WorldWideScience

Sample records for rats buffalo epiphyseal

  1. Histology of Epiphyseal Plate of Adolescent Rat Stimulated by Laserpuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Selfi; Ramelan, Ari H.; Purwanto, Bambang; Saputra, Koosnadi; Tamtomo, Didik G.

    2017-11-01

    Epiphyseal plate was used for determining longitudinal bone growth. Laserpuncture was believed to stimulate height growth. We used 40 male Wistar rats which aged three weeks old and weighed more than 40 g as subjects. They randomly divided into group A or B and each group evenly divided into four subgroups which were a negative control and others applied with laser on GV20, ST 36 or combination of GV 20+ST 36 respectively. These acupoints were then stimulated using the laser. After treatment, mice were sacrificed, then tibias were taken for histology preparation processes. By light microscope, epiphyseal plate (EP) height (µm) and chondrocytes hypertrophy (CH) height were measured at six equidistant points, and the values were averaged to obtain a final result for each section. Collected data were analyzed using ANOVA test, and the significant value was set up p< 0.05. The mean of EC and CH were lower than control, but mean of ratio EP/CH were higher than control. However, ANOVA showed that there did not differ significantly (p=0.36).

  2. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal (pineal proteins (BEP and melatonin (MEL against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water, MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p., and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days. There were significantly P<0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P<0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

  3. Iron supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on epiphyseal growth plate of newborn rat: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbreen, F.; Qamar, K.; Rehman, S.

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on epiphyseal growth plate of Sprague dawley rat pups. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH) Islamabad, from Mar 2016 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: Eight female and two male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months old were selected and divided into two groups and kept for breeding. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups. Four pregnant rats in each group. Group A1was control group and group B1 was experimental group. Iron supplementation was given once daily throughout pregnancy till the time of delivery. Iron was given to the experimental group in syrup form (Sytron syrup containing iron as sodium feredetate). Each 5ml of sytron syrup contains 27.5mg of elemental iron content1. The dose was mixed in water given to the animal. Maternal body weight (wt.) was recorded at the start and the end of experiment. As the rat pups were born, they were weighed and euthanized. Right femur of each rat pup was removed for the epiphyseal plate analysis. It was processed, embedded and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study. Hypertrophy and proliferative zone length were histologically and statistically analyzed. Results: Height of hypertrophy and proliferative zone was measured. Mean values of the heights of two zones were taken. Heights of hypertrophy and proliferative zones were considerably decreased in group B1 as compared to groups A1. Conclusion: Indiscriminate iron supplementation to the rats throughout pregnancy without checking serum iron levels can disturb the longitudinal growth of epiphyseal plate of femur. The height of the hypertrophy zone and proliferative zone was significantly reduced in iron supplementation group as compared to the control group. (author)

  4. In vivo image of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU in HSV-TK gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, T. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, C. W. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The extent of gene delivery and expression in gene therapy with suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is assessed with measurement of selective localization of radioiodinated HSV-tk substrates in HSV-tk expressing tumor. We compared n vitro uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU, IVFRU and in vivo image of HSV-tk gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma model. Using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(hydrogen peroxide), IVDU and IVFRU was radiolabeled as carrier free form. The uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU IVFRU was determined with increasing incubation periods in MCA-tk and MCA cell line (1X10{sup 6}cell/flask). The cell harvested and counted after incubation of 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 minutes. For estimating accumulation of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing tumor, MCA-tk cells (1 X 10{sup 6}/100 {mu}l) injected intramuscularly into right thigh of buffalo rats. To determine selective localization of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats, MCA-tk cells (1X 10{sup 7} cell/100 {mu}l) were injected subcutaneously into both shoulders of buffalo rats. Established tumor mass implanted into liver of buffalo rats using intra-hepatic tumor injection. Two weeks later, {sup 123}I labelled IVDU, IVFRU(7.4 X 10{sup 7}Bq/200 {mu}l) injected intravenously into tail veins of each buffalo rats. Gamma camera used as revealing localization of {sup 123}I-IVDU, IVFRU in MCA-tk cells grafts rats and in vivo image was taken 2 hrs, 24 hrs after injection. radioiodinated IVDU, IVFRU were radiolabeled with {sup 123}I as labeling yield 70%, {sup 125}I as 84%. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA cell line, but in MCA-tk cell line, increased uptake was observed. The ratio of MCA-tk to MCA was up to 116-fold in {sup 125}I-IVDU, up to 37-fold in {sup 125}I-IVFRU at 480 min. The uptake of IVDU was 4 times higher than IVFRU in MCA-tk cells. Gamma camera images of HSV-tk gene tranduced MCA tumor showed accumulation of {sup 123}I

  5. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cell proliferation and death in cultured epiphyseal-articular chondrocytes of fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Wang, G.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress bone repair. Our previous study further found that ketorolac delayed the endochondral bone formation, and the critical effective timing was at the early stage of repair. Furthermore, we found that NSAIDs suppressed proliferation and induced cell death of cultured osteoblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that chondrocytic proliferation and death, which plays an important role at the early stage of endochondral bone formation, might be affected by NSAIDs. Non-selective NSAIDs, indomethacin, ketorolac, diclofenac and piroxicam; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective NSAIDs, celecoxib and DFU (an analog of rofecoxib); prostaglandins (PGs), PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2α; and each NSAID plus each PG were tested. The effects of NSAIDs on proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, cytotoxicity and cell death of epiphyseal-articular chondrocytes of fetal rats were examined. The results showed that all the tested NSAIDs, except DFU, inhibited thymidine incorporation of chondrocytes at a concentration range (10 -8 to 10 -4 M) covering the theoretic therapeutic concentrations. Cell cycle was arrested by NSAIDs at the G /G 1 phase. Upon a 24 h treatment, LDH leakage and cell death (both apoptosis and necrosis) were significantly induced by the four non-selective NSAIDs in chondrocyte cultures. However, COX-2 inhibitors revealed non-significant effects on cytotoxicity of chondrocytes except higher concentration of celecoxib (10 -4 M). Replenishments of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2α could not reverse the effects of NSAIDs on chondrocytic proliferation and cytotoxicity. In this study, we found that therapeutic concentrations of non-selective NSAIDs caused proliferation suppression and cell death of chondrocytes, suggesting these adverse effects may be one of the reasons that NSAIDs delay the endochondral ossification during bone repair found in previous studies. Furthermore, these effects of NSAIDs may act via PG

  6. CT evaluation of primary epiphyseal bone abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, E.M. (Dept. of Radiology, McGill Univ., Montreal Children' s Hospital, PQ (Canada)); Greenspan, A. (Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Marton, D. (Dept. of Radiology, Montreal Univ., Hopital Ste Justine, PQ (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight children with a histologically proven diagnosis of epiphyseal or apophyseal osteomyelitis. In all cases the femur was involved: in five the osteomyelitis was localized in the femoral condyle, in two it was in the greater trochanter, and in one it was in the femoral head epiphysis. In four of the six cases of epiphyseal involvement there was associated joint effusion or septic arthritis. CT examination may demonstrate a serpentine tract, a sequestrum, cortical destruction or adjacent soft tissue swelling and can differentiate osteomyelitis from other epiphyseal lucent lesions, particularly chondroblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Early diagnosis helps avoid delays in initiating antibiotic or surgical treatment caused by the unusual (epiphyseal or apophyseal) location of the bone abscess. (orig./GD)

  7. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, M.I.; De Smet, A.A.; Breed, A.L.; Thomas, J.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  8. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnstein, M.I.; De Smet, A.A.; Breed, A.L.; Thomas, J.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.).

  9. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  10. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekengren, K.; Bergdahl, S.; Ekstroem, G.

    1978-01-01

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  11. Epiphyseal osteochondroma of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekofsky, K M; Scott, W N; Fielding, J W

    1979-01-01

    An 8-year-old Black boy complained of pain, swelling, and a decreased range of motion in the knee. One arthrotomy operation was reported to show a normal knee joint. Six months later, a second arthrotomy demonstrated an osteochondroma growing from the epiphysis into the anterior cruciate ligament. Epiphyseal osteochondroma should be added to the working differential diagnosis on children with effusion and decrease of knee motion.

  12. IRAQI BUFFALO NOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kh. ALsaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.

  13. Neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury - Two Case Reports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management. Keywords: Neglected epiphyseal injury; Cubitus varus; Diagnosis; Treatment Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

  14. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia: A Clinical and Molecular Genetic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.A. van Mourik (Jan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMultiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is one of the most common osteochondrodysplasias [Wynne-Davies and Gormley 1985]. During childhood and adolescence it affects the epiphyses of the tubular bones, resulting in axial deformities and shorter limbs.·Later in life MED can lead to

  15. Trevor Disease (Hemimelic Epiphyseal Displasia): 12‑year Follow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trevor disease or hemimelic epiphyseal dysplasia is a rare skeletal developmental disorder characterized ... It was impossible to remove and model the anomalous tissue ... imaging (MRI) images ‑ gross deformation of the talus head and neck.

  16. Correlative roentgenography and morphology of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Light, T.R.; Conlogue, G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Detailed examination of a complete chondro-osseous specimen from a patient with duplication of the first ray of the foot revealed the involved metatarsal had a trapezoid-shaped, diaphyseal-metaphyseal osseous unit that was longitudinally bracketed along the lateral side by a functioning physis, epiphysis, and secondary (epiphyseal) ossification center. The physis extended as an arc from the medial proximal side toward and along the lateral side and then back to the medial side distally. The medial side of the diaphysis had a normal periosteum. The longitudinal epiphyseal ossification bracket was a composite of initially separate proximal and distal secondary ossification centers that had progressively extended toward each other and finally coalesced along the laterally placed epiphyseal cartilage. We have termed this deformity the 'longitudinal epiphyseal bracket' (LEB). The macroscopic and microscopic anatomy relevant to initial diagnosis and evaluation of sequential roentgenographic changes will be considered. (orig.)

  17. Neglected Distal Humeral Epiphyseal Injury - Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.

  18. Localised form of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia congenita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Mohy, R.; Collignon, P.; Moog, G.

    1988-01-01

    We report an unusual case of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia congenita which affected only the hips and the thoraco-lumbar spine. The epiphysis of the long bones are normal apart from the hips. Our child has a bilateral epiphyseal dysplasia of both proximal femoral epiphysis discovered incidentally at 11 months and confirmed later on at 8 years, associated with abnormalities of the superior margin of the vertebral bodies from T11 to L2. Very few similar cases have been reported anteriorly. (orig.) [de

  19. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia complicated by severe osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Incidence in two families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteylen, R.J.; Zwemmer, A.; Lorie, C.A.M.; Schuur, K.H.

    1988-09-01

    Two families are described which appear to contain examples of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. In both families a striking incidence of severe osteochondritis of the knees was encountered. It is suggested that this was caused by the fragmented and maldeveloped epiphyses characteristic of epiphyseal dysplasia.

  20. Spondylo-epiphyseal dysplacea tarda (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathare A

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of disproportionate short stature suggestive of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia tarda is reported and relevant literature reviewed. It is emphasized that its radiological features show a marked similarity to ochronotic spine, with which it is therefore commonly mistaken. An indeterminate pigment was observed in the liver biopsy in this case with connective tissue disorder.

  1. Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads

  2. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Epiphyseal plate closure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...

  3. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  4. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-01-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in β-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by β-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered. (orig.)

  5. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  6. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: radiographic abnormalities correlated with genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, S.L. [Ahmanson Department of Pediatrics, Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Briggs, M.D.; Holden, P. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Zabel, B. [Children' s Hospital, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Ala-Kokko, L.; Paassilta, P.; Lohiniva, J. [Dept. of Medical Biochemistry, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Rimoin, D.L. [Ahmanson Department of Pediatrics, Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lachman, R.S. [Ahmanson Department of Pediatrics, Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cohn, D.H. [Ahmanson Department of Pediatrics, Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Human Genetics, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is an osteochondrodysplasia characterized clinically by mild short stature and early-onset degenerative joint disease and radiographically by epiphyseal hypoplasia/dysplasia. MED is genetically heterogeneous, with autosomal dominant cases resulting from mutations in at least three genes: the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) gene (EDM1) and the COL9A2 (EDM2) and COL9A3 (EDM3) genes of type IX procollagen. We present here a comparison of the radiographic phenotypes of MED patients with type IX collagen gene mutations and those with COMP gene mutations. We reviewed radiographs from two patients with MED produced by COMP mutations, two families with COL9A2 mutations, and one family with a mutation in COL9A3. The data demonstrated that the patients with type IX collagen defects had more severe joint involvement at the knees and relative hip sparing, while the patients with COMP mutations had significant involvement at the capital femoral epiphyses and irregular acetabuli. This pattern of joint involvement was consistent regardless of overall degree of severity of the phenotype. (orig.)

  7. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  8. Epiphyseal plate closure of radio-ulna bone in red Sokoto goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were classified into different age groups and subgroups, from 1-144 weeks. The radiographs of their forearms were taken and the proximal and distal epiphyseal plate lengths of both radius and ulna bones were measured. The radiographic images of the bones showed that the proximal and distal epiphyseal plates of ...

  9. Radiological features of bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia - a distinct entity in the skeletal dysplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morstert, AK; Dijkstra, PF; van Horn, [No Value; Jansen, BRH; Heutink, P; Lindhout, D

    Aim: To prove that bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED), first described by Elsbach in 1959 [1], is a distinct disorder radiologically as well as clinically, compared with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Material and Methods: We used the data of the revised pedigree with 84

  10. Epiphyseal injuries of the distal tibia. Does MRI provide useful additional information?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ishaque, N.; Klose, K.J.; Hoppe, M.; Schmitt, J.; Gotzen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plain film radiography often underestimates the extent of injury in children with epiphyseal fracture. Especially Salter-Harris V fractures (crush fracture of the epiphyseal plate) are often primarily not detected. MRI of the ankle was performed in 10 children aged 9-17 (mean 14) years with suspected epiphyseal injury using 1.0-T Magnetom Expert. The fractures were classified according to the Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen classification and compared with the results of plain radiography. In one case MRI could exclude epiphyseal injury; in four cases the MRI findings changed the therapeutic management. The visualisation of the fracture in three orthogonal planes and the possibility of detection of cartilage and ligamentous injury in MR imaging makes this method superior to conventional radiography and CT. With respect to radiation exposure MRI instead of CT should be used for the diagnosis of epiphyseal injuries in children. (orig.) [de

  11. Domestic buffalo production in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Buffalo production has a crucial role to play in the rural farming systems of Asia. The region contains some 120 million water buffaloes, which provide draught power, milk, meat, hides and other by-products to the millions of peasant farmers. Despite the undisputed importance of buffaloes, there are several factors which limit realization of their full potential. Climatic and nutritional stresses as well as diseases which are inherently more acute in their native tropical environment often result in poor growth, low reproductive efficiency, poor milk yield and high mortality. In 1978, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a 5 year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to determine the constraints to buffalo production in terms of nutrition, reproduction and disease. On the basis of the experience gained and the scientific results obtained during this programme, a second CRP (Phase II) was initiated in 1984 to address the more applied aspects of alleviating the constraints which limit the productivity of buffalo. These Proceedings report the results of the second 5 year programme of research. The papers are essentially a synthesis of those presented by the participants of the programme at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Rockhampton, Australia, from 20 to 24 February 1989. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The effect of above average weight gains on the incidence of radiographic bone aberrations and epiphysitis in growing horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.N.; Jackson, S.G.; Rooney, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between body weight gain and the onset of bone aberrations (e.g. epiphysitis) is described. A model was derived which described the increase in transverse epiphyseal width, and the major factor found to affect epiphyseal width was average daily gain in body weight. In addition, a radiographic examination of the epiphyseal areas showed a larger number of bone aberrations in groups gaining weight at an above-average rate. Thus, a rapid increase in body weight can be suggested as a significant factor in the onset of epiphysitis

  13. Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis with Histological Validation in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luning Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate multiple MRI parameters in a surgical model of osteochondrosis (OC in goats.Focal ischemic lesions of two different sizes were induced in the epiphyseal cartilage of the medial femoral condyles of goats at 4 days of age by surgical transection of cartilage canal blood vessels. Goats were euthanized and specimens harvested 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 weeks post-op. Ex vivo MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla for mapping the T1, T2, T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and TRAFF relaxation times of articular cartilage, unaffected epiphyseal cartilage, and epiphyseal cartilage within the area of the induced lesion. After MRI scans, safranin O staining was conducted to validate areas of ischemic necrosis induced in the medial femoral condyles of six goats, and to allow comparison of MRI findings with the semi-quantitative proteoglycan assessment in corresponding safranin O-stained histological sections.All relaxation time constants differentiated normal epiphyseal cartilage from lesions of ischemic cartilage necrosis, and the histological staining results confirmed the proteoglycan (PG loss in the areas of ischemia. In the scanned specimens, all of the measured relaxation time constants were higher in the articular than in the normal epiphyseal cartilage, consistently allowing differentiation between these two tissues.Multiparametric MRI provided a sensitive approach to discriminate between necrotic and viable epiphyseal cartilage and between articular and epiphyseal cartilage, which may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring OC lesions and, potentially, for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  14. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED: A Rare Type of Skeletal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imnul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED is a congenital disorder of skeletal development that primarily affects the ends of long bones, causing progressive joint and bone inflammation and short stature. Mutations in several genes are responsible for pathogenesis of this disease. We are reporting a case of MED who presented with the complaints of multiple swelling of the joints which was associated with pain during movement for last seven years. The patient had flexion deformity of all the affected joints along with restriction of movement. These were associated with kyphosis, pectus carnitum, knock-knee and short stature. Radiological findings were suggestive of MED. Counseling was done with the parents regarding the etiology, progression and outcome of the disease.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.11025 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:57-60 

  15. Morphology and physiology of the epiphyseal growth plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klepacz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyseal growth plate develops from the cartilaginous-orientated mesenchymal cells that express SOX family genes. This multilayer structure is formed by the proliferation and hypertrophy of cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix composed of collagen (mainly type II, IX, X, XI and proteoglycans (aggrecan, decorin, annexin II, V and VI. The resting zone is responsible for protein synthesis and maintaining a germinal structure. In the proliferative zone, cells rapidly duplicate. The subsequent morphological changes take place in the transformation zone, divided into the upper and lower hypertrophic layers. In the degenerative zone, the mineralization process becomes intensive due to increased release of alkaline phosphate, calcium and matrix vesicles by terminally differentiated chondrocytes and some other factors e.g., metaphyseal ingrowth vessels. At this level, as well as in the primary and secondary spongiosa zones, chondrocytes undergo apoptosis and are physiologically eliminated. Unlike adult cartilage, in fetal and early formed growth plates, unusual forms such as authophagal bodies, paralysis and dark chondrocytes were also observed. Their ultrastructure differs greatly from apoptotic and normal cartilage cells. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are regulated by various endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine agents such as growth, thyroid and sex hormones, beta-catenin, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor, iodothyronine deiodinase, leptin, nitric oxide, transforming growth factor beta and vitamin D metabolites. However, the most significant factor is parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP which is synthesized in the perichondrium by terminally differentiated chondrocytes. Secondary to activation of PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTHrP stimulates cell proliferation by G protein activation and delays their transformation into prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. When proliferation is completed

  16. A Rare Case of Epiphyseal Chondromyxoid Fibroma of the Proximal Tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Byoung Suck; Lee, Seok Hoon; Song, Baek Yong; Park, Yong Koo

    2011-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an uncommon benign cartilaginous tumor of the bone. It occurs most frequently in the metaphysis of long tubular bones, and an epiphyseal location is exceedingly rare. We present here an unusual case of a chondromyxoid fibroma that occurred in the epiphysis of the proximal tibia with an open growth plate. MR imaging findings of this tumor, which has, to the best of our knowledge, never been described in an epiphyseal location, makes the present case unique.

  17. RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGE FROM EPIPHYSEAL FUSION AT THE KNEE JOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeye, Oladunni Abimbola; Eboh, Dennis Erhisenebe; Onyia, Nwabueze Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Age determination is needed in administration of justice, employment, marriage, forensic investigation and identification. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between stages of epiphyseal union at the knee joint and chronological age.Methods: Anterior posterior and lateral knee radiographs of 100 males and 110 females aged 9–19 years were examined. Epiphyseal union was divided into five specific stages in the femur, tibia and fibula. Fusion was scored ...

  18. Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia with Epiphyseal Involvement in Long Bones: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Fukui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia (FD is an uncommon, but well-known benign skeletal disorder. In cases affecting long bones, FD is commonly recognized to locate in the diaphyses or the metaphyses and to spare the epiphyses. In this paper, we present a rare case of polyostotic FD in a 13-year-old girl with unilateral multiple epiphyseal lesions arising in the femur, the tibia, and the fibula with the growth plates.

  19. A computed microtomography method for understanding epiphyseal growth plate fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Katherine A.; Madi, Kamel; Javaheri, Behzad; Lee, Peter D.; Pitsillides, Andrew A.

    2017-12-01

    The epiphyseal growth plate is a developmental region responsible for linear bone growth, in which chondrocytes undertake a tightly regulated series of biological processes. Concomitant with the cessation of growth and sexual maturation, the human growth plate undergoes progressive narrowing, and ultimately disappears. Despite the crucial role of this growth plate fusion ‘bridging’ event, the precise mechanisms by which it is governed are complex and yet to be established. Progress is likely hindered by the current methods for growth plate visualisation; these are invasive and largely rely on histological procedures. Here we describe our non-invasive method utilising synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography for the examination of growth plate bridging, which ultimately leads to its closure coincident with termination of further longitudinal bone growth. We then apply this method to a dataset obtained from a benchtop microcomputed tomography scanner to highlight its potential for wide usage. Furthermore, we conduct finite element modelling at the micron-scale to reveal the effects of growth plate bridging on local tissue mechanics. Employment of these 3D analyses of growth plate bone bridging is likely to advance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control growth plate fusion.

  20. Bilateral femoral head dysplasia and osteochondritis. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda, spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia tarda, and bilateral Legg-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Schantz, K.; Bollerslev, J.; Justesen, P.

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda (MEDT) and spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasisa tarda (SEDT) are genetically transmitted conditions affecting the hips, which may resemble bilateral Legg-Perthes disease (LPD). Misdiagnoses are not uncommon, with serious implications for treatment, prognosis and genetic counseling. An epidemiologic study of MEDT and SEDT in a well-defined population of 453 921 persons in Denmark was performed. A population prevalence of 0.7 per 100 000 inhabitants with SEDT and 4.0 per 100 000 inhabitants with MEDT was found. Distinguishing features between MEDT, SEDT and bilateral LPD based on radiologic findings in the hips, other joints, and spine were ascertained. Bilateral LPD is always asymmetric, exhibits patches of increased density in the epiphyses and often metaphyseal cyst-like changes. No spinal lesion or affection of other joints is present, and the acetabula are normal. In MEDT and SEDT the capital femoral epiphyses are symmetrically flattened, fragmented and uniformly slightly sclerotic. Generalised platyspondyly is a constant finding in SEDT.

  1. Clinical cytogenetics in river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zicarelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available While autosomal numeric chromosome abnormalities are phenotipically visible (abnormal body conformation and easily eliminated during the normal breeding selection, sex numeric abnormalities (including the cases of free-martinism, as well as the structural chromosome aberrations, especially the balanced ones, are more tolerate by the animals (normal body conformation but are often responsible of low fertility (structural abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome aberrations, especially in the females. Although river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 chromosomes have been characterized......

  2. Population and Strategy Development in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.

  3. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Holliday

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular cartilage. This "lost anatomy" is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data

  4. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M; Ridgely, Ryan C; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2010-09-30

    Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular) cartilage. This "lost anatomy" is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs) obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data suggest that

  5. The scintigraphic diagnosis and follow-up of injuries to the epiphyseal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.; Feine, U.; Anger, K.; Schweizer, P.; Neugebauer, W.; Tuebingen Univ.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Injuries to the epiphysel plates without involvement of the epiphyses or metaphyses, such as crush fractures or pure epiphysiolysis may be difficult to diagnose radiologically. Thirteen bone scans after damage to the growth plate have been performed on eight children. These indicate that these scans are able to diagnose lesions of the epiphyseal plates at an early stage and with certainty. The scintigrams also provide information concerning the healing process of the plate; they indicate when healing has been completed and when the extremity can be used for weight-bearing again. Radiation exposure of the children during scintigraphy with sub(99m)Tc-polyphosphate is within acceptable limits. (orig.) [de

  6. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  7. Postpartum anoestrus in the suckled swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jainudeen, M.R.; Sharifuddin, W.; Yap, K.C.; Bakar Dahari, A.

    1984-01-01

    Postpartum anoestrus is a serious cause of infertility in the swamp buffalo. Our studies have revealed that it is due to a failure in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Parity was inversely related to the calving interval being longer in primiparous than multiparous suckled buffaloes. This effect may be partly due to the higher nutrient demands for growth as well as for lactation in the primiparous animal. The effects of suckling on ovarian and pituitary function of postpartum buffaloes were investigated with the aid of radioimmunoassays for progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as rectal palpation and laparoscopic inspection of the ovaries. The incidence of postpartum anoestrus was higher in suckled than non-suckled buffaloes. Weaning buffalo calves at 30 d postpartum resulted in the resumption of normal ovarian cycles within 60 d postpartum. LH release in response to a single injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicated that pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was restored by Day 30 postpartum in suckled buffaloes whereas anoestrous buffaloes were able to release levels of LH comparable to that of the preovulatory surge. A progesterone-releasing intra-vaginal device (PRID) induced an anovulatory oestrus in the anoestrous suckled buffalo which was partially overcome by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administered at the induced oestrus. However, a 72 h separation of the calf from its dam combined with PRID was the most effective substitute to weaning in initiating ovarian cycles in the suckled buffalo. Our data suggest that suckling inhibits ovarian function not by an effect on the pituitary gland but rather on GnRH release by the hypothalamus. (author)

  8. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  9. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  10. The Evaluation of Epiphyseal Plate Histological Changes in Osteopetrotic op/op Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aligholi Sobhani

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed for evaluation of epiphyseal plate histological changes of femur bones in osteopetrotic op/op mice.In this study 5 osteopetrotic op/op mice which were purchased from the commercial source were used.The animals were killed by overdose of chloroform and their femur bones were extracted. The bones were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and decalcified by HCl (0.6N, and routine histological processing were performed. The sections were stained by H&E methods and studied by conventional light microscopy. The results showed that, proliferative zone (PZ and especially hypertrophic zone (HZ were much thickened. In the ossification zone, trabecular bones were irregular and atypical osteoblast cells were observed. The osteoclast cells were not attached to trabecular bones. The bone marrow cavity was restricted and bone marrow cells were poor and scattered. Findings of the present investigation are similar to those reported about epiphyseal plate in osteosclerotic (OC mice in which epiphyseal plate especially hypertrophic zone was thickened and chondrocytes were not substituted for osteoblasts in calcified cartilage area. Also, osteoclast cells had been inactive or absent in OC mice. For prevention of other complication due to the epiphyseal plate changes in new borne, suitable and punctually treatment protocols such as prescription of Macrophage Colony Stimulating-Factor (MCS-F could be useful.

  11. Bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia : clinical and genetic analysis of a Dutch family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, Adrianus Klazinus

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based upon a study of a Dutch family with a unique skeletal dysplasia first described by Elsbach in 1959. Because of the presence of microepiphyses, he called this disorder bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED) and distinguished it from more common multiple

  12. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  13. Biotechnological advances in reproduction of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic improvement through artificial insemination in buffaloes is presented. The semen cryopreservation method is used; is a technique for freezing the semen for the use of spermatozoa of buffalo in assisted reproduction. Knowledge of the physiology of the male genital tract is shown, the different chemical compounds that can serve as substrates. Also, cryoprotectants of antimicrobial agents are focused, nutrition and protection to spermatozoa during different stages of the process, in order to obtain viable cells in post-freezing [es

  14. Chemotherapy decreases epiphyseal strength and increases bone fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, BL; Verkerke, GJ; Hartel, RM; Sluiter, WJ; Kamps, WA; Jansen, HWB; Hoekstra, HJ

    To establish the effect of three frequently used chemotherapeutic agents in childhood cancer on the skeleton, growing male Wistar rats were studied. Treatment with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and cisplatin reduces the proximal tibial growth plate shear strength because of a decreased surface area and

  15. Vabariigi aastapäev Buffalos / Edgar Zirna ; foto: Virve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirna, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    25. veebruaril Morgan restoranis Buffalo Eestlaste Koondise ja E.E.L.K. Buffalo Pauluse koguduse korraldusel. Avasõna koondise esimehelt Peeter Ojalt, koraali esitas Andres Raudsepp, vaimulik Hannes Aasa palvele järgnes eeskava

  16. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude 78°51...

  17. Husbandry and Sustainability of Water Buffaloes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ermetin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water buffaloes in Turkey originate from Mediterranean Water Buffaloes, a subgroup of river water buffaloes and are known as Anatolian Water Buffalo. During the 1970’s the number of water buffaloes in Turkey was one million, but in 2010 this figure dropped to about 85.000. Thanks to the incentives introduced for water buffalo husbandry in recent years, the water buffalo population has risen to 143.073 heads. Water buffalo husbandry in Turkey is performed in some provinces of the Black Sea, Marmara and Central Anatolian Regions. The provinces with the highest amount of water buffalo existence are listed as Samsun, Diyarbakır, Istanbul, Tokat, Bitlis, Muş, Afyon, Kayseri, Sivas and Amasya. Breeding style in Turkey is in the form small family business, with an average of 1-5 animals per enterprise. Family enterprises are keeping water buffaloes for their own consumption. Mostly breeding in modern enterprises formed for indoor barn breeding, the size of the herds is around 50 to 100 heads. Being done only at swamps or waterfronts in the past, water buffalo husbandry increasingly takes place in modern facilities nowadays. The colour of Anatolian Water Buffaloes is generally black and their horns curved backwards, are called arch horns in Turkey. The lactation milk yield and lactation length in Anatolian Water Buffaloes are between 800 and 1100 kg and about 180-280 days respectively. It is demonstrated that they varied according to effects of environmental factors, care and feeding. Adult water buffalo’s live weight is about 411-518 kg. The first insemination age of water buffalo is 32 to 43 months and during a lifespan the number of lactation periods is 5 to 10. For adult water buffalo at withers the height of females is being expressed as around 135 cm. Calves are generally breastfed for 3-4 months. Generally, water buffaloes are milked twice a day in the village farms by hand.

  18. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Paediatric Clinic, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  19. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni; Beluffi, Giampiero; Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  20. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D’Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Congenital malformations (due to genetic causes) represent a hidden danger for animal production, above all when genetic selection is undertaken for production improvements. These malformations are responsible for economic losses either because they reduce the productivity of the farm, or because their spread in the population would decrease the total productivity of that species/breed. River buffalo is a species of increasing interest all over the world for its production abilities, as proved by the buffalo genome project and the genetic selection plans that are currently performed in different countries. The aim of this review is to provide a general view of different models of congenital malformations in buffalo and their world distribution. This would be useful either for those who performed buffalo genetic selection or for researchers in genetic diseases, which would be an advantage to their studies with respect to the knowledge of gene mutations and interactions in this species. Abstract The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites and Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, R.A.; Chandrawathani, P.; Rosli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is common in buffalo calves. The effect of helminths on growth was studied by administration of an anthelmintic to buffalo calves following natural infections with gastrointestinal parasites. In studies conducted on calves belonging to an institute and a smallholder farmer, the treated calves showed improved weight gains. Serial parasitic examinations showed these animals had moderate to high faecal counts with Strongyloides, Toxocara vitulorum and Haemonchus eggs and Eimeria oocytes. In another study, there was no live weight advantage in treated over untreated calves. Few animals in this study had evidence of parasites and even those which were infested had low faecal egg counts. Hence, in general, helminths at certain levels of infection do affect the live weight gains of young buffalo calves. The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi, as assessed parasitologically using the haematocrit centrifugation technique and mice inoculation, was 2.7 and 1%, respectively, in cattle and buffaloes. The serological prevalence using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was 35 and 2% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Albarella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.

  3. Non union of an epiphyseal fibular fracture in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Roya; Schuberth, John M

    2006-01-01

    There are few reports on delayed or nonunion in the pediatric ankle fracture. The authors present a case of a nonunion of a mid-epiphyseal fracture of the distal fibula, described as a type 7 pediatric fracture. Both the occurrence of this injury pattern and a nonunion has not been reported in the same patient. Operative reduction of the nonunion resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  4. The normal development of proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center in the first 2 years of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the normal maturation of proximal epiphyseal ossification centers by monthly age during the first years of life. The distribution of age was 0 to 24 months. Six hundred and seventy-five infants were male and 436 were female; their ages were measured in months, and there was no evidence of developmental problems. Proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification centers were evaluated from chest radiographs ; if not visualized, they were graded as 0, and otherwise, as follows : grade 1 : visualized with poor margin or a diameter of less than 1/4 of metaphyseal width; grade 2: visualized with good margin or a diameter of more than 1/4 of metaphyseal width; in grade 3 and 4, two ossification centers were visualized. Grade 3 indicated that one ossification center had the morphology of grade 2. Grade 5 indicated that two ossification centers were fused. We then assessed the relationship between the development of an ossification center and monthly age. A proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center shows regular maturational features according to monthly age. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  6. Effects of environment on buffalo reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been long recognized that the environment has an important role to play in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive function. Environmental cues, such as changing day-light or increase temperature, are know to trigger off growth or regression of the reproductive organs in a whole variety of species and nutrition and stress can influence the onset of breeding and affect the fertility. Although the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis has been since long time considered as a short-day-breeder polyestral seasonal animal, indeed in the tropical areas near of equator line they are polyestral continuous. It would seem that photoperiod has a marked influence in buffalo reproduction in determinate areas of the world, however in some tropical areas like in Brazil, mainly in the Amazon valley and areas nearest of the equator the light seems to have a minimal effect or no effect on the reproductive cues however the nutrition and heat stress measured throughout temperature/ humidity indexes (THI play an important role in the reproductive functions of buffaloes and it is suggested that THI >75 has a negative effect on reproductive performances of buffaloes. The calving season is regulated by the availability of native pasture in the floodplain or in areas of artificial pasture On the other hand when buffaloes are raised in the southwest and southern regions (parallels 14 to 33 South they show a typical seasonal pattern when the calving season are concentrated between de February to July. The body condition score (BCS seems to affect directly the fertility of female buffaloes since females that calve with a BCS < 2.5 show delayed postpartum ovulation, weak estrus symptoms and more service per conception rate. Seasonal anestrus is a normal phenomenon in the out breeding season that occur in areas near, upon or down of the Cancer and Capricorn lines, respectively, however the anoestrus can be overcame by the use of hormone to synchronize heat and

  7. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: Preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tony, G., E-mail: drgtony@gmail.com [Stafford General Hospital, Weston Road, Stafford, Staffordshire ST16 3SA (United Kingdom); Charran, A., E-mail: amandacharran@yahoo.com [Hillingdon Hospital, Pield Heath Rd, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3NN (United Kingdom); Tins, B., E-mail: bernhard.tins@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Lalam, R., E-mail: radhesh.lalam@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Tyrrell, P.N.M., E-mail: prudencia.tyrrell@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Singh, J., E-mail: jaspreet.singh@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cool, P., E-mail: paul.cool@rjah.nhs.uk [Orthopaedic Oncology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Kiely, N., E-mail: nigel.kiely@rjah.nhs.uk [Paediatric Orthopaedics, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N., E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Purely intra-epiphyseal stress injuries of the proximal tibial epiphysis are described for the first time. • The variation in the MRI findings of these injuries depending on the stage of maturation is demonstrated. • We postulate a patho-mechanism to explain the variations in site and appearance of stress injuries in this region. - Abstract: Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families.

  8. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: Preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tony, G.; Charran, A.; Tins, B.; Lalam, R.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; Singh, J.; Cool, P.; Kiely, N.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Purely intra-epiphyseal stress injuries of the proximal tibial epiphysis are described for the first time. • The variation in the MRI findings of these injuries depending on the stage of maturation is demonstrated. • We postulate a patho-mechanism to explain the variations in site and appearance of stress injuries in this region. - Abstract: Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families

  9. [ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH EPIPHYSEAL UNCLOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xuebin; Zhang, Keyuan; Li, Gang; Ni, Jiati

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fractures in adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure. Between January 2011 and October 2013, 35 knees with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures (35 patients with epiphyseal unclosure) were arthroscopically treated with suture fixation. There were 25 males and 10 females, aged 8-16 years (mean, 14.7 years). The causes included sports injury in 24 cases, traffic accident injury in 9 cases, and daily life injury in 2 cases. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 27 cases of type II and 8 cases of type III. Five cases had meniscus injury. The preoperative the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 48.7 ± 3.2, and Lysholm score was 51.2 ± 4.5. The time from injury to operation was 2-16 days (mean, 5 days). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 months (range, 12-32 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 28 cases and satisfactory reduction in 7 cases. X-ray films showed all fractures healing at last follow-up. There was no limb shortening deformity, varus knee, or valgus knee. Lachman test results were all negative. The other knees had normal range of motion except 1 knee with limited flexion, whose range of motion returned to 0-120° after treatment. At last follow-up, the IKDC score was significantly improved to 93.2 ± 4.1 (t = -53.442, P = 0.000), and the Lysholm score was significantly increased to 96.2 ± 2.5 (t = -56.242, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic fixation technique has satisfactory results for the reduction and fixation of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture in the adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure because of little trauma and quick recovery.

  10. Radiological features of bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia - a distinct entity in the skeletal dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, A.K. [Isala Clinics, Location Weezenlanden, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zwolle (Netherlands); Dijkstra, P.F. [Jan van Breemen Inst., Dept. of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horn, J.R. van [Univ. Hospital Groningen, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); Jansen, B.R.H. [Reinier de Graaf Hospital, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands); Heutink, P. [Erasmus MCRotterdam, Dept. of Clinical Genetics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lindhout, D. [Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht, Dept. of Medical Genetics, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Aim: To prove that bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED), first described by Elsbach in 1959, is a distinct disorder radiologically as well as clinically, compared with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Material and Methods: We used the data of the revised pedigree with 84 family members, performed a medical history, physical examination and made a radiological evaluation for defining a clinical and radiological phenotype of BHMED family members. We used blood samples for genetic analysis. Results: Although there is a clear clinical picture of the dysplasia, the radiological signs are more reliable for making the diagnosis. Especially the typical deformity of the hip and knee joint are diagnostic for BHMED. By linkage analysis we excluded linkage with the three known MED-loci (EDM1, EDM2 and EDM3). Conclusion: BHMED is indeed an entity that is distinct from common multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), clinically, as well as radiologically and genetically. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es sollte dargelegt werden, dass sich eine vererbliche, laterale Mikro-Epiphysendysplasie (BHMED), Erstbeschreibung durch Elsbach 1959, klinisch, radiologisch und genetisch von einer mutiplen Epiphysendysplasie (MED) unterscheidet. Material und Methode: Anhand der Daten eines ueberarbeiteten Stammbaumes mit 84 Familienmitgliedern wurde der medizinische Werdegang rekonstruiert. Es erfolgte eine physische Untersuchung der Familienmitglieder. Schliesslich wurde eine radiologische Auswertung durchgefuehrt, um einen klinischen und radiologischen Phaenotyp der von BHMED betroffenen Familienmitglieder zu definieren. Fuer eine genetische Analyse wurden Blutproben entnommen. Ergebnisse: Obwohl es ein deutliches klinisches Bild einer Dysplasie gibt, sind die radiologischen Kennzeichen fuer die Diagnose zuverlaessiger. Insbesondere die typische Deformation der Huefte und des Kniegelenks ist diagnostisch fuer BHMED. Durch Linkage-Analyse konnte eine Verbindung zu den drei bekannten

  11. Genetic analysis of congenital hemimelia in buffaloes from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tafuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemimelia is a common congenital limb abnormality found in water buffaloes from Southern Italy. In humans, such defect has been associated with mutations in WNT7A and ESCO2 genes. These two candidate genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA extracted from the blood of buffaloes, and cows for control. No differences in WNT7A and ESCO2 sequences between affected and healthy buffaloes were identified. However, comparing sequences of control cows and buffaloes, WNT7A showed simple species polymorphisms, and ESCO2 showed seven base-pair substitutions. These results demonstrate that limb malformations in buffaloes are not related to congenital defects in WNT7A gene. Interestingly, our findings highlight for the first time differences in the sequences of WNT7A and ESCO2 genes between buffaloes and cows.

  12. Hypervitaminosis A-induced premature closure of epiphyses (physeal obliteration) in humans and calves (hyena disease): a historical review of the human and veterinary literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Alexis B.; Berdon, Walter E.; Woodard, J.C.; Cowles, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A toxicity in the infant, which now occurs rarely from dietary overdosage, was recognized in the 1940s as painful periostitis with rare progression to premature closure of the lower limb epiphyses. Decades later, most cases of vitamin A-induced premature epiphyseal closure (physeal obliteration) occur in pediatric dermatologic patients given vitamin A analogues. This phenomenon resembles a strange disease discovered in more recent years in calves with closed epiphyses of the hind limbs, known as hyena disease. This was a mystery until proved to be caused by vitamin A toxicity from enriched grain that causes the calves to have short hind limbs that resemble those of a hyena and gait disturbance. This historical review links the human and veterinary literature in terms of vitamin A-induced epiphyseal closure using a case report format of a 16-month-old human infant with closed knee epiphyses and gait disturbance that is reminiscent of hyena disease seen in calves. (orig.)

  13. Modified epiphyseal index for MRI in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumasaka, Y; Watanabe, H; Higashihara, T; Kishimoto, H [Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Harada, K; Sakurai, K; Kozuka, T [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-04-01

    On radiographs flattening of the femoral head is evaluated by the Epiphyseal Index (EI). Using the ability of MRI to show articular cartilage and the physis clearly, we wish to propose the use of Epiphyseal Index for MRI (EIM) and demonstrate the value in LCPD. Fifteen patients were examined using 1.5 T MR scanner and T1-weighted coronal images were obtained. EIM was calculated as a ratio of height and width of cartilaginous contour surrounding epiphysis, and was compared between normal and the three radiographic stages. EIM of normal hips were ranged from 0.39 to 0.60 and had a tendency to decrease with increasing age. All cases of Stage 1 (avascular necrosis) were within the normal range (n=4, mean=0.51, SD=0.045). EIM of Stage 2 (fragmentation, n=15, mean=0.31, SD=0.055) were smaller than that of Stage 1. Stage 2 and 3 (residual, n=12, mean=0.31, SD=0.077) could not be distinguished by EIM. EIM was useful to show the flattening of epiphysis with growth and very important for differenciation between Stage 1 and 2 LCPD. (orig.).

  14. Efficiency of Human Epiphyseal Chondrocytes with Differential Replication Numbers for Cellular Therapy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Nasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell-based therapy for cartilage or bone requires a large number of cells; serial passages of chondrocytes are, therefore, needed. However, fates of expanded chondrocytes from extra fingers remain unclarified. The chondrocytes from human epiphyses morphologically changed from small polygonal cells to bipolar elongated spindle cells and to large polygonal cells with degeneration at early passages. Gene of type II collagen was expressed in the cells only at a primary culture (Passage 0 and Passage 1 (P1 cells. The nodules by implantation of P0 to P8 cells were composed of cartilage and perichondrium. The cartilage consisted of chondrocytes with round nuclei and type II collagen-positive matrix, and the perichondrium consisted of spindle cells with type I collage-positive matrix. The cartilage and perichondrium developed to bone with marrow cavity through enchondral ossification. Chondrogenesis and osteogenesis by epiphyseal chondrocytes depended on replication number in culture. It is noteworthy to take population doubling level in correlation with pharmaceutical efficacy into consideration when we use chondrocytes for cell-based therapies.

  15. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  16. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  17. Epiphysical clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent Harrison, R.; Keats, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Defects or clefts may be seen in the growing epiphysis and are usually observed just before puberty. The basal epiphysis of the proximal phalanx of the great toe is the most common site but similar defects have been observed in a numer of other epiphyseso At least some of these defects develop within a single normal appearing epiphysis and are not associated with signs or symptoms suggestive of fracture. The mechanism of formation of these defects is not clear. The defects probably close spontaneously some-time around late puberty. (orig.) [de

  18. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  19. Homozygous mutations in IHH cause acrocapitofemoral dysplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder with cone- shaped epiphyses in hands and hips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemans, J; Coucke, PJ; Giedion, A; De Paepe, A; Kramer, P; Beemer, F; Mortier, GR

    Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia is a recently delineated autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized clinically by short stature with short limbs and radiographically by cone-shaped epiphyses, mainly in hands and hips. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping in two consanguineous families linked the

  20. Epiphyseal involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease: radiographic and scintigraphic findings in a case with lytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Hernandez, G.; Tajahuerce-Romera, G.M.; Latorre-Ibanez, M.D.; Lara-Pomares, A. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Provincial de Castellon (Spain); Vila-Fayos, V. [Servicio de Reumatologia, Hospital Comarcal de Vinaroz (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    We reported a symmetric increase of activity in lower links secondary to Erdheim-Chester disease and demonstrated by bone scans and radiographs. An inusual scintigraphic and radiographic appearance with epiphyseal involvement and lytic lesions is described. Differential diagnosis of bone scan and radiographic findings is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limbs, abnormal calcification type: a new case with severe neurological involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fano, V.; Lejarraga, H. [Hospital Garrahan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Service of Growth and Development; Barreiro, C. [Hospital Garrahan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Service of Genetics

    2001-01-01

    A case of an affected girl with spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia (SMED) is reported. The disease was detected at birth as a congenital dysplasia with generalized lesions. At 10 months of age, abnormal calcifications appeared in both wrists. The patient evolved with severe growth retardation and multiple neurological and respiratory complications, followed by death at 21 months of age. (orig.)

  2. Failed vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer for hip reconstruction following infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarge, Romain; Chotel, Franck; Gazarian, Aram; Viola, Jérémy; Berard, Jérôme

    2009-08-01

    Treatment of the sequellae of hip infection with epiphyseal destruction in children has had limited success to date. The aim of this study was to report mid-term results after hip epiphyseal reconstruction using a proximal vascularized fibular graft in three children presenting with massive epiphyseal destruction of the proximal femur following infection. Three children suffered from hip articular destruction type IVB according to the Choi classification after neonatal septic arthritis. The mean age at reconstruction was 4.3 years (range 3-6 years). The Hunka et al. criteria were used to evaluate the functional results, and the clinical evaluation was based on the Musculo-Skeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score. Growth and fusion of the graft and hip morphology were evaluated on simple X-rays and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A ratio between cephalic diameter and inter-acetabular gap was defined on the MRI scan as the "acetabular filling index". No intraoperative complication was reported. With a mean follow-up of 4.8 years (3-6 years), the MSTS score was 22.7/30 (range 20-26), while the average lower limb length discrepancy was 3 cm. Patient 1 required a secondary derotation osteotomy of the femur because of abnormal external rotation and a bad result due to the unexplained occurrence of a painful and stiff hip joint. A secondary distal transfer of the greater trochanter was performed in patient 2, and good results based on Hunka et al.'s criteria were achieved. The X-rays of patients 1 and 2 showed signs of bone growth and a major remodeling process; the MRI filling indices were 83 and 67%, respectively. Patient 3 developed an early slipped capital (fibular) epiphysis 1 month postoperatively, which was treated by percutaneous pinning; this early complication led to a bad result with full resorption of the graft. In contrast to its success in upper limb reconstruction, in this series of three patients with hip articular destruction, articular reconstruction

  3. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  4. A review of coccidiosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is important to the economy of several countries in Asia, and South America and there are also isolated herds in Europe. In India, buffalo is the main dairy animal. Coccidiosis due to Eimeria is an important cause of diarrhea in livestock worldwide. Eimeria specie...

  5. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  6. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  7. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  8. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  9. Comparative studies of fibre digestion in cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, N.; Ho, Y.W.; Mahyuddin, M.; Jalaludin, S.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to compare the rumen function in swamp buffaloes and Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle fed fibrous diets. The parameters investigated involved rumen function, microbial population and urea transfer to the digestive tract. The results showed that swamp buffaloes had a higher rumen ammonia and fermentation activity than KK cattle when the two species were fed guinea grass or straw diets. Buffaloes also showed a faster rate of in situ dry matter degradation of grass and straw diets. The bacteria and fungal species involved in plant digestion were morphologically indistinguishable between the two animal species. Urea transfer to the rumen seemed to be better in buffaloes than in cattle. The superiority of buffaloes in digesting fibrous feed material could partly be explained by their ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia and a more efficient urea-N metabolism. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  11. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children... contrary to the public interest in that it would prevent the Captain of the Port Buffalo from performing...

  12. Epiphyseal osteochondromas with autosomal dominant inheritance and multiple parosteal bone proliferations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Mohamed A.L.; Pandey, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    The familial cases of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, are thought to represent dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis (DCO). Only three families affected by DCO have been reported so far in the literature. We report a fourth family: a 10-year-old girl, her father, and his cousin. Unlike the other reported cases of DCO this family had no carpal or upper limb epiphyseal osteochondromas and many of the other reported associations. The only consistent associated finding in our cases was the presence of multiple parosteal osteochondromatous proliferations. The findings of our cases are, therefore, unique in many ways. These cases may represent a variant of dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis or may represent a new entity. (orig.)

  13. Surgical Management of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Repetitive Stress Epiphyseal Fracture Nonunion in Elite Sport Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Yasser; Lutter, Chris; Schoeffl, Isabelle; Schoeffl, Volker; Flohe, Sascha

    2017-11-14

    Repetitive stress fracture of the middle phalanx epiphysis is an injury specific to elite adolescent sport climbers. As sport climbing becomes increasingly popular in younger age groups, an increased number of these injuries have been reported in recent years. To date, treatment of these fractures has been nonsurgical, with strict rest and physiotherapy prescribed until fracture union. However, when these patients present in a delayed fashion with an established nonunion, nonsurgical treatment may fail, leading to disabling chronic pain and/or digital deformity in some cases. In this article, we present 2 cases of surgical treatment for finger middle phalanx repetitive stress epiphyseal fracture nonunion, using a percutaneous spot drilling epiphysiodesis technique. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epiphyseal osteochondromas with autosomal dominant inheritance and multiple parosteal bone proliferations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Mohamed A.L. [Razi Orthopedic Hospital, Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, P.O. Box 4235, Safat (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The familial cases of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, are thought to represent dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis (DCO). Only three families affected by DCO have been reported so far in the literature. We report a fourth family: a 10-year-old girl, her father, and his cousin. Unlike the other reported cases of DCO this family had no carpal or upper limb epiphyseal osteochondromas and many of the other reported associations. The only consistent associated finding in our cases was the presence of multiple parosteal osteochondromatous proliferations. The findings of our cases are, therefore, unique in many ways. These cases may represent a variant of dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis or may represent a new entity. (orig.)

  15. Skeletal scintigraphic appearance of an auto-transplanted osteoarticular plug: epiphyseal transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Stuart C.; O'Donnell, James; Makley, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear medicine bone scan is an essential diagnostic imaging tool both for the diagnosis and staging of bone tumors and in the follow-up of these patients. It is very important that we be able to discriminate between normal variants, changes related to altered physical stress, and recurrent disease in order to interpret the bone scan meaningfully. We wish to report the appearance of the isotope bone scan, technetium 99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP), associated with an auto-transplanted osteoarticular plug (epiphyseal transplant) performed following limb amputation. This reconstructive surgery can give a potentially misleading appearance on the nuclear medicine bone scan if one is unfamiliar with this surgical technique. (orig.)

  16. Skeletal scintigraphic appearance of an auto-transplanted osteoarticular plug: epiphyseal transplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Stuart C.; O' Donnell, James [University Hospitals Cleveland, Department of Radiology-Hb6, Department of Radiology-Hb6, 9500 Euclid Avenue, OH 44195, Cleveland (United States); Makley, John T. [University Hospitals Cleveland, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Cleveland Clinic Children' s Hospital, 9500 Euclid Avenue, OH 44195, Cleveland (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear medicine bone scan is an essential diagnostic imaging tool both for the diagnosis and staging of bone tumors and in the follow-up of these patients. It is very important that we be able to discriminate between normal variants, changes related to altered physical stress, and recurrent disease in order to interpret the bone scan meaningfully. We wish to report the appearance of the isotope bone scan, technetium 99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP), associated with an auto-transplanted osteoarticular plug (epiphyseal transplant) performed following limb amputation. This reconstructive surgery can give a potentially misleading appearance on the nuclear medicine bone scan if one is unfamiliar with this surgical technique. (orig.)

  17. Epiphyseal dysplasia of the hip. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis with MRI. Epiphysaere Dysplasie des Hueftgelenks, Diagnostik und Differentialdiagnostik mit der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, J. (Univ. Mainz, Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik (Germany)); Just, M. (Univ. Mainz, Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie (Germany))

    1992-07-01

    Sixteen hip joints of eight patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia were examined by clinical investigation, plain films and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using T[sub 1]- and T[sub 2]-weighted images and gradient echoes. MRI is useful in demonstrating the congruity of the joint, in the changes of the epiphyseal signal intensities and the epiphyseal line. Individual changes of the signal intensity patterns on T[sub 1]- and T[sub 2]-weighted scans are described. Although MRI exhibits a variety of patterns in different patients, a clearcut differentiation from Legg-Calve-Perthes' disease is possible. (orig.).

  18. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  19. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Persad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P0.05; χ2. This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad.

  20. Polymorphism in TNP-1 gene of Murrah buffalo bulls | Panigrahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... spermatids, have been reported to be important for histone displacement and chromatin ... (TNP-1) gene was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-single strand ... Analysis of TNP-1 gene sequence of Murrah buffalo revealed 3 single ...

  1. Reasons for discontinuation of implanon among users in Buffalo City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for discontinuation of implanon among users in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study. Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi ...

  2. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  3. Dietary influence on primiparous and pluriparous buffalo fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Palo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors described the effects of diets characterized by different energy density and forages concentrations on reproductive activity of primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffalo cows, undergone the out of season breeding technique. Productive and reproductive data of a buffalo farm in Salerno were collected. Furthermore, the diets administered to the animals from 1998 to 2003 (6 years were also recorded. The components of the diet were monthly analysed according to the method described by ASPA (1980. The fertility in primiparous buffaloes resulted significantly better (P< 0.01 during the last year when the diet were characterized by high energy and less quantity of forage. Differences were also recorded between primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes only in 2002 for milk production (P< 0.05 and in 1999 and 2002 for year’s milk production (P< 0.05. The utilization of diets characterized by high use of concentrates and high energy improved fertility and milk yield in primiparous.

  4. Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanghuayprai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M.A.; Ahmed, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cristina Alves; Raul Franzolin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean), from birth to slaughter age (720 days) with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg) and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg). Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to w...

  7. MED, COMP, multilayered and NEIN: an overview of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachman, Ralph S. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, UCLA School of Medicine, Radiological Services, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.; Rimoin, David L. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, UCLA School of Medicine, Radiological Services, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This overview covers the group of disorders that presents radiographically as multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). The disorders include ''classic MED'' (Ribbing and Fairbank types): MED that is caused by mutations in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type IX collagen, and matrilin 3 genes (MATN3); and MED with multilayered patella, brachydactyly, and clubbed feet resultant from mutations in gene defect diastrophic dysplasia (DTDST). The recently identified gene/molecular abnormalities in these disorders have made more exact identification possible in many cases, although clinical testing is not always available. However, there are specific radiographic findings that allow the accurate diagnosis to be made, thus potentially guiding which molecular defect(s) should be investigated. The modes of inheritance of these distinct MED conditions are not identical. When a specific diagnosis is made, proper genetic counseling as well as prognostication, management issues and complications can be delineated to the patient and family. This review will include the mechanics of diagnostic and molecular triage for these disorders. (orig.)

  8. Editorial Commentary: The All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Distal Femoral Approach: Sockets or Tunnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Frank A

    2018-05-01

    I believe that the distal femoral approach for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete with 3 to 6 years of remaining growth is best performed with an all-inside, all-epiphyseal technique using sockets rather than an outside-in approach creating tunnels. A shorter socket rather than a longer tunnel exposes a smaller surface area of the lateral distal femoral physis to potential compromise and resultant valgus malalignment. In addition, exiting the lateral femoral aspect of the epiphysis with a full-diameter tunnel as compared with a smaller diameter drill hole used to prepare a socket places the posterior articular cartilage, the lateral collateral ligament and anterolateral ligament footprints, and the popliteus tendon insertion at risk. My preference for sockets is also related to my belief that they provide a superior biologic milieu for graft incorporation compared with a full-length tunnel with the attendant violation of the lateral femoral cortex of the epiphysis. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Buffalo plasma fibronectin: a physico-chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N; Chandra, R; Raj, H G

    2001-12-01

    Plasma fibronectin (FN) of buffalo (Babulis babulis) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using gelatin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose affinity columns. It was found to have two subunits of molecular mass 246 kDa and 228 kDa, on SDS-gel. Its immunological cross-reactivity with anti-human plasma FN was confirmed by Western blotting. The amino acid composition was found to be similar to that of human and bovine plasma FNs. Buffalo plasma FN contained 2.23% neutral hexoses and 1.18% sialic acids. No titrable sulfhydryl group could be detected in the absence of denaturant. Reaction with DTNB indicated 3.4 sulfhydryl groups in the molecule, whereas BDC-OH titration gave a value of 3.8 -SH groups in buffalo plasma FN. Stoke's radius, intrinsic viscosity, diffusion coefficient and frictional ratio indicated that buffalo plasma FN did not have a compact globular conformation at physiological pH and ionic strength. Molecular dimensions (average length, 120 nm; molar mass to length ratio, 3950 nm(-1) and mean diameter, 2.4 nm) as revealed by rotary shadowing electron microscopy further supported the extended conformation of buffalo plasma FN. These results show that buffalo plasma FN has similar properties as that of human plasma FN.

  10. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodinamics Integration of Sulfametazine in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide that presents a broad spectrum of activity, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Chlamydia spp. and some protozoa and it commonly used in ruminants. The aim of our work was to study the possible inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic(PK/PD integration of sulfamethazine after intravenous administration in buffalo and bovine. A single intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg was administered to six bovine and five buffalo (3-4 month old and weighting 120±15kg. Plasma concentrations of sulfamethazine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences between bovine and buffalo calves were found in t½λ (buffaloes: t1/2λ =6.17±0.58h; bovine t1/2λ=7.46±1.05h, Cl (buffaloes: 45.31ml/h·kg; bovines 30.34ml/h·kg. As a consequence of the lower clearance in bovines, the AUC and t½λ values were higher in this species. Important differences between bovine and buffalo exist for microorganisms that have a MIC value<32μg/ml related to time over minimum inhibitory concentration and weighted AUC.

  11. Breed traceability of buffalo meat using microsatellite genotyping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Bheemashankar H; Fairoze, Md Nadeem; Girish, P S; Karabasanavar, Nagappa; Rudresh, B H

    2017-02-01

    Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique.

  12. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  13. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    individual epiphyseal plates.

  14. Deletion of IFT80 Impairs Epiphyseal and Articular Cartilage Formation Due to Disruption of Chondrocyte Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) play important roles in cilia formation and organ development. Partial loss of IFT80 function leads Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) or short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, displaying narrow thoracic cavity and multiple cartilage anomalies. However, it is unknown how IFT80 regulates cartilage formation. To define the role and mechanism of IFT80 in chondrocyte function and cartilage formation, we generated a Col2α1; IFT80f/f mouse model by crossing IFT80f/f mice with inducible Col2α1-CreER mice, and deleted IFT80 in chondrocyte lineage by injection of tamoxifen into the mice in embryonic or postnatal stage. Loss of IFT80 in the embryonic stage resulted in short limbs at birth. Histological studies showed that IFT80-deficient mice have shortened cartilage with marked changes in cellular morphology and organization in the resting, proliferative, pre-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic zones. Moreover, deletion of IFT80 in the postnatal stage led to mouse stunted growth with shortened growth plate but thickened articular cartilage. Defects of ciliogenesis were found in the cartilage of IFT80-deficient mice and primary IFT80-deficient chondrocytes. Further study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited in IFT80-deficient mice due to reduced hedgehog (Hh) signaling and increased Wnt signaling activities. These findings demonstrate that loss of IFT80 blocks chondrocyte differentiation by disruption of ciliogenesis and alteration of Hh and Wnt signaling transduction, which in turn alters epiphyseal and articular cartilage formation. PMID:26098911

  15. Primary subacute epiphyseal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium species in young children: a modern diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houmami, N; Minodier, P; Bouvier, C; Seligmann, H; Jouve, J-L; Raoult, D; Fournier, P-E

    2017-05-01

    Primary epiphyseal subacute osteomyelitis (PESAO) caused by Mycobacterium species in young children is poorly recognized. We aimed to define the spectrum of this uncommon condition and to propose a novel diagnostic approach. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the PubMed website by selecting all reports of isolated infantile PESAO caused by Mycobacterium species since 1975. We identified 350 citations, of which 174 were assessed for eligibility based on title and abstract. The full text of 81 eligible citations was screened, and relevant data of 15 children under 4 years of age with mycobacterial PESAO were extracted. These data were pooled with those from our Institution. Data from 16 children were reviewed. The median age was 16 ± 7 months and the male:female ratio 1.7. The knee was the most common infection site (94%). The diagnosis of mycobacterial disease was delayed in all cases (range, 2 weeks to 6 months), and initially presumed by histology in 15 children (94%). Microbiologically proven diagnosis was confirmed by bone cultures in 8 of the 15 children (53%), and by specific PCR in 2 of the 3 culture-negative bone specimens (67%). Three children experienced long-term orthopedic complications despite surgical drainage and prolonged antimycobacterial regimens. All recently reported cases came from high-burden tuberculosis areas. Mycobacterium species contribute to the burden of infantile PESAO in endemic tuberculosis areas and may cause growth disturbances. We argue in favor of the early recognition of mycobacterial disease by specific molecular assays in children with infantile PESAO living in high-burden areas.

  16. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    individual epiphyseal plates. PMID:26241802

  17. Where buffalo and cattle meet: Modelling interspecific contact risk using cumulative resistant kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneta Kaszta; Samuel A. Cushman; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; Eleonore Wolff; Jorgelina Marino

    2018-01-01

    African buffalo the primary source of foot and mouth disease (FMD) infection for livestock in South Africa. Predicting the spatial drivers and patterns of buffalo–cattle contact risk is crucial for developing effective FMD mitigation strategies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to predict fine-scale, seasonal contact risk between cattle and buffaloes straying into...

  18. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo...

  19. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory...

  20. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo...

  1. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  2. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  3. Role of Buffaloe in Contributing Milk and Meat in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Raza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.

  4. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno, E-mail: enno.stranzinger@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, Lars, E-mail: lars.leidolt@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Eich, Georg, E-mail: georg.eich@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Radiology, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Klimek, Peter Michael, E-mail: peter.klimek@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Surgery, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures.

  5. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures

  6. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: a significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured -3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, Ptrampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone maturation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb. [Closure of epiphyseal centers in hands and wrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Keehn, R J; Ihno, Y; Hattori, F; Kogure, T; Imamura, K

    1972-01-20

    Five hundred and fifty-six subjects exposed while in utero to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, and comparison subjects were observed by posteroanterior hand and wrist roentgenograms for epiphyseal closure. There were delays in closure of 6-7 and 8-9 months for males and females respectively, as compared for Japanese and American children. These findings did not correlate with the A-bomb exposure doses of the mothers of these children. Brachymesophalangia occurred in 11% of males and 19% of females in Hiroshima. Possible contributory factors to the relative delay in maturation are discussed. (auth)

  8. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, B.

    2001-01-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs

  9. Arthroscopic decompression and notchplasty for long-standing anterior cruciate ligament impingement in a patient with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trehan RK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous osteochondroplasia with symmetrical involvement. It is characterized by joint pain in childhood and early adulthood with early onset of osteoarthritis, mainly affecting the hips. Case presentation We report the case of a 20-year-old man of Asian origin with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia presenting with bilateral knee pain, stiffness and instability found to be caused by bilateral anterior cruciate ligament impingement on abnormal medial femoral condyles. Bilateral staged arthroscopic notchplasty was performed successfully, resulting in subjective relief of pain, and improved range of movement and stability. Conclusion Care should be taken not to exclude a diagnosis of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia when few of the characteristic radiographic features are evident but clinical suspicion is high. This case highlights the scope for subjective symptomatic improvement following a minimum of surgical intervention. We recommend limiting early intervention to managing symptomatic features rather than radiographic abnormalities alone.

  10. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido [University of Brescia Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  11. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido; Beluffi, Giampiero

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary results on the composition of oviductal fluid in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.

  13. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean, from birth to slaughter age (720 days with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg. Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to weaning age, and after that, two distinct groups grow in different forms in the same conditions of management and feeding. Body weight can be estimated according to age, thoracic perimeter, height, and length, showing high correlations. Buffaloes show growth in a sigmoid-curve model.

  14. Ketosis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and the associated oxidative stress level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; El-deeb, Wael M; Abou El-Amaiem, Waleed E E

    2010-12-01

    As little is known about the oxidant/antioxidant status in buffalo with ketosis, the present study was delineated to assess the oxidative stress level associated with clinical ketosis in water buffalo. A total of 91 parturient buffalo at smallholder farms were studied (61 suspected to be ketotic and 30 healthy). Clinical and biochemical investigations were carried out for each buffalo. Based on clinical findings and the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), buffalo were allocated into ketotic (42), subclinical cases (19). Clinically, there was an association between clinical ketosis and anorexia (pketosis compared with subclinical and control cases, there was a significant increase (pketosis.

  15. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; du Toit, Johan T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  16. Differences in adaptation to tropical weather between buffaloes and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shi Chang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty buffaloes and twenty Vietnamese yellow cattle from peri-urban Hue city were kept indoor and used for measurement of effect of environmental temperature (To and humidity (H%. The To and H% were recorded by thermo-hygrometers for temperature and humidity index (THI measurement. Breathing rate was observed by moving rate of diaphragm, heart beat rhythms was calculated by stethoscope around 3 to 4 ribs and body To tested by 42oC thermo-meters in animal rectums. The results showed that the To in the area studied varied widely during the day and when To increased H% often decreased. During the study period the average To changed from 24oC in February to 39oC in May. The H% varied from 57 to 86. The environmental To and H% had very little effect on body To for both types of animals (37oC to 39oC but there were changes in heart beat from 42 to 45 in cattle but from 44 to 57 in buffaloes. In warmest period with high H% (THI 83 breathing rates in cattle varied from 18 to 21 while in buffaloes from 20 to 35 and in May it increased to 50. At the warmest time of the day the heart beat in cattle were 42 while in buffaloes 57. The breathing rate in cattle only increased when ambient To was above 39 degrees. The results clearly showed that buffaloes were easily stressed when To and H% increased. Buffaloes need water and swamps to help to avoid heat stress while indigenous cattle are much better adapted to high environmental To and H%.

  17. Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soliman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

  18. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallert, Erica K.; Kan, J.H.; Monsalve, Johanna; Zhang, Wei; Bisset, George S.; Rosenfeld, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Joint effusions identified by MRI may accompany osteomyelitis and determining whether the joint effusion is septic or reactive has important implications on patient care. Determine the incidence of epiphyseal marrow edema, joint effusions, perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement in the setting of pediatric metaphyseal osteomyelitis and whether this may be used to predict coexisting septic arthritis. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated children who underwent MRI and orthopedic surgical consultation for suspected musculoskeletal infection between January 2011 and September 2013. Criteria for inclusion in the study were microbiologically/pathologically proven infection, MRI prior to surgical intervention, long bone involvement and age 0-18 years. MRI exams were independently reviewed by two faculty pediatric radiologists to confirm the presence of appendicular metaphyseal osteomyelitis, to evaluate extent of edema, to determine subjective presence of a joint effusion and to assess perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement. Any discrepant readings were reviewed in consensus. Charts and operative notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. One hundred and three joints with metaphyseal osteomyelitis were identified (mean age: 7.1 years; M:F 1.3:1), of whom 53% (55/103) had joint effusions, and of those, 75% (41/55) had surgically confirmed septic arthritis. The incidence of coexisting septic arthritis was 40% in the setting of epiphyseal edema, 74% in epiphyseal edema and effusion, 75% with perisynovial edema, 76% with epiphyseal non-enhancement and 77% when all four variables were present. Of these, the only statistically significant variable, however, was the presence of a joint effusion with a P-value of <0.0001 via Fisher exact test. Statistical significance for coexisting septic arthritis was also encountered when cases were subdivided into intra-articular vs. extra-articular metaphyses (P

  19. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallert, Erica K.; Kan, J.H.; Monsalve, Johanna; Zhang, Wei; Bisset, George S. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenfeld, Scott [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Joint effusions identified by MRI may accompany osteomyelitis and determining whether the joint effusion is septic or reactive has important implications on patient care. Determine the incidence of epiphyseal marrow edema, joint effusions, perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement in the setting of pediatric metaphyseal osteomyelitis and whether this may be used to predict coexisting septic arthritis. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated children who underwent MRI and orthopedic surgical consultation for suspected musculoskeletal infection between January 2011 and September 2013. Criteria for inclusion in the study were microbiologically/pathologically proven infection, MRI prior to surgical intervention, long bone involvement and age 0-18 years. MRI exams were independently reviewed by two faculty pediatric radiologists to confirm the presence of appendicular metaphyseal osteomyelitis, to evaluate extent of edema, to determine subjective presence of a joint effusion and to assess perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement. Any discrepant readings were reviewed in consensus. Charts and operative notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. One hundred and three joints with metaphyseal osteomyelitis were identified (mean age: 7.1 years; M:F 1.3:1), of whom 53% (55/103) had joint effusions, and of those, 75% (41/55) had surgically confirmed septic arthritis. The incidence of coexisting septic arthritis was 40% in the setting of epiphyseal edema, 74% in epiphyseal edema and effusion, 75% with perisynovial edema, 76% with epiphyseal non-enhancement and 77% when all four variables were present. Of these, the only statistically significant variable, however, was the presence of a joint effusion with a P-value of <0.0001 via Fisher exact test. Statistical significance for coexisting septic arthritis was also encountered when cases were subdivided into intra-articular vs. extra-articular metaphyses (P

  20. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  1. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions

  2. Epiphyseal maturity indicators at the knee and their relationship to chronological age: results of an Irish population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is divisible to three main components; the time of appearance of an ossification center, its change in morphology and time of fusion to a primary ossification center. With regard to the knee, the intermediate period between appearance and fusion of the ossification centers extends over a period of greater than 10 years. This study aims to investigate radiographically the age at which morphological changes of the epiphyses at the knee occur in a modern Irish population. Radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females) aged 9-19 years were examined. Seven nonmetric indicators of maturity were assessed using criteria modified from the Roche, Wainer, and Thissen method and Pyle and Hoerr\\'s atlas of the knee. Reference charts are presented which display the timeline for each of the grades of development of the seven indicators. Mean age was found to increase significantly with successive grades of development of each of the seven indicators. A significant difference was noted between males and females at the same grade of development for six of the seven indicators. The narrowest age range reported for a single grade of development was 2.2 years for Grade 2 of development of the tibial tuberosity for males. The information on changing morphology of the epiphyses at the knee in the present study may provide an adjunct to methods used for evaluation of skeletal maturity before surgery for orthopedic disorders or to evaluate skeletal age in clinical scenarios where either delayed or precocious skeletal maturation is suspected.

  3. Epiphyseal union of the cervical vertebral centra: its relationship to skeletal age and maturation of thoracic vertebral centra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Midori A; Maier, Christopher A

    2013-11-01

    Epiphyseal union stages for cervical vertebral centra (ring epiphyses) were documented for 55 individuals (females and males, ages 14-27 years) from the Terry Collection, using the Albert and Maples method 1, to examine both its relationship to age at death and to thoracic data collected from the same individuals using the same method. Results showed a moderate correlation between cervical ring union and age (r = 0.63, p = 0.000), and a fairly low correlation between cervical and thoracic ring union (r = 0.41, p = 0.002). Paired samples t-tests yielded a statistically significant difference between cervical and thoracic union mean values (p = 0.01). Union progressed earlier in cervical vertebrae and in females. Results indicated fairly substantial variation in both sexes. Findings may serve as a basic guideline for estimating a general age range at death for unknown skeletal remains and to corroborate findings from other skeletal age indicators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-05-01

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  5. [Application of three-dimensional printing in the operation of distal tibia fracture involving epiphyseal plate injury for teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Ma, Yachang; Han, Dong; Jin, Yu

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the application value of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology in the operation of distal tibia fracture involving epiphyseal plate injury for teenagers. The retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 16 cases of children patients with distal tibia fracture involving epiphyseal plate injury undergoing the operation by using of 3-D printing technology between January 2014 and December 2015. There were 12 males and 4 females with an age of 9-14 years (mean, 12.8 years). The causes of injury included traffic accident injury in 9 cases, heavy pound injury in 3 cases, and sport injury in 4 cases. The time from injury to operation was 3-92 hours (mean, 25.8 hours). According to Salter-Harris typing standard, the typing for epiphyseal injury was classified as type Ⅱ in 11 cases, type Ⅲ in 4 cases, and type Ⅳ in 1 case. The thin slice CT scan on the affected limb was performed before operation, and the Mimics14.0 medical software was applied for the design and the 1∶1 fracture model was printed by the 3-D printer; the stimulation of operative reduction was made in the fracture model, and bone plate, Kirschner wire, and hollow screw with the appropriate size were chosen, then the complete operative approach and method were designed and the internal fixator regimen was chosen, then the practical operation was performed based on the preoperative design regimen. The operation time was 40-68 minutes (mean, 59.1 minutes); the intraoperative blood loss was 5-102 mL (mean, 35 mL); the intraoperative fluoroscopy times was 2-6 times (mean, 2.8 times). All the patiens were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 15 months). The fracture of 15 cases reached anatomic reduction, and 1 cases had no anatomic reduction with the displaced end less than 1 mm. All the fractures reached bony union with the healing time of 2-4 months (mean, 2.6 months). There was no deep vein thrombosis, premature epiphyseal closure and oblique, or uneven ankle surface

  6. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  7. Survivability of probiotics in symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry) were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties, and the survivability of probiotics during 10 weeks of storage. Gross composition results were: ...

  8. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  9. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... defining the functional composition of their genome. Microsatellites have been .... species such as fishes (Hsu et al., 2004; Sanches and. JR, 2006; Chung-Jian ... Phylogenetic study of the Iranian buffalo by microsatellite ... Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences,. University of Hull ...

  11. Characterization of cathelicidin gene from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Satya Sarmah

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Total RNA was isolated from epithelial layer of buffalo uterus and reverse transcribed using designed primers. ... large family of endogenous peptide antibiotics with broad spectrum activity against various bacteria ... The purity and integrity of RNA was checked spectropho- tometrecally (A260/A280) and 1% ...

  12. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  13. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khangembam Victoria Chanu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.

  14. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanu, Khangembam Victoria; Thakuria, Dimpal; Kumar, Satish

    2018-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.

  15. Evaluation of fasting metabolism of growing water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangsheng; Zou, Caixia; Pang, Chunying; Yang, Bingzhuan; Liang, Xianwei; Liu, Jianxin; Xia, Zhongsheng; Wen, Qiuyan; Yan, Tianhai

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fasting metabolism (FM) of water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis) at three stages of growth (12, 18 and 24 months) in Guangxi, China. Five female water buffalo were used for each age group and their live weight was on average 254, 326 and 338 kg, respectively. All animals were of average body condition, healthy and de-wormed before start of the study. Prior to a 6-day fasting period, buffalo were offered a mixed diet of forage and concentrates (70% and 30%, dry matter basis) on a restricted nutritional level (419 kJ/kg(0.75) of metabolizable energy, ME) for 15 days. Gas exchanges for each animal were determined for 3 days from day 4 of starvation, using open-circuit respiratory head hoods. Fasting body weight was 0.918 of live weight (P fasting heat production (FHP) and FM (MJ/day) increased significantly with increased age of animals (P fasting body weight (kg(0.75)) and FHP (MJ/day, P fasting body weight, the differences in FHP or FM between three groups of animals were not significant. The present average FHP and FM (322 and 347 kJ/kg(0.75) of fasting body weight) were compatible to those published in the literature for water buffalo, beef and dairy cattle. The present FM data were also used to estimate net energy (NE(m)) and ME (ME(m)) requirements for maintenance for water buffalo. The results for these two parameters were similar to those for FHP and FM. There was no significant difference between three groups of buffalo in NE(m) or ME(m) when expressed as kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight. The present average NE(m) and ME(m) values (347 and 506 kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight) are close to those proposed by the Agricultural and Food Research Council adopted in UK for beef and dairy cattle. The results indicate that the present FM data can be used as a basis for rationing water buffalo in China. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effects of hormonehCG following injection of estnanate of reproductive performances ofswamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low reproductive performance of buffalo resulted the population growth in Indonesia was only slightly increase during the last 50 year. Reproductive performance can be improved by hormone treatment during synchronization . One study was conducted in Porsea and Siborong-borong to see the effects of hormone hCG on the reproductive performances of swamp buffalo . A total of 34 buffaloes were kept in field grazing and commercial concentrate 4 kg/head/day was given for supplementation in 27 buffaloes and the rest 7 buffaloes treated as control with no supplemeniation . Synchronization performed by two intromuscular (IM injections of2 ml estrumate in 11 days interval . The buffaloes were divided into 2 groups of 16 buffaloes without hCG (Control group and 18 buffaloes with hCG (Treated group. Treated group wereinjected with 500 IU hCG intro-muscularly (IM 24-48 hours following second injection of estrumate . All buffaloes were artificially inseminated (AI 48 and 72 hours after the second injection of estrumate. Results showed that injection of estrurnate twice in 11 days interval was very effective to synchronize oestrus of buffaloes. The persentage of buffalo showing oestrus was 67 .5 and 85 .3% following 48 and 72 Ins of thesecond injection of estrumate resfectively . The effectiveness of estrumate was significantly affected by body condition of buffaloes where the persentage of oestrus 48 and 72 hours following estrumate injection was significantly higher (P<0.01 in buffaloes with good body condition than those in poor body condition (74.5 and 92.5% vs 42 .9 and 57 .1%. Injection ofhCG following estrumate increased the percentage of oestrus and pregnancy of buffalo. Percentages of oestrus of buffaloes 48 and 72 hours following estrumate injections was significantly higher (P<0 .01 in hCG treatment (83 .3 and 100% than those in control groups (68 .8 and 81 .3% . The pregnancy rate of buffalo with good body condition was significantly higher (P<0

  17. Type IX Collagen Gene Mutations Can Result in Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia That Is Associated With Osteochondritis Dissecans and a Mild Myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Gail C.; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verrips, Aad; Taylor, Jacqueline A.; Briggs, Michael D.

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix

  18. Familial multiple epiphyseal dysplasia due to a matrilin-3 mutation : Further delineation of the phenotype including 40 years follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, AK; Dijkstra, PF; Jansen, BRH; van Horn, [No Value; de Graaf, B; Heutink, P; Lindhout, D

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we followed-up the family with bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED) originally described by Elsbach [1959: J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 41B:514-523]. Clinical re-examination of all available family members resulted in further delineation of the clinical and radiological

  19. Type IX collagen gene mutations can result in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia that is associated with osteochondritis dissecans and a mild myopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, G.C.; Marcus-Soekarman, D.; Stolte-Dijkstra, I.; Verrips, A.; Taylor, J.A.; Briggs, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix

  20. A case report of the management and the outcome of a complete epiphyseal separation and dislocation with left anterior column fracture of the acetabulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Palencia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Epiphyseal fracture with dislocation of the femoral head is rare among children and adolescents, especially when associated with an acetabular fracture. AVN in such cases can develop, and it represents a challenge to orthopedic surgeons due to the poor prognosis and the future functional limitations of the joint.

  1. THE STUDY OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS QUALITY OF BUFFALO MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PECE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches were conducted on a biologic material, a buffalo livestock, in different lactating stages and their physico-chemical parameters were determined: fat, protein, lactose, unfat dry substance, density, pH, temperature. Regarding the variation of these components, researches conducted emphasized differences determined by those conditions specific to reference seasons. Individual analysis on the buffalo livestock in the study, emphasized significant differences: fat 8.59-9.36%, protein 5.16-5.31% respective of lactation. Microbiologic determinations mainly envisioned: the number of somatic cells (NSC, number of total germs (NTG Positive Coagulanzo Stafilococii, Listeria, Salmonella, determinations which lay at the basis of the assessment of buffalo milk quality. The positive Coagulanzo stafilococus was absent, excepting sample number 15 (2 germs/ml and sample number 22 (4 germs/ml; Salmonella was absent. Regarding the total number of germs: values between 1.0-1.8 germs/ml were obtained. The detection of this microbiologic parameter in the composition of buffalo milk provides information regarding the hygienic conditions of their production and handling. Correlations between the number of somatic cells, milk production and composition are employed in dairy buffalo farms, in order to assess losses caused by mastitis and the implementing of certain measures for the control of these diseases. On the other hand, correlations between the number of somatic cells and milk composition prove useful in establishing milk processing behaviour, as the practice of setting milk-raw matter prices according to the number of somatic cells in the milk is becoming increasingly more frequent in developed countries.

  2. Water Quality Assessment of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, K. L.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Buffalo River was established as a National River by the U.S. Congress in 1972, and runs approximately 150 miles from Newton County, Arkansas to Baxter County where it joins the White River. The Buffalo National River is the one of the last free flowing rivers in the continental U.S. with a rich cultural and political history surrounding it. The geology surrounding the river can be characterized by its karst environment, which has led to the many caves, depressions, and sinkholes found along the river. Karst environments are more susceptible to groundwater pollution so drainage from septic systems is a major concern for towns along the river. There are also numerous abandoned mines in the Buffalo River watershed, especially in the Rush area, which was mined for lead and zinc. Additionally, an increase in livestock production in the area is also a concern for increased nitrate and phosphate, along with fertilizer runoff from agricultural areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality changes along the Buffalo River from human and environmental influences. Samples at six different locations along the river were collected along with parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature during several trips in the summer of 2017. Water samples were analyzed for cations and anions by IC, trace metals by ICPMS, and Escherichia coli with agar plate colony counts. The results were used to map geochemical changes in the Buffalo River watershed, and calculate enrichment factors of constituents (like nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements) as the water flowed downstream.

  3. Epiphyseal injuries of the distal tibia. Does MRI provide useful additional information?; Epiphysenfugenverletzungen der distalen Tibia. Sinnvolle Mehrinformation durch die MRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ishaque, N.; Klose, K.J.; Hoppe, M. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Schmitt, J.; Gotzen, L. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Operative Medizin

    1999-01-01

    Plain film radiography often underestimates the extent of injury in children with epiphyseal fracture. Especially Salter-Harris V fractures (crush fracture of the epiphyseal plate) are often primarily not detected. MRI of the ankle was performed in 10 children aged 9-17 (mean 14) years with suspected epiphyseal injury using 1.0-T Magnetom Expert. The fractures were classified according to the Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen classification and compared with the results of plain radiography. In one case MRI could exclude epiphyseal injury; in four cases the MRI findings changed the therapeutic management. The visualisation of the fracture in three orthogonal planes and the possibility of detection of cartilage and ligamentous injury in MR imaging makes this method superior to conventional radiography and CT. With respect to radiation exposure MRI instead of CT should be used for the diagnosis of epiphyseal injuries in children. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die konventionelle Roentgendiagnostik unterschaetzt haeufig das Ausmass der kindlichen Extremitaetenfrakturen mit Epiphysenbeteiligung (Typ Salter-Harris). Insbesondere werden die Kompressionsfrakturen der Wachstumsfuge (Salter-Harris V) primaer haeufig nicht erkannt. Prospektiv wurden 10 Kinder im Alter von 9-17 Jahren (Durchschnittsalter = 14 J.) mit Verdacht auf eine epiphysaere Fraktur der distalen Tibia magnetresonanztomographisch (1.0-Tesla Magnetom Expert), untersucht. Die MRT-Ergebnisse wurden auf der Basis der Klassifikation nach Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen mit den konventionellen Roentgenbildern verglichen. In einem Fall, bei einem 15jaehrigen Patienten, gelang durch die MRT der Ausschluss einer epiphysaeren Verletzung. In 7 Faellen fuehrte der MRT-Einsatz zu einer Aenderung der Klassifikation nach Salter-Harris. Hieraus resultierte bei 4 Patienten ein Therapiewechsel. Da Frakturen, die sie begleitenden Knorpellaesionen und ligamentaere Verletzungen multiplanar dargestellt werden koennen, weist die MRT deutliche Vorteile

  4. Radiological aspects on the course of development of porcine epiphyseal osteochondrosis (OCD) from 42 up to 147 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittegeko, S.B.P.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    The articular-epiphyseal (A-E) cartilage complex of the distal humeral and femoral epiphyseal condyles of eight intact pigs (4 male & 4 female) of the same age were radiologically examined every 3 weeks, beginning at 42 days up to 147 days of age; to determine the age of onset, the course and trend of development of osteochondrosis (OCD). The earliest Dyschondroplasia (Osteochondrotic) lesions were demonstrated radiologically in the A-E complexes of the humeral condyles of 42-day-old pigs and in the femoral condyles at 63 days of age. Thus the radiographic examination of live animals to demonstrate subchondral radiolucency typical for OCD lesions in the condylar A-E complexes of pigs is not of limited value until the animals were > 100 days old as indicated in earlier reports. Also the course of further development of OCD lesions associated with A-E complexes was followed. The radiolucency was seen to develop to a certain extent, and then either to regress, and stabilize or even to progress as the animal grows. Some lesions regressed completely. Also some of the regressed lesions may become active again and become progressive. However, the course of development of femoral condyle A-E complexes OCD lesions was seen to be progressive continuously, or progressive then stable and then progressive again. The regressive course and trend of osteochondrotic lesions was not observed in the femoral condyle A-E complexes up to day 147 of age. Therefore, the course and trend of development of the A-E complexes OCD is not constantly the same

  5. Microsatellite markers of water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis - development, characterisation and linkage disequilibrium studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhegi R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.

  6. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  7. Identification of cattle, buffaloes and rodents as reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denipitiya, D T H; Chandrasekharan, N V; Abeyewickreme, W; Hartskeerl, R A; Hapugoda, M D

    2017-03-23

    Leptospirosis is an important emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. Rats are the most important reservoir of Leptospira but domestic and wild mammals may also act as important maintenance or accidental hosts. In Sri Lanka, knowledge of reservoir animals of leptospires is poor. The objective of this study was to identify potential reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Blood and kidney samples were collected from 38 rodents and mid-stream urine samples were randomly collected from 45 cattle and five buffaloes in the District of Gampaha. Kidney and urine samples were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum samples were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Of the 38 rodent kidney samples, 11% (4/38) were positive by real-time PCR. The prevalence of leptospiral carriage was 11% (3/26) and 8% (1/12) in female and male rodents, respectively. Three rodent serum samples were positive by MAT. Of the 50 cattle/buffalo urine samples tested, 10% (5/50) were positive by real-time PCR. The prevalence of leptospiral carriage was 9% (4/45) and 20% (1/5) in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Results of PCR and MAT showed that Leptospira were present in a significant proportion of the rodents and farm animals tested in this study and suggest that these (semi-) domestic animals form an infection reservoir for Leptospira. Therefore, there is a potential zoonotic risk to public health, most notably to farmers in this area.

  8. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Bishop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo, which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo, using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo. This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo. Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo. is a distinct species from T. parva.

  9. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water bu...

  10. The role of grazing land on the buffalo population dynamics in Brebes regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanto

    2017-04-01

    Brebes District is one of the centre of grazing buffalo in Indonesia that involve thousands of rearers usually kept as a family savings. This paper highlighted the availability of land and the role of the grazing land for the durability of the maintenance of buffalo in Brebes Regency. The information obtained is from interviewed the livestock facilitators in the sub-district (primary data) and from statistic of agriculture in Brebes Regency 2014 (secondary data). Generally the buffalo kept semi-intensively and commonly the buffaloes graze in the fields that are not used from morning until evening and during nights buffaloes are placed in the stalls. Rearers chose the semi-intensive system in rearing the buffalo because it is considered easy to manage and they do not need to provide fresh money to prepare the roughage for feed, because commonly the grazing buffalo are shepherd by herdman that will receive buffalo as their payment. The population density is very high (1.056 heads/km2), the buffalo ownership is between 2-4 head/households; generally the location of the grazing land is in the forest, rice fields fallow, and sleeping land, and estimated that greenfeed stock is still available abunandtly, on the other hand the urban land is less capacity of feed. The spread of buffalo is only in 125 villages from 297 villages in Brebes. The acceptance of buffalo business is around IDR 3.5 million to IDR 7.5 million/family/year. The availability of grazing land strongly influence the maintaining of buffalo farming by rearers.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Lingual Papillae in the Anatolian Water Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Can, M; Atalgin, S. H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the surface structure of the lingual papillae in Anatolian Water Buffaloes using SEM. Six male Anatolian Water Buffaloes were used. Filiform, lentiform and conical papillae were determined three types as mechanical papillae. Fungiform and vallate papillae were observed two types as gustatory papillae on the tongue in Anatolian Water Buffalo. The filiform papillae were observed on the apex and body of the tongue, besides randomly identified lateral sur...

  12. Comparison of quality attributes of buffalo meat curry at different storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeepan, Gurunathan; Anjaneyulu, Anne Seet Ram; Kondaiah, Napa; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  14. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Warriach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%, which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50% when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo.

  15. Effect of Parity and Calving Month on Milk Production and Quality of Greek Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Bampidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.

  16. Biophysics environmental conditions of swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis Pampangan in district Rambutan South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is a germ plasm specific of Pampangan and endemic in South Sumatera with low productivity and limited distribution. The aims of this study was to obtain information regarding biophysical conditions in the central areas of swamp buffalo in South Sumatera. The method used is purposive sampling method. Data collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative. Primary data were obtained through direct observation, interviews breeders selected as respondents while secondary data obtained from various related. The data obtained are presented descriptively and data tabulation. Productivity of swamp buffalo Pampangan can be increased by managing and maintaining habitat conditions although traditional maintenance. The results of observations of the biophysical condition of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis Pampangan showed that habitat of swamp buffalo Pampangan consists of dominated by lowland swamp area is overgrown with shrubs and grass. The conclution of the research are productivity and population of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis pampangan as specific plasma nutfah of South Sumatra can be improved by studying the characteristics and preferred habitat of the buffalo, although developed in a traditional farms but is good enough and so need to be developed, grass is most preferred by swamp buffalo Pampangan derived from ‘Kumpai’ grass group, and ‘Kasur’grass and ‘Kumpai’ grass is the dominant grass type found in habitat swamp buffalo Pampangan.

  17. Relationship between lactodinamographic and characteristics of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between 44 components and/or characteristics of milk samples collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples and 14,344 values. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother and were bred in two farms. Significant associations but with a low values of coefficient of correlation were present, demonstrating that lactodinamographic parameters marginally affect cheese yield.

  18. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    to usually narrow strips of riparian vegetation, which is composed of various trees and shrubs of the Salix genus (willow), sumac, aspen, boxelder...reptiles were found. Species included, leopard frogs, snapping turtles, painted turtle, and garter snakes (SUNY Brockport: 1982). (7) Endangered Species...vessel traffic on the Buffalo River causes interrupted truck service. Firms have also cited snow removal as a problem. The harbor area road service

  19. Isolation and antigenicity evaluation of β-lactoglobulin from buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buffalo β-lactoglobulin in phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH6.8) was adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow gel, and eluted with a linear gradient of NaCl (0-0.5 M) in 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. A further purification was performed on Sephadex G-75 gel by loading a concentrated and dialyzed fraction of samples ...

  20. Hydrocarbon assessment summary report of Buffalo Lake area of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, Y. [Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, Yellowknife, NT (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Northwest Territories (NWT) Protected Areas Strategy (PAS) is a process to identify the known cultural, ecological and economic values of areas in the NWT. This report presented a hydrocarbon resource potential assessment of Buffalo Lake area of interest located in the Great Slave Plain region. It covers an area greater than 2100 square km. The region is almost entirely covered by a thick mantle of glacial deposits. It is underlain by a southwest-dipping, relatively undisturbed succession dominated by Paleozoic carbonate rocks and Cretaceous clastic rocks. Six exploration wells have been drilled within, or near the outer limit of Buffalo Lake area of interest. Suitable source and reservoir rocks are present within Buffalo Lake area of interest, but the potential of significant petroleum discoveries is likely very low. Most of the prospective intervals are either shallow or exposed at surface. Other exploration risks, such as discontinuous distribution and isolation from source rocks, are also anticipated for some of the plays. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Gaddi Buffalo: An Indigenous Breed of Far-Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Raj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A study on indigenous Gaddi buffalo of far-western region of Nepal was conducted to understand the production parameters and husbandry practices intending to make future strategy for improvement. The breed is well known in the far-western districts of Nepal and adapted in hills and mountains of the region with diverse climatic conditions. Among 3 identified buffalo breeds (Gaddi, Lime and Parkote and one under study (Terai, Gaddi was found morphologically larger (p<0.01 and docile in temperament. Major population of Gaddi was found to be black in color and some brown and light brown. Morphologically, it looks like Indian Murrah, however white round patch on the middle of forehead and tuft of the tail, and semi-curved horn shape are the distinguished characters. The average ages at puberty, first calving and calving interval was 3.8, 5.7 and 2.0 years respectively. Lactation length varied from 14 to 22 months and milk yield from 2.5 to 5.5 liters/day. Major problems recorded were lack of pure breeding bulls, negative selection, feed scarcity, poor technical know-how and health management. The paper discusses on the overall buffalo management system in the far-western region of Nepal and suggests improvement plan with maximum utilization of locally available farm resources.

  2. Common Agents used in parasuicide in Buffalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parasuicide is a serious public health concern. Understanding the methods used will help in developing preventive strategies. Objective. To investigate the agent(s used in parasuicide attempts by individuals aged 10 - 20 years in Buffalo City (which includes the municipalities of East London, King William’s Town and Bhisho in the Eastern Cape. Method. All referrals for parasuicide to the East London Mental Health Unit, the only mental health facility servicing Buffalo City, for the period January 2006 to December 2008 were analysed with regard to age, agent(s, number of attempts and psychiatric disorder. Results. Of 1 169 patients referred after parasuicide by ingestion of substances, 360 (31% were between the ages of 10 and 20 years. Eighty-three per cent were female and 17% male. Cattle dip was the commonest agent used, followed by amitriptyline. Conclusion. The study showed that organophosphates were the commonest agent used in parasuicide in Buffalo City and that the incidence of parasuicide was higher in females than in males.

  3. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  4. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  5. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  6. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry Street...

  7. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  8. A survey on the biochemical parameters in serum of the Azarbaijan buffaloes with TRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Mousavi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available TRP disease is one of the prevalent disease in cows and buffaloes that most common in dairy cows feed by prepared foods but cases occur infrequently in buffaloes, beef cattle, sheep and goats. In this research 15 Azerbaijan buffaloes with TRP were studied. Firstly affected buffaloes were diagnosed based on clinical signs. The blood samples were obtained from the related animals and after separation blood serum by centrifuging, the biochemical tests, such as sodium, potassium, Glucose, phosphorus, albumin and calcium levels in serum were measured. The mean levels of sodium, potassium, Glucose, phosphorus, albumin and calcium in buffaloes with TRP were 112 mEq/Lit, 3.11 mEq/Lit, 42.29 mg/dl, 3.84 mg/dl, 544 mg/dl, 8.60 mg/dl. In this study the mean levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus in buffaloes with TRP was less than the normal buffaloes and the mean levels of calcium, Glucose as such as the normal animals and the mean levels of albumin was higher than the normal buffaloes.

  9. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

  10. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per...

  11. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  12. A review on breeding and genetic strategies in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Abbas; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Abdollahi Arpanahi, Rostam

    2018-04-01

    The aim of current study was to review breeding progress and update information on genetic strategies in Iranian buffaloes. Iranian buffalo is one of the vital domestic animals throughout north, north-west, south and south-west of Iran with measurable characteristics both in milk and meat production. The species plays an important role in rural economy of the country due to its unique characteristics such as resistance to diseases and parasites, having long productive lifespan and showing higher capability of consuming low-quality forage. In Iran, total production of milk and meat devoted to buffaloes are 293,000 and 24,700 tons, respectively. Selection activities and milk yield recording are carrying out by the central government through the Animal Breeding Centre of Iran. The main breeding activities of Iranian buffaloes included the estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for performance traits using different models and methods, estimation of economic values and selection criteria and analysis of population structure. Incorporating different aspects of dairy buffalo management together with improved housing, nutrition, breeding and milking, is known to produce significant improvements in buffalo production. Therefore, identifying genetic potential of Iranian buffaloes, selection of superior breeds, improving nutritional management and reproduction and developing the education and increasing the skills of practical breeders can be useful in order to enhance the performance and profitability of Iranian buffaloes.

  13. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water buffalo population amounts to 185 million heads. (http://www.fao.org). They are mainly present in Southeast. Asia. Casein genes among other genes control the milk traits in water buffalo. The role of casein genotypes on composi- tion and coagulation of milk, quality and yield traits has been investigated (Lien et al.

  14. Beneficial impact on cardiovascular risk profile of water buffalo meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Guarini, P; Ferrari, P; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Schiavone, B; Giordano, A

    2010-09-01

    Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on cardiovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. Several important cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects divided in groups: recent consumers of water buffalo meat vs subjects who had never consumed water buffalo meat. In addition, long-standing consumers of water buffalo meat were evaluated. Age, gender, height, body weight, and the remaining diet (with the exception of cow meat consumption) were similar across groups. From baseline to follow-up, recent consumers of water buffalo meat change their intake of water buffalo meat from none to 600+/-107 g per week (Pconsumption from 504+/-104 to 4+/-28 (PConsumption of buffalo meat seems to be associated with several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. Awaiting further randomized clinical trials, this study suggests that a larger consumption of water buffalo meat could confer significant cardiovascular benefits, while continuing to provide a substantial proportion of the recommended daily allowance of protein.

  15. Assessment of Nili-Ravi buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) semen by MTT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to examine and validate the MTT test to assess the sperm viability of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and compare the efficiency of the test with the supra-vital staining technique (eosin-nigrosine) and hypo-osmotic swelling test. Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 20) were ...

  16. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use...

  17. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne H.; El-Bordeny, Nasr E.; Ebeid, Hossam M.

    2017-01-01

    Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffalo...

  18. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion...

  19. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  20. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  1. The epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle determined by CT - an axillary method in age identification during adolescence and 3rd decade of life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Schweden, F.; Schild, H.H.; Riepert, T.; Nafe, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a reference population for the stages of epiphyseal union of the medical clavicle determined by CT. Material and methods: Retrospectively, the thoracic CTs of patients under 30 years of age were reevaluated. Basic conditions were the lack of a bone development disorder and a sufficient assessment of the medial clavicle in a bone window setting. The stages of epiphyseal union were categorized as follows: Stage 1 refers to nonunion without ossification of the epiphysis, Stage 2 to nonunion with a separate and ossified epiphysis, Stage 3 to partial, and Stage 4 to complete union. Results: Up to now, 279 individuals coul be included in the study. Stage 1 was observed till age 16, Stage 2 occurred from ages 13 through 22, Stage 3 was found from ages 16 through 26. Stage 4 was first noted at age 22, and in 100% of the sample at age 27. Conclusions: CT is well suitable to determine the stages of epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle. It may become a generally accepted method of age identification during adolescence and the 3rd decade of life. The presented data serve as a reference population at least for white Europeans. (orig.) [de

  2. A mutation in KIF7 is responsible for the autosomal recessive syndrome of macrocephaly, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and distinctive facial appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bassam R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported the existence of a unique autosomal recessive syndrome consisting of macrocephaly, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and distinctive facial appearance mapping to chromosome 15q26. Methods In this manuscript, we have used whole exome sequencing on two affected members of a consanguineous family with this condition and carried out detailed bioinformatics analysis to elucidate the causative mutation. Results Our analysis resulted in the identification of a homozygous p.N1060S missense mutation in a highly conserved residue in KIF7, a regulator of Hedgehog signaling that has been recently found to be causing Joubert syndrome, fetal hydrolethalus and acrocallosal syndromes. The phenotype in our patients partially overlaps with the phenotypes associated with those syndromes but they also exhibit some distinctive features including multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Conclusions We report the first missense homozygous disease-causing mutation in KIF7 and expand the clinical spectrum associated with mutations in this gene to include multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The missense nature of the mutation might account for the unique presentation in our patients.

  3. Assignment of genes to chromosome 4 of the River buffalo with a panel of buffalo-hamster hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, S M; Hondt, H A; Othman, O S; Bosma, A A; Haan, N A

    1993-01-12

    To identify the river buffalo chromosome carrying the genes coding for GAPD, TPI1, and LDHB, karyotypic examination was carried out on 14 buffalo-hamster hybrid clones previously tested for presence of this syntenic group. In cattle, this group (U3) has been assigned to chromosome 5, which is assumed to be homologous to the long arm of buffalo chromosome 4. Chromosome 4 was present in all five clones expressing the three enzymes, and absent in all seven negative clones, indicating that in the buffalo GAPD, TPI1, and LDHB are located on chromosome 4. One clone, expressing GAPD and TPI1, but not LDHB, was found to carry a translocation between hamster marker chromosome M(2) and buffalo 4q1 → 4qter. In another clone, expressing LDHB, but not GAPD and TPI1, chromosome 4 was absent, while a very small, unidentifiable acrocentric was present. These observations suggest that LDHB is located in the proximal part of 4q1, and that GAPD and TPI1 are located more distally, in 4q1 → 4q2. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Lokalisierung von Genen auf Chromosom 4 des Flußbüffels durch Büffel-Hamster-Hybridzellen Zur Identifikation von Flußbüffelchromosomen mit Genen für GAPD, TPI1 und LDHB wurden Karyotypenbestimmungen an 14 Büffel-Hamster-Hybridklonen durchgeführt, die vorher auf Anwesenheit der betreffenden synthenischen Gruppen geprüft worden waren. Bei Rindern wird diese Gruppe (U3) dem Chromosom 5 zugeordnet, welches als homolog mit dem langen Arm des Büffelchromosoms 4 betrachtet wird. Chromosom 4 war in allen fünf Klonen, die die drei Enzyme exprimiert haben, vorhanden und fehlte in allen sieben negativen klonen, so daß angenommen werden kann, daß sich bei Büffeln GAPD, TPI1 und LDHB auf Chromosom 4 befinden. Bei einem Klon, der GAPD und TPI1, aber nicht LDHB zeigte, wurde eine Translokation zwischen dem Hamstermarkerchromosom M2 und Büffel 4q1 → 4qter gefunden. Im einem anderen Klon, der LDHB, nicht aber GAPD und TPI1 zeigte, war Chromosom 4 nicht vorhanden, wohl aber

  4. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam.

  5. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the unsaponifiable matter components of cows, buffaloes and goats milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk were treated with gamma-irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at safe doses (250, 500 and 750 krad) in addition to raw milk of the same types. Results indicate that total hydrocarbon was much lower in unsaponifiable matter (unsap. m) of goat's raw milk fat than that of cow's and buffalo's. Unsap. m of cow's milk fat consisted of ten hydrocarbon compounds, while it consisted of eight hydrocarbon compounds in both buffaloes and goats ones. Moreover, the unsap. m of goat's milk had the highest total sterols followed by buffalo's and cow's, respectively. Cholesterol represents the predominant sterol compound of the unsap. m in all kinds of raw milk fat. The application of ascendent doses of gamma irradiation increased total hydrocarbons and decreased total sterols (particularly cholesterol compounds) of unsap. m of both buffalo's and goat's milk fats, while the reverse trend occurred with cow's milk fat

  7. Utilization of water by buffaloes in adapting to a wet-tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranawana, S.S.E.; Tilakaratne, M.; Srikandakumar, A.

    1984-01-01

    In a series of experiments some of the characteristics that might enable water buffaloes to adapt to hot and humid environments were investigated. Total body water and water turnover were related to measurements of respiratory and cutaneous evaporation rates and to rectal temperature. These measurements were made during different seasons in animals maintained in several agro-ecological zones. Water turnover was measured in unweaned Murrah buffalo calves; in growing, pregnant and lactating Surti buffaloes grazed under coconut with wallowing denied and drinking water restricted; in Murrah buffaloes and in Zebu and European cattle during different seasons in the 'wet zone', and on Murrah, Surti and Lanka buffaloes compared under 'dry-zone' conditions. Rates of water turnover in milk-fed buffalo calves were low but in adult buffaloes were higher than in other domestic ruminants. Water turnover was higher at higher air temperatures and during the monsoon when forage contained more water. Lactation and grazing in the sun also increased water turnover. A high rate of cutaneous water loss in buffaloes, apparently due to passive diffusion rather than to true sweating, may have contributed to the high water turnover in this species. A relatively labile body temperature enabled buffaloes to 'store' body heat which was dissipated quickly by wallowing, which was shown to be a major route of heat loss and to help in the maintenance of skin condition. If allowed adequate water for drinking and wallowing, buffaloes can apparently withstand hot humid environments but, in contrast to camels, sheep and goats, they seem unable to conserve water and their productivity is affected by any restriction of water supply. (author)

  8. Precise localization of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia mutations by genetic and physical mapping of chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, R.G.; Cekleniak, J.A. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cohn, D.H. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia resulting in peripheral joint deformities and premature osteoarthritis, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a more severe disorder associated with short-limbed dwarfism, have recently been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19. Chondrocytes from some PSACH patients accumulate lamellar deposits in the endoplasmic reticulum that are immunologically cross-reactive with aggrecan. However, neither aggrecan nor any known candidate gene maps to the EDM1/PSACH region of chromosome 19. Genetic linkage mapping in two lage families had placed the disease locus between D19S215 (19p12) and D19S212 (19p13.1), an interval of about 3.5 Mb. With at least five potentially informative cross-overs within this interval, recombination mapping at greater resolution was undertaken. From cosmids assigned to the region by fluorescence in situ hybridization and contig assembly, dinucleotide repeat tracts were identified for use as polymorphic genetic markers. Linkage data from three new dinucleotide repeat markers from cosmids mapped between D19S212 and D19S215 limit the EDM1/PSACH locus to an interval spanning approximately 2 Mb.

  9. The comparison of fatty acid and cholesterol profile on fresh and mozarella cheese made by pampangan buffalo milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqiati, H.; Nurwantoro; Mulyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acid and cholesterol profile of Fresh and Mozarella Cheese from Pampangan Buffalo Milk. Material of this reseach was Pampangan buffalo milk and Mozarella cheese made from buffalo milk. Fatty acids composition were analyzed by [1] method. Result showed the major saturated fatty acid found in milk and Mozzarella cheese Pampangan buffalo milk were palmitic, stearic and miristic acid while the unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. The total amount of fatty acid in Mozarella cheese was lower than those in Pampangan buffalo milk.

  10. Productivity of Indonesian swamp buffaloes in relation to nutrition, reproduction and draught use in the wet tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamualim, A.; Liem, C.; Ffoulkes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Buffaloes in Indonesian villages fulfil a valuable function in providing the major source of draught power for cultivation. However, in wet irrigated areas, the continuous work of buffaloes and the low to medium quality of the available feed result in low growth rates and low reproductive performance. Results from buffalo feeding trials using similar feeds to those given in the villages indicated that high usage for draught would ultimately reduce body weight gains and might reduce the ovarian activity of buffalo cows. Use of supplements is recommended to improve the growth rates and fertility of swamp buffalo cows subjected to high work loads. (author). 14 refs, 7 tabs

  11. The difference in the appearance of proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center on chest radiograph between the preterm and full-term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Hong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Jin Young; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Jee Young; Yoo, Dong Soo; Kim, You Me; Jeong, Chun Keun; Lee, Young Seok

    1997-01-01

    To assess the difference in the appearance of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center, as seen on chest radiograph, between preterm and full-term infants at the same corrected ages. Forty two preterm infants born at 26--35 weeks of gestational age and 218 normal full-term infants born at 38-42 weeks were investigated. Because of various perinatal problems, the preterm infants were treated at a neonatal intensive care unit. Proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification centers were evaluated from chest radiographs, and in cases of preterm infants, the corrected age of 0 month was defined as postconceptional 40 weeks. In preterm infants, the numbers of chest radiographs obtained were 42 at 0 month, 40 at 1 month, 37 at 2 months and 36 at 3 months of corrected age, while in those who were full-term, the numbers were 103 cases at 0 month, 42 at 1 month, 42 at 2 months and 31 at 3 months of age In the preterm group, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus levels and simple wrist radiographs were checked. We then evaluated the difference of appearance of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center between preterm and full-term infants at the same corrected ages, as well as the difference between causative diseases, between the normal and abnormal serologic group and between the normal and abnormal wrist group in preterm infants at the same corrected ages. Using Fisher's exact test, the data were analysed. The incidences of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center in preterm infants were 2.4% (1/42) at 0 month, 20.0% (8/40) at 1 month, 43.2% (16/37) at 2 months and 69.4%(25/36) at 3 months; in full-term infants, the figures were 24.3% (25/103) at 0 month, 66.7%(28/42) at 1 month, 83.3% (35/42) at 2 months and 90.3% (28/31) at 3 months. At 0, 1, and 2 months, the incidences were thus seen to be lower in preterm than in full-term infants(p 0.05). In preterm infants, there were no statistical differences between causative diseases, between the

  12. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  13. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in vitro embryo production in two different defined culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVEP is largely applied world wide to animal breeding. One of the principal steps of the IVEP is represented by embryo culture (Khurana and Niemann., 2000. In the past, embryos were grown in co-culture systems with other cells such as oviductal epithelial cells, cumulus cells, Buffalo rat liver (BRL and VERO cells (Duszewska et al., 2000. These cells are able to supply the nutrients for embryo development by their replication and metabolism. Nevertheless, the metabolic activity of these cells is also responsible of an early lowering of pH in the culture medium: that needs to be changed every two days. Furthermore, with this culture system it is impossible to standardize all the procedure: in fact the result is dependent from several variables, as the quality of the cells and their concentration in co-culture. The use of defined culture media is necessary to acquire a better comprehension of metabolism and biochemical requirements for IVEP........

  14. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Catozzi, C.; Sanchez Bonastre, A.; Francino, O.; Lecchi, C.; De Carlo, E.; Vecchio, D.; Martucciello, A.; Fraulo, P.; Bronzo, V.; Cuscó, A.; D'Andreano, S.; Ceciliani, F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with su...

  15. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P<0 .01 . All of the infected Ongole calves had fasciola eggs in their faeces 18 weeks after the commencement of infection. In contrast, eggs were detected only in 3 out of 7 infected buffalo calves at week 20, in 4 at week 28 and in 6 at week 30. Faeces of the seventh buffalo remained free of eggs until week 36. Rates of growth were reduced by 25%and 10,3% in infected Ongole and buffalo calves respectively . Circulating blood eosinophilia ofboth hosts, ahallmark of helminth infections, increased following infection, but values in buffaloes was greater than Ongole calves mainly in week 4 and 8 after infection (P<0.01. These results might be concluded that the susceptibility of buffalo calves to trickle infection with F. gigantica was lower compared to Ongole calves.

  16. Studies on the epidemiology of Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.C.; Partoutomo, S.; Sukanto, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Observations on buffaloes imported into Indonesia from Australia indicate that infections with Trypanosoma evansi were the possible causes of illness and death. In February 1986, 657 feral buffalo were imported from the Northern Territory, Australia, for distribution to smallholder farms in Central Java. Two locations were selected in which groups of buffaloes could regularly be examined and their response to infection with T. evansi monitored. In the first location, T. evansi was detected in an imported buffalo 2 months after distribution and Nagarol (Suramin; Bayer) was given to all the animals in the area as a prophylactic. In the second location, Trypamidium (isometamidium chloride; Specia) was used as a prophylactic when T. evansi was detected. Twelve of the 131 buffaloes under observation died in the first location and T. evansi was thought to be the cause of death in three animals. In the second location, 33 out of 45 buffaloes died; evidence of infection with T. evansi was detected in 25 animals. Serum samples were subjected to the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect T. evansi antibodies. The results showed that imported buffaloes were seronegative on arrival, but seroconversion occurred at both locations. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development.

  18. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  19. Comparative community structure of archaea in rumen of buffaloes and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shyam S; Dey, Avijit; Baro, Daoharu; Punia, Balbir S

    2017-08-01

    Detailed knowledge of the community structure of methanogens is essential for amelioration of methane emission from livestock species. Several studies have indicated that predominant methanogens of buffalo rumen are different from those in cattle. However, predominant genera of methanogens reported by individual studies varied primarily because of limited scope of sampling, sequencing of limited number of sequences and potential PCR bias in individual studies. In this study, the collective comparative diversity of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of cattle and buffaloes was examined by performing a meta-analysis of all the 16S rRNA (rrn) sequences deposited in GenBank. Ruminal methanogen sequences of buffalo were clustered into 900 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and ruminal methanogen sequences of cattle were clustered into 1522 species level OTUs. The number of species-level OTUs shared between cattle and buffaloes was 229 (10.4% of all OTUs), comprising 1746 sequences (27% of the total 6447 sequences). According to taxonomic classification by three different classifiers, Methanobrevibacter was found to be the most predominant genus both in cattle (69-71% of sequences) as well as buffaloes (65.1-68.9% of sequences). Percentage of Methanomicrobium was much higher (P cattle (4.5%). On the other hand, percentages of Methanosphaera- and Methanomassiliicoccus-like methanogens were much higher (P cattle than in buffaloes. This study indicated that there is a substantial difference in community structure of ruminal methanogens of cattle and buffaloes. The study has also indicated that the percent of species-level operational taxonomic units shared between cattle and buffalo is very low, and thus host species-specific methane mitigation strategies need to be developed for cattle and buffaloes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade, (+2 Grade, (+3 Grade, and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml and alkaline phosphatase (U/L in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432, subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013, with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034, with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737 and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907 respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes.

  1. Fertility following CIDR based synchronization regimens in anoestrous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Z; Ahmad, E; Singh, J; Ahmad, N

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare oestrus expression and fertility rate in used and new controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) device treated anoestrous buffaloes. Furthermore, to determine the timing of ovulation, and fertility rate in estradiol benzoate (EB) and GnRH-administered CIDR-treated anoestrous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes received either a used CIDR (UCIDR, n = 35) or a new CIDR (NCIDR, n = 36) for 7 day and PGF2α on day 6. Oestrous expression was similar (p > 0.05) between UCIDR (88.5%) and NCIDR (96.6%) buffaloes. The pregnancy rate did not differ (p > 0.05) because of treatment (37.1% in UCIDR vs 36.6% in NCIDR). In experiment 2, buffaloes (n = 55) received CIDR device for 7 days and PGF2α, on day 6 and randomly assigned into three treatment groups: (i) CIDR-EB (n = 17) received EB on day 8, (ii) CIDR-GnRH (n = 18) received GnRH on day 9 and (iii) control (n = 20) received no further treatment. Mean interval from CIDR removal to ovulation in CIDR-EB, CIDR-GnRH and CIDR group were 61.3 ± 0.8, 64.9 ± 1.8 and 65.1 ± 16.7 h, respectively. However, the buffaloes in the CIDR-EB and CIDR-GnRH group had lesser variability in the timing of ovulation compared to control. The pregnancy rate of both CIDR-EB group (58%) and CIDR-GnRH group (61%) were tended to be higher (p effective to induce oestrus in anoestrous buffaloes resulting optimal pregnancy rate. Administration of EB and GnRH after CIDR removal results in tighter synchrony (less variability) and improved fertility in anoestrous buffaloes. CIDR based synchronization regimens have great potential in fertility improvement in anoestrous buffaloes. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehul D; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S; Patel, Ajay G; Joshi, Axay B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases.

  3. Seasonal and Altitudinal Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Buffalo in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Prasad Sah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is the most important livestock commodities for milk, meat production and several other multipurpose uses distributed densely from southern tarai to northern mid-hills in Nepal. Among several internal parasitic diseases fascioliasis is highly economic one caused by Fasciola in buffaloes. However, there are only few studies carried on prevalence of fascioliasis emphasizing buffaloes in relation to seasonal (summer and rainy, and winter and altitudinal variations. Therefore, we examined prevalence of fascioliasis seasonally and vertically. For the purpose, we selected two districts of eastern Nepal and sampled from low altitude area known as Madhesha ranging from 175-200, Dhankuta from 800-1200 m, and Murtidhunga from 1800-2200 m elevation from the sea level, representing tarai, mid hills and high hills, respectively. Altogether from February 2013 to January 2014 at every two months interval we collected 798 fecal samples from buffaloes; 282 from Murtidhunga, 239 from Dhankuta and 277 from Madhesha. The samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Fasciola eggs using sedimentation technique. Results showed that overall prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was 39.9% (319/798, ranging highest 42.6%in Madhesha followed by 39.7% in Murtidhunga and 37.2% in Dhankuta, respectively. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be significantly (p <0.05 high in winter (44.9% comparing to rainy season (34.4%. The prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was relatively higher in low altitude than high altitude, although it was not statistically significant (p <0.05. In our findings the female buffaloes showed higher prevalence for fascioliasis than in male. Since the fascioliasis in buffaloes is highly endemic, thus strategic deworming in high risk period is recommended along with measure to prevent pasture contamination with buffalo feces.

  4. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  5. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Purkayastha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.

  6. Tuberculosis misclassification among resettled refugees in Buffalo, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T B; Mador, M J; Glick, M; Ahmad, I

    2015-02-01

    Discordance in the classification of tuberculosis (TB) disease overseas compared to classification in the United States has been observed among immigrant populations. To examine TB misclassification among recently resettled refugees in Buffalo, NY, between 2005 and 2012. Retrospective study of refugees resettled to Buffalo from 2005 to 2012 and evaluated at a refugee/community health center. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) Class B1-B3 and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Class 2 (LTBI) cases were abstracted. Independent variables were demographics, countries of origin and refugee camp internment, year of resettlement, purified protein derivative induration, and chest X-ray findings, while CDC DGMQ and ATS classification were dependent variables. Independent samples t-test and analysis of variance were performed. Of 284 charts reviewed, 233 (81.2%) were misclassified. Among 101 cases of LTBI (B1/B2) diagnosed outside the United States, 51 (50.5%) were overdiagnosed. Underdiagnoses occurred among 181/182 refugees (99.5%) originally classified as normal overseas. These findings suggest that TB misclassification among recent immigrants remains widespread. Screening procedures both before and after resettlement should be better synchronized. Public health implications range from morbidity and costs of unnecessary treatment to the spread of a highly communicable disease.

  7. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  8. Detomidine-diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawde, A M; Amarpal; Kinjavdekar, P; Aithal, H P; Pratap, K; Bisht, G S

    2000-04-01

    Eight buffalo calves (8-12 months, 70-100 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of four animals each. Animals of group I were given detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), whereas animals of group II received a mixture of detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), diazepam (100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (DDK) intravenously. Various clinical parameters, such as weak time, down time, pedal and pinprick reflexes, muscle relaxation and extent of sedation, as well as heart and respiratory rates and electrocardiograms were measured before (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min after treatment. In all the animals of group II (DDK), the pedal reflex was completely abolished (score: 3.00 +/- 0.00) within 5 min, the pinprick response was either very weak or it was completely abolished at this interval. Muscle relaxation and sedation were excellent within 5 min of DDK administration. The depth of sedation and analgesia was maximum from 5 to 15 min postinjection. Detomidine alone, however, failed to produce appropriate depression of the pedal and pinprick reflexes, sedation was mild and muscle relaxation was inadequate. Heart rate showed a significant (P detomidine. The results indicated that DDK combination is safe and suitable for 15 min of anaesthesia with excellent muscle relaxation and has only limited cardiorespiratory effects in buffaloes.

  9. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  10. TUTORIALS ON AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION FOR SOLVING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odili J.B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The African Buffalo Optimization is a newly designed metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the migration of African buffalos from place to place across the vast African forests, deserts and savannah in search of food. Being a new algorithm, several researchers from different parts of the research world have indicated huge interest in understanding the working of the novel algorithm. This paper presents a practical demonstration of the workings of the African Buffalo Optimization in solving the popular travelling salesman problem. It is our belief that this tutorial paper will be helpful in further introducing the new algorithm and making it user-friendly.

  11. Relationship between length of estrous cycle and progesterone levels and milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  12. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Mahmmod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt.A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group.Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle.This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes.

  13. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalema-Zikusoka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  14. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.

  15. All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Drilling: Avoiding Injury to the Physis, Lateral Collateral Ligament, Anterolateral Ligament, and Popliteus-A 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin G; Cannamela, Peter C; Fabricant, Peter D; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Polousky, John D; Milewski, Matthew D; Anderson, Allen F; Ganley, Theodore J

    2018-01-25

    To investigate the relation of the at-risk structures (distal femoral physis, lateral collateral ligament, anterolateral ligament, popliteus, and articular cartilage) during all-epiphyseal femoral tunnel drilling. A second purpose was 2-fold: (1) to develop recommendations for tunnel placement and orientation that anatomically reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) while minimizing the risk of injury to these at-risk structures, and (2) to allow for maximal tunnel length to increase the amount of graft in the socket to facilitate healing. Three-dimensional models of 6 skeletally immature knees (aged 7-11 years) were reconstructed from computed tomography and used to simulate all-epiphyseal femoral tunnels. Tunnels began within the ACL footprint and were directed laterally or anterolaterally, with the goal of avoiding injury to at-risk structures. The spatial relation between the ideal tunnel and these structures was evaluated. Full-length tunnels and partial length condyle sockets were simulated in the models using the same trajectories. An anterolateral tunnel could be placed to avoid direct injury to lateral structures. The safe zone on the anterolateral aspect of the femur was larger than that of a tunnel with a direct lateral trajectory (median 127 mm 2 vs 83 mm 2 , P = .028). Anterolateral tunnels were longer than direct lateral tunnels (median 30 mm vs 24 mm, P = .041). Safe angles for anterolateral tunnels were 34° to 40° from the posterior condylar axis; direct lateral tunnels were drilled 4° to 9° from the posterior condylar axis. Sockets could be placed without direct injury to structures at risk with either orientation. An all-epiphyseal ACL femoral tunnel can be placed without causing direct injury to at-risk structures. A tunnel angled anterolaterally from the ACL origin is longer and has a larger safe zone compared with the direct lateral tunnel. The largest safe zone for femoral all-epiphyseal ACL drilling was (1) anterior to

  16. Influence of nutrition and suckling patterns on the postpartum cyclic activity of swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongsrikeao, W.; Boon-Ek, L.; Wanapat, M.; Taesakul, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of nutrition and suckling patterns on the ovarian cyclicity of postpartum buffaloes. In Study 1, which was conducted on an institutional farm, two different diets were fed to 24 buffaloes during late gestation and postpartum period. Restricted (twice daily) suckling began on day 30 postpartum in half the animals on each diet. The body weight of both ad libitum suckled and twice daily suckled groups declined during the postpartum period, irrespective of the diet fed. Buffaloes subjected to restricted suckling lost less body weight and re-established ovarian cyclicity earlier than those suckled ad libitum. In Study 2, which was conducted under village conditions, temporary calf removal for 72 hours on days 91-93 postpartum in anoestrous buffaloes induced the re-establishment of ovarian cyclicity within 14 days. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  17. Fractionation and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from buffalo and bovine casein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Ahmed Behdal; He, Zhiyong; El-Aziz, Mahmoud Abd; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo and bovine caseins were hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin to produce novel antioxidant peptides. The casein hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration (UF) and further characterized by RP-HPLC. The fractions produced higher antioxidant activities were identified for their peptides using LC MS/MS. All UF-VI (MWcasein (UF-VI with 54.84-fold purification) showed higher antioxidant activity than that obtained by trypsin. Trypsin hydrolysate contained high amount of hydrophobic amino acids while alcalase hydrolysate consisted mainly of Ser, Arg, Ala and Leu. The antioxidant peptides identified by LC MS/MS were RELEE, MEDNKQ and TVA, EQL in buffalo casein hydrolysates produced by trypsin and alcalase, respectively. Mechanism and reaction pathways of selected antioxidant peptides with ABTS were proposed. Conclusively, buffalo casein provided antioxidant peptides similar to bovine, suggesting that buffalo casein is a novel source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dystocia Due to Relative Oversized Fetus and fetal maldisposition in a Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Vasishta

    Full Text Available A primiparous Murrah graded buffalo suffering with dystocia due to relative oversize fetus and fetal maldisposition and its successful management following laparohysterotomy has been described. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 569-570

  19. Path Coefficient Analysis of Buffalo Production in Buldana District of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K U Bidwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study entitled “Decomposition analysis of buffalo production in Buldana District was undertaken to ascertain the technological changes in term of breeding, feeding, housing, milking and calf management practices of buffalo. The path coefficient analysis of this study clearly demonstrated that daily milk production in buffaloes was influenced substantially by a single factor i.e management index. A combination of all the management practices in the form of overall management status on the rearing were responsible to influence the daily milk yield. However, rearing of good potential animals, feeding of sufficient amounts of dry and green fodder with required amount of concentrates to fulfill the nutritional requirements could favour the milk production in buffaloes. All these factors exhibited positive direct effect on milk production. The indirect effects were also found in positive direction, resulting a positive significant correlation for these factors. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 103-104

  20. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  1. Choice, Stability and Excellence: Parent and Professional Choice in Buffalo's Magnet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    1986-01-01

    Reports on teacher, principal, parent, and student reactions to a desegregation plan implemented in Buffalo, New York, which permits teachers to choose the magnet schools in which they desire to teach and parents to select their children's schools. (GC)

  2. Molecular changes during chemical acidification of the buffalo and cow milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaucheron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Composition and physico-chemical properties of buffalo and cow milks were compared at their initial pH and during chemical acidification. As compare to cow milk, buffalo milk was richer in caseins and minerals such as Ca, Mg and Pi. Along with these differences, the capacity of buffalo milk to be acidified named buffering capacity was also higher than cow milk. The pH decrease induced aggregation of caseins at their isoelectric pH and solubilisations of Ca and Pi were significant for both milks. For both species, these molecular changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. These differences suggested that the acidification process in dairy technology which is well established for cow milk can not be directly extrapolated to buffalo milk and some adaptations are necessary.

  3. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... from the US Border Port of Entry/Peace Bridge Plaza (Plaza), in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New... Drive, and to provide alternate access from Porter Avenue to the Plaza. Letters describing the proposed...

  4. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne H. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026, on primiparous (PP and multiparous (MP Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP. The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum. Feed intake, body weight, and milk yields (MY were recorded, and milk and blood samples were collected for analyses. Feces were collected from days 45 to 47 during early lactation and from days 90 to 92 during mid-lactation to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF. Energy corrected milk yield (ECM, feed conversion, and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency were calculated. Yeast treated MP buffaloes consumed more DM (P ≤ 0.041 and CP than the untreated control group. Apparent digestibility of DM and OM were significantly greater at mid-lactation for treated versus control group (P = 0.001. Crude fiber digestibility was greater in MP than in PP buffaloes (P = 0.049, and yeast supplemented MP cows had a greater CF digestibility than control MP buffaloes at mid-lactation (P = 0.010. Total blood lipids decreased after yeast supplementation (P = 0.029. Milk yields, ECM, fat and protein yields increased for yeast treated MP buffaloes (P ≤ 0.039. The study concluded that the response to yeast supplementation in buffalo cows is parity dependent. Multiparous buffaloes respond to yeast supplementation with an increased DM intake and CF digestibility without significant weight gains, allowing a greater ECM yield with less fat mobilization. Supplementing buffaloes with yeast culture may increase milk production in early lactation and results in a

  5. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  6. Isolation and identification of indigenous lactic acid bacteria from North Sumatra river buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Heni Rizqiati; Cece Sumantr; Ronny Rachman Noor; E. Damayanthi; E. I. Rianti

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA). The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology test...

  7. Urea-molasses liquid diet feeding for growth produion in cattle and buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, N.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Singh, U.B.

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the study to find the utilization of urea-molasses liquid for growth and maintenance in cattle and buffaloes, production rate of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was measured by single injection isotope dilution technique using 1-2 14 C-acetate in adult cattle and buffaloes fed ad libitum urea-molasses diet with restricted wheat straw and intact protein. (M.G.B.)

  8. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Vaidya; N. M. Markandeya; R. N. Waghamare; C. S. Shekh; V. V. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of patho...

  9. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF WATER BUFFALO COLOSTRUM: FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Catellani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal colostrum contains many substances with antibacterial activity such as lysozyme and lactoferrin which should inhibit the microbial growth. The aim of this research is to understand if colostrum can be considered a safe product, considering that Regulation (EC N° 1662/2006, which has modified the Regulation (EC N° 853/2004, introducing colostrum as human food. Microbiological tests, made on water buffalo colostrum, aiming to obtain the total microbial count (maximum concentration: 3,6•104 ufc/ml, the quantitative evaluation of total (maximum the highest concentration found: 2,3•103 ufc/ml and fecal coliforms (maximum concentration: 4,9•102 ufc/ml and the qualitative search of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that there is not a microbial growth in colostrum, that it can be considered a safe food, from the microbial point of view

  11. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  12. Final report : Occupational gap analysis, volume 2 Wood Buffalo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The general economy of the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta has improved in recent years due to the expansion of the oil sand industry. Many of the oil sands projects are situated in the southern part of the region and are serviced out of Lac LaBiche. This paper examines the implications of this economic growth for the regional supply and demand of workers in key occupational categories. In particular, it projects employment opportunities that are directly attributed to the regional economic expansion, and assesses whether there will be an adequate supply of workers to meet the demand for new and replacement employees. The report includes: an overview of the regional economy; a population forecast for the region and the demand for workers in selected occupations; an analysis of whether or not the new labour force entrants will choose the selected occupations; and, a supply and demand analysis. 7 tabs., 2 figs., 5 appendices

  13. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S P; Saini, M S; Sengupta, B P; Agarwal, V K [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India)

    1989-12-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine(T{sub 3}) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T{sub 4}:T{sub 3} ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.; Saini, M.S.; Sengupta, B.P.; Agarwal, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T 4 ) and triiodothyronine(T 3 ) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T 4 :T 3 ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs

  15. Reproductive responses to climatic heat induced by management systems in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollah, M.A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Nordin, Y.; Abdullah Sani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Climatic heat is one of the factors influencing the reproductive performance of swamp buffaloes. Any management system that imposes high climatic heat stress tends to reduce reproductive performance. Buffaloes grazing in an open hilly ranch system reached puberty later (at an age of 33 months) and at heavier body weight (365 kg) than animals raised in confinement (26 months and 289 kg). Physiological data (water metabolism and thyroid activity) indicated that grazing animals had to tolerate a higher heat load. High climatic temperatures were found to depress ovarian activity, especially during the dry season. The effect was observed only in cycling buffaloes denied wallow. Buffaloes having access to wallows were able to maintain their heat balance under various levels of heat load by adjusting their water requirements, mobilizing their body water and adjusting their metabolic rate (thyroid activity). It is concluded that stressful climatic temperatures can depress the reproductive performance of young heifers and adult swamp buffaloes, and that climatic heat stress directly depresses ovarian activity in swamp buffaloes. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from urinary purine derivatives in zebu cattle and water buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Abdullah, N.; Jelan, Z.A.; Nolan, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W 0.75 /day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8- 14 C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)

  17. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  18. Serum levels of cytokines in water buffaloes experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Guo, Ai-Jiang; Hou, Jun-Ling; Sun, Miao-Miao; Sheng, Zhao-An; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Wei-Yi; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-09-15

    Fasciola gigantica infection in water buffaloes causes significant economic losses especially in developing countries. Although modulation of the host immune response by cytokine neutralization or vaccination is a promising approach to control infection with this parasite, our understanding of cytokine's dynamic during F. gigantica infection is limited. To address this, we quantified the levels of serum cytokines produced in water buffaloes following experimental infection with F. gigantica. Five buffaloes were infected via oral gavage with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae and blood samples were collected from buffaloes one week before infection and for 13 consecutive weeks thereafter. The levels of 10 cytokines in serum samples were simultaneously determined using ELISA. F. gigantica failed to elicit the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. On the other hand, evidence of a Th2 type response was detected, but only early in the course of parasite colonization and included modest increase in the levels of IL-10 and IL-13. The results also revealed suppression of the immune responses as a feature of chronic F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. Taken together, F. gigantica seems to elicit a modest Th2 response at early stage of infection in order to downregulate harmful Th1- and Th17-type inflammatory responses in experimentally infected buffaloes. The full extent of anti-F. gigantica immune response and its relation to pathogenesis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis: Clinical Findings and the Associated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Ashker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, fibrinogen (Fb, and serum sialic acid (SSA. It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful.

  20. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  1. Molecular Cloning, Identification, and Expression Patterns of Myostatin Gene in Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Li, Haiyang; Huang, Guiting; Cui, Jiayu; Zhang, Ruimen; Cui, Kuiqing; Yang, Sufang; Shi, Deshun

    2018-01-02

    Myostatin (MSTN), also named growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member with a key role in the negative regulation of skeletal muscle growth. However, its role in ovarian folliculogenesis remains unclear. To provide us with a basis for understanding this role, we cloned MSTN and examined its expression patterns in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The complete ORF of the water buffalo MSTN gene is 1,128 nucleotides, which encode a 375 amino acid protein and sharing 99% identity at the deducted amino acid level with that of Bos taurus. Protein sequence analysis showed that MSTN is a weakly acerbic extracellular protein, consisting of signal peptides at 18-19 sites, a TGF-β propeptide, and a TGF-β domain. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that water buffalo MSTN was expressed in multiple tissues but not limited to muscle. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the presence of MSTN in oocytes and granulosal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm the expression of MSTN in the water buffalo ovary, suggesting an additional role of MSTN in water buffalo folliculogenesis, along with its role in skeletal muscle growth regulation. Further study of the regulatory mechanism of MSTN in water buffalo reproduction is warranted. MSTN, myostatin; ORF, open reading frame.

  2. Blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for healthy newborn Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, André M; Silva, Daniela G; Clemente, Virna; Pizauro, Lucas J L; Bernardes, Priscila A; Santana, Clarissa H; Eckersall, Peter D; Fagliari, José J

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of published work on RIs for newborn buffaloes. Establishing blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for newborn buffaloes is important for monitoring health. This study establishes blood gas and serum biochemical RIs of newborn buffaloes. Twenty-eight newborn buffaloes, 10-30 days old, were selected. Thirty blood biochemical variables were analyzed. The Anderson-Darling test was used to assess the normality of the distribution. The Dixon test and the Tukey test were used to identify outliers. The RI and 90% CI were determined using standard and robust methods and the Box-Cox transformation. A total of 30 RIs for healthy buffalo calves have been reported in this study. RIs for blood gas variables were reported for pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ), saturation of O 2 (SO 2 ), bicarbonate (cHCO 3 - ), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (ctCO 2 ), and anion gap (AG). RIs for serum biochemical variables were reported for glucose (GLU), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), AST, ALP, GGT, CK, LDH, creatinine (CREA), urea, cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, iCa, Cl, iron, total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB). This is the first reported study covering complete serum chemistry and blood gas RIs for healthy 1-month-old Murrah buffaloes. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Sero-Surveillance of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Buffaloes and Cattle in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq*, Zaka Saeed1, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Iftikhar Ali1 and Muhammad Fiaz Qamar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was executed to study the sero-surveillance of hemorrhagic septicemia (HS in buffaloes and cattle in district Dera-Ghazi-Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The average geometric mean titers (GMT recorded against HS in diseased buffaloes and cattle were 5.7 and 6.1, respectively. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 57.58, 52.30 and 90.83% in young buffalo calves; and 3.17, 1.92 and 60.65%, in adult buffaloes, respectively. Whereas, in case of young cattle calves, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 8.63, 5.27 and 61.11%, respectively. While in adult cattle, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 4.83, 2.18 and 45.23%, respectively. The present study revealed that the mortality, morbidity and case fatality rates due to HS were greater in young calves than the adults both in buffaloes and cattle. Furthermore, buffaloes were found to be more susceptible to the disease than the cattle.

  4. Estimation of the intercalving period in Italian Mediterranean buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate the average intercalving period of a buffalo herd/population, by using the percentage of subjects that are able to conceive within 90 days post-partum, and that, consequently, have an intercalving period lower than 400 days, in order to give a precocious judgment on its fertility. A total number of 8,845 intercalving periods were recorded in 4 farms and 4 Provinces of Campania and Lazio Regions. In all the farms the out of breeding season mating technique was adopted and a constant diet was administered throughout the year. Values were grouped for primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes and were divided in four calving periods: January-March; April-June; July-September; October-December. Within each group/farm ANOVA was performed and the means were analysed by t Student test. In each group the mean value and the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days (% < 400 days were calculated and the regression analysis was carried out between the values of the intercalving periods and the % < 400 days. Finally, an all-in regression analysis was performed by using the data of 55 groups, excluding those with less than 25 values. The regression analysis between % < 400 days and the mean value of the intercalving period was always significant, except in one case. The comparison between the real values and those calculated allows to affirm that, if the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days is higher than 50%, an intercalving period lower than 450 days will be probably recorded.

  5. The Response of Iraqi buffaloes to standardized diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Khlef

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.

  6. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    G. Zicarelli; R. Di Palo; B. Gasparrini; C. Grassi; G. Neglia; G. Campanile

    2010-01-01

    In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001) therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001). In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003). It is possible that, ...

  8. Effect of nicotine and preventive role of camellia sinensis on the histomorphology of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, M.; Butt, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea) on the developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Army medical college, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2012 to May 2012. Material and Method: Freshly laid fertilized eggs of Fayoumi breed chick eggs were selected at zero hour of incubation. Four groups were made, group G1 was control group treated with normal saline. Experimental group G2 was treated with camellia sinensis extract (green tea), group G3 was given nicotine whereas group G4 was injected with working solution nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea), in 0.1 ml quantity. Double exposure one at 48 hour of incubation and other at 48 hours after hatching of chicks. SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the data. Results: It was observed that the weight of chick at one month of age and weight of femur of chicks of nicotine treated groups G3 and group G4 were reduced in comparison to control group G1. Mean number of cells in hypertrophy zone of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone were reduced of nicotine treated groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis (green tea) helped to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine treated group but cannot reverse the oxidative injury. (author)

  9. Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K = 0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography.

  10. Premature Epiphyseal Closure of the Lower Extremities Contributing to Short Stature after cis-Retinoic Acid Therapy in Medulloblastoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jessica J; Levine, Michael A; Belasco, Jean B; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged cis-retinoic acid (RA) exposure contributes to premature epiphyseal closure. cis-RA is administered in various treatment regimens for pediatric cancers, thus increasing the risk for bone deformities and compromised growth. We present a case of premature epiphyseal closure in a 9-year-old female with a history of medulloblastoma and treatment with a multimodal regimen including cis-RA. She was subsequently diagnosed with radiation-induced endocrine late effects including hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Seven months after initiation of GH therapy, an increased prominence of the wrists and knees combined with a deceleration in growth velocity prompted further evaluation; radiographs revealed bilateral premature closure of the distal femur and proximal tibia growth plates despite normal left wrist bone age. High doses of vitamin A and its analogs are linked to premature closure of the lower-extremity growth plates in animals and children. Pediatric brain tumor patients are at increased risk of growth failure due to concurrent radiation-induced GHD, damage to the spinal bones, and cis-RA-associated premature closure of the lower-extremity growth plates, with significant reduction in adult stature. A better appreciation of the detrimental effect of cis-RA on the growing skeleton is needed to monitor at-risk patients and to provide timely interventions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  12. Comparison of buffalo rumen liquor and buffalo faeces as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT, Theodorou et al., 1994 requires a rumen liquor (RL inoculum, as the other methods utilising a microbial fermentation approach to feedstuff evaluation. However, the RL is collected either from animals fitted with rumen cannula or at slaughtering. This raises a number of practical, economical and ethical problems, thus several studies have been carried out to test alternative inocula. To this aim faeces (FA have been demonstrated to have high potentiality for the Tilley and Terry (1963 technique (El Saher et al., 1987; Akther et al., 1999; Cone et al., 2002. Mauricio et al. (2001, evaluating the forages fermentative characteristics by IVGPT, found lower potential gas production and longer lag times for bovine FA compared to RL as inoculum. Aim of present paper was to compare buffalo RL and FA as inoculum for IVGPT.

  13. [Epiphyseal osteoid osteoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas, C; Garbayo, A J; Martínez Denegri, J; Cañadell, J

    1990-01-01

    Three more cases of osteoid osteoma located in epiphysis are presented. All of them had special features, as a reactive synovitis due to the proximity of the lesion to the joint and the lower movility arch of these joints. The x-ray was essential for the diagnosis and definitive treatment was surgical resection.

  14. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : functional requirements, working paper #4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-18

    This paper is the fourth in a series that together will comprise an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Study for the Buffalo / Niagara Falls region. This document presents the market packages for the deployment of the Buffalo/Niagara Falls area ...

  15. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dhillod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY, body weight (BW, body length (BL, muzzle width (MW, height at wither (HW, abdominal girth (AG, chest girth (CG, body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD, pin bone distance (PBD, skin thickness (STK, and tail length (TL. Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05 correlation between MY and BW (0.26. Highly significant (p<0.01 correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64, MW (0.42. Significant (p<0.01 negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79. Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo.

  16. Modeling the spatial distribution of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Hughes

    Full Text Available The population density of wildlife reservoirs contributes to disease transmission risk for domestic animals. The objective of this study was to model the African buffalo distribution of the Kruger National Park. A secondary objective was to collect field data to evaluate models and determine environmental predictors of buffalo detection. Spatial distribution models were created using buffalo census information and archived data from previous research. Field data were collected during the dry (August 2012 and wet (January 2013 seasons using a random walk design. The fit of the prediction models were assessed descriptively and formally by calculating the root mean square error (rMSE of deviations from field observations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the detection of buffalo herds and linear regression was used to identify predictors of larger herd sizes. A zero-inflated Poisson model produced distributions that were most consistent with expected buffalo behavior. Field data confirmed that environmental factors including season (P = 0.008, vegetation type (P = 0.002, and vegetation density (P = 0.010 were significant predictors of buffalo detection. Bachelor herds were more likely to be detected in dense vegetation (P = 0.005 and during the wet season (P = 0.022 compared to the larger mixed-sex herds. Static distribution models for African buffalo can produce biologically reasonable results but environmental factors have significant effects and therefore could be used to improve model performance. Accurate distribution models are critical for the evaluation of disease risk and to model disease transmission.

  17. Modeling the spatial distribution of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kristen; Budke, Christine M.; Ward, Michael P.; Kerry, Ruth; Ingram, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The population density of wildlife reservoirs contributes to disease transmission risk for domestic animals. The objective of this study was to model the African buffalo distribution of the Kruger National Park. A secondary objective was to collect field data to evaluate models and determine environmental predictors of buffalo detection. Spatial distribution models were created using buffalo census information and archived data from previous research. Field data were collected during the dry (August 2012) and wet (January 2013) seasons using a random walk design. The fit of the prediction models were assessed descriptively and formally by calculating the root mean square error (rMSE) of deviations from field observations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the detection of buffalo herds and linear regression was used to identify predictors of larger herd sizes. A zero-inflated Poisson model produced distributions that were most consistent with expected buffalo behavior. Field data confirmed that environmental factors including season (P = 0.008), vegetation type (P = 0.002), and vegetation density (P = 0.010) were significant predictors of buffalo detection. Bachelor herds were more likely to be detected in dense vegetation (P = 0.005) and during the wet season (P = 0.022) compared to the larger mixed-sex herds. Static distribution models for African buffalo can produce biologically reasonable results but environmental factors have significant effects and therefore could be used to improve model performance. Accurate distribution models are critical for the evaluation of disease risk and to model disease transmission. PMID:28902858

  18. Economics of milk production of major dairy buffalo breeds by agro-ecological zones in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aujla, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)

  19. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  20. Prevalence of antibodies against Bubaline herpesvirus (BuHV-1) among Mediterranean water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with implications in buffalo trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, C; Prato, R; Ingravalle, F; Vecchio, D; Sciarra, A; Ternavasio, M; Ceccarelli, L; Martucciello, A; Galiero, G; De Carlo, E; Masoero, L

    2016-12-01

    Both Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV-1) and Bubaline herpesvirus (BuHV-1) have been reported to cross the species barrier. Antibody seroconversion in glycoprotein E (gE) blocking ELISA during BuHV-1 infection has been documented. Recent diagnostic efforts have focused on the development and application of discriminatory tests to distinguish between infections with BoHV-1 and BuHV-1. To evaluate the impact and distribution of these two infections in water buffalo farms in two regions (Piedmont (n = 3) and Campania (n = 10), Italy) where infectious bovine rhinotracheitis control programs have been implemented. Sampling was carried out on 13 buffalo farms comprising 1089 animals using specific gE-indirect ELISA's test able to discriminate among BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 infections. 59.0% of animals reacted positive to ELISA (irrespective of whether BoHV-1 or BuHV-1 antigen was used) and 86.4% of these were reactive to BuHV-1 only, whereas 11.8% showed absorbance values for both antigens and were classified as inconclusive. There was a statistically significant age-related difference in BuHV-1 infection rates but not in overall individual (47% vs. 58%) or herd prevalence (100% vs. 90%) of infection between the two regions. The low percentage of sera reactive to BoHV-1 (1.8%, 12/643) indicates that BuHV-1 may be the main circulating alphaherpesvirus infection in Mediterranean water buffalo in the two study areas. Since Bubalus bubalis is included in Directive 64/432/EEC on animal health problems affecting intra-community trade in bovine animals, diagnostic testing with nonspecific ELISA for BoHV-1 infection in buffalo may yield false-positive reactions. This scenario could lead to economic losses and hamper buffalo trade and movement, particularly for reproduction purposes.

  1. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Lipid oxidation in buffalo meat from animals with dietary supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis meat is not widely used in the diet, but it is recently reconsidered due to its valuable nutritional qualities. New strategies aiming to improve the quality of buffalo meat have to be applied particularly to face the problem of lipid peroxidation, one of the most important causes of meat food deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid oxidation of buffalo meat (muscles Caput longum tricipitis brachii, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus, coming from animals fed with two different amount of vitamin E (600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die for 102 -123 days considering, as markers for lipid oxidation, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC-UV and TBA test. Moreover it was evaluated, by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E concentration in the meat samples. Muscles coming from animals with vitamin E supplementation were in mean 2 times more enriched of vitamin E than control (p < 0.05. Meat from buffalo fed with 600 IU/die vitamin E had significant lower MDA concentration in comparison with control (in mean -53%, n= 4. Both for MDA and vitamin E concentrations not significant differences were found between the supplementation of 600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with Vitamin E is a promising strategy to prevent lipid oxidation of buffalo meat and to prolong its shelf-life.

  3. Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders and Economic Losses Caused by Genital Prolapse in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed A. Rabbani, I. Ahmad*, L. A. Lodhi, N. Ahmad and G. Muhammad1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of various reproductive disorders and to estimate the economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in Sir Shamir area of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. The survey was conducted in 8 villages during the 12 months period from June 2005 to May 2006 and the data from 400 farmers (50 farmers from each village were collected. The total buffalo population of this area was 7,785, out of which 2,135 (27.42% animals were included in the study. The overall prevalence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes was recorded as 46.18%. Among all the reproductive disorders, repeat breeding showed the highest prevalence (15.69%, followed by anestrous (9.74%, genital prolapse (7.73%, abortion (5.99%, retained placenta (2.58%, uterine torsion (2.39% and dystocia (2.06%. The total economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in eight villages during the period of study were estimated to be Rs. 4,59,500/- Among these, the highest losses were due to mortality of dam (39.17%, followed by milk losses (25.14%, service charges (21.33% and medicine cost (14.36%. Thus, repeat breeding, anoestrus and genital prolapse seem to be the major reproductive problems in buffaloes in the study area.

  4. Pathology and clinicopathology of buffalo against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven male buffalo calves were divided into infected group of 7 animals and non-infected control group of 4 animals. The infected group was then inoculated with trickle doses of 15 Inetacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and killed 36 weeks after first infection. There were no clinical symptoms observed . Infected and non-infected buffaloes, had similar values of packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell counts . In infected buffaloes, plasma glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity increased in proportion to the dregree of hepatocyte destruction level and evidence of necrosis caused by the migrating of immature flukes through the parenchyma prior to their entry into the bile ducts. While the values of plasma glutamyl transpeptidase showed only a minimal rise with a small peak in week 20 as evidenced by histological observation that infected caused limited damage to epithelial surface of the bile duct . These results indicates that, the resistance mechaninisms of buffalo against fasciolosis infection occurred in the liver or before flukes entering into the bile ducts. These results seem to indicate that, in buffalo, resistance mechanisms to fasciolosis infection occured in the liver or before flukes entry into the bile ducts.

  5. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  6. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  7. Host differences in response to trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo, Ongole and Bali calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedosari, E; Hayakawa, H; Copeman, B

    2006-01-01

    Progressive weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), 7 Ongole (Bos indicus) and four Bali calves (Bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. Similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 Ongole calves and 3 Bali calves maintained fluke-free as controls. Flukes were counted at slaughter 36 weeks after initial infection. Mean daily weight gains of infected Bali (228 +/- 100 (SD) g/day) and infected Ongole calves (328 +/- 57 (SD) g/day) were lower (p = 0.026 and 0.067, respectively) than those of control calves (405 +/- 107 (SD) g/day), but infected buffalo calves (379 +/- 78 (SD) g/day) had similar weight gains to those of the controls (p = 0.57). Throughout the trial, faecal Fasciola egg counts in buffaloes were about one-fifth of counts of Ongole calves, and counts in Bali calves were intermediate. Ongole calves had three times the number of flukes at slaughter in their liver compared to buffalo and Bali calves, which had similar numbers. However, there was evidence that Bali calves had acquired a degree of resistance about 24 weeks after infection commenced and may have lost adult flukes as a consequence.

  8. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  9. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  10. Inbreeding and its effect on some productive traits in buffaloes of South Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a native animal of Iran and there were 500,000 buffaloes in Iran that over 80 per cent of its population concentrated in the north and north- west (Azerbaijan province and 18 per cent in the south (Khuzestan province of the country. Buffaloes reread in rural condition as multi purpose animals in Khuzestan. For mating, farmer use owns herd sire also artificial insemination is limited in the rural condition that may be inbred animals so affect the production performance. The aim of this investigation was estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its affect on some production performance. Data of 200 herds were used from the record sheets of herds under recording program of Animal Breeding Center during period 1990 to 2002 in the Khuzestan province. These results showed mostly herds only one sir and rarely two sires have been used. Inbreeding coefficient was 25 percent in some progeny and high-inbred buffaloes had a low performance. According to results of this study it could be concluded that farmers to avoid inbreeding should use other herd sire and artificial insemination also practical recording scheme and genetically selection to genetic improvement should be included in buffaloes of Iran.

  11. Solving the Traveling Salesman’s Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd’s collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  12. Seasonal prevalence of hydatidosis in buffaloes –A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AarifM. Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the prevalence of Hydatidosis in buffaloe-calves, heifers and adults slaughtered in slaughter house of Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. between March 2010 to Feb. 2011.Materials and Methods: 2,09,615 buffaloes slaughtered were included in this study and were categorized into three groups (A, B and C based on their age at the time of ante-mortem examination. Group Aconsisted of calves (>1 year, accounting for 5100 out of the total number of animals. Group B consisted of heifers (2-3 years accounting for 7840. Group C consisted of adult buffaloes (3-7 years accounting for 1, 96675. Results:Our study revealed an overall prevalence of hydatidosis as 50.96%. Furthermore, the group wise analysis showed the prevalence as 3.52%, 5.58% and 54% in calves, heifers and adult buffaloes, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the factors considered, we conclude that the higher prevalence of infections in buffaloes slaughtered in the Mirha Exports is likely due to an overpopulation of stray dogs in the areas from which the plant gets its supply of animals.

  13. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  14. HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING IMMUNOMODULATION DURING LATE GESTATION IN BUFFALOES (BUBALIS BUBALUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  15. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock... Triangulation Marker “N-5” on Bird Island Pier; thence southeasterly along the pier a distance of approximately...

  16. The Comparison of Ruminal Protozoa Morphology and Population of Holstein Cow and Khuzestan Water Buffalo under the Same Feeding Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabbari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the population and morphology of ruminal protozoa of Holstein and Khuzestan water buffalo steers fed with the same diet. Rumen fluid collected from cow and buffaloes (12 head that were fed with the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. The collected samples were fixed by formaldehyde 18.5%, and ciliates were counted and their genus and species were determined. The results of this experiment showed, total rumen protozoal number of khuzestani water buffalo was higher than the cattle (3.68×105 vs. 2.18×105/ mL of rumen content, respectively. The genus of Diplodinium, Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Holotriches of cow and water buffalo was 37.63, 48.77, 0, 3.75, 9.83 and 44.47, 42.35, 5.31, 0.68, 7.18 %, respectively. There was no species from Epidinium genus (Epidinium ecaudatum and Epidinium cudatum and Diplodinium cristagalli species in the rumen of cattle, but they found in the rumen of khuzestani water Buffalo. Also it was identified that there was Ophryoscolex purkynei in both rumen cattle and water buffalo, but in the rumen of cattle was higher in comparison to the buffalos. Therefore, it appears under the same diet, there is a significant difference in total rumen protozoal number and species of Holstein cow and Khuzestani water buffalo.

  17. Variation in activity of pepsin extracted from buffalo stomach mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Javed, A.; Miraj, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Pepsin was extracted from the buffalo's mucosa in an acidic medium by incubating at 40 degree C for 48 h and dried in an air blanket at 50 degree C. Conditions for the maximum yield M pepsin were optimized. Changes in pH, temperature and incubation time affect the yield of pepsin, It has been noted that the time of the year in which extractions were made under optimized conditions was an important factor which affected the yield as well as activity of pepsin. Studies showed that maximum yield 11.5% was in February 2009 and minimum 10.3% in May 2009. It was further studied that the activity of the pepsin extracted in February was higher i.e 110 U/mg as compared to the activity of the enzyme extracted during the month of May which was 102.6 U/mg. The purpose of the study was to consider the conditions of the slaughter houses to attain maximum yield of pepsin with maximum activity. (author)

  18. Sex chromosome abnormalities and sterility in river buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Di Palo, R; Iannuzzi, A; Ciotola, F; Peretti, V; Neglia, G; Campanile, G; Zicarelli, L; Iannuzzi, L

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen male river buffaloes, 119 females with reproductive problems (which had reached reproductive age but had failed to become pregnant in the presence of bulls) and two male co-twins underwent both clinical and cytogenetic investigation. Clinical analyses performed by veterinary practitioners revealed normal body conformation and external genitalia for most females. However, some subjects showed some slight male traits such as large base horn circumference, prominent withers and tight pelvis. Rectal palpation revealed damage to internal sex adducts varying between atrophy of Mullerian ducts to complete lack of internal sex adducts (with closed vagina). All bulls had normal karyotypes at high resolution banding, while 25 animals (23 females and 2 male co-twins) (20.7%) with reproductive problems were found to carry the following sex chromosome abnormalities: X monosomy (2 females); X trisomy (1 female); sex reversal syndrome (2 females); and free-martinism (18 females and 2 males). All female carriers were sterile. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Relationships between buffalo milk components and curd characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coefficients of correlation between curd chemical composition and milk characteristics, theoretical and real cheese yield and ratios between cheese yield and protein percentage. The analysis were performed on 326 milk samples collected from 60 half sib buffaloes, ascertained by DNA test, every 50 days. The percentages of dry matter, proteins and fat of the curd were inversely correlated to the curd firmness (a30, a low enzymatic phase of coagulation and low pH value. Percentage of dry matter in the curd was positively correlated with proteins, casein and fat of the milk and negatively with lactose. Furthermore, dry matter and proteins percentages are also positively correlated with theoretical cheese yield and its ratio with real cheese yield, curd dry matter from 1 litre of milk and the ratio between curd dry matter and protein percentage. Negative correlations were found with real cheese yield at 28 hours (r = - 0.100; P< 0.01 and its ratio with protein percentage. An inverse relationship was highlighted between curd proteins percentage and fat of either milk and curd, while a direct association was present with lactose. A higher protein percentage in the curd was linked to a lower cheese yield and a lower ratio between cheese yield and proteins. Ash of the curd, finally, showed similar association to those described for proteins.

  20. Decay of Ethics in David Mamet’s American Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The American Dream is a recurrent theme in American literature. In this response, this paper is an attempt to expose the destructive effects of the dream on human spirits and relations and how it is contradicted in different ways through the analysis of his brilliant play, American Buffalo by David Mamet. Beneath the seeming simple surface of the play lies a deep current of meanings that reflect the calamities of modern American life, and in a broader sense, the modern world. This article indicates how capitalism inculcates ideologies in the mind of individuals in order to facilitate the exploiting process and unquestioning subordination. Ragged individualism, as one of these ideologies, disrupts all communal bonds and even exceeds to the disintegration of friendship and family life. On the other hand, this individualism, as an ideology, is sustained by other capitalist ideologies such as advertising, consumerism and emulation. It will also be discussed that monetary interests are all one seeks in a highly competitive atmosphere and nothing is privileged over business ethics. In brief, this reading of the play tries to illuminate that we live in a dream-like world of ideologies that block logical thinking and forge our relationship with our real existence through less suspected ways.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of buffalo dung: simulation of process kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of kinetic of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) is a beneficial practice to forecast the performance of the process. It is helpful in the design of AD vessels, substrate feeding and digestate exit systems. The aim of this work was to assess the kinetics of anaerobically digested buffalo dung at different quantities of water added. It comprises the assessment of the specific methane production on the basis of VS (Volatile Solids) added in each reactor by using three first order models, i.e. the modified Gompertz model, the Cone model and the Exponential Curve Factor model. The analysis was tested by using the three statistical parameters, i.e. the coefficient of multiple determinations, the standard deviation of residuals and the Akaike's Information Criteria. The result reveals that the Exponential Curve Factor model was the best model that described the experimental data well. Moreover, there was not a direct or indirect relation between the kinetic coefficients of the AD process with the varying total or volatile solid content. (author)

  2. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  3. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  4. Non-epiphyseal chondroblastoma arising in the iliac bone, and complicated by an aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin; Kumar, Rajendra [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Raymond, A.K. [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ayala, Alberto G. [The Methodist Hospital, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor that typically arises in the epiphysis of a long bone. However, when it occurs in non-epiphyseal location in flat bones, it may create a diagnostic problem. We describe such a case of chondroblastoma arising in the iliac bone. A 29-year-old man was incidentally found to have a bony pelvic lesion while undergoing evaluation for Crohn's disease. The radiographs and CT revealed an expansile lytic lesion in the right iliac bone. A core biopsy of the lesion was performed. The histopathology revealed the lesion to be a chondroblastoma with secondary features of aneurysmal bone cyst. An en bloc surgical resection of the tumor was performed. (orig.)

  5. Medial epiphyseal fracture-detachment of the sternoclavicular joint with posterior displacement in a judo athlete - equivalent of posterior sternoclavicular dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pimenta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation is a rare traumatic injury that presents a potential risk of injury to mediastinal structures. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment is done on an emergency basis. The authors report the clinical case of a young judo athlete with post-traumatic medial epiphyseal fracture-detachment, with posterior displacement (lesion equivalent to posterior sternoclavicular dislocation at pediatric ages. He underwent open reduction and ligament repair by means of a mini-anchor.The radiological and clinical outcome was excellent, and the athlete returned to his sports activity without limitations. We discuss the particular features of this pathological condition, along with the different therapeutic approaches and their complications

  6. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  7. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  9. Characterization of PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruheena Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation and cold storage at 4±1 on components of buffalo meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHMOUD, A. A.; SHALABY, M. T.; DOMA, M. B.; HUSSEIN, M. A.; EMAM, O.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 KGy and cold storage at 4± 1 on some components of buffalo meat was studied. The results showed that no significant differences effect on the chemical composition of buffalo meat such as moisture content, crude protein, crude fat and ash content. While cold storage caused a slight decrease in the above mentioned parameters. irradiation treatment did not affect significantly on the total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen. Gradual increase in the solubility of protein and slight decrease in the total nitrogen was observed during cold storage. Total volatile nitrogen and free amino nitrogen increased during cold storage. Total free amino acids increased gradually with different rates depending on the applied irradiation dose. Directly after irradiation isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and arginine exhibit a proportional relationship with the dose level used with the buffalo meat tissues.4 tab

  11. Linguatula serrata prevalence and morphometrical features: an abattoir survey on water buffaloes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tajik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and morphometrical characteristics of Linguatula serrata (L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 366 Iranian water buffaloes were investigated. The infestation rate increased with age (P0.1. In this study, 7.65% of animals had L. serrata nymphs with infection rates of 5.73% for MLNs, 1.63% for livers and 0.27% for lungs. Greyish-white coloured nymphs measured 3.5 to 4.5 mm in length, 82 to 84 mm in body segments, 44 to 46 mm in transversely striated spines and 4 mm in oral hooks. The results indicated a high rate of infestation of lymph nodes in buffaloes in Iran. Due to consumption of raw or under-cooked liver and visceral organs of buffaloes by local people, the importance of a thorough inspection at slaughter-time seems imperative.

  12. Behavioural and hormonal aspects of the oestrous cycle in swamp buffaloes reared under temperate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Shimizu, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out using a small herd of swamp buffaloes raised in Japan under temperate conditions at 36 deg. N latitude, with a view to determining whether they exhibit peculiar characteristics in their oestrous cycles. The studies on the oestrous behaviour revealed that under adequate feeding and management conditions, buffaloes regularly display oestrous throughout the year, with the cycle length, duration of oestrous and time of ovulation all falling within ranges similar to those reported in cattle. External signs of oestrus were generally less evident, as previously reported. Hormonal analysis showed that there were no remarkable differences between swamp buffaloes and cattle in terms of the secretory patterns of pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the oestrous cycle. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  13. Effect of UHT processing and storage conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of buffalo skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that physico-chemical and nutritional changes in UHT processed buffalo skimmed milk were more pronounced at 45 deg. C than 25 deg. C and 10 deg. C. Duration of storage adversely affected the chemical and nutritional quality of processed milk. A slight decrease in pH, total ash and lactose contents, was observed, whereas acidity was increased on the mentioned storage conditions. Total nitrogen and casein nitrogen contents gradually decreased during storage, whereas non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased to a great extent in samples stored at higher temperatures. A significant increase in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) values occurred in UHT processed buffalo skim milk at 25 deg. C and 45 deg. C after of 90 days storage. Storage at high temperature (45 deg. C) caused undesirable effects on sensory properties, general quality characteristics and acceptability of UHT buffalo skimmed milk. (author)

  14. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  15. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-06-04

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance.

  16. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivayogi Hiremath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR, an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4–6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4% that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6% or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8% after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45–60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance.

  17. New Insights on Water Buffalo Genomic Diversity and Post-Domestication Migration Routes From Medium Density SNP Chip Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic water buffalo is native to the Asian continent but through historical migrations and recent importations, nowadays has a worldwide distribution. The two types of water buffalo, i.e., river and swamp, display distinct morphological and behavioral traits, different karyotypes and also have different purposes and geographical distributions. River buffaloes from Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Mozambique, Brazil and Colombia, and swamp buffaloes from China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Brazil were genotyped with a species-specific medium-density 90K SNP panel. We estimated the levels of molecular diversity and described population structure, which revealed historical relationships between populations and migration events. Three distinct gene pools were identified in pure river as well as in pure swamp buffalo populations. Genomic admixture was seen in the Philippines and in Brazil, resulting from importations of animals for breed improvement. Our results were largely consistent with previous archeological, historical and molecular-based evidence for two independent domestication events for river- and swamp-type buffaloes, which occurred in the Indo-Pakistani region and close to the China/Indochina border, respectively. Based on a geographical analysis of the distribution of diversity, our evidence also indicated that the water buffalo spread out of the domestication centers followed two major divergent migration directions: river buffaloes migrated west from the Indian sub-continent while swamp buffaloes migrated from northern Indochina via an east-south-eastern route. These data suggest that the current distribution of water buffalo diversity has been shaped by the combined effects of multiple migration events occurred at different stages of the post-domestication history of the species.

  18. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  19. Evaluation of ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination in water buffaloes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, M.N.; Talukder, A.K.; Akter, M.; Shamsuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A total of 65 water buffaloes (groups A, B, and C) at =>60 days postpartum with a body condition score (BCS) of =>2.5 were selected to evaluate ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination (TAI). The group A buffaloes (n = 25) were treated with a simple ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF alpha - Day 2 - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). The group B buffaloes (n = 22) received PGF2 alpha treatment 12 days before the initiation of simple ovsynch (PGF2 alpha at Day -12 + simple ovsynch; modified ovsynch). The group C buffaloes (n = 18) were treated with a double ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - Day 3 - GnRH - Day 7 - GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - 48 h - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). Milk P4 ELISA was used for tracking ovulation and conception rates. Ovulation rates were higher in buffaloes that received the double ovsynch treatment (group C; 83.3%) than those with simple ovsynch (group A; 72.0%; P < 0.05). The group C cows (44.4%) achieved a higher concentration rate than the cows of groups A (28.0%) and B (36.4%) (P < 0.05) and multiparous buffaloes having BCS of =>3.5 responded better to the ovsynch treatments than the primiparous ones (P < 0.05). The double ovsynch protocol increases both ovulation and conception rates in comparison to the simple and modified ovsynch protocols and is more effective in multiparous cows than in primiparous ones. (author)

  20. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  1. Influence of a swimming-pool on fertility in buffalo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a swimming-pool on reproductive efficiency in buffalo species. The trial was performed in a commercial buffalo farm, where lactating buffaloes were divided into two groups (G1 and G2, and only in G1 a swimming-pool was available. Data of a 4-years period (1999–2002 were analysed. Statistical analysis of calving-conception interval (CCI of a first 3-years period (1999–2001, after logarithmic conversion, was performed by “t” Student’s Test while the percentage data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Animals in G1 showed higher conception rate within 120 days post calving (53.7% vs. 39.9%; P<0.001 in both deliveries of January-March and April-August. During the first 2 years (1999–2000 the CCI of buffaloes that delivered in January- March period was longer (P<0.001 than that of April-August. Furthermore, on the total of the 3 years the CCI was longer (P<0.01 in buffaloes of G2 compared to G1. Because of the presence of a swimming- pool also for G2 from 2002 May, the conception rate of not pregnant subjects characterized by more than 40 days open in 2001 and 2002 was also calculated and the favourable effect was confirmed. These results highlight the beneficial effect of a swimming-pool on fertility in buffalo species.

  2. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  5. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  6. Seasonal prevalence of hydatidosis in buffaloes –A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    AarifM. Khan; Mohsin Gazi; Suhani Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To identify the prevalence of Hydatidosis in buffaloe-calves, heifers and adults slaughtered in slaughter house of Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. between March 2010 to Feb. 2011.Materials and Methods: 2,09,615 buffaloes slaughtered were included in this study and were categorized into three groups (A, B and C) based on their age at the time of ante-mortem examination. Group Aconsisted of calves (>1 year), accounting for 5100 out of the total number of animals. Group B consisted of heifers (2-3 ...

  7. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  8. FARMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERVENTIONS REGARDING BUFFALO CALF HEALTH CARE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    S. AHMAD, M. YAQOOB, N. HASHMI1, M. A. ZAMAN2, AND M. S. AMJAD3

    2009-01-01

    A survey of small, medium and large size dairy farms was conducted in the peri-urban areas of District Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Forty-eight dairy farms owned by 16 farmers from each category were selected randomly to study the status of health care and management of buffalo calves. The results showed that the mortality rate in buffalo calves was 79.51%. None of the farmers was cutting and disinfecting the navel cord and a large number of them (87.8%) fed colostrum after the expulsion of plac...

  9. Antigen based detection of cystic echinococcosis in buffaloes using ELISA and Dot-EIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaran, A; Bino Sundar, S T; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi

    2017-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus . The disease is recognized as one of the world's major zoonoses affecting human beings and domestic animals apart from its economic and public health importance. Development of the cysts in the intermediate host such as buffaloes occurs in the lungs, liver and other organs. In this study, detection of circulating antigen in the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in buffaloes was done using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Dot-Enzyme immunoassay (Dot-EIA). The sensitivity and specificity were determined as 89 and 92 % respectively, whereas those of Dot-EIA were determined as 94 and 96 %.

  10. Reproductive endocrine profiles and follicular growth after estrus induction in the riverine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 and riverine-swamp hybrid buffalo (2n = 49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. BonDurant

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult female water buffalo were used in the present study (5 x [2n = 50] and 5 x [2n= 49] hybrids. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography between two consecutive ovulations. Observed follicular wave numbers were: 1 (n=1, 2 (n=4, and 3 (n=5. The interovulatory interval ranged 17 to 23 days. Differences in mean follicular diameter between follicles of the normal karyotype (2n=50 and buffalo hybrids (2n=49 were found on the second subordinate group of follicles (P0.05, whereas inhibin profiles were significantly higher in the hybrid group (P<0.05. Understanding the biological meaning of the difference in inhibin concentrations in B. bubalis female reproductive performance will require further investigation.

  11. Comparison of purine derivatives and creatinine in plasma and urine between local cattle and buffaloes in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Kim Thanh; Dao Thi Phuong; Tran Thi Thu Hong; Phung Thi Luu; Ngo Mau Dung; Hoang Quoc Hung; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment I, 4 female swamp buffaloes and 4 local cattle fed with the diet based on young maize and rice straw (80/20), and in experiment II, the same number and types of animals as in Experiment I were fed with the diet based on rice straw and rice bran (70/30). The animals were fed twice a day with the diets at 40, 60, 80, 95% of ad libitum intake. The digestibility of nutrients and N excretion were similar for cattle and buffaloes. The purine derivative:creatinine ratio (PDC) index was significantly affected by the level of feed intake (P < 0.001) in both the species. Large differences in urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion were observed, being much lower in buffaloes than in cattle. The regression analysis showed that urinary PD excretion rate per kg of digestible organic matter intake for cattle was higher than that for buffalo. The PDC index also followed the same pattern. The nitrogen retention increased with the supply of energy, both in cattle and buffaloes, indicating that the protein supply was similar. There was no consistent effect of time of day on spot sampling in buffalo and cattle. Buffaloes urinated less frequently than cattle, so sampling time was not really relevant. (author)

  12. Serum Progesterone and Estradiol-17β Profiles in Nili Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with and without Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi and Faiz-ul-Hassan1*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare serum hormone profiles (progesterone and estradiol-17β in buffaloes with dystocia and unassisted calving in three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy three buffaloes (n=173 with assisted (dystocia and unassisted calving (normal birth were sampled for study. The results showed that the buffaloes suffering with dystocia had significantly higher (P<0.05 mean serum progesterone level compared with those having normal calving. The comparison amongst the agro-ecological zones revealed that serum progesterone level of dystocia cases in buffaloes of northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared with those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone, whereas the latter two did not differ between each other. No difference was observed in serum progesterone levels in normal buffaloes when compared amongst three agro-ecological zones. The serum estradiol-17β profile showed a significant (P<0.05 lower level in buffaloes with dystocia as compared to those with normal calving. Mean serum estradiol-17β level in the buffaloes affected with dystocia in the northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone wherein the latter two did not differ between each other.

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation of the Foreign Body Complications in the Compound Stomach of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat E. El esawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to detect and record the clinical and ultrasonographic findings of the different complications resulted from the foreign bodies lodged in the compound stomach of cattle and buffaloes. A total of 105 animals (37 cattle and 68 buffaloes were subjected to study. Based on the clinical and ultrasonographic examination, animals were classified into; acute local reticuloperitonitis (ALRP (15 cattle and 28 buffaloes, chronic local reticuloperitonitis (CLRP (6 cattle and 14 buffaloes, acute diffuse reticuloperitonitis (ADRP (5 cattle and 3buffaloes, reticular abscesses (RA (4 cattle and 7 buffaloes, traumatic pericarditis (TP (6 cattle and16 buffaloes and liver abscess (one cattle. Results revealed that ALRP represented the highest percentage of 40.5% in cattle and 41.2 % in buffalos between the different complications of TRP. TP represented the second complications of higher incidence (16.2% in cows and 23.5% in buffalos. Liver abscess represented the lowest percentage (2.8% and was recorded in cows only. The pregnant animals were affected more than the non pregnant. Clinical findings represented in systemic reaction and pain tests were commonly encountered in TRP and its complications. Some of the affected animals were negatively respond to metal detector test. Results of the present study indicated that the ultrasonographic examination provide a specific echogenic pattern for the different complications of TRP. It was concluded that, clinical examination only is not efficient to give accurate diagnosis of foreign body lodged in the reticulum and rumen and their complications. Ultrasonography is a safe, non invasive diagnostic confirmatory method that could be used for early detection of such conditions.

  15. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m. and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR was inserted intravaginally (day=0 at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (8 mm, corpora lutea, and transferable embryos was higher in buffaloes superstimulated at estradiol-induced follicular wave compared to the conventional protocol: Further the percentage of transferable embryos was significantly higher in buffaloes administered with LH compared to GnRH.

  16. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  17. AHP 21: Sacred Dairies, Dairymen, and Buffaloes of the Nilgiri Mountains in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1,500 Toda people inhabit the Nilgiri Mountains in south India. Arguably the most remarkable characteristic of Toda culture is the sacred nature of the husbandry of herds of long-horned mountain water buffaloes. No other community in India has so single-mindedly focused its ritual attention on one particular animal species. Every important task associated with the buffalo herds – milking, milk-processing, giving salt, naming, seasonal migrations, burning pastures, introducing new equipment into the dairies, etc. – has been embellished with ritual. Todas make a clear-cut distinction between temple and domestic buffaloes. Ordinary men (but not women herd the latter, whose milk and milk-products (buttermilk, butter, and clarified butter, but not flesh (since the community espouses vegetarianism may be consumed, bartered, or sold without restriction. Males who are responsible for herding temple buffaloes conduct their daily lives in a manner preserving greater ritual purity than ordinary men. Moreover, they are not just dairymen, but also the community's priests. They must guard the ritual purity of the dairies they serve, and all that is in them, for these are the Todas' temples – sacred places, infused with divinity.

  18. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group. The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05 in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity were found significantly increased (p<0.05 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead, internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  19. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu; Harishankar, M.; Dhinakar Raj, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine

  20. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  1. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  2. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLWYP07000; L16100000.DU0000] Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Fortification Creek Planning Area... and maintaining other management activities in the planning area. The Draft RMPA/EA documents the...

  3. Microstructure and physicochemical properties reveal differences between high moisture buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Ong, Lydia; Lopez, Christelle; Kentish, Sandra E; Gras, Sally L

    2017-12-01

    Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability. The buffalo cheeses exhibited a significantly higher ratio of fat to protein and a microstructure containing larger fat patches and a less dense protein network. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detected the presence of only β-casein variant A2 and a single β-lactoglobulin variant in buffalo products compared to the presence of both β-casein variants A1 and A2 and β-lactoglobulin variants A and B in bovine cheese. These differences arise from the different milk composition and processing conditions. The differences in microstructure and physicochemical properties observed here offer a new approach to identify the sources of milk used in commercial cheese products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  5. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  6. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  7. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  8. Comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, R.C.S.; Lende, van der T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Mamuad, F.V.; Garillo, E.P.; Cruz, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected between 1981 and 1991 at the Philippine Carabao Center at Central Luzon State University (PCC-CLSU) were used for the comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes. Body weights and body measurements were available

  9. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  10. Progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations in blood plasma of buffaloes during different reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjit; Arora, S.P.; Sawhney, Ajay

    1982-01-01

    Six Murrah buffaloes in group I were fed as per NRC requirements and the same number in group II were kept at low level of nutrition. Blood samples were collected from all the buffaloes during estrus, anoestrus or even pregnancy, for estimation of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Progesterone levels were consistently low during anoestrus period (<1.0 ng/ml), but, peak occurred on day minus 10 of the next following estrus indicating that luteal activity preceded the first estrus after a prolonged anoestrum. The estradiol-17β levels did not show any distinct trend during anoestrus and subsequent estrous cycles. Underfed buffaloes required more services per conception. The mean progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy were 6.12 +- 0.21 and 5.31 +- 0.29 ng/ml in groups I and II, respectively, which were persistent. Plasma progesterone drop was recorded in buffaloes which aborted or showed foetal resorption, abrupt in the former case and at a slow rate in the latter case. (author)

  11. Clinical and ultrasonographic observations of functional and mechanical intestinal obstruction in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed for clinical and laboratory evaluation of intestinal obstruction (IO in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of ultrasonographic findings. Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into 2 groups: Healthy (n=10 and diseased group (n=20. Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, abdominal pain, various degrees of abdominal distention, and absence or presence of scanty mucoid faces. These animals were subjected to clinical and ultrasonographic as well as laboratory examinations. Results: Based on ultrasonographic findings, various forms of IO were diagnosed. Functional obstruction, paralytic ileus, was diagnosed in 17 cases (85% while mechanical IO was diagnosed only in 3 cases (15%. Out of 17 cases of paralytic ileus, both proximal and distal ileuses were successfully imaged in 8 and 9 cases, respectively. Proximal ileus was imaged from the right dorsal flank region as a single dilated loop of diameter >6 cm, while distal ileus was imaged as multiple dilated loops of diameter <6 cm. Mechanical obstruction due to duodenal intussusception was visualized as two concentric rings with outer echogenic wall and hypoechoic lumen. All cases of IO showed leukocytosis, hypoproteinemia, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusion: Ultrasonography proved to be an essential tool for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various forms of IO in buffaloes.

  12. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  13. Studies on the reproduction of water buffalo in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, W.G.; Ohashi, O.M.; Sousay, J.S.; Ribeiro, H.F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum (pp) reproductive activity was studied in water buffalo kept under traditional and improved management conditions. A comparison of monthly calving patterns showed that in a herd subjected to variations in fodder availability between the rainy and dry seasons, parturitions occurred mainly between April and August. In contrast, in a herd for which reasonable pastures were available all year round and supplements were provided, calvings occurred throughout the year but were more frequent between November and March. These results indicate that, in the absence of an imposed breeding season, calvings occur throughout the year. Buffalo heifers reach sexual maturity between 2.1 and 3.3 years of age; it may be possible to reduce this by improving nutrition. Analysis of sequential milk progesterone profiles during the pp period showed that cows under improved management first ovulated 30.2±14 days pp; under traditional management conditions, this was delayed until 102.4±42.7 days pp, making remating impossible in many cows in time to calve at yearly intervals. Approximately one quarter of the water buffalo cows in oestrus engaged in homosexual behaviour; substantially more exhibited increased bellowing and urination, accompanied by characteristic pelvic movements. The teaser bull, however, is still the most reliable aid for the detection of oestrus in buffaloes. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  15. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Online resources. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis. Soheir M. El Nahas Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam. Volume 93 Online resources 2014 pp e94-e96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    URL: http://www.sasas.co.za ... Introduction. A consistent supply of macro and micro nutrients to growing water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves is important to ... humid environmental conditions appears to be inappropriate. ... The experiment was conducted on five commercial feedlot farms in the district, Toba Tek Singh, in.

  17. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi-like pestiviruses (also known as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3) have been sporadically reported from naturally infected cattle in Brazil, Asia and Europe. Although Hobi-like viruses seem to be endemic in Brazilian bovines and buffalo, they have not been studied in the other countries of South A...

  18. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  19. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm; Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK were assayed in plasma. Results: Significantly (p<0.05 higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05 increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to

  20. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  1. Evaluation of water beef buffalo from birth to two years using different growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Lamberson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a domestic animal species of growing world-wide importance. Research to improve genetic improvement programs is important to maintain the productivity of buffalo. The objective this research was to evaluate the growth of Brazilian buffalo to two years of age with different growth curves. Growth curves consolidate the information contained in the weight-age data into three or four biologically meaningful parameters. The data included 31,452 weights at birth and 120, 205, 365, 550 and 730 days of buffalo (n = 5,178 raised on pasture without supplementation. Logistic, Gompertz, quadratic logarithmic, and linear hyperbolic curves (designated L, G, QL, and LH, respectively were fitted to the data by using proc NLIN of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA. The parameters estimates for L [WT= A * (((1 + exp (-k * AGE**-m] were A = 865.1 ± 5.42; k= 0.0028 ± 0.00002; M= 3.808 ± 0.007; R2 = 0.95. For G [WT= A * exp (-b * exp (-k * age] the parameters estimates were A= 967.6 ± 7.23; k = 0.00217 ± 0.000015; b = -2.8152 ± 0.00532. For QL [WT= A + b*age + k*(age*age + m*log (age] parameters estimates were A= 37.41 ± 0.48; k= 0.00019 ± 6.4E-6; b= 0.539 ± 0.006; m= 2.32 ± 0.23; R2=0.96. For LH [WT= A + b*AGE + k*(1/AGE] the parameters estimates were A= 23.15 ± 0.44; k=15.16 ± 0.66; b= 0.707 ± 0.001; R2= 0.96. Each of these curves fit these data equally well and could be used for characterizing growth to two years in beef buffalo.

  2. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vaidya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli isolates. Results: A total of 250 buffalo meat samples were collected and processed. A total of 22 (8.80 percent E. coli isolates were isolated with average differential count of 1.231 ± 0.136 log cfu/g on EMB agar. All the E. coli isolates were confirmed by 10 Grams staining, biochemical reactions and sugar fermentation and motility tests. A total of 9 (3.6 percent E. coli isolates were found to be pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity testing. Antibiogram studies of pathogenic E. coli isolates showed that all 9 isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (20 ± 1.49 mm while 7 isolate showed resistance to enrofloxacin (18.22 ± 3.58 mm and tetracycline (11.44 ± 2.04 mm. Conclusion: Buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city is an important source of E. coli infection to human population. A total of 9 pathogenic E. coli were isolated from buffalo meat immediately after slaughter. All isolates were characterized and confirmed pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity tests. Antibiogram studies of all isolates revealed sensitivity to gentamicin and resistance to tetracycline and enrofloxacin. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 277-279

  4. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: ► Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. ► Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. ► Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to

  5. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  6. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  7. Effect of low temperatures on in vivo digestibility in buffalo compared with sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartocci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo digestibility (eight animals for each species were determined on Mediterranean buffalo bulls and Delle Langhe rams, given four diets, at maintenance level (50 g/kg LW0.75 per day of dry matter, according to a Latin-square design, composed of a factorial combination of two different energy/crude protein ratios (0.78 MilkFU/kg DM; 138.0 g/kg DM and 0.68 MilkFU/kg DM; 128.0 g/kg DM with high and low protein undegradability (40 and 30%. The external air temperatures, at the experimental site, were measured hourly during the period of the collection of the faeces; average, minimum and maximum temperatures were as follows: 1st period = 11.3oC (7.8/16.2; 2nd = 5.0oC (0.6/11.9; 3rd= 0.9oC (-3.7/6.7; 4th = 7.1oC (2.0/12.4. Taking into consideration the four trial periods within species, significant differences emerge in the digestibility of the organic matter: 69.04 (lst period v. 66.19 (2nd, 64.21% (3rd, P<0.05 for buffalo; 66.25 (1st vs 63.70 (4th, 62.18% (3rd, P<0.05 for sheep. Comparing the two species within each period, the buffalo has a better digestibility of organic matter in periods of least cold (1stperiod: 69.04 vs 66.25%, P<0.05; 4th: 67.26 vs 63.70%, P<0.05; in the colder period (3rd there is an uniformity between the species (64.21% for buffalo and 62.18% for sheep and buffalo, as much as sheep, does not seem to suffer from a decrease in temperatures.

  8. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2015-12-28

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The African buffalo: A villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Michel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after ‘Big Five’ in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, Corridor disease (theileriosis, bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population’s survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  10. Qualitative assessment of temporal fluctuations on buffalo behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serrapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour (QBA is an integrative, whole-animal methodology based on the qualitative interpretation of the dynamic style in which animals interact with their environment. In other words, it describes not what the animals do, but how they do what they do. We aimed to verify whether the QBA was able to detect the behavioural fluctuations occurring in animals in response to an environmental challenge. An 8-member panel was used. The panel was briefly trained on the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS procedure and subsequently asked to observe the behaviour of 4 buffalo heifers in 4 videos lasting 2 min each and score the behavioural expression of the animals following the TDS procedure. TDS consists in presenting to the panellist the list of behavioural descriptors on a computer screen along with each video. Each video was obtained by assembling two clips concerning the same animal in two different conditions: home indoor pen (1 min and novel outdoor paddock (1 min. Two videos started with the animal in the outdoor environment and two others in the opposite order. Six behavioural descriptors were chosen from a previous work conducted on the same animals: calm, active, curious, nervous, shy and apathetic. Each assessor was asked to select the dominant descriptor, which was considered as dominant when it gained most of the attention of the observer. Each time the observer felt the behaviour changed, he/she scored the new dominant descriptor until the behaviour ended. Each video was observed 4 times by each observer (4 replications in a randomised order at 24-h intervals. For each point of time, the proportion of runs (subject × replication for which a given descriptor was assessed as dominant (dominance rate >30% was computed. Results showed a satisfactory agreement among observers and replications. The observers clearly discriminated the first from the second half of each video. Calm and apathetic were

  11. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Sangula, Abraham Kiprotich; Belsham, Graham J; Tjornehoj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2015-02-03

    Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in Kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on FMD in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. This study analysed 47 epithelia collected from FMD outbreaks in Kenyan cattle between 2008 and 2012, and 102 probang and serum samples collected from buffalo in three different Kenyan ecosystems; Maasai-Mara (MME) (n = 40), Tsavo (TSE) (n = 33), and Meru (ME) (n = 29). Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in 65 of 102 (64%) sera from buffalo with 44/102 and 53/102 also having neutralising antibodies directed against FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2, respectively. FMDV RNA was detected in 42% of the buffalo probang samples by RT-qPCR (Cycle Threshold (Ct) ≤32). Two buffalo probang samples were positive by VI and were identified as FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2 by Ag-ELISA, while the latter assay detected serotypes O (1), A (20), SAT 1 (7) and SAT 2 (19) in the 47 cattle epithelia. VP1 coding sequences were generated for two buffalo and 21 cattle samples. Phylogenetic analyses revealed SAT 1 and SAT 2 virus lineages within buffalo that were distinct from those detected in cattle. We found that FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 were circulating among cattle in Kenya and cause disease, but only SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses were successfully isolated from clinically normal buffalo. The buffalo isolates were genetically distinct from isolates obtained from cattle. Control efforts should focus primarily on reducing FMDV circulation among livestock and limiting interaction with buffalo. Comprehensive studies incorporating additional buffalo viruses are recommended.

  12. Road and Street Centerlines, Buffalo County, WI road centerline file conflated with DOT WISLR attributes and updated continually based on survey plats, Published in 2002, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 2002. Buffalo County, WI road centerline file conflated with DOT WISLR attributes and updated continually based on...

  13. Forensic age estimation by magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: the definite relevance in bony fusion of the distal femoral- and the proximal tibial epiphyses using closest-to-bone T1 TSE sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottow, Christian; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Schulz, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas [University Hospital Muenster, Institute of Legal Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Vieth, Volker [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Klinikum Ibbenbueren, Clinic for Radiology, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To clarify the relevance of the bony fusion of the distal femoral and the proximal tibial epiphyses by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with a special focus on a reliable determination of the 14th, 16th and 18th years of life. We scanned 658 German volunteers in the age bracket 12-24 years using a 3.0 T MR-scanner and utilising a T1 turbo spin-echo sequence representing true bone anatomy. Minimum, maximum, mean ± standard deviation and median with lower and upper quartiles were defined. Intra- and interobserver agreements were determined (Cohen's kappa). The statistical relevance of sex-related differences was analysed (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05, exact, two-sided). The bony fusion took place before the 18th year of life in both epiphyses. The Mann-Whitney U test results imply significant sex-related differences for most stages. For both epiphyses, the intra observer (κ femur 0.961; tibia 0.971) and interobserver (κ femur 0.941; tibia 0.951) agreement levels were very good. The 14th and the 16th years of life can be determined in both sexes, but the completion of the 18th year of life cannot solely be determined by the bony fusion, as depicted by closest-to-bone MRI. (orig.)

  14. Forensic age estimation by magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: the definite relevance in bony fusion of the distal femoral- and the proximal tibial epiphyses using closest-to-bone T1 TSE sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottow, Christian; Heindel, Walter; Schulz, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas; Vieth, Volker

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the relevance of the bony fusion of the distal femoral and the proximal tibial epiphyses by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with a special focus on a reliable determination of the 14th, 16th and 18th years of life. We scanned 658 German volunteers in the age bracket 12-24 years using a 3.0 T MR-scanner and utilising a T1 turbo spin-echo sequence representing true bone anatomy. Minimum, maximum, mean ± standard deviation and median with lower and upper quartiles were defined. Intra- and interobserver agreements were determined (Cohen's kappa). The statistical relevance of sex-related differences was analysed (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05, exact, two-sided). The bony fusion took place before the 18th year of life in both epiphyses. The Mann-Whitney U test results imply significant sex-related differences for most stages. For both epiphyses, the intra observer (κ femur 0.961; tibia 0.971) and interobserver (κ femur 0.941; tibia 0.951) agreement levels were very good. The 14th and the 16th years of life can be determined in both sexes, but the completion of the 18th year of life cannot solely be determined by the bony fusion, as depicted by closest-to-bone MRI. (orig.)

  15. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0–15 980. This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  16. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  17. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  18. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  19. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiachao Zhang; Chuanbiao Xu; Dongxue Huo; Qisong Hu; Qiannan Peng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural differenc...

  20. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. R...

  1. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Miteva, D.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

  2. Comparison carcass traits of Azeri buffalo, native and crossbred (native * Holstein male calves in west Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iran has 500thousand heads buffalo that 80percent of them distributed in North and North West of Iran and they reared as multi purpose animals providing milk and meat. Farmer believe that buffalo milk had the best quality but because of huge and large head and skin buffaloes carcass isn’t suitable that governmental programmer pay a low facilities to buffalo fattener in comparison the cattle fattener thus the objective of this investigation was to the Comparison carcass traits of buffalo, native and Native cows* Holstein (NH male calves that mostly fattened in this region. Eighty head claves (six heads of each treat with average 160 kg body weight (BW were fattened till the 300 kg. Ration and other environmental factors were the same. Three heads of each group’s according Iranian Standards slaughtered at abattoir. The slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and the individual weights of the different slaughter by-products and organs were measured. The carcasses were chilled at 5o C for 24 h. One side of each carcass was cutting into wholesales cuts. Traits included Hot and cold carcass weight, bone, internal fat, meat, cut ability fat, dressing percent, wholesales cuts weight and percent. Wholesales cuts include neck, shoulder, loin, rib and flank and leg weight and percent. The results showed that there were not significant differences between hot and cold carcass weigh, meat, bone and cut ability fat percent. There were significant differences on internal fat, dressing percent and leg (P<0.05. The lowest and highest values for internal fat were observed buffalo and native carcass, respectively. In conclusion because of low internal fat deposition and high valuable wholesales cuts percent may buffalo carcass composition had a better quality in comparison cattle and fattening of buffalo is economically.

  3. New insights into the biomechanics of Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease: The Role of Epiphyseal Skeletal Immaturity in Vascular Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M; Dobson, C A; Perry, D; Fagan, M J

    2018-02-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease (LCP) is an idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head that is most common in children between four and eight years old. The factors that lead to the onset of LCP are still unclear; however, it is believed that interruption of the blood supply to the developing epiphysis is an important factor in the development of the condition. Finite element analysis modelling of the blood supply to the juvenile epiphysis was investigated to understand under which circumstances the blood vessels supplying the femoral epiphysis could become obstructed. The identification of these conditions is likely to be important in understanding the biomechanics of LCP. The results support the hypothesis that vascular obstruction to the epiphysis may arise when there is delayed ossification and when articular cartilage has reduced stiffness under compression. The findings support the theory of vascular occlusion as being important in the pathophysiology of Perthes disease. Cite this article : M. Pinheiro, C. A. Dobson, D. Perry, M. J. Fagan. New insights into the biomechanics of Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease: The Role of Epiphyseal Skeletal Immaturity in Vascular Obstruction. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:148-156. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.72.BJR-2017-0191.R1. © 2018 Pinheiro et al.

  4. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...... samples collected from buffalo in three different Kenyan ecosystems; Maasai-Mara (MME) (n = 40), Tsavo (TSE) (n = 33), and Meru (ME) (n = 29). Results Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in 65 of 102 (64%) sera from buffalo with 44/102 and 53/102 also having neutralising antibodies...... directed against FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2, respectively. FMDV RNA was detected in 42% of the buffalo probang samples by RT-qPCR (Cycle Threshold (Ct) ≤32). Two buffalo probang samples were positive by VI and were identified as FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2 by Ag-ELISA, while the latter assay detected serotypes O (1...

  5. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 in raw water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk products in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Vanessa; Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Parisi, Antonio; La Salandra, Giovanna; Lucifora, Giuseppe; Mula, Giuseppina; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Carosielli, Leonardo; Rella, Addolorata; Dario, Marco; Normanno, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli 026 is known as a verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) organism that causes severe foodborne diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Although cattle are the most important reservoir of VTEC, only a few reports on the role of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a reservoir of VTEC and on the presence of these organisms in their milk are available. However, in Southern Italy, where water buffalo are intensively reared, an outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to E. coli 026 has recently been reported, in which the consumption of typical dairy products was considered to be a common risk factor. The aims of this work were to assess the prevalence of E. coli O26 in raw water buffalo milk, to characterize the virulence gene profiles of the isolates, and to evaluate their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Of 160 analyzed samples, 1 (0.6%) tested positive for E. coli O26, and the isolate showed the stx1+/stx2+/eae-/hlyA+ genotypic profile. The strain showed resistance against glycopeptides, macrolides, and penicillins. The presence of VTEC organisms in raw water buffalo milk could be considered to be a potential threat to consumers; however, the strict adherence to the processes used in the preparation of the most common buffalo dairy products could strongly mitigate the foodborne risk. To our knowledge, this article reports the first isolation and characterization of E. coli O26 VTEC in raw water buffalo milk.

  6. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  8. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  9. Effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arslan; Arshad, Usman; Yousuf, Muhammad Rizwan; Ahmad, Nasim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and cumulative embryonic and fetal losses in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by teaser buffalo bull for 1 hour each. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to address the breeding method and season. Buffaloes (n = 130) exhibiting estrus were randomly assigned to be bred either in peak breeding season (PBS; n = 80) or low breeding season (LBS; n = 50). Within each season, buffaloes were divided to receive either natural service (NS; n = 65) or artificial insemination (AI; n = 65). NS buffaloes, in estrus, were allowed to remain with the bull until mating. AI was achieved, using frozen thawed semen of bull of known fertility. PBS comprised of September to December and LBS were from May to July. Serial ultrasonography was performed on days 30, 45, 60, and 90 after breeding (day 0) to monitor pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses. The pregnancy rate on day 30 after breeding was higher in NS as compared to AI group (63 vs. 43%; P  0.05) in LBS. The cumulative embryonic and fetal losses between days 31 and 90 were significantly lower in PBS than LBS (33 vs. 60%; P losses were higher in LBS in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

  10. Sifat Fisik Daging Sapi, Kerbau dan Domba pada Lama Postmortem yang Berbeda (Physical Characteristics of Beef, Buffalo and Lamb Meat on Different Postmortem Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komariah (Komariah

    2012-02-01

    buffalo meat and lamb. The mean shear force of beef (6.73±0.16 kg/cm2 and buffalo meat (6.53±0.38 kg/cm2 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than lamb (5.24±0.93 kg/cm2. (Key words: Physical characteristic, Postmortem, Beef, Buffalo, and Lamb meat

  11. A comparative study on the production rates of VFA and bacteria in the rumen of buffalo and goat estimated by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Mehra, U.R.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Digestibility trials were conducted on Murrah buffaloes and Barbari goats with rumen cannulae in the rumen to determine the digestibility of the feed constituents and the production rates of bacteria and total VFA were estimated in the rumen by isotope dilution technique. The bacterial cells growth in the rumen was more in goats than buffaloes when fed ad libitum and calculated on equal feed intake, where as, in buffaloes fed on restricted diet equal to the goats the production of bacteria and VFA were higher. Goats converted 54.04 percent of their dietary nitrogen into microbial nitrogen which was more than twice of buffaloes. (author)

  12. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases...... cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes...

  13. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Srivastava, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. The animals were given their daily ration in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen were labelled either with 14 C or 35 S by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C)DL-leucine or 35 S-sodium sulphate. Labelled bacterial cells were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Samples from the ruminal fluid were drawn at various time intervals for 9 hours and the specific radioactivity of the bacteria was determined. The dilution in the specific radioactivity was used to calculate the turnover time and rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. (author)

  14. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A.

    1990-01-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease

  15. Estimation of endogenous faecal calcium in buffalo (BOS bubalis) by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Sareen, V.K.; Marwaha, S.R.; Sekhon, B.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the isotope-dilution technique for the estimation of endogenous faecal calcium were conducted with buffalo calves fed on growing ration. The ration consisted of wheat straw, green lucerne and concentrate mix. The endogenous faecal calcium was 3.71 g/day, which is 17.8 percent of the total faecal calcium. The apparent and true digestibilities of Ca were calculated as 51 and 60 percent respectively. The endogenous faecal calcium can be estimated in buffalo calves by giving single subcutaneous injection of Ca 45 and collecting blood samples on 12th and 21st days only, and representative sample from the faeces collected from 13th through 22nd day after the injection. (author)

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  17. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Naskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the β1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.

  18. Effect of gamma sterilization on the fatty acid profile of lyophilized buffalo cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the fatty acid profile of buffalo cheese after lyophilization and gamma rays treatment at 2 kGy and 4 kGy doses have been studied with the objective of its shelf-live prolongation. The results of the experiments show a decrease of the content of the saturated fatty acids after irradiation at the aforesaid gamma rays doses. A favorable effect on human organism has the decrease of the quantity of the short-chain fatty acids – by 13.16 % on irradiation at 2 kGy and by 18.73% on irradiation at 4 kGy, compared to the control sample. A satisfactory correlation between the essential fatty acids omega-6/omega3 has been observed in the lyophilized buffalo cheese. In the process of irradiation this balanced correlation changes and increases up to 7.32 and 8.31 at 2 kGy and 4 kGy respectively

  19. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  20. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  1. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  2. Urea metabolism in buffalo calves fed on rations containing two levels of crude protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Lal, M.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Urea entry rates into the body pools of Murrah Buffalo calves have been estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The animals were fed two levels of crude proteins, namely, 13 percent lower and 19 percent higher than N.R.C. recommendations. Results show that the recycling of urea is significantly better in animals given low crude protein contents. (M.G.B.)

  3. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Dash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The bjective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ (October to March is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September and critical HSZ (CHSZ (May and June. Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.

  4. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  5. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  6. Interrelationship between milk constituents, serum oestradiol and vaginal mucus indicators of oestrus in Egyptian buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, M M M; El-Naggar, R A M; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Sosa, G A M; Abou El-Roos, N A

    2014-02-01

    The intensity of heat signs in buffaloes is generally low and the incidence of suboestrus varied from 15 to 73% (Buffalopedia). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of monitoring the changes in some milk constituents, oestradiol levels and electrical conductivity of vaginal mucus during peri-oestrous period in prediction of the timing of oestrus in buffaloes. Twenty-one Egyptian buffaloes aged 3-9 year, 1st-6th lactations, were examined by oestrous detector and ultrasonographically for monitoring the ovarian and uterine activity for 7 days around the time of standing oestrus. Sodium, potassium, chloride and lactose were assayed in aqueous phase of milk; besides, oestradiol was estimated in serum. Current results declared highly significant acute changes in milk constituents at the time of oestrus characterized by peaking of chloride and sodium levels and lowering of potassium and lactose values. The alternation in milk composition when arranged in decreasing order of magnitude, sodium was the highest (77.78 ± 0.69%), followed by chloride (61.60 ± 1.52%) and potassium (-58.14 ± 10.89%). Concomitantly, milk lactose decreased by 26.07 ± 7.97% compared to baseline levels. Synchronously, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) showed a significant (p milk during peri-oestrous period may be used as a practical non-invasive indicator for oestrous detection and prediction of ovulation in Egyptian buffaloes. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jerome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to identify other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs in the corpus luteum (CL during early pregnancy in buffalo. Materials and Methods: For this study, CL (n=2 from two buffalo gravid uteri, obtained from the slaughter house, was transported to laboratory after snap freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. The stage of pregnancy was determined by measuring the crown-rump region of the fetus. This was followed by isolation of RNA and deep sequencing. Post-deep sequencing, the obtained reads were checked and aligned against various ncRNA databases (GtRNA, RFAM, and deep guide. Various parameters, namely, frequency of specific ncRNAs, length, mismatch, and genomic location target in several model species were deciphered. Results: Frequency of piwi-interacting RNAs (piwi-RNAs, having target location in rodents and human genomes, were significantly higher compared to other piwi-RNAs and ncRNAs. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs deduced had nucleotides (nts ranging from 17 to 50 nts, but the occurrence of small length rRNAs was more than lengthier fragments. The target on 16S rRNA species confirms the conservation of 16S rRNA across species. With respect to transfer RNA (tRNA, the abundantly occurring tRNAs were unique with no duplication. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, identified in this study, showed a strong tendency for coding box C/D snoRNAs in comparison to H/ACA snoRNAs. Regulatory and evolutionary implications of these identified ncRNAs are yet to be delineated in many species, including buffaloes. Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of other ncRNAs in CL of early pregnancy in buffalo.

  8. Effect of Tylenchorhynchus robustoides on Growth of Buffalo Grass and Western Wheatgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Smolik, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Tylenchorhynchus robustoides reduced (P = 0.05) growth of Agropyron smithii (western wheatgrass) at soil temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35 C. Growth reduction increased with increasing soil temperatures. Highest populations of T. robustoides were recovered at 25 and 30 C. Clipping weights of Buchloe dactyloides (buffalo grass) were reduced at 25 and 30 C; however, root/crown weights were reduced at 15, 20, 30, and 35 C in nematode infested vs. noninfested soil. Reproduction of T. robustoides...

  9. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  10. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.

  11. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes. Four healthy male River (Azari buffaloes with no previous history of gastrointestinal dysfunction were chosen. There are several surgical techniques that can be used for rumen cannulation in farm animals, including buffaloes. This procedure was performed in a modified two-stage technique. In the first stage, the dorso – lateral portion of the dorsal sac of the rumen wall was sutured to the skin incision in the left para lumbar fossa region. In the second – stage, after six days left, the exposed rumen wall area was incised and the cannula was inserted and fixed manually in the rumenal opening incision site. In order to evaluate the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters, this study was achieved with different levels of NDF, and chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, was measured in a change over design. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00 and 21:00. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility. Increasing NFC reduced ruminal pH at 0.5, 1.0, 4.5, 6.0 9.0 and 10.0 h post feeding. In addition, there were not significant differences on eating time, rumination time and total chewing activity between diets. All data obtained in this study were in normal range may indicating the efficacy of this cannulation method. More investigation should be done to determine the efficacy and comparison of the other surgical rumen cannulation techniques on Azari buffaloes of Iran.

  13. Determinant of Household Business Scale of Moa Buffaloes at Moa Island Southwest Maluku Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainsamputty, J.; Roessali, W.; Santosa, S. I.; Eddy, B. T.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze factors that affect the business scale of Moa buffaloes at Moa Island, Regency of Southwest Maluku. The research used a survey method with multistage random sampling. The location chosen was the District of Moa Lakor at Moa Island based on its largest buffalo population. Respondents were randomly drawn in a total of 120 respondents. The variables measured were years of experience in rearing animals, costs of production, farmer’s participation in group activities, animal housing systems, farmer’s income and farmer’s age. The statistical test used was the multiple linear regressions. The results showed that the mean of business scale in the area of high density of buffaloes population was 12.6 AU, in the moderate was 12.4 AU and in the low was 11.0 AU. The average of production cost was IDR 1.893.536.00/year, the average of revenue was IDR14.083.333.00/year, while the average of income was IDR 12.189.797.00/year. The independent variables simultaneously influence the business scale (Pbusiness scale (P<0.01).

  14. Use of peas in organic buffalo farming: effects on nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Masucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty lactating buffalo cows, organically farmed, were used to examine the effects of including peas in total mixed ration. Two concentrates were formulated to contain, as the main protein sources, either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (CC or 450 g/kg of peas (ExpC. Cows were blocked into two groups according to parity and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: one group was fed a diet with 6 kg/d of CC, whereas the treatment group was fed diet in which 3 kg/d of CC were replaced by an equal quantity of ExpC. Digestibility of the diets and milk yield of the cows were measured. The experimental period covered the whole lactation period. No differences were observed between groups for milk yield and composition, and for digestibility. The main hypothesis tested, that the replacement of soybean cake with peas in buffalo diet would not affect milk yield and composition,was confirmed. This suggested that the partial substitution of soybean cake with peas in diet for buffalo cows can be possible without affect performances.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF GH|ALUI AND GHR|ALUI GENES POLYMORPHISMS IN INDONESIAN BUFFALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which sintesized and secreted by somatrotop cell inpituitary anterior lobe. GH exert its effect on growth and metabolism by interacting with a specificreceptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested ascandidate gene for traits related to meat production in Bovidae. The objectives of this study were toidentify polymorphism of GH and GHR genes in buffalo. The 452 DNA samples buffalo were collectedfrom five populations in Indonesia (Siborong-Borong-Medan (65, Lebak-Banten (29, Pandeglang-Banten (180, Semarang-Central Java, and Mataram-West Nusa Tenggara (103. A gene fragment of theGH|AluI gene at 432 bp located on exon 3 and GHR|AluI gene at 298 bp on exon 10 were successfullyamplified by using the techniques of a PCR (polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by PCR-RFLP(restriction fragment length polymorphism then -SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism. Theresults showed no polymorphisms were detected in these genes. All buffaloes tested had LL genotype forlocus GH|AluI and AA genotype for locus GHR|AluI.

  16. Assessing impacts to birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota windplant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, M.D.; Johnson, G.D.; Erickson, W.P. [WEST Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Northern States Power (NSP) plans development of a 425 MW windpowered electrical generation facility within the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area (WRA) in southwestern Minnesota. In 1996, Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST, Inc.) was contracted by NSP to develop an avian monitoring protocol for the Buffalo Ridge windplant. This protocol was developed and peer-reviewed by numerous individuals representing the wind energy industry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and conservation groups prior to finalization. The WRA currently consists of three phases of development. Phase I, constructed by Kenetech in 1994, consists of 73 Model 33 M-VS turbines and related facilities, including distribution lines, meteorological towers, communication systems, transformers, substations, roads, and operations and maintenance facilities in the approximate center of the WRA, and generates 25 MW of electricity. Phase II, consisting of 143 turbines and related facilities sufficient to generate 100 MW of electricity, will be constructed by Zond Systems, Inc. beginning in the spring of 1997. Phase II will be located in the northwestern portion of the WRA. Phase III facilities capable of generating an additional 100 MW are planned for the southeast portion of the WRA. Plans call for the eventual production of 425 MW of electricity within the WRA. Studies were conducted in these three areas and a permanent reference area not scheduled for windpower development located along Buffalo Ridge northwest of the WRA in Brooking County South Dakota.

  17. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  18. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  19. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Potliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six clinically healthy male buffalo calves, 6-12 months of age, and weighing between 130 and 170 kg. In all the animals; glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg, IM, xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM and 1% propofol as single bolus (1.5 mg/kg, intravenous, were administered. The parameters observed included behavioral changes, physiological; hematological and blood biochemical parameters. Results: Muzzle and nostrils became dry in all the animals after glycopyrrolate administration. A decrease in spontaneous activity and mild cutaneous analgesia was noticed after xylazine administration. After administration of propofol, loss of swallowing reflex, palpebral reflex, corneal reflexes, periosteal reflex and complete analgesia was observed. There was no significant change in rectal temperature and heart rate. However, heart rate remained elevated during anesthesia. Respiratory rate decreased significantly after propofol administration. There was a significant increase in plasma glucose after the xylazine and propofol administration which remained elevated till recovery. A significant decrease in chloride level was seen after propofol administration. Conclusions: Glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthetic combination may safely be used for short duration anesthesia in buffalo calves.

  20. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fagiolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During an oestrus synchronization trial on heifer and mixed-parity Mediterranean Italian buffaloes, some analyses on health parameters were performed to correlate them to reproductive performances (pregnancy rate and birth rate. Serum sampling were performed every year for two years to be used in serological techniques for the diagnosis of Chlamydia spp. (ELISA, Neospora (ELISA, BHV1 (ELISA gE glycoprotein and BVDV (ELISA. On the total number of 465 observed buffaloes, the seroprevalence obtained for each disease has respectively been: 24 %, 25 %, 25 % and 22 %. Specific antibodies were not spread over the 13 farms in an homogeneous manner, farm prevalence differences are evidenced by high standard deviations in the mean farm seroprevalence: 42 ± 27.8, 26 ± 26.9, 20 ± 13.8, 9.8 ± 21.1. Among the buffaloes which resulted seropositive to Chlamydia, 33 % were pregnant, 32 % were those with Neospora, 32 % those with BHV1 and finally 29 % of the animals positive to BVDV resulted pregnant. Taking into account the animals that delivered normally, 41 % were positive to Chlamydia, 18 % to Neospora, 18 % to BHV1 and 19 % to BVDV.

  1. Meat quality of buffaloes finished in traditional or silvopastoral system in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joele, Maria Rsp; Lourenço, Lúcia Fh; Lourenço Júnior, José B; Araújo, Geisielly S; Budel, Juliana Cc; Garcia, Alexandre R

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Traditional + Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah × Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half-carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss as a result of cooking, water holding capacity, texture and sensory characteristics, whereas the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content. No major difference between finishing systems was found (P > 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best 'characteristic meat aroma'. Considering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture still represents the best alternative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Saber Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 microl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7%) with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%), cleavage (47.6%) and buffalo embryo development (15.4%) produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05).

  3. Influence of rumen protein degradability on productive and reproductive performance in buffalo cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Di Palo, Rossella; Infascelli, Federico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Fabio; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to ascertain the influence of crude protein (CP) digestibility in the rumen on the quantity and quality of milk production and reproductive performance, blood (BU) and milk (MU) urea, haematological profile and vaginal mucus urea, ammonia and potassium of buffalo cows. Lactating buffaloes (n = 84), 60 days in milk, were randomly subdivided into Group C (control, n = 42) and Group T (fed a diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae, n = 42). In three fistulated buffalo, the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae showed a decrease (P milk, were used to study the haematological profile and to determine milk urea and ammonia in the vaginal mucus. The animals in Group T1 had higher ammonia values in the blood (P mucus than Group C1. A relationship was found between MU and BU. MU was influenced by CP intake and dry matter intake. No differences between the treatments were observed in reproductive performance and the conception rate and calving interval were 37.9% and 41.4% (90 trial-day) and 449 and 419 days respectively in Groups T and C. Reproductive performance was not influenced by high levels of BU nor by blood ammonia levels, although the latter were higher in the group fed the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae.

  4. Short communication: Detection of human Torque teno virus in the milk of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, S; Paciello, O; Paolini, F; Pagnini, U; Palma, E; Di Palo, R; Russo, V; Roperto, F; Venuti, A

    2009-12-01

    Forty-four raw milk and 15 serum samples from 44 healthy water buffaloes reared in Caserta, southern Italy, the most important region in Europe for buffalo breeding, were examined to evaluate the presence of Torque teno viruses (TTV) using molecular tools. Furthermore, 8 pooled pasteurized milk samples (from dairy factories having excellent sanitary conditions) and 6 Mozzarella cheese samples were also tested. Four of the cheese samples were commercial Mozzarella cheese; the remaining 2 were prepared with TTV-containing milk. Human TTV were detected and confirmed by sequencing in 7 samples of milk (approximately 16%). No TTV were found in serum, pooled pasteurized milk, or Mozzarella cheese samples. The samples of Mozzarella cheese prepared with TTV-containing milk did not show any presence of TTV, which provides evidence that standard methodological procedures to prepare Mozzarella cheese seem to affect viral structure, making this food fit for human consumption. The 7 TTV species from water buffaloes were identified as genotypes corresponding to the tth31 (3 cases), sle 1981, sle 2031, and NLC030 (2 cases each) human isolates. Although cross-species infection may occur, detection of TTV DNA in milk but not in serum led us to believe that its presence could be due to human contamination rather than a true infection. Finally, the mode of transmission of TTV has not been determined. Contaminated of the food chain with TTV may be a potential risk for human health, representing one of the multiple routes of infection.

  5. Somatic cell count and biochemical components of milk related to udder health in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The 399 clinically healthy quarters from 101 Murrah buffaloes were analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC; DCC and microscope methods and biochemical composition of milk in relation to udder health. The udder health revealed specific subclinical mastitis (SSM in 7% and non-specific mastitis (NSM in 49% of quarters. Latent infections comprised 1%. Staphylococci (43%, streptococci (39% and corynebacteria (18% constituted chief etiological agents in SSM. Electrical conductivity increased significantly both in SSM and NSM compared to healthy quarters. Significant effects for SNF and density were seen in SSM only. DCC and microscope depicted similar cell counts with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The correlations of DCC with CMT and EC were 0.85 and 0.51, respectively. Quarters with negative CMT reactions had DCC values of < 3 × 105 cells/ml. The DCC means for negative, trace, and +1 to 2 CMT scores were 122, 238, and 593 (× 103 cells/ml, respectively. Lactose with discrimination ability of 83.76% was found better indicator of udder inflammation in buffaloes. Buffaloes unlike cows have low numbers of quarter infections, respond similarly as cows to udder inflammation but at different levels, and DCC may be effectively employed for expressing milk cell count in this species.

  6. Hand-made cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos: comparison of different media and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Riaz A; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhaysham; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K

    2008-12-01

    Hand-made cloning (HMC) has proved to be an efficient alternative to the conventional micromanipulator-based technique in some domestic animal species. This study reports the development of an effective culture system for in vitro culture of zona-free cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos reconstructed using adult skin fibroblast cells as nucleus donor. Cleavage and blastocyst rates observed were 52 and 0% in modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2), 61 and 4.6% in modified Synthetic Oviductal Fluid (mSOF), and 82 and 40.3% in Research Vitro Cleave (RVCL; Cook, Australia) medium, respectively. Similarly, higher blastocyst rates (24.5 +/- 4.1%) were observed when zona-free parthenotes were cultured in RVCL medium. Culturing zona-free cloned buffalo embryos on flat surfaces (FS) yielded significantly higher (p WOW) or microdrops (MD). Furthermore, development in WOW was found to be significantly better than MD culture. The quality of HMC blastocysts was examined using differential staining. This study establishes the application of zona-free nuclear transfer procedures for the production of hand-made cloned buffalo embryos and the development of efficient culture system and appropriate media requirements for enhancing their preimplantation development.

  7. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S. Chaudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI, their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1, hot humid (THI2 and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3. Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR, hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC, biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxide (LPO and total antioxidant status (TAS and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3 was observed. Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3.

  8. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komariah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and developmentstrategy of Torajan's spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 inSanggalangi’ subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied toobserve data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old,the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years oldwith the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calvinginterval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaningmortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. Themost livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year.SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It wasshowed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy ofTorajan’s spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  9. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (pbuffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  10. Digestion and passage of tropical forages in swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The digestion of tropical forages in buffaloes and Brahman cross-bred cattle has been studied in five experiments. The differences in relative voluntary intake between species were not consistent, but evidence was found that cattle fed some diets could not maintain optimal microbial fibrolytic activity because of low rumen ammonia levels. However, there was little evidence of a major differential response between breeds to urea or protein supplements. Buffaloes exhibited a faster passage of rumen fluid, accompanied in some experiments by a faster passage of particulate digesta from the reticulorumen. This was associated in one experiment with stronger ruminal contractions and extended rumination. A hypothesis to explain the variability in relative intake between species is presented. This links the higher intake by buffaloes to the relative rate of digestion of particles in the rumen, and postulates that the animal/plant species interaction results from the outflow to the intestines of microbial protein attached to small particles of differing fermentable fibre content. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Trends in advanced reproductive management using hormonal radioimmunoassay in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.; Pansin, C.; Sophon, S.; Parnpai, R.; Sravasi, S.; Srisakwattana, K.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the experiments reported on here was to study methods of improving reproduction in cattle and buffaloes. These included clinical and behavioural observations, recording of body weights and measurement of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, progesterone and oestrone sulphate) by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that puberty in both males and females can be identified accurately by concurrent measurement of body weight and hormones. The postpartum reproductive functions of village buffaloes can be monitored by serial measurement of progesterone; such measurements, used in conjunction with artificial insemination or natural mating, can be applied for reducing the calving interval. Oestrus induction and synchronization were used in a programme for introducing superior genetic stock to village buffaloes, and proved to be of benefit to small farmers. The conception rate can be improved when animals with an active corpus luteum are correctly identified with the progesterone test for use in synchronization programmes, and when breeding is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the onset of oestrus. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  13. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 µl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7% with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%, cleavage (47.6% and buffalo embryo development (15.4% produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05.

  14. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Setyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 in Sanggalangi subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied to observe data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of 90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old, the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years old with the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calving interval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaning mortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. The most livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year. SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It was showed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  17. Comparative antinociceptive and sedative effects of epidural romifidine and detomidine in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, M A; El-Khodery, S A

    2017-07-01

    In this study, comparative antinociceptive and sedative effects of epidural administration of romifidine and detomidine in buffalo were evaluated. Eighteen healthy adult buffalo, allocated randomly in three groups (two experimental and one control; n=6) received either 50 μg/kg of romifidine or detomidine diluted in sterile saline (0.9 per cent) to a final volume of 20 ml, or an equivalent volume of sterile saline epidurally. Antinociception, sedation and ataxia parameters were recorded immediately after drug administration. Epidural romifidine and detomidine produced mild to deep sedation and complete antinociception of the perineum, inguinal area and flank, and extended distally to the coronary band of the hindlimbs and cranially to the chest area. Times to onset of antinociception and sedation were significantly shorter with romifidine than with detomidine. The antinociceptive and sedative effects were significantly longer with romifidine than with detomidine. Romifidine or detomidine could be used to provide a reliable, long-lasting and cost-effective method for achieving epidural anaesthesia for standing surgical procedures in buffalo. Romifidine induces a longer antinociceptive effect and a more rapid onset than detomidine. Consequently, epidural romifidine may offer better therapeutic benefits in the management of acute postoperative pain. British Veterinary Association.

  18. FARMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERVENTIONS REGARDING BUFFALO CALF HEALTH CARE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AHMAD, M. YAQOOB, N. HASHMI1, M. A. ZAMAN2, AND M. S. AMJAD3

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of small, medium and large size dairy farms was conducted in the peri-urban areas of District Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Forty-eight dairy farms owned by 16 farmers from each category were selected randomly to study the status of health care and management of buffalo calves. The results showed that the mortality rate in buffalo calves was 79.51%. None of the farmers was cutting and disinfecting the navel cord and a large number of them (87.8% fed colostrum after the expulsion of placenta. About 87.5% of dairy owners provided the buffalo calves with grain/fodder from 6 days to weaning age. More than 93% farmers were not deworming the calves and a majority (60.42% of these dairy owners did not consult a veterinarian for the treatment of sick calves. The study tended to show that owners of these dairy farms were not interested in rearing the male calves because they did not expect sizeable returns from their sale. Thus, there is an urgent need to educate these dairy owners to make calf rearing an economical proposition.

  19. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  20. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics of buffaloes and bovine fed additived sugar cane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. Cecato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated nutrients total digestibility (TD and dry matter (DM intake, pH and NH3 ruminal concentration in buffaloes and bovine, fed sugar cane silages treated with Lactobacillus buchneri (SSL, plus 10% - cassava by-product meal (SSLC, plus 10% - soybean hulls (SSLS or plus 1% - urea (SSLU. The experimental design was a double 4x4 Latin squares with a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between species x treatment for evaluated parameters except for TD of CP, NDF and ADF. The soybean hulls addition increased (P<0.05 TD of DM, OM and total carbohydrate (TC while the urea addition reduced (P<0.05 DM intake and TD of DM, OM, TC and no fiber carbohydrate (NFC. Buffaloes showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with SSL and the highest TD of NDF and ADF with SSLS. Bovines showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with the SSL and SSLS; the last increased TD of NDF and ADF. The rumen pH in buffalo was higher than in cattle (6.62 vs. 6.48, respectively. The NH3 ruminal concentration did not differ between species and SSLU treatment presented the highest values (12.9 mg / 100 mL.

  1. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  2. Impact of the Egyptian summer season on oxidative stress biomarkers and some physiological parameters in crossbred cows and Egyptian buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hady

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to compare the impact of heat stress (HS on some physiological functions and blood oxidative stress biomarkers between dry dairy crossbred (Balady X Friesian cows and buffaloes during Egyptian summer season (July-September. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 healthy animals were equally used in the in the current study. The criterion for cows and buffaloes selection and the management conditions were similar. A total mixed ration to meet the animal's requirements was used, and dry matter intake (DMI was calculated. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature (RT were daily recorded. Meanwhile, live body weight and body condition score were weekly recorded. Blood samples were collected bi-weekly, and plasma samples were harvested for malondialdehyde (MDA content and enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities determinations throughout the experimental period (8 weeks - prepartum. Results: The results confirmed, the HS condition, as the THI values ranged from 79.74 to 90.4 throughout the experimental period. In both species, HS increased RT and decreased DMI (<10.5 kg/day and 9.5 kg/day in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Buffaloes seemed to be more affected by the hostile environmental condition of this study compared with their respective cows. Buffaloes had recorded up to 1 °C increase in their RTs in most of the point's period compared to cows. There was a continuous increase in MDA values (194.7 and 208.4 nmol/gHb in buffaloes and cows, respectively, 2 weeks prepartum as the animals come close to parturition with moderate decrements for the enzymatic antioxidant activities in both cows and buffaloes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that during Egyptian's summer season, HS had adversely affected feed intake and consequently animal's production performances.

  3. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  4. Epidemiological situation of Herpesvirus infections in buffalo herds: Bubaline Herpesvirus1 or Bovine Herpesvirus1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Autorino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution and related epidemiological characteristics of herpesvirus infections, and in particular referring to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1 and Bubaline Herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1 in buffaloes, have to date not been reported. Different studies based on serological surveys and viral isolation describe the circulation of both infections in this species. The specific etiological attribution of the infections in sero-surveys can be uncertain because of antigenic cross-reactivity of these ruminant α-herpesvirus and therefore depends on the diagnostic techniques employed. For this , we proceeded in verifying the diffusion of the two infections in a buffalo population of Central Italy. The sample size for the number of herds to test was defined considering an expected prevalence > 20% and the number of heads to be tested within each herd was established using an expected prevalence of > 25% (absolute precision of 5%, with 95% confidence level. The 155 herds to test were those with no IBR vaccination history. A maximum of 15 random blood samples were collected within the >3 year age category. The same sampling criteria was adopted when cows were present on buffalo farms to study the possible role of this species. Through the combined use of gB-gE Elisa tests, we assigned a specific infection status, for the BuHV1 infection status (gB-pos/gE-neg, as confirmed by an experimental infection conducted by us inoculating buffaloes with the BuHV1 “strain Metzler”, and for the BoHV1 status (gBpos/ gE-pos as that observed for the infection in bovines. Prevalence of infection, based on the Elisa status of each animal, were estimated for the whole sample and within each herd. Furthermore, the selected farms were investigated for their numeric consistency, presence of bovines, occurrence of typical clinical herpesvirus disorders occurring during the year prior to sampling. The association of these factors with the infection status was verified

  5. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  6. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Oocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, 22 μg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH, 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH, 1 μg/ml oestradiol, 50 μg/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 μl droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5˚C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V - propidium iodide (PI staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control, 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the

  7. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  9. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  10. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  11. Seasonal habitat selection by African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem of northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keoikantse Sianga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish seasonal movement and habitat selection patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in relation to a detailed habitat map and according to seasonal changes in forage quality and quantity in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem (Botswana. Two buffalo were collared in November 2011 and another in October 2012. All three buffalo had greater activities in the mopane–sandveld woodland mosaic during the wet season, which provided high-quality leafy grasses and ephemeral water for drinking, but moved to permanent water and reliable forage of various wetlands (swamps and floodplains and riverine woodlands during the dry season. Wetlands had higher grass greenness, height and biomass than woodlands during the dry season. Buffalo had similar wet season concentration areas in the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 wet seasons and similar dry season concentration areas over the 2012 and 2013 dry seasons. However, their dry season location of collaring in 2011 differed dramatically from their 2012 and 2013 dry season concentration areas, possibly because of the exceptionally high flood levels in 2011, which reduced accessibility to their usual dry season concentration areas. The study demonstrates that extremely large and heterogeneous landscapes are needed to conserve buffalo in sandy, dystrophic ecosystems with variable rainfall. Conservation implications: This study emphasises the importance of large spatial scale available for movement, which enables adaptation to changing conditions between years and seasons.

  12. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshraway, Nagwa T.; Mahmoud, Wafaa G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each). Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola sp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health. PMID:28919682

  13. Flow of nucleic acids from the rumen and recovery of purine derivatives in the urine of cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Bachrudin, Z.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Utomo, R.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the flow of nucleic acids from the rumen to duodenum. Two duodenal-cannulated each of male Ongole cattle and buffaloes aged three to four years were used and fed a mixture of king grass and rice bran (70:30 DM basis). At 95% and 60% of the voluntary intake in three weeks each before morning feeding period. Cr-mordanted alfalfa was used as a marker. The excretion of allantoin, uric acid, purine derivatives, and creatinine and the PDC index were higher in cattle than buffaloes at both levels of intake (P < 0.05). There were no difference between cattle and buffaloes with regard to the flow of RNA when expressed on digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), flow rate of RNA/kg DOMI, or flow rate of crude protein/kg DOMI. It can be concluded that the differences in urine excretion of purine derivatives between cattle and buffalo is not due to the differences in the amount of rumen microbial protein synthesis, but due to differences in purine metabolism between cattle and buffaloes. (author)

  14. Bulk feeder or selective grazer: African buffalo space use patterns based on fine-scale remotely sensed data on forage quality and quantity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kaszta, Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available of three buffalo, comparing habitat use against vegetation biomass and nitrogen content, derived from a high resolution RapidEye image of the wet season. Overall buffalo preferred open vegetation types, with sparse trees and fertile soils, and had home...

  15. Seroepidemiology of infection with Neospora caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of infection with N. caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 and risk factors associated with these infections in water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, 144 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in 5 ranches ...

  16. Serological & molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggest increased levels of infection & hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in Egypt and improved control is needed. The main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in Egypt using novel molecular and pr...

  17. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  18. The Hybrid II assay: a sensitive and specific real-time hybridization assay for the diagnosis of Theileria parva infection in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Potgieter, Fred T; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2011-12-01

    Corridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al. 2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infection with T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites. We describe the Hybrid II assay, a real-time hybridization PCR method, which compares well with the official hybridization assay in terms of specificity and sensitivity. It is, however, not influenced by mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites and is as such a significant improvement on the current hybridization assay.

  19. Trehalose improves semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post-thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim

    2016-03-15

    Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30-mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  1. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  2. High Potential Source for Biomass Degradation Enzyme Discovery and Environmental Aspects Revealed through Metagenomics of Indian Buffalo Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex microbiomes of the rumen functions as an effective system for plant cell wall degradation, and biomass utilization provide genetic resource for degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuel. Therefore the buffalo rumen microbiota was surveyed using shot gun sequencing. This metagenomic sequencing generated 3.9 GB of sequences and data were assembled into 137270 contiguous sequences (contigs. We identified potential 2614 contigs encoding biomass degrading enzymes including glycoside hydrolases (GH: 1943 contigs, carbohydrate binding module (CBM: 23 contigs, glycosyl transferase (GT: 373 contigs, carbohydrate esterases (CE: 259 contigs, and polysaccharide lyases (PE: 16 contigs. The hierarchical clustering of buffalo metagenomes demonstrated the similarities and dissimilarity in microbial community structures and functional capacity. This demonstrates that buffalo rumen microbiome was considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation with great prospects to obtain new molecules that may be applied in the biofuel industry.

  3. Seasonal incidence of Haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Vahora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 3152 and 1129 blood smears respectively, received from various veterinary sub centres located in Anand and Kaira districts of Gujarat during period from April 2009 to March 2010. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo from June to September and June to August, respectively. In crossbred cattle, 1172 (37% out of 3152 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 191 (17% out of 1129 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection. In both the species, higher incidence of Theileriosis was recorded during monsoon season as compared to other protozoan diseases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 223-225

  4. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP) using the Ceditest FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking......Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... ELISAs (SPBE) were used to determine the serotype-specificity of antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV among the positive samples. Virus isolation and sequencing were undertaken to identify circulating viruses and determine relatedness between them. Results Among the buffalo samples tested, 85...

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species.

  6. Comparison of daily weight gain and fattening characteristics between buffalo and Holstein male calves with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousef-Elahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out over 180 days for comparison of daily weight gain and carcass characteristics of male buffalo (BW=200.8±8.00 Kg, days from birth day=360±28 calves to Holstein male calves (BW=195.2± 10 Kg, days from birth day= 240± 22 with different diets. The 27 male buffalo calves and 27 Holstein male calves after an adaptation period and health treatment (3 weeks allotted in factorial design (2×3 based on completely randomized design with 18 treatments. Experimental diets used to applying three treatments (three levels of NDF, including low NDF (LNDF, medium NDF (MNDF and high NDF (HNDF, so that final prices of these diets were different. All of these experimental calves weighted by 21 days intervals after a fasting for 12h and fed twice daily at 09.00 and 21.00 with Total Mix Ration (TMR ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment, three replicate from each treatment were slaughtered and used for carcass analysis. The result from this experiment shows that: There was no significant difference in initial body weight in the treatments of buffalo and Holstein male calves. Both Holstein and buffalo calves have the higher FBV and best FC in LNDF diet. There was no significant difference between MNDF and HNDF in buffalo calves treatments. The proportion of abdominal fat and fat of carcass in LNDF treatment was higher. The carcass efficiency and cost of meat production in better quality per Kg was higher and lower in buffalo calves respectively especially in treatments with higher NDF.

  7. Detection of picobirnavirus and rotavirus in diarrhoeic faecal samples of cattle and buffalo calves in Mumbai metropolis, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study 113 diarrhoeic faecal samples obtained from buffalo (n = 68 and cattle (n = 45 calves under 1 years of age were analysed in order to determine the presence of rotavirus infection and the frequency of picobirnavirus excretion. Eleven (9.73% samples positive for group A rotavirus were identified through RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE, while 4 (3.53% samples showed a bisegmented genome with a typical picobirnavirus pattern. This is the first report of picobirnavirus in cattle and buffalo calves from Western India.

  8. Population structure of African buffalo inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci: high variation but low differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Thisted; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1998-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is found in most major vegetation types, wherever permanent sources of water are available, making it physically able to disperse through a wide range of habitats. Despite this, the buffalo has been assumed...... and analysis of variation at six microsatellite loci among 11 localities in eastern and southern Africa. High levels of genetic variability were found, suggesting that reported severe population bottlenecks due to outbreak of rinderpest during the last century did not strongly reduce the genetic variability...

  9. Prevalence and Comparative Studies of Some Major Serotype of E.Coli from Cattle and Buffalo Calf Scour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagh A.A. and Jani R.G.

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to find the different serotype of E.coli isolates from the young cattle and buffalo calves affected with calf scours. Different strains of E. coli were isolated from 30 cases of calf scour from both cattle and buffalo calves each. All the isolates of E. coli were typed for ‘O’ antigen. The relationship of serotypes of E. coli to each case showed that two of the twenty six serotypes were common and appeared most virulent in both the species. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 458-459

  10. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  11. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  12. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  13. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUENNARONG, Nitwarat; WONGPANIT, Kannika; SAKULTHAEW, Chainarong; GIORGI, Mario; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  14. Effect of oxytocin injection to milching buffaloes on its content & stability in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Pullakhandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oxytocin (OT injections to milch cattle for milk letdown have become a common practice amongst dairy farmers in India. Although there is no reported evidence, it is widely presumed that long term consumption of such milk leads to adverse health consequences. However, there is no information on the effect of exogenous OT injections on milk OT content and its stability during heating and gastrointestinal digestion. This study was carried out to determine the OT content in milk samples given by buffaloes with and without OT injections and to assess the stability of OT in the milk. Methods: Milk samples from milch buffaloes (Murrah buffalo were collected from local farmers with (n=121 or without (n=120 exogenous OT injections during 3 to 5 months of lactation period. The OT content of milk samples was estimated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The thermal and digestive stability of OT was assessed by in silico and in vitro digestion methods. Results: The OT content of the milk samples was similar regardless of OT injections used. Further, OT was found to be stable to heat treatment and gastric pepsin digestion while it was rapidly digested during the simulated intestinal digestion. r0 educed OT was digested by pepsin, implying that internal disulphide bridge of OT rendered the peptide resistant to peptic digestion. On the other hand, phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor, abrogated the pancreatin induced digestion of OT. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that exogenous OT injections do not influence its content in milk. Further, OT present in milk is rapidly degraded during intestinal digestion, ruling out its intestinal absorption and associated adverse health consequences, if any.

  15. Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Mona A M; Ahmed, Nawal S; El-Abd, M M; Abd El-Rafee, S

    2012-04-02

    The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than

  16. Surgical treatment and histopathology of different forms of olecranon and presternal bursitis in cattle and buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Thirty seven cases of bursitis presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 2001 to 2005. There were 10 adult female buffalos with olecranon bursitis (one had bilateral bursitis) and 26 calves (7 cattle and 19 buffalos, 16 males and 10 females) with presternal bursitis. There were 10 out of 11 cases of olecranon bursitis and 21 out of 26 cases of presternal bursitis with different forms (cystic, proliferative and fibrous) that were removed surgically. The remaining 6 cases, cystic bursitis (olecranon = 1, presternal = 5), were treated by aspiration of their contents and injection of 4% iodine tincture intrabursally. Only 2 cases recovered, 3 cases progressed to fibrosis and required further surgical treatment 2 to 3 weeks later, and 1 case continued to have a cystic lesion. Histopathological examination of tissue specimens from different forms of bursitis revealed that the acquired bursae were generally lined with synovial-like membrane formed from 2-3 cellular layers that covered the connective tissue capsule. The connective tissue capsule differed from one type to another and consisted of fibrous tissues containing numerous small blood vessels, blood capillaries, lymphatics and nerves. There was also evidence for inflammation within the capsule represented by congestion of blood vessels and the presence of perivascular inflammatory cells, mostly mononuclear. In conclusion, surgical treatment was successful and effective for treatment of olecranon and presternal bursitis particularly for the chronic proliferative and fibrous form in cattle and buffalo. The histological structure of the acquired bursae was relatively similar consisting of a synovial-like membrane and a connective tissue capsule with varying degrees of the inflammatory process. PMID:16871025

  17. Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankit; Sindhu, Neelesh; Kumar, Parmod; Kumar, Tarun; Charaya, Gaurav; Surbhi; Jain, V. K.; Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the incidence and clinical vital parameters in cases of primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar and from adjoining villages of the district Hisar, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 24 clinical cases (out of total 145 screened) of primary ketosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of clinical signs and significantly positive two tests for ketone bodies in urine (Rothera’s and Keto-Diastix strip test). Data collected were statistically analyzed using independent Student’s t-test. Results: Overall incidence of disease in these areas was found to be 16.55% and all the animals were recently parturited (mean: 1.42±0.14 month), on an average in their third lactation (mean: 2.38±0.30) and exhibited clinical signs such as selective anorexia (refusal to feed on concentrate diet), drastic reduction in milk yield (mean: 64.4±5.35%), ketotic odor from urine, breath, and milk and rapid loss of body condition. All the clinical vital parameters in ketotic buffaloes (body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen movements) were within normal range. Conclusion: Primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes was the most common seen in the third lactation, within the first 2 months after parturition with characteristics clinical signs and no variability in vital parameters. The disease has severe effect on the production status of affected animal. PMID:27047203

  18. Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the incidence and clinical vital parameters in cases of primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar and from adjoining villages of the district Hisar, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 24 clinical cases (out of total 145 screened of primary ketosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of clinical signs and significantly positive two tests for ketone bodies in urine (Rothera’s and Keto-Diastix strip test. Data collected were statistically analyzed using independent Student’s t-test. Results: Overall incidence of disease in these areas was found to be 16.55% and all the animals were recently parturited (mean: 1.42±0.14 month, on an average in their third lactation (mean: 2.38±0.30 and exhibited clinical signs such as selective anorexia (refusal to feed on concentrate diet, drastic reduction in milk yield (mean: 64.4±5.35%, ketotic odor from urine, breath, and milk and rapid loss of body condition. All the clinical vital parameters in ketotic buffaloes (body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen movements were within normal range. Conclusion: Primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes was the most common seen in the third lactation, within the first 2 months after parturition with characteristics clinical signs and no variability in vital parameters. The disease has severe effect on the production status of affected animal.

  19. NMR-based metabolomics of water-buffalo milk after conventional or biological feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Mazzei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological farming in dairy production is often advocated as one of the most virtuous solutions to the environmental problems of conventional farming while improving the sustainability of production and cattle welfare. However, it is still under debate whether the conversion from conventional to biological farming has an influence on milk composition. In addition, the possible frauds related to biological dairy products call for analytical tools enabling the authentication of products quality and consumers protection. The aim of this work was to determine the composition of milk produced by water-buffaloes and to identify the specific metabolic profiles discriminating a biological from a conventional feeding diet. Methods Liquid-state 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies were used to study milk samples which were supplied during a 2-year-long experimentation by a single dairy farm and sampled from conventionally and biologically fed buffaloes (CFM and BFM, respectively. For each milk sample, we obtained NMR spectra of both raw milk and milk cream fractions comprising neutral lipids and phospholipids. Results The elaboration of multinuclear spectroscopic NMR results by the principal component analysis (PCA enabled the identification of diagnostic differences in the milk composition between CFM and BFM samples. In particular, BFM were characterized by larger content of unsaturated lipids and phosphatidylcholine. Our findings confirmed that the conversion from a conventional to biological feeding regime influenced the buffalo milk composition, with possible implications for sensorial and nutritional properties of dairy products. Finally, the analytical methodology of NMR spectroscopy shown here may be considered as a useful tool to assess the quality and the authenticity of biological milk.

  20. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium after administration to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haiying; Feng, Xin; Peng, Jianbo; Liang, Liu; Lu, Chunyan; Tiwari, Roshan V; Tang, Shusheng; He, Jiakang

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). ANIMALS 5 healthy adult water buffalo (3 males and 2 nonlactating females). PROCEDURES All animals received a dose (2.2 mg/kg) of 3 ceftiofur products (2 commercially available suspensions of ceftiofur hydrochloride [CEF1 and CEF2, IM] and ceftiofur sodium [CEF3, IV]). Blood samples were collected for up to 196 hours. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated on the basis of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters, except for bioavailability and the area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, were significantly different between the 2 products administered IM. Mean ± SD bioavailability of CEF1 and CEF2 was 89.57 ± 32.84% and 86.28 ± 11.49%, respectively, which indicated good absorption of both products. In addition, there was a longer drug residence time for CEF1 than for CEF2. Data analysis for CEF1 revealed a flip-flop phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was good absorption of CEF1, and CEF1 had a longer drug residence time in vivo than did CEF2. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, a dosage regimen of 2.2 mg/kg administered at 48- and 36-hour intervals for CEF1 and CEF2, respectively, could be an appropriate choice for the treatment of buffalo with infectious diseases.

  2. Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105 were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1, P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1, Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1, K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1, Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1, Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1, Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1, Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1 y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1. These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.

  3. Production and composition of buffalo milk supplemented with agro industrial byproducts of the african palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Bustamante Hinojosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal for this applied research was to assess the production and composition of buffalo milk when Oil Palm kernel flour and Oil Palm kernel cake are supplemented to their diet. Thirty buffaloes from the grasslands of the Andes valleys in Colombia with 1 to 3 lactations and an average weight of 575 kg were selected for the experimental. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (T1 Control Group with no diet supplements, (T2 1000 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel cake and 350 g·day-1 of molasses diet supplement, and (T3 1150 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel flour. During the first 100 days of lactation, the milk livestock were individually weighed and milked. Milking was scheduled every 15 days, for a total of seven samples. The supplement consumption was recorded and a bromatological analysis of grasses was performed. The chemical composition of the milk was determined using an ultrasonic Ekomilk analyzer and a fatty acid full profile analysis was made using High Liquid Pressure Chromatography (HLPC. A 7 x 3 multiple variable statistical analysis was performed by sampling seven fifteen day periods and three types of diet. The average values of milk components observed were: 3.54% protein; 7.4% fat; total solids 16.9%; non-fat solids 9.5%; 2.1 fats to protein ratio. The profile of fatty acids showed 2.34% of polyunsaturated; 33.1% of monounsaturated; 64.6% of unsaturated fatty acids; and 0.96% of Omega 6 acids. In conclusion was observed partial effect to fat supplementation in the buffaloes milk production.

  4. Clinical and diagnostic methods for evaluation of sharp foreign body syndrome in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate clinically and under laboratory condition the sharp foreign body syndrome (SFBS in buffaloes with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of radiography, ultrasonography and blood gases and acidbase balance. Materials and Methods: 196 buffaloes with a history of anorexia, reduction of milk production and no response to previous medical treatment were included in the present study. These animals were subjected to clinical and radiographical examinations. Positive cases for SFBS were further evaluated by sonography, hemato-biochemical and blood gas and acid base balance analysis.Results: Out of 196 admitted cases, 49 (25% cases were confirmed as SFBS by clinical and radiographical examination. Positive cases were subsequently divided into two main categories (complicated and non complicated according to radiographical and sonographical findings. SFBS with no complication was diagnosed in 16 cases while 33 cases showed various degrees of complication including reticular adhesion (abdominal and diaphragmatic, n= 23, diaphragmatic hernia (n = 6 and traumatic pericarditis (n = 4. Leukocytosis, hyperprotenemia and increased activity of AST and ALT were of additional values in the diagnosis of SFBS. A consistent finding of primary metabolic alkalosis was recorded in all cases except one with advanced traumatic pericarditis that showed metabolic acidosis. Conclusion: While there is no substitution for clinical examination, using of ultrasonography and radiography simultaneously are essential for proper evaluation and differentiation between various sequelae of SFBS in buffaloes. Radiography is an efficient tool for visualization of metallic foreign body while ultrasonography is an excellent device in assessing fibrinous deposits. Hemato-biochemical and blood gases and acid base balance are of additional values in discriminating between various outcomes of SFBS.

  5. Studies on reproductive endocrinology and factors influencing fertility in dairy and draught buffaloes in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, B.M.A.O.; De Silva, L.N.A.; Karunaratne, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of calving data on state farms and a field survey in village herds were used in conjunction with radioimmunoassay for plasma and milk progesterone, rectal palpation and other clinical observations to study reproductive functions of river type (Murrah) and indigenous (Lanka) buffaloes. A marked seasonality of calvings and conceptions was observed in both types, with the highest percentage of conceptions occurring 2-5 months after the annual peak in rainfall. In Murrah buffaloes on two state farms the mean ages at first calving were 51.0 and 52.1 months, and the calving interval 17.5 months. Progesterone profiles during the postpartum period showed ovarian inactivity to be the major problem. Most animals remained anoestrous for 100-200 days, but conceived at the first or second postpartum ovulation. Treatment with GnRH during anoestrus had no beneficial effect. Hormonal changes during normal and prostaglandin-synchronized oestrous cycles, pregnancy and the peripartal period were basically similar to those in cattle, with some differences in absolute values. Gestation length (mean+-SD) was 309.9+-8.8 days. In Lanka buffaloes under village conditions marked differences in fertility were evident between certain districts and agro-ecological zones. Mean ages at first calving ranged from 41.4-49 months, calving intervals from 13-23.5 months, and annual calving rates from 42-75%. Ovarian inactivity was the major problem in areas with poor fertility, and was influenced by suckling management and usage for draught and milk. At one village location with high fertility 70% of the animals had calving to first service intervals less than 60 days, first service conception rate of 65.5% and 1.4 services per conception. The mean (+-SD) interval from calving to first elevation of progesterone in milk was 55.2+-18.6 days, the calving interval 393.7+-79.8 days, and the gestation length 316.9+-9.9 days. (author)

  6. Assessment of indicators and collection methodology to estimate nutrient digestibility in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry fecal matter production was estimated from neutral detergent indicators on indigestible fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible dry matter, incubated for 144 hours and 288 hours, as well as chromium oxide (Cr2O3 and enriched and purified isolated lignin (LIPE® in two sampling schemes (3 and 5 days on buffaloes. Sample consisted of five castrated animals with average weight of 300 ± 0.6 kg fed on elephant grass cv Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in subdivided plots. Production of dry fecal matter was overestimated when using Cr2O3, indigestible acid detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 288 hours and indigestible dry matter 144 hours, while indigestible acid detergent fiber 288 hours, indigestible dry matter 288 hours and LIPE® did not differ from total collection. The same result was observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. There was no difference in dry fecal matter production and digestibility between both collection periods of 3 and 5 days, demonstrating that a collection period of three days can be used to estimate dry fecal matter production in buffaloes. A three-day period of sample collection, in order to estimate dry fecal matter production and apparent digestibility coefficients, is therefore recommended. The use of LIPE®, fibers in indigestible acid detergent and indigestible dry matter as indicators, both latter incubated for 288 hours, result in accurate estimates of dry fecal matter production in confined buffaloes, fed on a forage based diet.

  7. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  8. Estimation of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of bacterial cell growth in the rumen of buffalo calves has been measured applying the isotope dilution technique by injecting labelled mixed rumen bacteria into the rumen, and expressing the specific radioactivity either per mg dry bacterial cells or per μg DAPA in whole rumen samples. The animals were fed daily about 15-20 kg chopped green maize in 12 equal amounts at 2-h intervals. There was no significant difference in the rate of production of bacteria estimated by either method. (author)

  9. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. Copyright

  10. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  11. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf. Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6. Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6 treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6 treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6 treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6 considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment, 4, 9 (during treatment, on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4. The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05 on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75% buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M

  12. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl, inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl, magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl, sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L, potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L, and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01 higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001 related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001 negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.

  13. Possible death of a buffalo calf (Syncercus caffer due to suspected heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfitzer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial organisms resembling Ehrlichia ruminantium (the causative organism of heartwater were demonstrated in brain smears and formalin-fixed brain sections derived from a buffalo calf that died on a private game reserve in northern KwaZulu-Natal. The possibility that the tick-free environment of a quarantine boma may have affected the calf 's immunity, is discussed. These findings suggest that monitoring heartwater in wild ruminants and making brain smears as a routine during post mortem evaluations of wild ruminants, should be encouraged.

  14. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  15. Evaluation of Atropine as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Atropine produced ataxia in all the animals. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry at 37.5±4.924 minute and again became wet at 246.3±28.00 minute of its administration. No analgesia was observed. Heart rate, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure increased significantly without any significant variations in central venous pressure.

  16. Cape buffalo mitogenomics reveals a holocene shift in the African human-megafauna dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Rasmus; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2012-01-01

    Africa is unique among the continents in having maintained an extraordinarily diverse and prolific megafauna spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene epochs. Little is known about the historical dynamics of this community and even less about the reasons for its unique persistence to modern times. We...... sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from 43 Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) to infer the demographic history of this large mammal. A combination of Bayesian skyline plots, simulations and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) were used to distinguish population size dynamics from the confounding...... the first systematic assessment of megafauna dynamics on the only continent where large mammals remain abundant....

  17. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  18. Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new anaerobic fungus (Neocallimastigomycota isolated from buffalo faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Martin Callaghan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel anaerobic fungus Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov., belonging to order Neocallimastigales (phylum Neocallimastigomycota is described. Morphologically similar to Piromyces but genetically quite distinct, this fungus (isolate GE09 was first isolated from buffalo faeces in west Wales and then subsequently isolated from sheep, cattle and horse in the same area. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and ITS sequence confirmed that B. eastonii isolates formed a distinct clade close to the polycentric Anaeromyces spp. The morphology of GE09 is monocentric with monoflagellate zoospores. However, the sporangial stalk (sporangiophore is often distinctly swollen and the proximal regions of the rhizoidal system twisted in appearance.

  19. Behavior and milk production of buffalo cows as affected by housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, G; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; Bilancione, A; Di Francia, A; Napolitano, F

    2009-03-01

    To verify the effect of 2 housing systems (with and without a pool and an ample outdoor lot) on behavior and milk yield, 45 lactating buffalo cows were group-housed in a free stall open-sided barn with concrete floor where they received 10 m(2)/head as space allowance (group NP); 43 cows were group-housed in a similar barn, but had access to an outdoor yard (36 m(2)/head) and a concrete pool of 208 m(2) (group WP). Animals were subjected to 8 sessions of instantaneous scan sampling at approximately 10-d intervals. Behavioral variables were expressed as proportions of subjects observed in each category of posture and activity. In addition, rapid behaviors such as agonistic, social, and reproductive interactions, social licking, and self-grooming were recorded continuously. These variables were expressed as number of interactions per animal. At the end of each hour of observation, temperature and relative humidity were recorded. In WP the proportion of animals observed wallowing was 0.476 +/- 0.034, whereas lower proportions were observed standing (0.389 +/- 0.029) or lying (0.141 +/- 0.021) outside the pool. In NP the proportions of animals observed standing and lying were 0.452 +/- 0.042 and 0.548 +/- 0.042, respectively. A significant relationship between mean temperatures recorded on observation days and proportion of animals in the pool was observed (r(s) = 0.41). Fewer animals from group WP were observed idling compared with buffaloes from group NP (0.44 +/- 0.024 vs. 0.509 +/- 0.024, respectively), whereas more WP animals were involved in investigative activities than NP cows (0.099 +/- 0.009 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.009, respectively). A greater number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling) and social lickings were observed in group WP than in group NP (0.120 +/- 0.010 vs. 0.067 +/- 0.010, and 0.151 +/- 0.018 vs. 0.090 +/- 0.018, respectively). The WP buffalo cows had a greater milk yield than NP cows (11.73 +/- 0.31 vs. 10.78 +/- 0.28 kg/d, respectively

  20. Assessment of expected breeding values for fertility traits of Murrah buffaloes under subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Dash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of temperature and humidity prevalent under subtropical climate on the breeding values for fertility traits viz. service period (SP, pregnancy rate (PR and conception rate (CR of Murrah buffaloes in National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI herd. Materials and Methods: Fertility data on 1379 records of 581 Murrah buffaloes spread over four lactations and climatic parameters viz. dry bulb temperature and relative humidity (RH spanned over 20 years (1993-2012 were collected from NDRI and Central Soil and Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India. Monthly average temperature humidity index (THI values were estimated. Threshold THI value affecting fertility traits was identified by fixed least-squares model analysis. Three zones of non-heat stress, heat stress and critical heat stress zones were developed in a year. The genetic parameters heritablility (h2 and repeatability (r of each fertility trait were estimated. Genetic evaluation of Murrah buffaloes was performed in each zone with respect to their expected breeding values (EBV for fertility traits. Results: Effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001 on all fertility traits with threshold THI value identified as 75. Based on THI values, a year was classified into three zones: Non heat stress zone(THI 56.71-73.21, HSZ (THI 75.39-81.60 and critical HSZ (THI 80.27-81.60. The EBVfor SP, PR, CR were estimated as 138.57 days, 0.362 and 69.02% in non-HSZ while in HSZ EBV were found as 139.62 days, 0.358 and 68.81%, respectively. EBV for SP was increased to 140.92 days and for PR and CR, it was declined to 0.357 and 68.71% in critical HSZ. Conclusion: The negative effect of THI was observed on EBV of fertility traits under the non-HSZ and critical HSZ Thus, the influence of THI should be adjusted before estimating the breeding values for fertility traits in Murrah buffaloes.