number of trabeculae observed in untreated rats. However, +D/OPD animals presented significantly higher values of LS BMD, PT BMD and BV/TV than -D/OPD rats (P < 0.05). No osteoid was observed in undecalcified sections of bone. In summary, this is the first experimental study to provide evidence that differences in vit D status may affect the anticatabolic response to bisphosphonate treatment. However, the molecular mechanism through which vit D insufficiency reduces the effect of the aminobisphosphonate remains to be defined.

  3. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  4. Biological and physiological changes in rats fed some raw and irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakeil, F.A.; Farag, H.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Diaa Eldin, M.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suftered from poor growth due to the presence of some anti nutritional factors in these pulses. The processed soybeans, kidney beans, bread beans and lupines at 10 KGy could not correct the growth of rats kept on their diets for 8 weeks while irradiated chick beans at 10 KGy indicating some effect of the irradiation in this respect. When extracts of raw legumes were injected by intraperitoneal route, Ld 5 0 were found to be 125, 300, and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting the extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 300 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 KGy). Meanwhile, post irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans, and broad beans caused the Ld 5 0 to be 250,400, and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate, but significant, increase in liver weight only. However, rats which received both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupins in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic, liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The hematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either the raw or the irradiated legumes. 5 tabs

  5. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  6. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

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    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  7. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  8. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  9. Vitamin D metabolism impairment in the rat's offspring following maternal exposure to 137cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissandie, E; Guéguen, Y; Lobaccaro, J M A; Grandcolas, L; Grison, S; Aigueperse, J; Souidi, M

    2009-04-01

    Previous works clearly showed that chronic contamination by 137cesium alters vitamin D metabolism. Since children are known to be a high-risk group for vitamin D metabolism disorders, effects of 137Cs on vitamin D biosynthetic pathway were investigated in newborn rats. The experiments were performed in 21-day-old male offspring of dams exposed to 137Cs in their drinking water at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (150 Bq/rat/day) during the lactation period. Significant modifications of blood calcium (-7%, P < 0.05), phosphate (+80%, P < 0.01) and osteocalcin (-25%, P < 0.05) levels were observed in contaminated offspring, associated with an increase of blood vitamin D3 (+25%, P < 0.01). Besides, decreased expression levels of cyp2r1 and cyp27b1 (-26 and -39%, respectively, P < 0.01) were measured in liver and kidney suggesting a physiological adaptation in response to the rise in vitamin D level. Expressions of vdr, ecac1, cabp-d28k, ecac2 and cabp-9k involved in renal and intestinal calcium transport were unaffected. Altogether, these data show that early exposure to post-accidental doses of 137Cs induces the alteration of vitamin D metabolism, associated with a dysregulation of mineral homeostasis.

  10. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  11. Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency.

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    John McGrath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia. Animal models have confirmed that DVD deficiency is associated with a range of altered genomic, proteomic, structural and behavioural outcomes in the rat. Because the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, in the current study we examined protein expression in this region in adult rats exposed to DVD deficiency METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks, mated and allowed to give birth, after which a diet containing vitamin D was reintroduced. Male adult offspring (n = 8 were compared to control male (n = 8. 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and mass spectroscopy were used to investigate differential protein expression. RESULTS: There were 35 spots, mapped to 33 unique proteins, which were significantly different between the two groups. Of these, 22 were down-regulated and 13 up-regulated. The fold changes were uniformly small, with the largest FC being -1.67. Within the significantly different spots, three calcium binding proteins (calbindin1, calbindin2 and hippocalcin were altered. Other proteins associated with DVD deficiency related to mitochondrial function, and the dynamin-like proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental vitamin D deficiency was associated with subtle changes in protein expression in the nucleus accumbens. Disruptions in pathways related to calcium-binding proteins and mitochondrial function may underlie some of the behavioural features associated with animal models of developmental vitamin D deficiency.

  12. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz, E-mail: flavia.ramosperez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Novaes, Pedro Duarte [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ({alpha}=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  13. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  14. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

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    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  15. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  16. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation during the Induction and Progression of Osteoarthritis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies correlate low levels of vitamin D with the osteoarthritis (OA progression. Cytokines and metalloproteases play a major role in OA promoting the inflammation and degradation of the cartilage and can be induced through the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on the development of osteoarthritis (OA through examining the genetic regulation of TLRs, cytokines, and metalloproteases in chondrocytes as well as the wideness of cartilage in rats with OA. Our results demonstrate that the signaling through TLR-4 is a proinflammatory mechanism in osteoarthritis that drives the upregulation of MMP-3, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression, leading to cartilage degradation and inflammation. Vitamin D supplementation had a protective effect during the onset but not during the chronic stage of OA in the rat model.

  18. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B......(12) observed in patients treated with metformin reflects impaired B(12) status, and rather suggests altered tissue distribution and metabolism of the vitamin....

  19. Effect of potato on acid-base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcy, Agnès; Robert, Laetitia; Mazur, Andrzej; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Excessive dietary NaCl in association with a paucity of plant foods, major sources of K alkaline salts, is a common feature in Western eating habits which may lead to acid-base disorders and to Ca and Mg wasting. In this context, to evaluate the effects of potato, rich in potassium citrate, on acid-base homeostasis and mineral retention, Wistar rats were fed wheat starch (WS) or cooked potato (CP) diets with a low (0.5 %) or a high (2 %) NaCl content during 3 weeks. The replacement of WS by CP in the diets resulted in a significant urinary alkalinisation (pH from 5.5 to 7.3) parallel to a rise in citrate and K excretion. Urinary Ca and Mg elimination represented respectively 17 and 62 % of the daily absorbed mineral in rats fed the high-salt WS diet compared with 5 and 28 % in rats fed the high-salt CP diet. The total SCFA concentration in the caecum was 3-fold higher in rats fed the CP diets compared with rats fed the WS diets, and it led to a significant rise in Ca and Mg intestinal absorption (Ca from 39 to 56 %; Mg from 37 to 60 %). The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that CP may be effective in alkalinising urine, enhancing citrate excretion and ameliorating Ca and Mg balance.

  20. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Wister rats were exposed to cadmium (as CdSO4.8H2O), by sub-cutaneous injection, at doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 ìg/kg body weight, with or without vitamin C supplementation, for four weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity of the group of ...

  1. Protective role of antioxidant vitamin E and catechin on idarubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

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    Kalender S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Idarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic extensively used in acute leukemia. In the present study we investigated whether vitamin E and catechin can reduce the toxic effects of idarubicin. Vitamin E (200 IU kg-1 week-1, catechin (200 mg kg-1 week-1, idarubicin (5 mg kg-1 week-1, idarubicin + vitamin E (200 IU kg-1 week-1, and idarubicin + catechin (200 mg kg-1 week-1 combinations were given to male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 210 to 230 g (N = 6/group. Idarubicin-treated animals exhibited a decrease in body and heart weight, a decrease in myocardial contractility, and changes in ECG parameters (P<0.01. Catechin + idarubicin- and vitamin E + idarubicin-treated groups exhibited similar alterations, but changes were attenuated in comparison to those in cardiac muscle of idarubicin-treated rats (P<0.05. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was reduced in the idarubicin-treated group (P<0.05. Glutathione peroxidase levels were decreased in the idarubicin-treated group (P<0.05 and reached maximum concentrations in the catechin- and catechin + idarubicin-treated groups compared to control (P<0.01. Malondialdehyde activity was decreased in the catechin + idarubicin-treated groups compared to control and increased in the other groups, reaching maximum concentrations in the vitamin E-treated group (P<0.01. In electron microscopy studies, swelling of the mitochondria and dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of myocytes were observed in the idarubicin-treated groups. In groups that were given idarubicin + vitamin E and idarubicin + catechin, the only morphological change was a weak dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that catechin and vitamin E significantly reduce idarubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

  2. Fructose-fed streptozotocin-injected rat: an alternative model for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel D; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60 g) were randomly divided into six groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Fructose-10 (FR10), Fructose-20 (FR20), Fructose-30 (FR30) and Fructose-40 (FR40) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum, respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose levels > 300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ injection, the animals in FR20, FR30 and FR40 groups were eliminated from the study due to the severity of diabetes and the FR10 group was selected for the remainder of the 11 weeks experimental period. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher fluid intake, blood glucose, serum lipids, liver glycogen, liver function enzymes and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight, oral glucose tolerance, number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic β-cell functions (HOMA-β) of FR10 group demonstrate that the 10% fructose-fed followed by 40 mg/kg of BWSTZ injected rat can be a new and alternative model for T2D.

  3. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  5. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  6. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  7. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  8. Suramin-restricted blood volume in the placenta of normal and diabetic rats is normalized by vitamin E treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, P; Eriksson, U J

    2007-01-01

    Previously maternal and fetal alterations resembling human pre-eclampsia were induced in pregnant rats by injections of the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin. These alterations were aggravated by maternal diabetes and partly rectified by vitamin E supplementation. In the present study we evaluated the morphology of placentae and kidneys in this model. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats of two rat strains (U and H) were treated with Suramin or saline, and given standard or vitamin E-enriched food. On gestational day 20 one placenta and the left kidney of the mother were collected for morphological and stereological analysis. In the placental trophospongium Suramin treatment caused cysts, which were further enhanced by maternal diabetes. Vitamin E treatment had no effect on the vacuolization. In the placental labyrinth of the non-diabetic rats Suramin treatment restricted maternal placental blood volume and increased the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. These changes were reversed by vitamin E treatment. Diabetes increased slightly the interface between the circulations in both rat strains. Suramin treatment decreased the interface, and vitamin E further decreased the interface in the diabetic U rats, whereas neither treatment affected the maternal-fetal interface in the diabetic H rats. The kidneys of Suramin-treated and diabetic rats were heavier compared to controls. Suramin treatment and maternal diabetes damaged renal glomeruli to a similar extent. Vitamin E treatment diminished the Suramin- and diabetes-induced glomerular damage in U rats, but not in H rats. The average cell count per glomerulus was decreased by Suramin in the U rats. Vitamin E treatment did not affect cell number per glomerulus in any group. We conclude that Suramin-injected pregnant rats constitute a valid animal model for placental dysfunction and pre-eclampsia, also from the histological perspective. The present work supports the notion that one

  9. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  10. Experimental ComparativeStudy of potential anxiolytic effect of Vitamin C and Buspirone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Soliman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders are the most common of all mental health problems. They are more prevalent among women than among men, and they affect children as well as adults. The aim of the current study is to evaluate this problem via an experimental animal model and try to explore its possible mechanisms by studying the effect of Vitamin C compared to Buspirone on anxiety in rats induced by Monosodium Glutamate (MSG. Materials and Methods: 56 healthy adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley weighing 200-250 gm were used and divided into 7 groups (8 rats each. The first and the second groups were provided with normal saline and MSG at a dose of (2 mg/g p.o. respectively. The other five groups were given MSG and treated daily in the following way: The third and fourth groups were treated with Vitamin C (100, 200 mg/kg p.o respectively. The fifth group was treated with only Buspirone (10 mg/kg p.o., while the last sixth and seventh groups were given a combination of Buspirone and Vitamin C with (100, 200 mg/kg respectively. After 3 weeks, the open field and successive alleys tests were used to assess behavioral changes. The percentage change of systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR, malondialdehyde (MDA, and corticosterone levels were determined biochemically. Results: The results after 3 weeks revealed that MSG group showed significant anxiogenic effects in both behavioral tests, with an increased percentage change of SBP in addition to increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone level measured statistically. While the results of the treated groups revealed that the Vitamin C (100mg/kg treated group demonstrated significant improvement in anxiety levels in the open field test, there were no significant changes in the biochemical assessment. However, vitamin C (200mg/kg treated group revealed a significant anxiolytic effect in behavioral tests, improved glutathione and malondialdehyde with low

  11. Impaired redox state and respiratory chain enzyme activities in the cerebellum of vitamin A-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos Roberto de; Fonseca Moreira, Jose Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin A is a micronutrient that participates in the maintenance of the mammalian cells homeostasis. However, excess of vitamin A, which may be achieved through increased intake of the vitamin either therapeutically or inadvertently, induces several deleterious effects in a wide range of mammalian cells, including neuronal cells. Vitamin A is a redox-active molecule, and it was previously demonstrated that it induces oxidative stress in several cell types. Therefore, in the present work, we investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation at clinical doses (1000-9000 IU/(kg day)) on redox environment and respiratory chain activity in the adult rat cerebellum. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme activity was also measured here. The animals were treated for 3, 7, or 28 days with vitamin A as retinol palmitate. We found increased levels of molecular markers of oxidative damage in the rat cerebellum in any period analyzed. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation impaired cerebellar mitochondrial electron transfer chain (METC) activity. GST enzyme activity was increased in the cerebellum of rats chronically treated with vitamin A. Based on our results and data previously published, we recommend more caution in prescribing vitamin A at high doses even clinically, since there is a growing concern regarding toxic effects associated to vitamin A intake

  12. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  13. Prolonged decrease of adipocyte size after rosiglitazone treatment in high- and low-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julia A; Trasino, Steven E; Ferrante, Anthony W; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2007-11-01

    The anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) stimulate adipocyte differentiation and decrease mean adipocyte size. However, whether these smaller, more insulin-sensitive adipocytes maintain their size after TZD therapy is discontinued has not been studied. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (10% fat) diet or, to elevate body weight (BW), a high-fat (HF) diet (45% fat) for 6 weeks. Rats were initially randomized to groups (n = 12) fed either low-fat or HF diets, with or without the TZD rosiglitazone (ROSI; 5 mg/kg per day), for 6 weeks. ROSI was then discontinued, and all animals were fed HF for another 6 weeks before sacrifice. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue morphology was determined from tissue collected by serial biopsies before and after 6 weeks of ROSI treatment and at sacrifice. Measures of BW and adiposity did not differ among groups 6 weeks after stopping ROSI treatment. However, during treatment, ROSI in both diets significantly decreased RP adipocyte size and increased RP DNA content, and these effects continued to be observed after discontinuing treatment. ROSI administration also decreased circulating insulin, leptin, and triglycerides and increased circulating adiponectin levels; however, these effects were reversed on stopping treatment. These results demonstrated that TZD-induced effects on adipocyte size and number were maintained after discontinuing treatment, even with consumption of an obesigenic diet. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether TZD-treated animals eventually achieve an adipocyte size similar to that of untreated animals at the expense of a higher BW.

  14. Effects of a vitamin pool (vitamins A, E, and C) on the tissue necrosis process: experimental study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto da Rocha, Rogério; Lucio, Daniela Pettinato; Souza, Thiago de Lima; Pereira, Sérgio Tavolaro; Fernandes, Geraldo José Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    During surgical procedures on the epidermis, either aesthetic or reconstructive, the medical literature shows that certain technical standards and skin flap proportions should be followed, unless the risk of necrosis increases, in different degrees, directly related to the trauma. This study evaluates the evolution of skin flaps on the dorsum of rats treated with a vitamin pool (VP) (vitamins A, E, and C). Twenty-six rats, divided into two groups, were used: (A) the treated group (13 specimens), in which we performed a dorsal skin flap and applied the VP, and (B) the control group (13 specimens), in which we performed a flap on the dorsum without application of the VP. Our results demonstrate that, at the macroscopic level, the group treated with the VP had more tissue sufferance, whereas at the microscopic level, small statistical differences were observed between the groups and also between the vertex and the middle of the flap. Despite these small differences, better results were obtained in group A, showing that in this study the clinical aspect did not correspond to the histological features.

  15. The effect of melatonin and vitamin C treatment on the experimentally induced tympanosclerosis: study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Sema; Kıyıcı, Halil; Toker, Aysun; Soyalıç, Harun; Aslan, Huseyin; Kesici, Hakan; Karaca, Zafer I

    The ethiopathogenesis of tympanosclerosis has not been completely under- stood yet. Recent studies have shown that free oxygen radicals are important in the formation of tympanosclerosis. Melatonin and Vitamin C are known to be a powerful antioxidant, interacts directly with Reactive Oxygen Species and controls free radical-mediated tissue damage. To demonstrate the possible preventative effects of melatonin and Vitamin C on tympanosclerosis in rats by using histopathology and determination of total antioxidant status total antioxidant status. Standard myringotomy and standard injury were performed in the middle ear of 24 rats. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 received melatonin, Group 2 received vitamin C, and Group 3 received saline solution. The mean values of total antioxidant status were similar in the all study groups before the treatment period. The mean values of total antioxidant status were significantly higher in the melatonin and vitamin C groups compared to control group but vitamin C with melatonin groups were similar after the treatment period (pC groups compared to the control group but the differences were insignificant. Melatonin increases total antioxidant status level and might have some effect on tympanosclerosis that develops after myringotomy. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Binding protein for vitamin D and its metabolites in rat mesenteric lymph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueland, S.; Bouillon, R.; Van Baelen, H.; Pedersen, J.I.; Helgerud, P.; Drevon, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    A protein with high affinity for vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in rat mesenteric lymph has been studied. Mesenteric lymph was collected after duodenal instillation of radiolabeled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. As previously described, approximately 10% of vitamin D3 and 95% of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 recovered in mesenteric lymph were associated with the alpha-globulin fractions. The radioactive vitamin D3 recovered in the lymph fraction with d greater than 1.006 (free of chylomicrons) coeluted with purified rat serum binding protein for vitamin D and its metabolites (DBP) from an antirat DBP column. The results obtained by immunoblotting after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that this protein in mesenteric lymph had molecular weight and immunological properties identical with purified serum DBP. Purified serum DBP labeled with 125 I was injected intravenously and mesenteric lymph was collected. results suggesting that DBP may be transferred from blood to mesenteric lymph and that plasma and lymph DBP may have a similar origin

  17. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on the duodenal cadmium transport in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Sachiko; Otawara, Yoko; Hosoya, Norimasa; Noda, Setsuko.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the duodenal Cd transport was observed in the rat using everted gut sac technique in vitro, 1. Duodenal Cd transport was significantly increased in vitamin D deficient rat, however, it was not influenced by dietary Ca. The duodenal tissue binding and/or uptake of Cd from mucosal incubation medium was neither influenced by vitamin D 3 nor dietary Ca. 2. The transported Cd to serosal medium was very little compared to the Cd binding and/or uptake of duodenal tissue, suggesting two steps mechanism for intestinal Cd transport. The first step is the transfer from mucosal medium to duodenal mucosa and the second step is from duodenal mucosa to serosal medium. The second step was influenced by vitamin D. These results suggested that a significant increase in hepatic Cd accumulation of vitamin D deficient rat could be ascribed to the increase in the intestinal Cd absorption. (author)

  19. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  20. Chronic contamination with 137Cesium affects Vitamin D3 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissandie, E.; Gueguen, Y.; Lobaccaro, J.M.A.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; Paquet, F.; Souidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after Chernobyl disaster, many people are still chronically exposed to low dose of 137 Cs, mainly through the food consumption. A large variety of diseases have been described in highly exposed people with 137 Cs, which include bone disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of a chronic exposure to 137 Cs on Vitamin D 3 metabolism, a hormone essential in bone homeostasis. Rats were exposed to 137 Cs in their drinking water for 3 months at a dose of 6500 Bq/l (approximately 150 Bq/rat/day), a similar concentration ingested by the population living in contaminated territories in the former USSR countries. Cytochromes P450 enzymes involved in Vitamin D 3 metabolism, related nuclear receptors and Vitamin D 3 target genes were assessed by real time PCR in liver, kidney and brain. Vitamin D, PTH, calcium and phosphate levels were measured in plasma. An increase in the expression level of cyp2r1 (40%, p 137 Cs-exposed rats. However a significant decrease of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D 3 ) plasma level (53%, p = 0.02) was observed. In brain, cyp2r1 mRNA level was decreased by 20% (p 137 Cs contamination. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that chronic exposure with post-accidental doses of 137 Cs affects Vitamin D 3 active form level and induces molecular modifications of CYPs enzymes involved its metabolism in liver and brain, without leading to mineral homeostasis disorders

  1. Vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract reduce nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustekin, Kenan; Taysi, Seyithan; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Aktas, Omer; Oztasan, Nuray; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis; Akar, Sedat; Dane, Senol; Gul, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract (HRe-1) on nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart were investigated. There were eight rats per group and supplementation period was 3 weeks. The groups were: nicotine [0.5 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intraperitoneal (i.p.)]; nicotine plus vitamin E [75 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intragastric (i.g.)]; nicotine plus HRe-1 (250 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.g.); and the control group (receiving only vehicles). Nicotine increased the malondialdehyde level, which was prevented by both vitamin E and HRe-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was higher than the others. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group was increased compared with the control group. Catalase activity was higher in nicotine group compared with others. GPx activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was elevated compared with the others. Total and non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activities in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group were lower than nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group compared with others. Glutathione reductase activity and nitric oxide level were not affected. Increased SOD and GST activities might have taken part in the prevention of nicotine-induced oxidative stress in HRe-1 supplemented group in rat heart. Flavonols such as quercetin, and isorahmnetin, tocopherols such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol and carotenoids such as alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, reported to be present in H. rhamnoides L. extracts may be responsible for the antioxidant effects of this plant extract. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of depleted uranium after short-term exposure on vitamin D metabolism in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissandie, E.; Gueguen, Y.; Paquet, F.; Aigueperse, J.; Souidi, M.; Lobaccaro, J.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium is a natural radioactive heavy metal. Its toxicity has been demonstrated for different organs, including bone, kidney, liver and brain. Effects of an acute contamination by depleted uranium (DU) were investigated in vivo on vitamin D 3 biosynthetic pathway. Rats received an intragastric administration of DU (204 mg/kg) and various parameters were studied either on day 1 or day 3 after contamination. Cytochrome P450 (CYP27A1, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1) enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism and two vitamin D 3 -target genes (ECaC1, CaBP-D9K) were assessed by real time RT-PCR in liver and kidneys. CYP27A1 activity was measured in liver and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level were measured in plasma. In acute treated-rats, vitamin D level was increased by 62% and decreased by 68% in plasma, respectively at day 1 and at day 3, which paralleled with a concomitant decrease of PTH level (90%) at day 3. In liver, cyp2r1 mRNA level was increased at day 3. Cyp27a1 activity decreased at day 1 and increased markedly at day 3. In kidney, cyp27b1 mRNA was increased at days 1 and 3 (11- and 4-fold respectively). Moreover, ecac1 and cabp-d9k mRNA levels were increased at day 1 and decreased at day 3. This work shows for the first time that DU acute contamination modulates both activity and expression of CYP enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism in liver and kidney, and consequently affects vitamin D target genes levels. (orig.)

  3. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  4. Decaffeinated coffee consumption induces expression of tight junction proteins in high fat diet fed rats

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    Mazzone G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. An altered gut permeability induced by alterations of tight junction (TJ proteins allows the passage of bacteria and substances leading to liver inflammation, hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the influence of decaffeinated coffee on gut permeability in a rat model of fat liver damage induced by a high fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups. The first group received HFD for 5 months and drank water. The second group received HFD for 5 months and drank water added with 1.2mL decaffeinated coffee/day starting from the 4th month. The third group received standard diet (SD and drank water. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Toll-Like Receptor- 4 (TLR-4, Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 were assessed in rat intestines. Results: A significant reduction of Occludin and ZO-1 was observed in HFD fed rats (0.97±0.05 vs 0.15±0.08 p˂0.01, and 0.97±0.05 vs 0.57±0.14 p˂0.001 respectively. This reduction was reverted in HFD+COFFEE rats (0.15±0.08 vs 0.83±0.27 p˂0.01 and 0.57±0.14 vs 0.85±0.12 p˂0.01 respectively. The TLR-4 expression up-regulated by HFD was partially reduced by coffee administration. Conclusions: HFD impairs the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Coffee increases the expression of TJ proteins, reverting the altered gut permeability and reducing TLR-4 expression.

  5. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

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    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  6. Vitamin E Phosphate Coating Stimulates Bone Deposition in Implant-related Infections in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B; Bottagisio, Marta; Maraldi, Susanna; Violatto, Martina B; Bortolin, Monica; De Vecchi, Elena; Bigini, Paolo; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanò, Carlo L

    2018-06-01

    Implant-related infections are associated with impaired bone healing and osseointegration. In vitro antiadhesive and antibacterial properties and in vivo antiinflammatory effects protecting against bone loss of various formulations of vitamin E have been demonstrated in animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge, no in vivo studies have demonstrated the synergistic activity of vitamin E in preventing bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implants, thus supporting the bone-implant integration. The purpose of this study was to test whether a vitamin E phosphate coating on titanium implants may be able to reduce (1) the bacterial colonization of prosthetic implants and (2) bone resorption and osteomyelitis in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced implant-related infection. Twelve rats were bilaterally injected in the femurs with S aureus UAMS-1-Xen40 and implanted with uncoated or vitamin E phosphate-coated titanium Kirschner wires without local or systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Eight rats represented the uninfected control group. A few hours after surgery, two control and three infected animals died as a result of unexpected complications. With the remaining rats, we assessed the presence of bacterial contamination with qualitative bioluminescence imaging and Gram-positive staining and with quantitative bacterial count. Bone changes in terms of resorption and osteomyelitis were quantitatively analyzed through micro-CT (bone mineral density) and semiquantitatively through histologic scoring systems. Six weeks after implantation, we found only a mild decrease in bacterial count in coated versus uncoated implants (Ti versus controls: mean difference [MD], -3.705; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.416 to -2.994; p E-treated group compared with uncoated implants (knee joint: MD, -11.88; 95% CI, -16.100 to -7.664; p E-coated nails compared with the uncoated nails. These preliminary findings indicate that vitamin E phosphate implant coatings can exert a

  7. Development of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cullins, S.; Rashada, S.; Gray, T.K.; Free, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have determined the ontogeny of vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes. Microsomes from fetuses, neonates, and their mothers were incubated with 44 nM 3 H-vitamin D 3 in the presence of an NADPH generating system, oxygen, KCl, and MgCl 2 . Lipid extracts of the incubation samples were partially purified by thin-layer chromatography. Tritiated 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 (250HD 3 ) was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography using 94/6 hexane/isopropanol. Production rate for 250HD 3 in the mothers ranged from 0.22 to 0.30 pmol/mg protein/hr. Activities in the fetuses and neonates were 2.1, 12.9, 32.0, 35.8, and 71.0% of that of their mothers at -3, 0, 2, 7, and 15 days of age. The cytosolic fraction protected the substrate from degradation, stimulated the vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase reaction in neonates and mothers (1.4 to 1.7 fold increase), and was absolutely required for 25-hydroxylase activity in fetuses. These data suggest that microsomal vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase activity develops slowly and approaches full activity near the weaning stage. A cytosolic factor present as early as -3 days of age stimulates the activity of the microsomal vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase

  8. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  9. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  10. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  11. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (ppasture-based diet. Supplementation increased concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum but did not improve liveweight gains. Under this calf rearing system, vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely to occur prior to weaning, and vitamin B12 supplementation is unlikely to increase growth rates of grazing calves when concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum are > 90 pmol/L.

  12. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  13. Growth and hematology of juvenile pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg 1887 fed with increasing levels of vitamin E (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate

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    RICARDO Y. SADO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive fish production systems are characterized by 100% artificial feeding, so any dietary imbalances or deficiencies may lead to diseases outbreaks and economic losses. This study was set out to determine the effects of increasing levels of dietary vitamin E on growth and hematology of juvenile pacu. Fishes were fed for 90 days, twice a day until apparent satiation with semi-purified diets containing 0.0; 25; 50; 150; 300 or 600 mg.kg−1 diet DL-α-tocopheryl acetate in a completely randomized design trial (n=4; biometrical and hematological data were collected and analyzed. Fishes fed with vit E diet (150 mg.kg−1 showed higher (p<0.05 weight gain and specific growth. Hematocrit, erythroblast number and total plasma protein were increased (p<0.05 in fishes fed diet with no vit E diet. Vitamin E supplementation in artificial diets for pacu is essential for growth and maintenance of normal erythropoiesis.

  14. Retinol metabolism in rats with low vitamin A status: A compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, M.H.; Green, J.B.; Zech, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A compartmental model was developed to describe the metabolism of vitamin A in rats with low vitamin A status maintained by a low dietary intake of vitamin A (approximately 2 micrograms retinol equivalents/day). After the IV bolus injection of [3H]retinol in its physiological transport complex, tracer and trace data were obtained from plasma, organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, lungs, carcass), and tracer data were obtained from urine and feces. The dietary protocol developed for this study resulted in animals having plasma vitamin A levels less than 10 micrograms retinol/dl and total liver vitamin A levels of approximately 1 microgram retinol equivalent. Four compartments were used to model the plasma: one to describe retinol, one to describe the nonphysiological portion of the dose, and two to simulate polar metabolites derived from retinol. The liver required two compartments and a delay, the carcass (small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, and lungs, plus remaining carcass) required three compartments, and the kidneys required two. The model predicted a vitamin A utilization rate of 1.65 micrograms retinol equivalents/day with the urine and feces accounting for most of the output. The plasma retinol turnover rate was approximately 20 micrograms retinol equivalents/day; this was 12 times greater than the utilization rate. This indicated that, of the large amount of retinol moving through the plasma each day, less than 10% of this was actually being irreversibly utilized. Similarly, as compared to the whole-body utilization rate, there was a relatively high turnover rate of retinol in the kidneys, carcass, and liver, coupled with a high degree of recycling of vitamin A through these tissues. Of the total vitamin A that entered the liver from all sources including the diet, approximately 86% was mobilized into the plasma

  15. Vitamin C affects the antioxidative/oxidative status in rats irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...

  16. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  17. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  18. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

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    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  19. Effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine on the liver of high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giammanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have highlighted that the administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipids induces a decrease of cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels and body weight (BW without inducing liver steatosis. On the basis of these observations we carried out some experimental in vivo studies to assess the effects of multiple high doses of T2 on the pituitary thyroid axis of rats fed diet rich in lipids. Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each. The first group (N group received standard diet, the second group was fed with a high fat diet (HFD group, while the third group (HFDT2 group was additionally given T2 intraperitoneally at a dose level of 70 µg/100 g of BW three times a week up to four weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood sample from each animal was collected, centrifuged and the serum was stored at -20°C. The serum concentrations of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were then determined. In addition, liver of rats was examined by histology in order to assess the presence and degree of steatosis. The administration of T2 to rats fed with a high fat diet suppressed TSH secretion (P=0.013 while no steatosis was observed in the liver of these animals. Our data show that multiple administrations of high doses of T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipid inhibit TSH secretion and prevent the onset of liver steatosis in these animals.

  20. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  1. [Evaluation of influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on lipids and lipoprtoteins concentration in female rat serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    The influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on the intake of feeding stuff increase, changes of body mass, accumulation of fat tissue, lipids and lipoproteins concentration in the blood of female rats were under research. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups (8 persons each) and fed ad libitum with granulated Labofeed B type mix. Group I with the basic mix containing among other things whole grain, Group II with a modified mix, where whole grain was replaced by wheat flour and saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with chosen vitamins of B group. This experiment took 6 weeks during which the amount of consumed feed was currently evaluated, and the body mass was controlled weekly. After finishing the experiment in the obtained serum the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol with enzyme method and the content of cholesterol fractions with electrophoretic separation method were determined. Analysis of fat content in muscles and livers was conducted and the amount of round the bodily organ fat was determined. It was ascertained that change of the content of the feed and its supplementation with the chosen B group vitamins did not influence in a substantial way its intake and the increase of body mass, however it had influenced substantially, in animals fed with the modified feed the accumulation of round the organ fat and in supplemented the intramuscular fat. Analysis of the results enabled the ascertainment that the diet supplementation with chosen ingredients of the B group vitamins corrects the negative effect of accumulation of the visceral fat tissue as a result of the change of its contents, caused substantial increase in the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol and its fractions VLDL- and LDL- with simultaneous decrease of the concentration of cholesterol HDL- fractions.

  2. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  3. Prebiotic and synbiotic effects on rats fed malted barley with selected bacteria strains

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    Yadong Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyric acid, one of the key products formed when β-glucans are degraded by the microbiota in the colon, has been proposed to be important for colonic health. Glutamine bound to the fibre may have similar effects once it has been liberated from the fibre in the colon. Both β-glucans and glutamine are found in high amounts in malted barley. Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats. Objective: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt. Design: The experimental diets were fed for 12 days. The daily dose of the probiotic strain was 1×109 colony forming units and the intake of fibre 0.82 g/day. Results: The malt mostly contained insoluble fibre polymers (93%, consisting of glucose and xylose (38–41 g/kg and some arabinose (21 g/kg. The fibre polysaccharides were quite resistant to fermentation in the rats, regardless of whether or not probiotics were added (25–30% were fermented. Caecal and portal levels of acetic acid decreased in the rats after the addition of L. plantarum HEAL 9 and L. rhamnosus 271, and also the levels of butyric acid. Viable counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were unaffected, while the caecal composition of Lactobacilli was influenced by the type of strain administrated. Portal levels of glutamine were unchanged, but glycine levels increased with L. plantarum HEAL 9 and 19 and phenylalanine with L. rhamnosus 271. Conclusions: Although the probiotic strains survived and reached the caecum, except B. infantis CURE 21, there were no effects on viable counts or in the fermentation of different fibre components, but the formation of some bacterial metabolites decreased. This may be due to

  4. Enterohepatic circulation of nonconjugated bilirubin in rats fed with human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.M.; Whitington, P.F.; Whitington, S.H.; Rivard, W.A.; Given, G.

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin may contribute to prolonged nonconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in human milk-fed infants, we studied a cross-section of 36 healthy infants and mothers. Milk from mothers and serum from infants were collected at 16.3 +/- 2.4 days. Milk was studied for its effect on the absorption of bilirubin labeled with carbon 14 in rats and compared with buffer and iron-fortified infant formula (Similac With Iron). The percentage of a 1 mg bilirubin dose absorbed by the rat was 25.29 +/- 4.0% when it was administered into the duodenum with buffer, 4.67 +/- 2.4% with Similac formula, and 7.7 +/- 2.9% with human milk. Linear regression analysis, using the infant's serum nonconjugated bilirubin level as the dependent variable and the percentage of (14C)bilirubin absorbed by the rat with the corresponding mother's milk as the independent variable, revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.016). Inspection of the data suggested that absorptive permissiveness correlated closely with infant serum bilirubin values greater than 24 mumol/L (1.4 mg/dl) (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), whereas in those with bilirubin values less than or equal to 24 mumol/L, there was no apparent correlation. Milk was also analyzed for beta-glucuronidase, nonesterified fatty acids, and the ability to inhibit glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes in vitro, none of which correlated with the infant's serum bilirubin. These data support the theory that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin contributes to the jaundice associated with breast-feeding

  5. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

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    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  6. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  8. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  9. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Palgae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  11. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  12. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  13. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  14. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  15. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the non-carcass components and the meat of lambs fed sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ludmila Lins Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the weight and percentage of the non-carcass components and the mineral content (macro minerals and trace minerals, crude protein, ether extract, moisture and vitamin E of the heart, liver, tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat from the longissimus dorsi of lambs in feedlot finishing. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France male lambs, fed diets containing sunflower seeds and vitamin E from 15 to 32 kg of body weight were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The weight of the gastrointestinal tract was higher in the lambs fed diets containing vitamin E (10%. No difference was observed in the liver as to the mineral matter, crude protein, ether extract, moisture (2.01; 20.03; 2.39 and 74.78 g/100 g, respectively, the macro minerals and trace minerals, except iron. In the tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat there was no in fluence of diets in the studied variables. The liver and the meat presented different values of crude protein (20.01 and 18.34 g/100 g, respectively, and the heart (1.03 mg/100 g showed a higher content of vitamin E. High contents of manganese, zinc and copper were observed in the liver. The evaluated non-carcass components were nutritionally equal to the sheep meat, once, in addition to their high yield in relation to the body weight at slaughter, the non-carcass components are sources of nutrients.

  17. Effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial function in aged diabetic and high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, C M; Nunes, E; Louro, T; Proença, T; Fernandes, R; Boarder, M R; Seiça, R M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on endothelial function in diabetic and high-fat fed animal models and elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the benefits of α-LA. Experimental approach: Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), plasma and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed in non-diabetic controls (Wistar rats), untreated Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic and high-fat fed GK rats (fed with atherogenic diet only, treated with α-LA and treated with vehicle, for 3 months). Vascular eNOS, nitrotyrosine, carbonyl groups and superoxide anion were also assessed in the different groups. Key results: α-LA and soybean oil significantly reduced both total and non-HDL serum cholesterol and triglycerides induced by atherogenic diet. MDA, carbonyl groups, vascular superoxide and 8-OHdG levels were higher in GK and high-fat fed GK groups and fully reversed with α-LA treatment. High-fat fed GK diabetic rats showed significantly reduced endothelial function and increased UAE, effects ameliorated with α-LA. This endothelial dysfunction was associated with decreased NO production, decreased expression of eNOS and increased vascular superoxide production and nitrotyrosine expression. Conclusions and implications: α-LA restores endothelial function and significantly improves systemic and local oxidative stress in high-fat fed GK diabetic rats. Improved endothelial function due to α-LA was at least partially attributed to recoupling of eNOS and increased NO bioavailability and represents a pharmacological approach to prevent major complications associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17906683

  18. Enhancement of colon carcinogenesis by the combination of indole-3 carbinol and synbiotics in hemin-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; de Moraes, Leonardo N; Carvalho, Robson F; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2018-02-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) could be associated with red and processed meat intake. Experimental data supports that hemin iron, found abundantly in red meat, promotes CRC in mice and rats, while indole-3 carbinol (I3C) and synbiotics (syn) exert anti-carcinogenic activities in most studies of colon carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of I3C and syn (inulin + Bifidobacterium lactis), given separately or together, on dimethylhidrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in hemin-fed rats. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections and then, two weeks after carcinogen exposure, they began a basal diet containing hemin, hemin + I3C, hemin + syn, or hemin + I3C + syn for 23 weeks. The combination of I3C + syn significantly increased fecal water genotoxicity, tumor volume and invasiveness when compared to the hemin-fed control group. The groups fed I3C or syn alone had a significant reduction in the number of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions compared to the hemin-fed group. Dietary I3C also reduced fecal water genotoxicity. Gene expression analysis of colorectal tumors demonstrated that the combination of dietary I3C + syn increased transcript levels for Raf1 and decreased tumor progression and invasiveness related to the genes Cdh1 and Appl1. This analysis also revealed that the Tnf and Cdh1 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumors of rats that received I3C, in comparison with the hemin-fed group. These findings reveal that the joint administration of I3C and syn enhanced the development of colon tumors induced by DMH in hemin-fed rats, while they potentially reduced ACF development when given alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Gameren, Mieke M. van; Kampinga, Harm H.; Szabo, Ben G.; Coppes, Rob P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung

  1. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  2. Neonatal dexamethasone accelerates spreading depression in the rat, and antioxidant vitamins counteract this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-de-Morais, Andréia Albuquerque Cunha; Mendes-da-Silva, Rosângela Figueiredo; dos-Santos, Eryka Maria; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2014-12-03

    The use of dexamethasone (Dex) to treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants may produce adverse effects in the developing brain. Here, we evaluated the effects of neonatal Dex on the propagation of cortical spreading depression (CSD), and tested the action of vitamins C and E against the effect of Dex. Five groups of Wistar rats received, respectively: [1] no treatment (Naïve); [2] Vehicle (V); [3] tapering doses of Dex (Dex; 0.5mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, and 0.1mg/kg) on postnatal day (PND) 1-3; [4] Dex plus 200mg/kg vitamin C and 100mg/kg vitamin E (DexCE); [5] only vitamins C and E (CE). Vehicle and vitamins were administered on PND 1-6. CSD was recorded after the pups reached maturity (PND 60-70). The Dex-treated group presented with higher CSD velocities (mean values ± SD, in mm/min: 4.14 ± 0.22, n=10) compared with the control groups (Naïve: 3.52 ± 0.13, n=8; V: 3.57 ± 0.18, n=10; CE: 3.51 ± 0.24, n=10; pVitamins C and E antagonized this effect (DexCE group; CSD velocity: 3.43 ± 0.12, n=9). No intergroup difference was observed concerning P-wave amplitude and duration. In all groups, after the cortex underwent CSD, the electrocorticogram (ECoG) amplitude increased approximately 50% compared with the baseline amplitude for the same animal (CSD-induced ECoG potentiation); however, no intergroup difference was observed. Data suggest that coadministration of antioxidant vitamins with Dex may be a helpful therapeutic strategy to reduce brain adverse effects of dexamethasone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of vitamin E on cyclosporineA-induced toxicity in rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Sameni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclosporine A (CsA as an immunosuppressive drug which widely used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. This drug is caused many injuries and cell cytotoxic of the body organs such as reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (Vit E against CsA-induced damages in rat testis. Material and Methods: 40 adult male wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, placebo (received only pure olive oil, test 1 (CsA+olive oil, 30 mg/kg, test 2 (Vit E, 100 mg/kg and test 3 (CsA+Vit E, with the same dose. All animal received drugs for three weeks daily by oral gavages. Following, the testis were fixed and sections stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Trichrome Masson. Then with using a microscope equipped with a scaled ocular micrometer and image analysis software were histomorphometry. Results: This study showed that CsA caused severe degenerative changes in testicular tissue include decreased seminiferous tubules diameter, seminiferous epithelium thickness. Also, the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatozoa, and sertoli and leydig cells significantly decreased throughout the experiment. These changes are lead to turbulence and atrophy seminiferous epithelium and delay in spermatogenesis. Treatment with vitamin E minimized the adverse effects of CsA on testis structure and spermatogenesis. Conclusion: These results suggest that vitamin E has a protective effect against CsA-induced testicular toxicity in male rat.

  4. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  5. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  6. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  7. Virtual determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T.T. Trindidade et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of animals, composed by glucoseresidues forming a branched polymer. The liver glycogen metabolism and hepaticgluconeogenesis are important buffer systems of blood glucose in different physiological orpathological situations, such as, during a fast period. Fasting muscle glycogenolysis alsooccurs, however, the release of glucose into the bloodstream is negligible because themuscle doesn’t have the enzyme glucose-6-P phosphatase, which is present in the liver.Objectives: This panel presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulatesthe determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hourfasted rats Materials and Methods: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show themethodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. The most representative imageswere selected, edited, organized in a scene menu and inserted into an animationdeveloped with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. The validation of this object wasperformed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the secondsemester of 2009 until the second semester of 2013. Results and Discussion: Theanalysis of students' answers revealed that 83% of them attributed the excellence rate tothe navigation program, to the display format and to the learning help. Conclusion:Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as wellas an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge ofBiochemistry. Support: SEAD-UFRGSAvailable at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/obtencaodosagemglicogenio/

  8. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, V G; Rajamohan, T

    2008-12-01

    The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (Pcholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (Pcholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (Pcholesterol enriched diet.

  9. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Liao, Chen-Chung; Liao, Yi-Chun; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Wu, Liang-Yi; Hsieh, Shu-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  11. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chu Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of umbelliferone in chronic alcohol-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Ok; Lee, Hae-In; Ham, Ju Ri; Seo, Kwon-Il; Kim, Myung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inflammation is associated with various types of acute and chronic alcohol liver diseases. In this study, we examined whether umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin, UF) ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory response and the antioxidant system. METHODS Rats were fed a Liber-Decarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol with or without UF (0.05 g/L) for 8 weeks, while normal rats received an isocaloric carbohydrate liquid diet. RESULTS Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 levels and decreased interleukin 10 level; however, UF supplementation reversed the cytokines related to liver damage. UF significantly suppressed hepatic lipopolysaccharide binding protein, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B, and TNF-α gene expression increases in response to chronic alcohol intake. Masson's trichrome staining revealed that UF improved mild hepatic fibrosis caused by alcohol, and UF also significantly increased the mRNA expressions and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, and thus, decreased lipid peroxide and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study indicate that UF protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway and activating the antioxidant system. PMID:26244074

  13. Vagus nerve contributes to metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz F; Miranda, Rosiane A; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Alves, Vander S; Malta, Ananda; Ribeiro, Tatiane A S; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo C F; de Oliveira, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Different nerve contributes periods of life are known for their differential sensitivity to interventions, and increased parasympathetic activity affects the development and maintenance of obesity. Thus, we evaluated the involvement of the vagus nerve by performing a vagotomy in young or adult rats that were offered an obesogenic high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Although the accumulation of adipose tissue decreased in both younger and older groups, the younger rats showed a greater response to the effects of vagotomy in general. In addition to the important role of the parasympathetic activity, we suggest that the vagus nerve contributes to the condition of obesity. Obesity has become a global problem, and this condition develops primarily because of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The high complexity involved in the regulation of energy metabolism results from several factors besides endocrine factors. It has been suggested that obesity could be caused by an imbalance in the autonomous nervous system, which could lead to a condition of high parasympathetic activity in counterpart to low sympathetic tonus. High-fat (HF) diets have been used to induce obesity in experimental animals, and their use in animals leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and high parasympathetic activity, among other disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a vagotomy performed at the initiation of a HF diet at two different stages of life, weaning and adulthood. The vagotomy reduced parasympathetic activity (-32 and -51% in normal fat-fed rats and -43 and -55% in HF diet-fed rats; P fat depots (-17 and -33%, only in HF diet-fed rats; P fat diet-fed rats exhibited fasting hyperinsulinaemia (fivefold higher in young rats and threefold higher in older rats; P diet-fed groups was not altered in the vagotomized rats. We suggest that the vagus nerve, in addition to the

  14. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  16. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  17. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  18. Effects of the hexahydroxyhexane myoinositol on bone uptake of radiocalcium in rats: Effect of inositol and vitamin D2 on bone uptake of 45Ca in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeloff, L.G.; Skoryna, S.C.; Henderson, I.W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inositol and vitamin D 2 on bone uptake of 45 Ca in rats. The radioactive calcium was administered to young rats by orogastric intubation (2 μci/100 g body weight (b.wt.)) with inositol (20 mg/100 g b.wt) and/or vitamin D 2 (500 IU/100g b.wt) to normal rats. Bone uptake of 45 Ca was measured after 24 hours by standard technique. Inositol alone produced a 48% increase in calcium uptake. It is concluded that inositol significantly increases bone uptake to radioactive calcium (P>0.005). Simultaneous administration of vitamin D 2 decreases the effect of inositol considerably, while vitamin D 2 has no significant effect. (author)

  19. Transgenerational hormonal imprinting caused by vitamin A and vitamin D treatment of newborn rats. Alterations in the biogenic amine contents of the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Csaba, György

    2009-10-01

    Biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, homovanillic acid, serotonin and 5-hyroxyindole acetic acid) were measured by HPLC method in adult F1 generation rats' brain regions (brainstem, hypothalamus, hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex), whose mothers (P generation) were treated with vitamin A or vitamin D neonatally (hormonal imprinting). Many significant differences were found, related to the maternally untreated controls. In the earlier studied P generation females, vitamin A consistently influenced the serotonerg system (5HIAA), while vitamin D the dopaminerg system (DA or HVA). Vitamin A imprinting always resulted in reduced, while that by vitamin D always in increased tissue levels. In the present case (directly untreated F1 generation) the transgenerational effect was not unidirectional, however biogenic amine tissue levels were strongly disturbed and brain-area dependent. The results call attention to the transgenerational effect of hormonal imprinting in the case of receptor level acting vitamins which are frequently used in the most imprinting-sensitive period (perinatally) of human life and suggests that caution is warranted.

  20. Vitamin E, Vitamin C, or Losartan Is Not Nephroprotectant against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Presence of Estrogen in Ovariectomized Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nematbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nephroprotective effect of vitamins E and C or losartan against cisplatin (CP- induced nephrotoxicity when they are accompanied by estrogen was investigated. Methods. The ovariectomized rats received estradiol valerate for two weeks. At the end of the first week, a single dose of CP (7 mg/kg, IP was also administered, and they received placebo (group 1, vitamin E (group 2, vitamin C (group 3, or losartan (group 4 every day during the second week, and they were compared with another three control groups. Results. CP alone increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS, significantly (P<0.05, however at the presence of estradiol and CP, vitamin C, vitamin E, or losartan not only did not decrease these parameters, but also increased them significantly (P<0.05. The serum level of superoxidase dismutase (SOD was reduced by CP (P<0.05, but it was increased when estradiol or estradiol plus vitamin C or losartan were added (P<0.05. Conclusion. The particular pharmacological dose of estrogen used in this study abolish the nephroprotective effects vitamins C and E or losartan against CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. [Appreciation of selenium concentration in blood and tissues of male rat as a result of diet ingredients changes and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Dolot, Anna; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen B group vitamins on concentration of selenium in blood serum and tissues and activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver of male rats was examined in the conducted experiment. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with granulated mixes. Group I with basic mix containing among other things full grains, Group II with modified mix in which full grains were exchanged for wheat flour and in part with saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. The experiment was conducted for six weeks during which the amount of consumed feeding stuff was calculated currently and once a week body mass of the animals was checked. When the experiment was finished the activity of GSH-Px was determined by spectrophotometric method in blood and liver whereas concentration of selenium in blood serum, muscles and in liver by fluorometric method. It was ascertained that the change of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins was in favour of lowering the amount of selenium in the examined tissues, and the decrease was not only the result of lower amount of the consumed element, but also of its increased usage, forced by the changes taking place under the influence of diet components and its supplementation.

  2. In vivo and in vitro conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol into vitamin D3 in rat skin by ultraviolet ray's irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Toshio; Yasumura, Mitsue; Mizuno, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The photochemical conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) into vitamin D 3 in rat skin was experimentally studied. The skin stripped off from a sacrificed normal rat was irradiated with an ultraviolet light for a constant period in the first in vitro experiment. The normal rat irradiated under the same conditions mentioned above was sacrificed and then the skin was stripped off in the second in vivo experiment. Lipids were individually extracted with chloroformmethanol (1:1) from the skin obtained in the two experiments and the solvent was evaporated. The resulting residue was saponified and the unsaponified matter extracted with benzene was purified by application to hydroxyalkoxypropyl (HAP) Sephadex column chromatography. The resulting purified vitamin D 3 fraction was applied to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in order to estimate vitamin D 3 . No peak, aside from that of alphanaphthol as an initial standard, was observed in the HPLC chromatogram on the skin obtained from the non-irradiated rat, whereas the peak corresponding to vitamin D 3 was observed in each HPLC chromatogram on both the irradiated skin (in vitro experiment) and the skin obtained from the irradiated rat (in vivo experiment). The result shows that 7-DHC in rat skin was photochemically converted into vitamin D 3 . (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Radioprotective role of vitamin E and urea in irradiated albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.; Elkashef, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the action of vitamin E and urea as chemical radioprotectors for controlling the radiation induced changes in creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of female rats subjected to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The levels of creating and creatinine in the forebrain of normal control rats were±704±22 to±724±23 and 11.053 0.119 to 11.553 0.127 /g fresh tissue; respectively. The applied radiation dose caused a significant increase in the creating level of about 15%, 18%, 13% and 41% on the first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation; respectively. At the same post irradiation days, the level of creatinine generally increased, but not to the same extent as creatine. The treatment of rats either with vitamin E or with urea pre radiation exposure caused a remarkable recovery in both creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of irradiated rats.The results are discussed in the high of discussed in the high of available literatures. 2 tab

  4. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  5. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  6. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Andrie, Mohamad; Warditiani, Ni Kadek; Siswanto, Eka; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Lukitaningsih, Endang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by high-fructose-fat diet containing 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 gb.wt. 55 days. The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day. Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre– and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. Results: The purified extract and andrographolide significantly (PAndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. PMID:22701250

  7. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  8. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  10. Vinpocetine and Vitamin E Modulates Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Chloropyrifos in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal El-Dein, E.M.; Abd El-Azime, A.SH.

    2013-01-01

    Acapi-Cav is a well balanced and well tolerated formula containing vinpocetine and vitamin E. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vinpocetine and vitamin E on the oxidative stress, electrolytes and monoamines level in rats exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays), chloropyrifos (CPF) as well as rats exposed to a combination of gamma rays and CPF. Irradiation was performed by whole body exposure of rats to 8 Gy delivered at 1 Gy every 4 days. CPF was administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 3.6 mg/kg body weight ( 1/10 LD50 ) daily for 30 days. Vinpocetine and vitamin E were administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight daily during 7 days before starting the experiment and continued during the period of exposure to gamma rays and/or CPF. The results revealed significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level associated with a significant decrease of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the blood of rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF indicating oxidative stress. The levels of serum electrolytes (sodium Na + , potassium K + , calcium Ca ++ and magnesium Mg) showed significant decrease. Serum dopamine (DA) level was decreased and norepinephrine (NE) was increased while epinephrine (EPI) showed non-significant change. The level of serum monoamine oxidase (MAO) showed significant increase. The administration of vinpocetine and vitamin E to rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF significantly reduced the amount of MDA which associated with an increase in the level of antioxidants and significant improvement was recorded for electrolytes level. The results demonstrated that vinpocetine and vitamin E significantly attenuated the increase of MAO and induced significant amelioration in the level of monoamines. It could be concluded that vinpocetine and vitamin E might protect the body from oxidative damage and electrolytes and monoamines alterations in rats exposed to gamma rays

  11. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B 12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B 12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B 12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B 12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B 12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B 12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  12. Selected Physiological Effects of a Garcinia Gummi-Gutta Extract in Rats Fed with Different Hypercaloric Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guillén-Enríquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF, high-sugar (HS or high fat/sugar (HFS-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g male Wistar rats were fed for eleven weeks with six hypercaloric diets (4.1 kcal/g; five rats/diet non-supplemented (HF, HS, HFS, or supplemented (HF+, HS+, HFS+ with GGG extract (5.9%, while rats from the control group (375 g were fed a normocaloric diet (3.5 kcal/g. Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food (14.3% and 24.6% (−4.3 g/day, respectively (p < 0.05. Weight loss was greater in the HF+ group (35–52 g, which consumed 1.9 times less food than the HS+ or HFS+ fed groups. The HF and HFS groups showed 40% less plasma triacylglycerides and lower glucose levels compared to the HF+. GGG-supplemented diets were associated with lower ketonuria. The HF+ diet was associated with the best anti-adiposity effect (as measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and Soxhlet methods. The severity of hepatocyte lipidosis was HF > control > HF+, and no signs of toxicity in the testes were observed. The results indicate that GGG is more effective when co-administered with HF diets in obese rats.

  13. The effects of Vitamin C on sperm quality parameters in laboratory rats following long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Farahbod, Farnoosh; Rafieian, Mahmoud; Ganji, Forouzan; Adib, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a widely used medication and can cause oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vitamin C on reproductive organs' weight and the quality of sperm parameters in laboratory rats. In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight each. Distilled water (DW) group received only food and water, Group 2 was administered with drug solvent (DW) by gavage, Group 3 intraperitoneally administered with 1.6 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, Group 4 gavaged Vitamin C at 0.88 mg/kg, and Group 5 administered with effective doses of Vitamin C and cyclophosphamide by gavage with 1-h intervals. Sperm parameters of the samples were taken from distal epididymis and tissues were studied, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. The lowest weight of testicles and epididymis was seen in cyclophosphamide-exposed rats and the highest weight of testicles and epididymis in Vitamin C-exposed rats ( P < 0.05). The highest motility, progression, viability, and count of sperm were seen in the Vitamin C-treated group and the lowest in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. The highest proportion of sperm anomalies was seen in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, can be effective on some of the sperm parameters and can reduce cyclophosphamide-induced complications in animal model.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  15. The effects of Vitamin C on sperm quality parameters in laboratory rats following long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shabanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is a widely used medication and can cause oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vitamin C on reproductive organs' weight and the quality of sperm parameters in laboratory rats. In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight each. Distilled water (DW group received only food and water, Group 2 was administered with drug solvent (DW by gavage, Group 3 intraperitoneally administered with 1.6 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, Group 4 gavaged Vitamin C at 0.88 mg/kg, and Group 5 administered with effective doses of Vitamin C and cyclophosphamide by gavage with 1-h intervals. Sperm parameters of the samples were taken from distal epididymis and tissues were studied, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. The lowest weight of testicles and epididymis was seen in cyclophosphamide-exposed rats and the highest weight of testicles and epididymis in Vitamin C-exposed rats (P < 0.05. The highest motility, progression, viability, and count of sperm were seen in the Vitamin C-treated group and the lowest in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. The highest proportion of sperm anomalies was seen in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, can be effective on some of the sperm parameters and can reduce cyclophosphamide-induced complications in animal model.

  16. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  17. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured. Serum 25-OH-D levels, an index of vitamin D status, increased dose dependently with dietary vitamin D. VD-low resulted in less fat oxidation without a significant difference in energy expenditure and less lean body mass in the abdomen and legs comparison to the VD-normal group. In comparison to VD-low, VD-normal had lower serum triglycerides and intracellular fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles which was associated with down-regulation of the mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. In euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance was exacerbated in the VD-low group but not in the VD-normal group, possibly through decreasing hepatic insulin signaling and PPAR-γ expression in the adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes 1,25-(OH)2-D (10 nM) increased triglyceride accumulation by elevating PPAR-γ expression and treatment with a PPAR-γ antagonist blocked the triglyceride deposition induced by 1,25-(OH)2-D treatment. VD-low impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp and decreased β-cell mass by decreasing β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in GK rats by simultaneously increasing insulin

  19. Effect of Nitric Oxide, Vitamin E and Selenium on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, Manar M.; Eissa, Laila A.; Gamil, Nariman M.; Ammar, El-Sayed M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a series of complications that may affect many organs. This study aimed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a physiological mediator in the body via the use of L-arginine as NO precursor Ng-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor in diabetic rats. The effect of vitamin E as antioxidant and selenium as a potent insulin-mimetic agent in diabetic rats were studied. The possible combination of selenium or vitamin E with L-arginine was studied in the same animal model to show the ability of these treatments to ameliorate some of the biochemical changes that are worsen with the development of diabetes such as lipid profile, plasma glucose, blood malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma nitric oxide and plasma b-2 microglobulin levels. Experimental diabetes was induced in male rats by I.V. injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the plasma level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, b2-micro globulin, blood MDA as a result of increased oxidative stress while there was a significant decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol, and nitrate/nitrite levels. L-arginine, vitamin E and selenium administration produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose level of diabetic arts (13%, 29.11%, 61.65%) respectively from its initial value, so as they showed a significant reduction in blood MDA level, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-Ch.. levels when compared with the initial diabetic values. Combined therapy of vitamin E and L-arginine showed no significant change of any of the measured parameters (except for nitrate/nitrite level) on comparison either with vitamin E or with L-arginine treated group. The combined therapy of selenium and L-arginine showed a significant decrease nearly to normal level in the plasma glucose concentration and may be of clinical significance. (author)

  20. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoyl β-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl β-glucuronide, retinoyl β-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates

  1. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U; Johansson, I; Franzen, L; Ericson, T [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  2. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.)

  3. Metabolism of strawberry mono- and dimeric ellagitannins in rats fed a diet containing fructo-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Fotschki, Bartosz; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Katarzyna; Markiewicz, Lidia

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with strawberry extracts rich in ETs and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota and the formation of bacterial metabolites in the distal intestine, as well as the absorption of ET metabolites and antioxidant status in rats. Rats were allocated into six groups of eight animals each and fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (group C), a control diet supplemented with FOS (group C + FOS) or modifications of these diets, in which a monomeric or dimeric ET-rich extract was added (groups ME and ME + FOS or DE and DE + FOS, respectively). The extract addition, the FOS addition and their interaction significantly affected the total and selected bacterial counts in the caecal digesta (all P bacterial count was the highest in group C + FOS, lower in group DE and the lowest in group ME + FOS (10.6, 10.3 and 8.52 log cells/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). The total caecal content of ET metabolites was higher in the ME and ME + FOS group than in the DE and DE + FOS group, respectively (67.8 and 89.5 vs. 13.0 and 18.0 µg/g, respectively; P < 0.001). The total plasma concentration of ET metabolites was higher in the ME + FOS and DE + FOS group than in the ME group (248 and 281 vs. 8.13 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). ETs of the monomeric ET-rich extract are more prone to intestinal breakdown than those of the dimeric ET-rich extract, and absorption of their metabolites can be increased by dietary FOS; however, together, they evoke strong antibacterial activity.

  4. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  5. Incorporation in vivo of 1-14C-acetate into lipids of rats fed threonine imbalanced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideo; Sugano, Michihiro

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the fatty liver production in rats fed the thereonine imbalanced diet, time course of lipogenesis was followed after intraperitoneal injection of 1- 14 C-acetate into rats that had been reared on the imbalanced diet for 7 days. 1) The rate of the incorporation of 1- 14 C-acetate into hepatic triglyceride, estimated either on the base of unit weight of liver or of whole liver, in comparison with that of the control rats, did not increase by feeding the imbalanced diet under the condition where the extent of lipogenesis could be measured (30 min after the dose of the label). Also, the specific activity of triglyceride was by no means high at this point. The rate of disappearance of the radioactivity, between 60 min and 180 min after the label injection, from triglyceride was evidently slower in rats fed the imbalanced diet, thus the radioactivity of triglyceride in this animal being to some extent higher after 180 min. 2) The incorporation of radioactivity into phospholipid was not influenced by the imbalanced diet. 3) There was no difference in the incorporation of the radioactivity into kidney lipids between the control and imbalanced groups. 4) From the distribution of the radioactivity in the hepatic lipid fractions, it appeared that the relative incorporation into triglyceride tended to increase after feeding the imbalanced diet. 5) There were no demonstrable differences in the activity of plasma total lipids at any times after the injection of the label. The ratio of the label incorporation into whole plasma and liver total lipids tended to decrease in the imbalanced rat after 180 min. These results suggested that, although alternative explanations are possible, the decreased turnover in hepatic triglyceride, rather than the increased hepatic lipogenesis, would largely be responsible for the production of fatty liver in rats fed the threonine imbalanced diet. (auth.)

  6. Haloperidol and Rimonabant Increase Delay Discounting in Rats Fed High-Fat and Standard-Chow Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for three months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n = 9 standard chow; n = 10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately vs. three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered i.p. before some choice sessions in both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition demonstrated increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared to chow-fed controls: haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition,, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking D2 and CB1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task. PMID:25000488

  7. Toxicological parameters of albino rats fed with extruded snacks from Aerial yam (Dioscoria bulbifera) and African breadfruit seed (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, Kazeem K; Arueya, Gibson L

    2018-01-01

    In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana , underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p  ≤ .05 different among the treatment and controls. However there was an increase in monocytes, which is a reflection of immune boosting potential of the novel snack. No significant pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of rats fed with this snack. Rats showed no signs of toxicity within the study period. These findings suggest that product may be safe and useful as an Immune adjuvant.

  8. Effects of radionuclides (uranium et cesium 137) on the metabolism of vitamin D in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissandie, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    Uranium and Cesium 137 ( 137 Cs) are both radionuclides found in the environment as a result of their accidental dispersion and/or natural presence. Consequently, some human populations are exposed to these radioelements mainly through chronic ingestion. Chemical and/or radiological toxicity of uranium and 13 7 Cs has been reported in kidney, liver and brain that play key-roles in vitamin D metabolism. Beside, alterations of both bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis have been reported after an acute or chronic contamination with uranium or 137 Cs. However, vitamin D, the major regulator of mineral homeostasis has never been studied up to now. The aim of this work was to investigate in vivo the effects of depleted (DU) or enriched uranium (EU) and of 137 Cs on vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway in liver, kidney and brain. An experimental animal model was used for the first time to demonstrate that chronic exposure with environmental doses of 137 Cs and uranium could decrease the vitamin D active form level (1,25(OH)2D3) and lead to molecular modifications of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes involved in this metabolism and associated nuclear receptors. We demonstrated that both UA and UE contamination affected VDR (vitamin D receptor) and RXRa (retinoid X receptor alpha) expression, and consequently could modulate the expression of vitamin D target genes involved in calcium homeostasis in kidney. These results suggest that these effects could be due to the chemical toxicity of uranium. On the contrary, the main molecular targets of 137 Cs are CYPs involved in Vitamin D3 biosynthesis (CYP2R1, CYP27B1) in liver and brain. In this adult rat model such perturbations were not associated with a dys-regulation of mineral homeostasis. Conversely, chronic exposure with 137 Cs during postnatal development induce alterations of vitamin D metabolism associated with modifications of bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis, suggesting a greater susceptibility of the growing organism to

  9. GLP-1 and GLP-2 act in concert to inhibit fasted, but not fed, small bowel motility in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Näslund, Erik; Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Small bowel motility was studied in rats at increasing (1-20 pmol/kg/min) intravenous doses of either glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alone, or in combination in the fasted and fed state. There was a dose-dependent inhibitory action of GLP-1 on the migrating myo...... demonstrates an additive effect of peripheral administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on fasted small bowel motility. In the fed state, GLP-1 and GLP-2 seem to display counter-balancing effects on motility of the small intestine....... myoelectric complex (MMC), where the dose of 5 pmol/kg/min induced an increased MMC cycle length. No effect was seen with GLP-2 alone, but the combination of GLP-1 and GLP-2 induced a more pronounced inhibitory effect, with significant increase of the MMC cycle length from a dose of 2 pmol/kg/min. During fed...

  10. Oxidative stability and sensory and functional properties of eggs from laying hens fed supranutritional doses of vitamins E and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Sirri, F; Tallarico, N; Minelli, G; Iaffaldano, N; Meluzzi, A

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of vitamins E and C supplemented separately and together, on the content of vitamin E in the yolk, on the lipid stability of fresh and stored eggs, and on their sensory and functional properties. Hy-Line Brown hens (n = 216) received a basal diet for 8 wk supplemented with 100 or 200 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (E100 or E200, respectively)/kg, 500 or 1,000 mg ascorbic acid (C500 and C1000, respectively)/kg, or 100 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 500 mg ascorbic acid (E100+C500)/kg, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Fresh eggs and eggs stored 30,60, and 90 d at 4 C or stored 28 d at room temperature were analyzed for vitamin E content and TBA-reactive substances (TBARS). We also evaluated functional properties of fresh and cooked eggs and sensory properties of boiled and scrambled eggs. The yolk content of vitamin E depended on the level of dietary addition and decreased after 90 d of storage at 4 C or after 28 d at 25 C. Vitamin supplementation had no effect on fresh or refrigerated eggs, whereas 4 wk of storage at room temperature increased TBARS in the control and the group supplemented with the highest doses of vitamins. Ascorbic acid improved Haugh units and elasticity of albumen gels, whereas cohesiveness and hardness of yolk, albumen and whole-egg gels were not affected by dietary treatment. Panelists were not able to distinguish treated eggs from control eggs.

  11. Effect of administration of vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity of rats exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of administration of Vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity in rats exposed to noise stress. 40 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 as controls who were not exposed to noise and groups 2-5 exposed to noise with 90-120 dB intensity and 300-350 Hz frequency from 7 pm to 7 am everyday for 50 days. Group 2 exposed to noise and did not receive Vitamins. Group 3 received vitamin C, Group 4 received Vitamin E. Group 5 received Vitamins C and E concomitantly. After 50 days, serum Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone were calculated. Then each rat was left with three female rats for mating. Pregnant females were sacrificed on the 19 th day of pregnancy and evaluated for the presence and number of viable, dead and absorbed fetuses. The level of FSH, LH and testosterone significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise (P < 0.05. By administration of Vitamins in groups 3-5 we observed that the level of hormones significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. The fertilization capacity of male rats in groups 3-5 significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. There was significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in case of fertilization capacity (P = 0.001. The data in this study strongly suggests a negative role for noise stress on level of FSH, LH and testosterone level and also fertilization capacity of male rats. To complement the information it is suggested that this research be done on human samples.

  12. Penconazole alters redox status, cholinergic function and lung's histoarchitecture of adult rats: Reversal effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane, Mariem; Elwej, Awatef; Ghorbel, Imen; Chelly, Sabrine; Mnif, Hela; Boudawara, Tahia; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Zeghal, Najiba; Soudani, Nejla

    2018-06-01

    The present study pertains to the possible adverse effects of penconazole exposure on the lung of adult rats, and to the potential ability of vitamin E (Vit E) in mitigating the toxicity induced by this fungicide. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: Group I (Controls): rats drank distilled water; Group II (PEN): rats received, by gavage, 50 mg/kg body weight (1/40 LD 50 ) of penconazole every 2 days during 10 days; Group III (Vit E): rats received daily 100 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg body weight during 10 days by gavage; and Group IV (Vit E + PEN): rats received both vitamin E (100 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg body weight) and penconazole (50 mg/kg body weight), being vitamin E given as a daily dosage and penconazole every 2 days, by gavage during 10 days. Results showed that penconazole induced oxidative stress in the lung demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde (+77%), hydrogen peroxide (+58%) and advanced oxidation protein product (+22%) levels, as compared to the controls. Furthermore, a decrease in the activities of catalase (-41%), superoxide dismutase (-45%), glutathione peroxidase (-23%) and acetylcholinesterase (-67%), and an increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (+17%), glutathione (+7%) and vitamin C (+44%) were registered. Abnormalities in lung histological sections such as alveolar edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells (leukocytes) and emphysema, were also observed following penconazole exposure. Vitamin E ameliorated the biochemical parameters, as well as the histological impairments induced by this fungicide. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, was effective in alleviating penconazole-induced lung damage in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of fluorine and homeopathic medicines in rats fed cariogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N T; Dalmeida, V; Pustiglione, M

    2004-07-01

    Although some sectors of dentistry have benefited from technological advances, dental caries is still a major problem. Prevention and treatment of dental caries by fluorine is considered a major advance in public health. Nevertheless fluorosis, caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of fluorine during the period of teeth formation, is of great concern. In accordance with the homeopathic doctrine, minimum doses of fluorine and other substances could prevent and/or treat caries. In this experiment, we compared the preventive action of fluorine and evaluated the effect of homeopathic medicines on the teeth of rats fed a cariogenic diet. None of the groups included in this study developed caries. However, microscopy revealed the presence of precipitate and/or deposit in the groups treated with homeopathic medicines. This phenomenon might be due to deposit in the dental surface or precipitation of bacterial plaque or calcium salts. It was not possible to identify the composition of the deposit/precipitate due for technical reasons. In one of the groups treated with homeopathic medicines fur loss was observed in 40% of animals. These reactions might be caused due to the action of the homeopathic medicines.

  14. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  15. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rats Fed Detoxified Jojoba Meal Through Radiation Processing and Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present of toxic cyano glucosides makes the jojoba meal, rich in protein, unacceptable for animal's feed. Irradiation jojoba meal at 25, 50, and 75 kGy, heat, microwave, fermented raw and fermented irradiated jojoba meal at 75 kGy were investigated for inactivation of glucosinolates. Raw jojoba meal contains 0.702%. Proceeding jojoba meal by above mentioned methods reducing the activity of glucosinolates by 8.26, 13.96, 20.66, 11.97, 5.27, 10.26 and 24.79%, respectively. The present study has investigated the effect of supplementation of 38.5% of raw jojoba meal and processed meals in the food of growing male Albino rats for four weeks on mortality rate, body and organs weight evaluation as well as the effect on blood chemistry. The present work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of jojoba meal at 75 kGy and the fermentation process by using Fusarium moniliforme reduced the bioactive antinutrional factors, glucosinolate compounds, present naturally in the meal under investigation. Also, the results confirm that the glucosinolates content of jojoba meal after irradiation process at 75 kGy is still high and has considerable biological effects on the animals fed such meals, during the experimental period (four weeks). Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required to minimize glucosinolates in jojoba meal. (authors)

  16. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Ferland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline. In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1 and menaquinone-4 (MK-4 vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions.

  17. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  18. [Effects of flunarizine and vitamin C on hemodynamics in rat heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Y; Lan, T; Wang, Y

    1998-09-01

    Langendorff perfusion isolated rat heart was subjected to total global ischemia (coronary flow rate is equal to zero) for 10 minutes and reperfusion for 15 minutes. The heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), coronary flow rate (CFR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and the effects of calcium antagonist-flunarizine (FNZ) and/or oxygen free radical scavenger--vitamine C on the above parameters were observed. The results showed that FNZ dilated coronary vessel (P Vitamine C did not affect HR, LVP and CFR. The recovery of the product of HR and LVDP-Rate Pressure Product (RPP) in the FNZ + Vit. C group, Vit. C group and FNZ group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P C may improve the recovery of heart function after reperfusion.

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  20. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyianni, M.; Freedland, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution under various nutritional regimens of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis was estimated by measuring the glucose formation from 14C-labeled substrates. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 60 min in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 containing lactate, pyruvate and all the amino acids at concentrations similar to their physiological levels found in rat plasma, with one precursor labeled in each flask. In all conditions, lactate was the major glucose precursor, providing over 60% of the glucose formed. Glutamine and alanine were the major amino acid precursors of glucose, contributing 9.8% and 10.6% of the glucose formed, respectively, in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats. Serine, glycine and threonine also contributed to gluconeogenesis in the starved liver cells at 2.6, 2.1 and 3.8%, respectively, of the glucose formed. The rate of glucose formation from the isolated hepatocytes of the starved rats and those fed either high protein or high fat was higher than that from rats fed a nonpurified diet

  1. Oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment in obesity can be reversed by vitamin D administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Nameni, Ghazaleh; Shahabi, Parviz; Megari-Abbasi, Mehran

    2017-07-06

    There is evidence that obesity leads to cognitive impairments via several markers of oxidative stress including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus. Increased inflammatory markers in the brain have obesity triggering effects. In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D on cognitive function, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration and markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control diet (CD) and high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks; then each group subdivided into two groups including: CD, CD + vitamin D, HFD and HFD + vitamin D. Vitamin D was administered at 500 IU/kg dosage for 5 weeks. Four weeks after supplementation, Morris water maze test was performed. NF-κB and TNF-α concentration in the hippocampus were determined using ELISA kits. Moreover, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus including GPx, SOD, MDA and CAT concentrations were measured by spectrophotometry methods. HFD significantly increased TNF-α (P = 0.04) and NF-κB (P = 0.01) concentrations in the hippocampus compared with CD. Vitamin D treatment led to a significant reduction in hippocampus NF-κB concentrations in HFD + vitamin D group (P = 0.001); however, vitamin D had no effect on TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, HFD significantly induced oxidative stress by reducing GPx, SOD and increasing MDA concentrations in the hippocampus. Vitamin D supplementation in HFD group also significantly increased GPx, SOD and reduced MDA concentrations. Vitamin D improved hippocampus oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in HFD-induced obese rats and improved cognitive performance. Further studies are needed to better clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  4. Taurine and vitamin E supplementations have minimal effects on body composition, hepatic lipids, and blood hormone and metabolite concentrations in healthy Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen PS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Portia S Allen,1 Andrew W Brown,2 Michelle M Bohan Brown,3 Walter H Hsu,4 Donald C Beitz1 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 2Nutrition Obesity Research Center and Office of Energetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Background: As prescriptions for off-label pharmaceutical use and autonomous administration of over-the-counter nutraceuticals become mainstream, thorough assessments of these compounds are warranted. Objective: To determine the effects of gemfibrozil, rosiglitazone, metformin, taurine, and vitamin E on body composition, hepatic lipids, and metabolic hormone and blood metabolite concentrations in a healthy, outbred rat cohort. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a purified 10 kcal% from fat diet for 56 days and assigned to either the diet alone (control group or the diet plus oral administration of gemfibrozil (34 mg/kg, metformin (500 mg/kg, rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg, taurine (520 mg/kg, or vitamin E (200 mg/kg group. Results: Rosiglitazone administration resulted in a 56% increase in carcass adiposity, cautioning potential prescriptive off-label use. Taurine supplementation had no adverse effects on evaluated parameters. A modest but significant increase in liver triacylglycerol content was observed with vitamin E supplementation compared with control (Δ 17.2 g triacylglycerol/100 g liver lipid. Conclusion: The evaluated pharmaceuticals had effects in a healthy population similar to the reported effects in their target population, and the nutraceuticals had minimal effects on the measured physiological parameters. Keywords: thiazolidinedione, gemfibrozil, metformin, animal model

  5. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  6. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  7. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  8. Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Bekir; Sarı, Aysel; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ulu, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathological changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. The study comprised 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; group 2: fed an HFrD; group 3: fed normal rat chow and M. pruriens; group 4: fed an HFrD and M. pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid levels were measured in 1 cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between 2 independent groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than 2 independent groups. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed an HFrD. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Testing the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using guinea pigs and ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Julia; Wilson, John X; Uetrecht, Jack P

    2008-04-01

    The use of clozapine is limited by a relatively high incidence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. Clozapine is oxidized by bone marrow cells to a reactive nitrenium ion. Although many idiosyncratic drug reactions are immune-mediated, the fact that patients with a history of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis do not immediately develop agranulocytosis on rechallenge suggests that some other factor may be responsible for the idiosyncratic nature of this reaction. The reactive nitrenium ion is very rapidly reduced back to clozapine by vitamin C, and many schizophrenic patients are vitamin C deficient. We set out to test the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using a vitamin C deficient guinea pig model. Although the vitamin C deficient guinea pigs did not develop agranulocytosis, the amount of clozapine covalent binding in these animals was less than we had previously observed in samples from rats and humans. Therefore, we studied ODS rats that also cannot synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C deficient ODS rats also did not develop agranulocytosis, and furthermore, although covalent binding in the bone marrow was greater than that in the guinea pig, it was not increased in the vitamin C deficient ODS rats relative to ODS rats that had adequate vitamin C in their diet. Therefore, it is very unlikely that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.

  10. The influence of alimentary vitamin E on seasonal fluctuations of lipopigment fluorescence in irradiated rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranich, A.V.; Chajkin, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    In seasonal experiments (spring and autumn) with Wistar female rats, a study was made of the level of lipopigments (LP) and α-tocopherol (TPh) fluorescence in the liver and brain. Seasonal peculiarities of the parameters under study, and their dependence on Vitamin E ingestion have been revealed. After irradiation of animals, an intimate morphofunctional relationship between LP and TP and its sensitivity to alimentary factors have been found. One hour following irradiation, part of LP is disintegrated thus releasing the TPh reserve. This may be the part of the complex of adaptation changes on the postirradiation metabolic effects

  11. Malformations induced by gamma irradiation combined with vitamin A administration in pregnant female albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    In The Present investigation, oral administration of vitamin A of the therapeutic doses and double therapeutic doses (9.000 lU/kg b.wt and 18.000 IU/ kg body, wt) to female rats starting on day 1 up to day 19 of pregnancy and exposed to 3 Gy (1 Gy/3 times) whole body gamma irradiation on days 7th, 1th and 15th of gestation (dissection was preformed on day 20) caused morphological, histochemical and skeletal changes in pregnant rats and their foetuses. The congenital anomalies occurred in foetuses when pregnant rats were exposed to γ-irradiation including diminution of size and subcutaneous haemorrhage. On the other hand, miscellaneous malformations including kypophysis, exencephally, anophthalmia and deformation of ear region were designated in foetuses maternally treated with excess vitamin A. The malformations were severe when mothers were irradiated during vitamin A administration as manifested by macrocephaly and fusion of digits of the hind limb (Oligosyndactyly). The examination of the endo skeletal system of foetuses obtained from irradiated pregnant rats and treated with low or excess doses of vitamin A showed retardation in of the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the centre of vertebrae. Moreover, no ossification was observed in sternebra, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges. In the present study, the content of DNA exhibited significant decrease in mother irradiated and combined or not with vitamin A. The results are of great importance from the standpoint of radiation protection and drug safety

  12. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  13. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α -glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC 50 values of 67.33 and 86.68  μ g/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05  μ g/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model ( P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  14. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  16. The rat closely mimics oxidative stress and inflammation in humans after exercise but not after exercise combined with vitamin C administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Goutianos, Georgios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare oxidative stress and inflammation responses between rats and humans. We contrasted rat and human oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to exercise (pro-oxidant stimulus) and/or vitamin C (anti-oxidant stimulus) administration. Vitamin C was administered orally in both species (16 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Twelve redox biomarkers and seven inflammatory biomarkers were determined in plasma and erythrocytes pre- and post-exercise or pre- and post-exercise combined with vitamin C administration. Exercise increased oxidative stress and induced an inflammatory state in rats and humans. There were only 1/19 significant species × exercise interactions (catalase), indicating similar responses to exercise between rats and humans in redox and inflammatory biomarkers. Vitamin C decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant capacity only in humans and did not affect the redox state of rats. In contrast, vitamin C induced an anti-inflammatory state only in rats and did not affect the inflammatory state of humans. There were 10/19 significant species × vitamin C interactions, indicating that rats poorly mimic human oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to vitamin C administration. Exercise after acute vitamin C administration altered redox state only in humans and did not affect the redox state of rats. On the contrary, inflammation biomarkers changed similarly after exercise combined with vitamin C in both rats and humans. The rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in basic blood redox/inflammatory profile, yet this is not the case after exercise combined with vitamin C administration.

  17. Study on the distribution of radioactive trace elements in vitamin D-overloaded rats using the multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi; Ambe, Fumitoshi; Endo, Kazutoyo; Ambe, Shizuko

    1999-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of radioisotopes of beryllium, calcium, scandium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, gallium, arsenic, strontium and barium in vitamin D (VD)-overloaded rats were investigated and compared with those in control rats, using the multitracer technique. Each element revealed its characteristic distribution among various organs in control and VD-overloaded rats. For some elements, such as cobalt and chromium, the distribution patterns in them were significantly different. These results are discussed in terms of the metabolism of the elements in rats

  18. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2006-09-15

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The behavioral phenotype of adult rats subjected to transient low prenatal vitamin D is characterized by spontaneous hyperlocomotion but normal prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of selected psychotropic agents and one well-known antipsychotic agent on the behavioral phenotype of DVD deplete rats. Control versus DVD deplete adult rats were assessed on holeboard, open field and PPI. In the open field, animals were given MK-801 and/or haloperidol. For PPI, the animals were given apomorphine or MK-801. DVD deplete rats had increased baseline locomotion on the holeboard task and increased locomotion in response to MK-801 compared to control rats. At low doses, haloperidol antagonized the MK-801 hyperactivity of DVD deplete rats preferentially and, at a high dose, resulted in a more pronounced reduction in spontaneous locomotion in DVD deplete rats. DVD depletion did not affect either baseline or drug-mediated PPI response. These results suggest that DVD deficiency is associated with a persistent alteration in neuronal systems associated with motor function but not those associated with sensory motor gating. In light of the putative association between low prenatal vitamin D and schizophrenia, the discrete behavioral differences associated with the DVD model may help elucidate the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia.

  19. Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; da Costa, Pauline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Hussein, Fátima Abdala; Schmatz, Roberta; Rubin, Maribel A; Signor, Cristiane; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  1. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  2. Body retention and tissue distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruden, Nevenka

    1980-01-01

    The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59 Fe and 54 Mn retention and selective tissue distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially fed for 7 hrs 0,45 ml of cow's milk or cow's milk enriched with either 52 or 103 μg of Fe /ml and marked with 59 Fe and 54 Mn. After 4 days there was no significant difference in whole body or carcass activity between the groups. Iron added to milk in large amounts did not influence body 59 Fe or 54 Mn retention in newborn rats, whereas it enhanced 59 Fe deposition in the liver and the intestinal wall and, to a lesser extent, 54 Mn deposition in the liver

  3. Rats Fed a Diet Rich in Fats and Sugars Are Impaired in the Use of Spatial Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dominic M D; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2015-12-01

    A diet rich in fats and sugars is associated with cognitive deficits in people, and rodent models have shown that such a diet produces deficits on tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. Spatial navigation is guided by two distinct types of information: geometrical, such as distance and direction, and featural, such as luminance and pattern. To clarify the nature of diet-induced spatial impairments, we provided rats with standard chow supplemented with sugar water and a range of energy-rich foods eaten by people, and then we assessed their place- and object-recognition memory. Rats exposed to this diet performed comparably with control rats fed only chow on object recognition but worse on place recognition. This impairment on the place-recognition task was present after only a few days on the diet and persisted across tests. Critically, this spatial impairment was specific to the processing of distance and direction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Vitamin C acts as a hepatoprotectant in carbofuran treated rat liver slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Ansari, Md Dilshad; Siddiqi, Nikhat J; Sharma, Bechan

    2017-01-01

    Carbamates, most commonly used pesticides in agricultural practices, have been reported to produce free radicals causing deleterious effects in animals. The present study was designed to assess the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat liver slices in vitro and also to evaluate protective role of vitamin C by incubating them in Krebs-Ringer HEPES Buffer (KRHB) containing incubation media (Williams medium E (WME) supplemented with glucose and antibiotics) with different concentrations of carbofuran. The results demonstrated that carbofuran caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition in the activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) in concentration dependent manner. The data with incubation medium reflected that carbofuran at lowest concentration caused an increase in SOD activity followed by its inhibition at higher concentration. Carbofuran treatment caused inhibition in the activity of catalase in liver slices and WME incubation medium. Pre-incubation of liver slices and the WME media with vitamin C restored the values of biochemical indices tested. The results indicated that carbofuran might induce oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The pretreatment with vitamin C may offer hepatoprotection from toxicity of pesticide at low concentration only.

  5. The comparison of skin rejuvenation effects of vitamin A, fractional laser, and their combination on rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chunyu; Gao, Dong; Jin, Waishu; Liang, Jinning; Xia, Xiujuan

    2018-03-15

    Because of long-term exposure of skin, skin aging is an unavoidable natural law with age. Traditional Vitamin A and novel ablative fractional laser technique both have the effects of skin rejuvenation, and studies have demonstrated both of them have apparent clinical efficacy and histology-improving effects on photo-aging skin. 45 female healthy Wistar rats were selected and the depilation areas of every rat were divided into four regions: control region(Region A), Vitamin A acid region(Region B), combination treatment region(Region C), and fractional laser region(Region D). 0.025% Vitamin A acid cream was applied to Region B and C every day for 3 weeks; Region C and D were irradiated once with 10600nm CO 2 fractional laser on the first day of the trail. The skin tissue was dissected and placed into liquid nitrogen according to the design. The real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting methods were taken to detect the expression changes of miR-29a, Akt, TGF-β, and mRNA of type III pre-collagen. It can be seen from the results of the real-time quantitative PCR that the mRNA expression levels of type III pre-collagen, Akt, and TGF-β in the treatment regions are up-regulated and the expression levels of miR-29a mRNA are down-regulated compared to the Region A. The hybridization tests showed that changes of the expression of type III pre-collagen, Akt gene, miR-29a gene, and TGF-β gene across the experiment regions are all significantly different in the third week, and the expression levels of them all achieve the highest value in the third week, the expression level of miR-29a gene achieves the lowest value in the third week, which are consistent with the results of real-time quantitative PCR. It is indicated that the combination region of Vitamin A acid and fractional laser may lead to low expression of miR-29a, thus the inhibition of downstream Akt activation is loss, Akt activation is enhanced, enhancement of the expression of TGF-β is induced, leading to

  6. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3

  7. 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K ) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP 9K and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP 9K was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 depends on maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H) 2 D 3 has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat

  8. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  9. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less 59 Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal

  10. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against hepatotoxicity induced by emamectin benzoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldoun Oularbi, H; Richeval, C; Lebaili, N; Zerrouki-Daoudi, N; Baha, M; Djennas, N; Allorge, D

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) against emamectin benzoate (EMB)-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, biochemical, histopathological and analytical investigations were performed. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups, that is, a control group, an EMB group given 10 mg EMB/kg body weight (BW) by gavage and an EMB + AA group given 10 mg EMB/kg BW and vitamin C intraperitoneally (200 mg/kg). The duration of the treatment was 28 days and the duration of the study was 42 days. There was a statistically significant increase of all hepatic biomarkers, that is, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, and glycemia, in EMB-treated group when compared with the control group. Light microscopic observations revealed variable signs of hepatotoxicity in the EMB group, which were represented by alteration of normal hepatic architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular steatosis and foci of necrosis at 28 and 42 days post-treatment. However, co-treatment with vitamin C reduced EMB-related liver toxicity and diminished the abnormal biochemical and architectural damage. Emamectin B1a and B1b residues were detectable in all plasma samples of treated rats at 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The drug liver tissue concentration was significantly lower in EMB + AA group compared with EMB group at 28 and 42 days. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate a significant protective action of vitamin C against EMB hepatotoxicity.

  11. Silymarin and vitamin E reduce amiodarone-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoston, Marta; Oersi, Ferenc; Feher, Erzsebet; Hagymasi, Krisztina; Orosz, Zsuzsa; Blazovics, Anna; Feher, Janos; Vereckei, Andras

    2003-01-01

    Several antioxidants have been shown to reduce lysosomal phospholipidosis, which is a potential mechanism of amiodarone toxicity, and prevent amiodarone toxicity by antioxidant and/or non-antioxidant mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test whether the co-administration of two structurally different antioxidants vitamin E and silymarin with amiodarone can reduce amiodarone-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis, and if yes, by reducing the tissue concentration of amiodarone and desethylamiodarone or by their antioxidant action. To this end, male Fischer 344 rats were treated by gavage once a day for 3 weeks and randomly assigned to the following four experimental groups: 1, control; 2, amiodarone (150 mg/(kg per day)); 3, amiodarone (150 mg/(kg per day)) plus vitamin E (100 mg/(kg per day)); 4, amiodarone (150 mg/(kg per day)) plus silymarin (60 mg/(kg per day)) treated groups. Total plasma phospholipid (PL), liver-conjugated diene, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations were determined and the extent of lysosomal phospholipidosis in the liver was estimated by a semi-quantitative electron microscopic method. Amiodarone treatment increased significantly the liver-conjugated diene (P<0.001), TBARS (P=0.012), plasma total PL (P<0.001) concentrations compared with control. Antioxidants combined with amiodarone significantly decreased the liver-conjugated diene (P<0.001 for both), TBARS (P=0.016 for vitamin E, P=0.053 borderline for silymarin) and plasma total PL (P=0.058 borderline for vitamin E, P<0.01 for silymarin) concentrations compared with amiodarone treatment alone. Silymarin significantly (P=0.021) reduced liver amiodarone, but only tended to decrease desethylamiodarone concentration; however, vitamin E failed to do so. Amiodarone treatment increased lysosomal phospholipidosis (P<0.001) estimated by semi-quantitative electron microscopic method and both antioxidants combined with amiodarone reduced

  12. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shoji; Itaya, Harutaka; Nakazawa, Osamu; Fukuda, Morimichi.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B 12 -sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B 12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B 12 -sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B 12 -bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B 12 -sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B 12 -sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B 12 -sepharose which was made by coupling B 12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B 12 -sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B 12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with Vitamin C and silymarin supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalan, M.G.; Mostafa, M.S.; Hassouna, M.M.; El-Nabi, S.E. Hassab; El-Refaie, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the combined administration of Vitamin C and silymarin on lead toxicity. Male albino rats were subdivided into three groups: the first was a control group, the second received lead acetate in diet as 500 mg/kg diet daily, the third received the same lead acetate dose and supplemented with Vitamin C (1 mg/100 g body weight) and silymarin (1 mg/100 g body weight) by gastric tube three times per week. Blood samples were taken after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Significant lead-induced elevations in serum ALT, AST, GGT and ALP activities were observed after different periods of treatment. However, serum LDLc was decreased. The intensities of RNA and apoptotic fragments of DNA were measured as optical density by Gel-pro program. Lead acetate decreased the intensity of DNA at 6 weeks and induced apoptotic DNA fragments reversibly with time. After 2 weeks of lead administration dilation and congestion of terminal hepatic veins and portal vein branches were observed. Lead also induced hepatocyte proliferation without any localized distribution among zones 1-3. Portal inflammatory infiltrate with disruption of the limiting plates (interface hepatitis), steatosis, apoptosis and mild fibrosis were detected especially by sixth week of lead administration. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with Vitamin C and silymarin showed marked improvement of the biochemical, molecular and histopathological findings. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of Vitamin C and silymarin against toxic effects of lead on liver tissue

  14. Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with Vitamin C and silymarin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalan, M G; Mostafa, M S; Hassouna, M M; El-Nabi, S E Hassab; El-Refaie, A

    2005-01-05

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the combined administration of Vitamin C and silymarin on lead toxicity. Male albino rats were subdivided into three groups: the first was a control group, the second received lead acetate in diet as 500 mg/kg diet daily, the third received the same lead acetate dose and supplemented with Vitamin C (1 mg/100g body weight) and silymarin (1 mg/100g body weight) by gastric tube three times per week. Blood samples were taken after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Significant lead-induced elevations in serum ALT, AST, GGT and ALP activities were observed after different periods of treatment. However, serum LDLc was decreased. The intensities of RNA and apoptotic fragments of DNA were measured as optical density by Gel-pro program. Lead acetate decreased the intensity of DNA at 6 weeks and induced apoptotic DNA fragments reversibly with time. After 2 weeks of lead administration dilation and congestion of terminal hepatic veins and portal vein branches were observed. Lead also induced hepatocyte proliferation without any localized distribution among zones 1-3. Portal inflammatory infiltrate with disruption of the limiting plates (interface hepatitis), steatosis, apoptosis and mild fibrosis were detected especially by sixth week of lead administration. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with Vitamin C and silymarin showed marked improvement of the biochemical, molecular and histopathological findings. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of Vitamin C and silymarin against toxic effects of lead on liver tissue.

  15. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Vitamin A against Gasoline Vapor Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E; Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Ebong, Patrick E; Umoh, Ime B

    2009-06-01

    Changes in the activities of plasma alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are used to assess the functional state of the liver. Significant increase in the activities of these enzymes commonly indicates the hepatotoxicity of chemical agent(s) in the body. Exposure of male and female rats to 17.8 cm 3 h -1 m -3 of Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) blend unleaded gasoline (UG) vapors for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 20 weeks have been observed to cause hepatotoxicity. In this study, the potential hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A (retinol) against gasoline vapours-induced toxicity was investigated in male and female rats. Retinol (400 IU/kg/day) was orally administered to the test rats concomitant with the gasoline vapor exposure in the last two weeks of the experiment. The results obtained from this study showed that exposure to gasoline vapors caused significant increase (P produced a significant decrease (P gasoline vapours hepatotoxicity in male and female rats, thereby suggesting that retinol may be used to prevent hepatotoxicity in individuals frequently exposed to gasoline vapours.

  16. Protective Effects of Vitamin E on Methotrexate-Induced Jejunal Mucosal Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Busra; Kanter, Mehmet; Orhon, Zeynep Nur; Yarali, Oguzhan; Karabacak, Rukiye

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possible protective effects of Vitamin E (Vit E) on oxidative stress and jejunal damage in the rat intestinal mucosa after methotrexate (MTX)-induced enterotoxicity. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control, MTX, and MTX+ Vit E; each group contained 8 animals. The control group was given physiological serum in addition to sunflower oil for 3 days. The second group was given sunflower oil with intragastric tube daily, followed by MTX injection (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally). To the third group, starting 3 days before injection, Vit E was given dissolved in sunflower oil (600 mg/kg orally) in addition to MTX injection. Four days after MTX injection the anesthetized rats were sacrificed, and the tissue samples obtained from their jejunums were investigated for histological and biochemical analysis. Vit E treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased the reduced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in comparison to the MTX-treated group. MTX treatment caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Vit E treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal injury caused by MTX via inhibiting induced nitric oxide synthase levels and NF-κB p65 activation. Because of its reconstructing and antioxidant effects, Vit E pretreatment may have protective effects in the intestinal tissue of MTX-treated rats.

  17. The effect of Vitamin E on learning and memory deficits in intrahippocampal kainate-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Khalili, Mohsen; Shafiee, Samaneh; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Since temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with learning and memory impairment, we investigated the beneficial effect of Vitamin E on the impaired learning and memory in the intrahippocampal kainate model of TLE in rats. Rats were divided into sham, Vitamin E-treated sham, kainate, and Vitamin E-treated kainate. Intrahippocampal kainate was used for induction of epilepsy. Vitamin E was injected intraperitoneal (i.p.) at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day started 1 week before surgery until 1 h presurgery. Initial and step-through latencies in the passive avoidance test and alternation behavior percentage in Y-maze were finally determined in addition to measurement of some oxidative stress markers. Kainate injection caused a higher severity and rate of seizures and deteriorated learning and memory performance in passive avoidance paradigm and spontaneous alternation as an index of spatial recognition memory in Y-maze task. Intrahippocampal kainate also led to the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Vitamin E pretreatment significantly attenuated severity and incidence rate of seizures, significantly improved retrieval and recall in passive avoidance, did not ameliorate spatial memory deficit in Y-maze, and lowered MDA and enhanced SOD activity. Vitamin E improves passive avoidance learning and memory and part of its beneficial effect is due to its potential to mitigate hippocampal oxidative stress.

  18. The effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    and garlic, group B was fed on high cholesterol diet only, group C was fed on normal diet. (controls) ... An international journal published by the. Nigerian .... Table 4: Statistical comparison of the different groups. A Vs B. A Vs C. A Vs D. B Vs C.

  19. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  20. Vitamin D-dependent rat renal calcium-binding protein: development of a radioimmunoassay, tissue distribution, and immunologic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, J.; Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody RIA has been developed for the 28,000 mol wt rat renal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Using this assay, concentrations of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) as low as 30 ng can be measured. The assay is precise (intraassay variability, 5.0%) and reproductible (interassay variability, 8.2%). Measurements of renal CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the chelex resin assay and by polyacrylamide gel analysis by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The concentration of CaBP in the vitamin D-replete rat kidney is 7.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) micrograms/mg protein. In vitamin D-deficient rats the level of renal CaBP is 2.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/mg protein. Tissue distribution of immunoreactive rat renal CaBP showed the highest concentration of CaBP in the rat cerebellum (38.3 +/- 5.1 micrograms/mg protein). Lower concentrations of immunoreactive CaBP were detected in several other rat tissues. No immunoreactive CaBP was detected in rat or human serum. In necropsy human kidney and cerebellum, high levels of immunoreactive CaBP were also detected (1.5 +/- 0.1 and 27.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/mg protein, respectively). When extracts of rat kidney and brain and human cerebellum and kidney were assayed at several dilutions, immunodisplacement curves parallel to that of pure renal CaBP were observed, indicating immunochemical similarity. Fractionation of extracts of rat cerebellum, human kidney, and human cerebellum on Sephadex G-100 revealed immunoreactivity and calcium-binding activity in the 28,000 mol wt region similar to rat kidney

  1. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  2. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  3. The effects of Bifidobacteria on the lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats fed thermally oxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, there has been concern about the changes taking place in heated oils and the effects on individuals consuming them. The present study investigated the effects of a diet containing thermally oxidized soybean oil (TO) or TO supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacteria (TO+Pro) on the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats. The data showed several indicators of oil deterioration after thermal processing, including high levels of % free fatty acid (FFA; 15-fold), acid value (AV; 14-fold), peroxide value (8-fold), p-anisidine value (AnV; 39-fold), total oxidation value (TOTOX; 19-fold), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value (8.5-fold), and trans-FA (TFA) isomers (2.5-fold) compared to the control. The rats that were fed a diet containing TO showed a significant (p blood serum samples. High levels of TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were also detected in the livers, kidneys, testes, and brains of rats. Interestingly, a diet containing TO+Pro restored all biological parameters to their control values. The present data suggested that Bifidobacteria may ameliorate the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers that are generated in animals that are fed a TO diet.

  4. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

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    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pdevelopment of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  7. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  8. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  9. The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Jong Sam Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  10. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

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    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  11. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  12. Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Russell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Objective Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Results Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Discussion Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia. PMID:18223610

  13. Supplementation with Vitamin E and Vitamin C inversely alters mitochondrial copy number and mitochondrial protein in obese, exercising rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...

  14. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  15. Protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-06-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. 35 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table.

  16. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

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    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 3H-1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohira, Yasuo; Hinohara, Yoshikazu; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Machiko; Nakano, Hideki

    1978-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 2- 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 (4.2 Ci/mmol) were studied in vitamin D deficient rats in comparison with the normal rats after oral or intravenous dosing. (1) Maximum blood level of administered radioactivity was observed at 8 hours after oral administration with apparent half life of 3.8 days. This blood level was higher than that in normal rat. (2) As in the normal rat, administered radioactivity was distributed relatively high in the liver, while any other specific distribution or accumulation was not observed in the another tissues, which was consistent to the finding in the normal rat. The tissue levels of the radioactivity were higher than these in the normal rat. (3) Urinary excretion of administered radioactivity was significantly higher, fecal and biliary excretion was significantly lower than that in the normal rat after intravenous dosing. (4) Relative percentage of 3 H-1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 content to 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 content in tissues and blood was higher than that in the normal one. Above results suggest that in the vitamin D deficient state, the tissue accumulation of 1α-OH-D 3 was significantly augmented than in the normal rat, thus resulting increased bioavailability of its active metabolite, 1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 . (author)

  18. The effects of vitamin-E on oxidative stress and metabolic imbalance induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in anaesthetized rats

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    Shirazi M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Obstructive nephropathy has been associated with disorders in metabolism state and oxidative balance of kidney. Stress oxidative play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of renal diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of vitamin-E, as a powerful antioxidant, on renal oxidative stress and metabolism defect induced by 24-hr unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. "nMethods: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group were sterilely operated to occlude the left ureter. In UUO+NS, we had a single dose normal saline injection and in UUO+VitE and UUO+OO groups, D-α-tocopherol (50 mg/kg, the main component of vitamin-E, and its vehicle (Olive Oil, respectively, were twicely infused I.P. before and after UUO-induction. There were also sham-operated and control groups. 24-hr after of UUO-induction, both kidneys were removed and stored in -70°C. To determine metabolism condition, the levels of ATP and ADP; and to evaluate redox state, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP of kidneys were assessed. "nResults: The comparisons between UUO+NS and sham groups indicated that UUO increased MDA (p<0.001 and ADP (p<0.05, but decreased FRAP, and ATP/ADP ratio in obstructed kidney (all p<0.001. In UUO+VitE group, MDA and FRAP were equal to their levels in sham group, while ATP, ADP and ATP/ADP ratio were not different from those of UUO+NS group in obstructed kidney. "nConclusion: Twenty four hour of UUO caused renal reduction in oxidative metabolism and elevations in reactive oxygen species; and administration of vitamin-E, although considerably ameliorated the oxidative stress, could not improve the defected metabolism.

  19. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  20. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

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    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  2. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  3. Histopathological changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Skin before and after Silymarin and Vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.F.; Elkady, A.

    2013-01-01

    People in industrial and developing countries are exposed to large variety of environmental influencing agents including chemical, air, water and food pollution. Also physical harmful agents such as ultraviolet radiation, and electromagnetic radiation especially by cell phones. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on the skin of male albino rats and the role of silymarin and Vitamin E as skin protectors. The male rats were grouped into 8 groups :1-Control group, 2-Irradiated group, groups 3,4,5 are irradiated with silymarin administration, irradiated with Vitamin E administration, irradiated with silymarin and Vitamin E administration groups respectively. The remaining three groups (6, 7, 8) served as healthy control with antioxidants administration. Paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for showing microscopic changes. Following irradiation, the results showed dystrophic changes in the skin represented by atrophy of epidermal layers with absence of stratum corneum and epidermal vesicles formation. Collagen fibres were disorganized and appeared more eosinophilic and homogenous. Loss of skin appendages, lysis of collagen and edematous tissues were also observed in the dermal layer. Following administration of silymarin and Vitamin E the results showed improvement of the skin texture, while edema was still observed. conclusion: Treatment by silymarin alone or Vitamin E alone did not restore the damaging effect of electromagnetic radiation on rat skin. But when both antioxidants were given following radiation-exposure there were marked improvements on morphological structure of rat skin. These results indicate the importance of both silymarin and Vitamin E as protectors from the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation on skin.

  4. The effects of honey and vitamin E administration on apoptosis in testes of rat exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hemadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A variety of stress factors are known to inhibit male reproductive functions. So this study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the germinative and somatic cells of testes of rats exposed to noise stress. Materials and Methods: Mature male wistar rats (n0 = 24 were randomly grouped as follows: Group 1 (honey + noise stress, 2 (vitamin E + noise stress, 3 (noise stress, and 4 as the control group. In groups 1, 2, and 3, rats were exposed to noise stress. In groups 1 and 2, rats also were given honey and vitamin E, respectively, orally for 50 days. After that, the germinative and somatic cells of testes parenchyma were isolated by digesting the whole testes by a standard method. Next, viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of the cells were evaluated by TUNEL kit and flow cytometry. Results: The rates of apoptosis and necrosis of the testicular cells were increased (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively, but viability of these cells decreased in testes of rats exposed to noise stress (P = 0.003. However, administration of honey and vitamin E were significantly helpful in keeping the cells of testis parenchyma alive, which suffers from noise pollution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Noise stress has negative influences on the cells of testicular tissue by increasing apoptotic and necrotic cells. However, the associated enhancement in healthy cells suggests that honey and vitamin E have positive influences on the testis parenchyma.

  5. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  6. Vitamin-C protect ethanol induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in postnatal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.I.; Najeebullah; Ikramullah; Zubair, H.; Hassan, M.; Yang, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ethanol effects to induced activation of caspsae-3, and to observe the protective effects of Vitamin C (vit-C) on ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in rat cortical area of brain. Methodology: Administration of a single dose of ethanol in 7-d postnatal (P7) rats triggers activation of caspase-3 and widespread apoptotic neuronal death. Western blot analysis, cells counting and Nissl staining were used to elucidate possible protective effect of vit-C against ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in brain. Results: The results showed that ethanol significantly increased caspase-3 expression and neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, the co-treatment of vit-C along with ethanol showed significantly decreased expression of caspase-3 as compare to control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that vit-C can prevent some of the deleterious effect of ethanol on developing rat brain when given after ethanol exposure and can be used as an effective protective agent for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). (author)

  7. Feeding Vitamin C during Neonatal and Juvenile Growth Improves Learning and Memory of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Beheshti, Farimah; Sohrabi, Farzaneh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Reza Sadeghnia, Hamid

    2018-09-03

    We investigated the effects of feeding vitamin C (Vit C) during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. Rats after delivery were randomly divided into four groups and treated. Group 1, control group, received normal drinking water. Groups 2-4 received Vit C 10, 100, and 500 mg/kg, respectively, from the first day. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring of each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Finally, the brains were removed for biochemical measurement. In MWM, 10-500 mg/kg Vit C reduced the latency and traveled distance and increased time spent in the target quadrant. In PA, 10 and 100 mg/kg of Vit C increased the latency; 10-500 mg/kg of Vit C decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissues and increased thiol and catalase (CAT) activity compared to the control group. We showed that feeding rats Vit C during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory.

  8. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Kawakami, Sakura; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Hayakawa, Touru; Onoue, Hirotake; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    L-cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (pL-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.

  9. Utilization of [1-14C]carbon of glycine of high glycine diet fed young and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Medovar, B.Ya.; Pisarczuk, K.L.; Grigorov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from [1- 14 C]glycine was studied in various organ (serum, liver, muscle) fractions (acid soluble, proteins, lipids, liver glycogen) and carbon dioxide in rats fed with isonitrogenous isocaloric purfied diets. The diets contained 30% casein (control), gelatin (exchange of half of the 30% casein) or glycine (corresponding level of glycine in relation to the gelatin diet). The incorporation of radioactivity into proteins was reduced by feeding high glycine diets in young (20-weeks-old) and old (18-month-old) rats in relation to the control diet. The modifications of the results for old animals may be partially explained on the base of a reduced protein turnover rate and adaptation to a high gelatin (glycine) diet. (author)

  10. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...... weight, glomerular number or volume in OHF compared with OC, but renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were significantly reduced in OHF compared with controls. Programmed alterations to aortic structure and function are consistent with previous observations that exposure to maternal high fat diets produces...

  11. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  12. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  13. [Effects of excess nicotinic acid on growth and the urinary excretion of B-group vitamins and the metabolism of tryptophan in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kurata, Kaori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake level of nicotinic acid in humans, we investigated the effects of excess nicotinic acid administration on body weight gain, food intake, and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins and the metabolism of tryptophan in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed a niacin-free 20% casein diet (control diet) or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.5% nicotinic acid for 23 days. The excess nicotinic acid intake did not affect body weight gain, food intake, serotonin contents in the brain, stomach and small intestine, or the urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins. Although excess nicotinic acid did not affect the upper part of the tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway, 0.5% nicotinic acid diet increased the urinary excretion of quinolinic acid. The diet containing more than 0.3% nicotinic acid also increased the urinary excretion of nicotinic acid, which is usually below the limit of detection. As determined from the results of body weight gain and food intake as indices for apparent adverse effects, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for nicotinic acid was 0.5% in diet, corresponding to 450 mg/kg body weight/day. As judged from in increase of urinary quinolinic acid and nicotinic acid as indices of metabolic change, NOAEL was 0.1% in diet, corresponding to 90 mg/kg body weight/day, and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) was 0.3% in diet, corresponding to 270 mg/kg body weight/day.

  14. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  15. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  16. Protective role of selenium and vitamins A, C and E against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiub, N.I.; Abd El-maguid, A.; Saad, T.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of selenium and vitamins A, C and E on the oxidative stress in alloxan injected and/or irradiated rats. Rats were received a daily intraperitoneal administration of selenium (0.9 mg/rat) and vitamin A (14 IU/rat), vitamin C (0.8 mg/rat) and vitamin E (0.25 mg/rat) daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection with alloxan (60 mg/kg body weight) and/or gamma irradiation exposure (6.5 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the tenth day post-irradiation and/or alloxan treatment. Histological examinations were made on eye tissue and blood was removed for biochemical analysis. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused histopathological damage in the eye tissue manifested as a congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic while the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria.The biochemical results showed that exposure to single dose (6.5 Gy) of ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied with significant depletion in reduced glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood samples. Administration of selenium and vitamin A, C and E before gamma radiation exposure and/or alloxan treatment exerted marked amelioration of the histological changes in the eye and of the biochemical changes in rats induced by radiation but did not ameliorate that due to alloxan treatment in the tested parameters, thus diminishing the magnitude of injury due to radiation only. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that selenium and vitamin A, C and E (a

  17. Lysosome stabilization in slices of rat liver when incubated with vitamin A excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morre, D.M.; Morre, D.J.; Bowen, S.; Reutter, W.

    1986-01-01

    An organ culture of slices of livers from adult rats was used to study effect of vitamin A (all-trans retinol) on lysosome stability. Lysosomes were purified by centrifugation in Percoll gradients. Preparations were monitored by electron microscopy and evaluated by morphometry and assays of marker enzymes. Enrichments relative to homogenates and crude pellets were estimated from latent (triton X-100) acid p-nitrophenylphosphatase specific activities. Lysosomes prepared from unincubated slices were enriched 50-fold in latent acid phosphatase relative to homogenates. In contrast, lysosomes prepared from slices incubated for 30 min in PBS alone were enriched only 20-fold. When 25 μg/ml retinol was included in the incubation medium, enrichments of 40-fold were obtained. The integrity of the slices was monitored by electron microscopy and their viability was confirmed by a sustained uptake and incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into protein (up to 2 h in culture). The loss of lysosomes from homogenates of slices incubated in the absence of retinol was accompanied by a loss of acid phosphatase from the lysosomal pellet to the supernatant during purification. Addition of retinol to slices just prior to homogenization was without effect. The results demonstrate a stabilizing influence of vitamin A on lysosomes during incubation of licer slices. The findings contrast earlier reports of retinol-induced lysosome fragility in other in vitro systems

  18. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Ankita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  19. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  20. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  1. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  2. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  3. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  4. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These resu