On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
The relational nature of rational numbers
Bruce Brown
2015-06-01
Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the knowledge and learning of rational numbers is more complex than that of the whole number field. This complexity includes the broader range of application of rational numbers, the increased level of technical complexity in the mathematical structure and symbol systems of this field and the more complex nature of many conceptual properties of the rational number field. Research on rational number learning is divided as to whether children’s difficulties in learning rational numbers arise only from the increased complexity or also include elements of conceptual change. This article argues for a fundamental conceptual difference between whole and rational numbers. It develops the position that rational numbers are fundamentally relational in nature and that the move from absolute counts to relative comparisons leads to a further level of abstraction in our understanding of number and quantity. The argument is based on a number of qualitative, in-depth research projects with children and adults. These research projects indicated the importance of such a relational understanding in both the learning and teaching of rational numbers, as well as in adult representations of rational numbers on the number line. Acknowledgement of such a conceptual change could have important consequences for the teaching and learning of rational numbers.
Patterns in rational base number systems
Morgenbesser, Johannes F; Thuswaldner, Jörg
2012-01-01
Number systems with a rational number $a/b > 1$ as base have gained interest in recent years. In particular, relations to Mahler's 3/2-problem as well as the Josephus problem have been established. In the present paper we show that the patterns of digits in the representations of positive integers in such a number system are uniformly distributed. We study the sum-of-digits function of number systems with rational base $a/b$ and use representations w.r.t. this base to construct normal numbers in base $a$ in the spirit of Champernowne. The main challenge in our proofs comes from the fact that the language of the representations of integers in these number systems is not context-free. The intricacy of this language makes it impossible to prove our results along classical lines. In particular, we use self-affine tiles that are defined in certain subrings of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$ and Fourier analysis in $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$. With help of these tools we are able to reformulate our results as ...
Early Developmental Trajectories toward Concepts of Rational Numbers
Kainulainen, Mikko; McMullen, Jake; Lehtinen, Erno
2017-01-01
Difficulties with rational numbers have been explained by a natural number bias, where concepts of natural numbers are inappropriately applied to rational numbers. Overcoming this difficulty may require a radical restructuring of previous knowledge. In order to capture this development, we examined third- to fifth-grade students' understanding of…
Relational Reasoning with Rational Numbers: Developmental and Neuroimaging Approaches
DeWolf, Melissa
2016-01-01
The study of how children and adults learn mathematics has given rise to a rich set of psychological phenomena involving mental representation, conceptual understanding, working memory, relational reasoning and problem solving. The subfield of understanding rational number processing and reasoning focuses on mental representation and conceptual understanding of rational numbers, and in particular fractions. Fractions differ from other number types, such as whole numbers, both conceptually a...
Rational numbers with purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion
Adamczewski, Boris; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
We study real numbers $\\beta$ with the curious property that the $\\beta$-expansion of all sufficiently small positive rational numbers is purely periodic. It is known that such real numbers have to be Pisot numbers which are units of the number field they generate. We complete known results due to Akiyama to characterize algebraic numbers of degree 3 that enjoy this property. This extends results previously obtained in the case of degree 2 by K. Schmidt, Hama and Imahashi. Let $\\gamma(\\beta)$ denote the supremum of the real numbers $c$ in $(0,1)$ such that all positive rational numbers less than $c$ have a purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion. We prove that $\\gamma(\\beta)$ is irrational for a class of cubic Pisot units that contains the smallest Pisot number $\\eta$. This result is motivated by the observation of Akiyama and Scheicher that $\\gamma(\\eta)=0.666 666 666 086 ...$ is surprisingly close to 2/3.
Neural representations of magnitude for natural and rational numbers.
DeWolf, Melissa; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J; Monti, Martin M
2016-11-01
Humans have developed multiple symbolic representations for numbers, including natural numbers (positive integers) as well as rational numbers (both fractions and decimals). Despite a considerable body of behavioral and neuroimaging research, it is currently unknown whether different notations map onto a single, fully abstract, magnitude code, or whether separate representations exist for specific number types (e.g., natural versus rational) or number representations (e.g., base-10 versus fractions). We address this question by comparing brain metabolic response during a magnitude comparison task involving (on different trials) integers, decimals, and fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the strength and pattern of activation for fractions differed systematically, within the intraparietal sulcus, from that of both decimals and integers, while the latter two number representations appeared virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that the two major notations formats for rational numbers, fractions and decimals, evoke distinct neural representations of magnitude, with decimals representations being more closely linked to those of integers than to those of magnitude-equivalent fractions. Our findings thus suggest that number representation (base-10 versus fractions) is an important organizational principle for the neural substrate underlying mathematical cognition.
Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.
Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J
2017-07-01
Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.
Elementary Teacher Candidates’ Understanding of Rational Numbers: An International Perspective
Carbone, Rose Elaine
2012-01-01
This paper combines data from two different international research studies that used problem posing in analyzing elementary teacher candidates’ understanding of rational numbers. In 2007, a mathematics educator from the United States and a mathematician from Northern Ireland collaborated to investigate their respective elementary teacher candidates’ understanding of addition and division of fractions. A year later, the same US mathematics educator collaborated with a mathematics educator from...
Magnitude comparison with different types of rational numbers.
DeWolf, Melissa; Grounds, Margaret A; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J
2014-02-01
An important issue in understanding mathematical cognition involves the similarities and differences between the magnitude representations associated with various types of rational numbers. For single-digit integers, evidence indicates that magnitudes are represented as analog values on a mental number line, such that magnitude comparisons are made more quickly and accurately as the numerical distance between numbers increases (the distance effect). Evidence concerning a distance effect for compositional numbers (e.g., multidigit whole numbers, fractions and decimals) is mixed. We compared the patterns of response times and errors for college students in magnitude comparison tasks across closely matched sets of rational numbers (e.g., 22/37, 0.595, 595). In Experiment 1, a distance effect was found for both fractions and decimals, but response times were dramatically slower for fractions than for decimals. Experiments 2 and 3 compared performance across fractions, decimals, and 3-digit integers. Response patterns for decimals and integers were extremely similar but, as in Experiment 1, magnitude comparisons based on fractions were dramatically slower, even when the decimals varied in precision (i.e., number of place digits) and could not be compared in the same way as multidigit integers (Experiment 3). Our findings indicate that comparisons of all three types of numbers exhibit a distance effect, but that processing often involves strategic focus on components of numbers. Fractions impose an especially high processing burden due to their bipartite (a/b) structure. In contrast to the other number types, the magnitude values associated with fractions appear to be less precise, and more dependent on explicit calculation.
Rational and algebraic approximations of algebraic numbers and their application
袁平之
1997-01-01
Effective rational and algebraic approximations of a large class of algebraic numbers are obtained by Thue-Siegel’s method.As an application of this result,it is proved that; if D>0 is not a square,and ε=x0 +y0 D denotes the fundamental solution of x2-Dy2=-1,then x2+1=Dy4 is solvable if and only if y0=A2 where A is an integer.Moreover,if ≥64,then x2+1=Dy4 has at most one positive integral solution (x,y).
On the Number of Rational Points on Prym Varieties over Finite Fields
Aubry, Yves; Haloui, Safia
2016-01-01
We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2.......We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2....
Performance on Cloze Tests with Fixed-Ratio and Rational Deletions.
Bachman, Lyle F.
1985-01-01
Describes a study that developed criteria for rationally selecting the words to delete in developing a cloze test. The study also tried to determine the extent to which performance on a cloze test with rational deletions differs from that on a cloze test developed by the fixed-ratio deletion procedure. (SED)
McMullen, Jake; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M.; Lehtinen, Erno
2015-01-01
Recent evidence suggests that early natural number knowledge is a predictor of later rational number conceptual knowledge, even though students' difficulties with rational numbers have also been explained by the overuse of natural number concepts--often referred to as the natural number bias. Hannula and Lehtinen ("Learn Instr"…
Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
Let Lambda be a numerical semigroup. Assume there exists an algebraic function field over Fq in one variable which possesses a rational place that has Lambda as its Weierstrass semigroup. We ask the question as to how many rational places such a function field can possibly have and we derive...... an upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show...
The golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers
Dunlap, Richard A
1997-01-01
In this invaluable book, the basic mathematical properties of the golden ratio and its occurrence in the dimensions of two- and three-dimensional figures with fivefold symmetry are discussed. In addition, the generation of the Fibonacci series and generalized Fibonacci series and their relationship to the golden ratio are presented. These concepts are applied to algorithms for searching and function minimization. The Fibonacci sequence is viewed as a one-dimensional aperiodic, lattice and these ideas are extended to two- and three-dimensional Penrose tilings and the concept of incommensurate p
van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; van Dooren, Wim
2015-01-01
The natural number bias is known to explain many difficulties learners have with understanding rational numbers. The research field distinguishes three aspects where natural number properties are sometimes inappropriately applied in rational number tasks: density, size, and operations. The overall goal of this study was to characterize the…
Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary
2010-01-01
This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1994-01-01
The symmetry algebra of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratio of frequencies is identified as a non-linear extension of the u(2) algebra. The finite dimensional representation modules of this algebra are studied and the energy eigenvalues are determined using algebraic methods of general applicability to quantum superintegrable systems.
Erich Selder
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The correspondence between right triangles with rational sides, triplets of rational squares in arithmetic succession and integral solutions of certain quadratic forms is well-known. We show how this correspondence can be extended to the generalized notions of rational θ-triangles, rational squares occurring in arithmetic progressions and concordant forms. In our approach we establish one-to-one mappings to rational points on certain elliptic curves and examine in detail the role of solutions of the θ-congruent number problem and the concordant form problem associated with nontrivial torsion points on the corresponding elliptic curves. This approach allows us to combine and extend some disjoint results obtained by a number of authors, to clarify some statements in the literature and to answer some hitherto open questions.
A rational analysis of the approximate number system.
Piantadosi, Steven T
2016-06-01
It is well-known in numerical cognition that higher numbers are represented with less absolute fidelity than lower numbers, often formalized as a logarithmic mapping. Previous derivations of this psychological law have worked by assuming that relative change in physical magnitude is the key psychologically-relevant measure (Fechner, 1860; Sun et al., 2012; Portugal & Svaiter, Minds and Machines, 21(1), 73-81, 2011). Ideally, however, this property of psychological scales would be derived from more general, independent principles. This paper shows that a logarithmic number line is the one which minimizes the error between input and representation relative to the probability that subjects would need to represent each number. This need probability is measured here through natural language and matches the form of need probabilities found in other literatures. The derivation does not presuppose anything like Weber's law and makes minimal assumptions about both the nature of internal representations and the form of the mapping. More generally, the results prove in a general setting that the optimal psychological scale will change with the square root of the probability of each input. For stimuli that follow a power-law need distribution this approach recovers either a logarithmic or power-law psychophysical mapping (Stevens, 1957, 1961, 1975).
A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.
Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara
2017-02-27
Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Yantz. Jennifer
2013-01-01
The attainment and retention of later algebra skills in high school has been identified as a factor significantly impacting students' postsecondary success as STEM majors. Researchers maintain that learners develop meaning for algebraic procedures by forming connections to the basic number system properties. In the present study, the connections…
A Collatz-type conjecture on the set of rational numbers
Javaheri, Mohammad
2010-01-01
Define $\\theta(x)=(x-1)/3$ if $x\\geq 1$, and $\\theta(x)=2x/(1-x)$ if $x<1$. We conjecture that the orbit of every positive rational number ends in 0. In particular, there does not exist any positive rational fixed point for a map in the semigroup $\\Omega$ generated by the maps $3x+1$ and $x/(x+2)$. In this paper, we prove that the asymptotic density of the set of elements in $\\Omega$ that have rational fixed points is zero.
Laws of large numbers for ratios of uniform random variables
Adler André
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Let {Xnn n ≥ 1} and {Yn, n ≥ 1} be two sequences of uniform random variables. We obtain various strong and weak laws of large numbers for the ratio of these two sequences. Even though these are uniform and naturally bounded random variables the ratios are not bounded and have an unusual behaviour creating Exact Strong Laws.
McMullen, Jake; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M.; Laakkonen, Eero; Lehtinen, Erno
2016-01-01
Many people have serious difficulties in understanding rational numbers, limiting their ability to interpret and make use of them in modern daily life. This also leads to later difficulties in learning more advanced mathematical content. In this study, novel tasks are used to measure 263 late primary school students' spontaneous focusing on…
Obersteiner, Andreas; Hoof, Jo Van; Verschaffel, Lieven; Dooren, Wim Van
2016-08-01
Many learners have difficulties with rational number tasks because they persistently rely on their natural number knowledge, which is not always applicable. Studies show that such a natural number bias can mislead not only children but also educated adults. It is still unclear whether and under what conditions mathematical expertise enables people to be completely unaffected by such a bias on tasks in which people with less expertise are clearly biased. We compared the performance of eighth-grade students and expert mathematicians on the same set of algebraic expression problems that addressed the effect of arithmetic operations (multiplication and division). Using accuracy and response time measures, we found clear evidence for a natural number bias in students but no traces of a bias in experts. The data suggested that whereas students based their answers on their intuitions about natural numbers, expert mathematicians relied on their skilled intuitions about algebraic expressions. We conclude that it is possible for experts to be unaffected by the natural number bias on rational number tasks when they use strategies that do not involve natural numbers.
DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J
2015-05-01
To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2009-01-01
We present a new bound on the number of Fq -rational places in an algebraic function field. It uses information about the generators of the Weierstrass semigroup related to a rational place. As we demonstrate, the bound has implications to the theory of towers of function fields....
Collective aspects of pre-service lower secondary teachers' knowledge on density of rational numbers
Putra, Zetra Hainul
2016-01-01
This study is about the design of hypothetical teacher tasks (HTTs) on density of rational numbers, developed based on the anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD), and used to investigate pre-service lower secondary teachers (PLSTs)’ mathematical and didactical knowledge. The PLSTs’ knowledge...... considered in this paper concerns mathematical and didactical techniques to solve the specific tasks on the HTTs. The collective aspects, mutual engagement, joint enterprise, and shared repertoire, are considered during their discussion. The findings show that there is a link between mathematical...
Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios
van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C
2014-01-01
This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone meta
Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number
Gdeisat, Munther A.; Burton, David R.; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen
2016-10-01
The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications.
A Software Library for Reliable Online-Arithmetic with Rational Numbers
Miguel Casado, Gregorio de; García Chamizo, Juan Manuel
2008-01-01
An overview of a novel calculation framework for scientific computing in integrable spaces is introduced. This paper discusses some implementation issues adopted for a software library devoted to exact rational online-arithmetic operators for periodic rational operands codified in fractional positional notation.
A golden ratio notation for the real numbers
Gianantonio, P. di
1996-01-01
Several methods to perform exact computations on real numbers have been proposed in the literature. In some of these methods real numbers are represented by infinite (lazy) strings of digits. It is a well known fact that, when this approach is taken, the standard digit notation cannot be used. Ne
Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani
2014-06-01
An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P 0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P 0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.
S. V. Gautier
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained.
Guo, Ying-jun; Wen, Zhi-Xiong; Zhang, Jie-Meng
2016-01-01
Based on the structure of Fibonacci sequence, we give a new proof for the irrationality exponents of the Fibonacci real numbers. Moreover, we obtain all the irrationality exponents of the real numbers corresponding to the differences of Fibonacci sequence.
Dixon, G. V.; Barringer, S. R.; Gray, C. E.; Leatherman, A. D.
1975-01-01
Computer programs and resulting tabulations are presented of pipeline length-to-diameter ratios as a function of Mach number and pressure ratios for compressible flow. The tabulations are applicable to air, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for compressible isothermal flow with friction and compressible adiabatic flow with friction. Also included are equations for the determination of weight flow. The tabulations presented cover a wider range of Mach numbers for choked, adiabatic flow than available from commonly used engineering literature. Additional information presented, but which is not available from this literature, is unchoked, adiabatic flow over a wide range of Mach numbers, and choked and unchoked, isothermal flow for a wide range of Mach numbers.
DeWolf, M; Bassok, M; Holyoak, KJ
2015-01-01
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuri...
Sense and Reference in the Design of Interactive Illustrations for Rational Numbers.
Ohlsson, Stellan
It is a common tactic in the teaching of arithmetic to provide the learner with pictures and embodiments of various kinds. However, the pedagogy of illustrations is not well understood. Analysis of the concept of meaning in relation to arithmetic shows that full understanding of arithmetic implies intellectual possession of a number of different…
1988-05-03
allowed. If Wies are created or opened using such instan- tiations, the Use-..Error exception is raised. s Count type: The Count type for package Texto ...interactive input/output windows provided by the Rational Editor . When a job is run from package Program, options allow the user to specify what Standard
Rosane Ratzlaff da Rosa
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This article reports on an investigation which sought to determine if the use of spreadsheets in the teaching of rational numbers in elementary education contributes to learning and improved learning retention. The study was carried out with a sample of students from two sixth-grade classes in a public school in Porto Alegre. Results indicated that the use of spreadsheets favored learning and made the classes more participatory for the students, who were able to visualize the processes they were working with. A second test applied five months after the first test showed that students who used the spreadsheets had greater learning retention of the contents. The results also show that the students felt comfortable with the technology, and almost all reported that they were more motivated by the use of computers in the classroom, despite less-than-ideal laboratory conditions. Key-words: Rational Numbers. Teaching with Spreadsheet. Teaching Rational Numbers using Spreadsheet.Este artigo relata uma investigação que procurou determinar se o uso de planilha como recurso no ensino dos números racionais na Educação Básica contribui para a aprendizagem e uma maior retenção dessa aprendizagem a médio prazo. A investigação foi realizada com uma amostra de alunos de duas turmas da sexta série de uma escola pública de Porto Alegre. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da planilha favorece a aprendizagem e torna as aulas mais participativas para os alunos, que conseguiram visualizar os processos com os quais trabalharam. Um segundo teste aplicado cinco meses após o primeiro mostrou que os alunos que utilizaram a planilha apresentaram uma maior retenção do conteúdo. Os resultados apontam ainda que os alunos se sentem à vontade com a tecnologia e quase todos disseram ficarem mais motivados com as aulas utilizando o computador apesar das condições do laboratório utilizado não ser a ideal. Palavras-chave: Números Racionais. Ensino com a
Number needed to treat: solid science or a path to pernicious rationing?
Black, H R; Crocitto, M T
1998-08-01
Basing clinical practice decisions on currently available evidence from clinical trials may result in suboptimal care in the real-world practice of medicine. The problem stems from both the quality of data and the means by which the data have been interpreted. In an attempt to remedy the situation, a term based on an assessment of all risk factors and comorbidity has been suggested and made more easily translatable to clinical decision making. This term, the reciprocal of absolute risk reduction, is the number needed to treat (NNT), an idea that has gained wide acceptance. There are, however, risks that the simplicity of the NNT will be misused to guide reimbursement decisions and potentially prevent patients from receiving optimal care. This seemingly objective measure may be seriously flawed if the data on which this measure is based do not necessarily reflect the results that real world doctors achieve in practice. These problems could lead to the misguided allocation of health care resources. It is therefore incumbent upon us to closely evaluate the data on which NNTs are based and, if necessary, to arrive at more accurate NNTs. In our view, such data should be gleaned from effectiveness trials done by real world doctors in real world settings with real world volunteers. Large simple trials, as have already been performed in a number of therapeutic areas, especially for acute management of myocardial infarction and in acquired immune deficiency syndrome, offer the best likelihood of yielding this crucial information. We need to be sure that future trials of chronic conditions such as hypertension are done with this trial paradigm, so that those who pay for care have the accurate knowledge needed to spend their money wisely.
Lift-optimal aspect ratio of a revolving wing at low Reynolds number
Jardin, Thierry; Colonius, Tim
2016-11-01
Lentink & Dickinson (2009) showed that rotational acceleration stabilized the leading-edge vortex on revolving, low-aspect-ratio wings, and hypothesized that a Rossby number of around 3, which is achieved during each half-stroke for a variety of hovering insects, seeds, and birds, represents a convergent high-lift solution across a range of scales in nature. Subsequent work has verified that, in particular, the Coriolis acceleration is responsible for LEV stabilization. Implicit in these results is that there exists an optimal aspect ratio for wings revolving about their root, because it is otherwise unclear why, apart from possible physiological reasons, the convergent solution would not occur for an even lower Rossby number. We perform direct numerical simulations of the flow past revolving wings where we vary the aspect ratio and Rossby numbers independently by displacing the wing root from the axis of rotation. We show that the optimal lift coefficient represents a compromise between competing trends where the coefficient of lift increases monotonically with aspect ratio, holding Rossby number constant, but decreases monotonically with Rossby number, when holding aspect ratio constant. For wings revolving about their root, this favors wings of aspect ratio between 3 and 4. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Fondation ISAE-Supaero.
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1994-01-01
The symmetry algebra of the two-dimensional anisotropic quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratio of frequencies, which is characterizing ``pancake'' nuclei, is identified as a non-linear extension of the u(2) algebra. The finite dimensional representation modules of this algebra are studied and the energy eigenvalues are determined using algebraic methods of general applicability to quantum superintegrable systems. For labelling the degenerate states an ``angular momentum'' operator is introduced, the eigenvalues of which are roots of appropriate generalized Hermite polynomials. In the special case with frequency ratio 2:1 the resulting algebra is identified as the finite W algebra W_3^{(2)}.
The effect of tip speed ratio on a vertical axis wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers
Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.
2016-05-01
This work visualizes the flow surrounding a scaled model vertical axis wind turbine at realistic operating conditions. The model closely matches geometric and dynamic properties—tip speed ratio and Reynolds number—of a full-size turbine. The flow is visualized using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) in the midplane upstream, around, and after (up to 4 turbine diameters downstream) the turbine, as well as a vertical plane behind the turbine. Time-averaged results show an asymmetric wake behind the turbine, regardless of tip speed ratio, with a larger velocity deficit for a higher tip speed ratio. For the higher tip speed ratio, an area of averaged flow reversal is present with a maximum reverse flow of -0.04U_∞. Phase-averaged vorticity fields—achieved by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine—show distinct structures form from each turbine blade. There were distinct differences in results by tip speed ratios of 0.9, 1.3, and 2.2 of when in the cycle structures are shed into the wake—switching from two pairs to a single pair of vortices being shed—and how they convect into the wake—the middle tip speed ratio vortices convect downstream inside the wake, while the high tip speed ratio pair is shed into the shear layer of the wake. Finally, results show that the wake structure is much more sensitive to changes in tip speed ratio than to changes in Reynolds number.
Effect of Number of Eating Responses at Reinforcement on Fixed-Ratio Behavior.
Kleinginna, Paul R
1978-04-01
Fixed-ratio (FR) size was increased for pigeons (N = 6), while the number of eating responses at reinforcement was either held constant or increased. Also, FR size was held constant while the number of eating responses at reinforcement was increased. Major findings were as follows: (a) when eating responses were held constant, higher FR requirements led to stable key rates and postreinforcement pauses; (b) allowing more eating responses at successively higher FR requirements led to stable key rates and postreinforcement pauses;
Blackett, S.A. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept of Engineering Science
1996-02-01
Numerical analysis is an important part of Engineering. Frequently relationships are not adequately understood, or too complicated to be represented by theoretical formulae. Instead, empirical approximations based on observed relationships can be used for simple fast and accurate evaluations. Historically, storage of data has been a large constraint on approximately methods. So the challenge is to find a sufficiently accurate representation of data which is valid over as large a range as possible while requiring the storage of only a few numerical values. Polynomials, popular as approximation functions because of their simplicity, can be used to represent simple data. Equation 1.1 shows a simple 3rd order polynomial approximation. However, just increasing the order and number of terms included in a polynomial approximation does not improve the overall result. Although the function may fit exactly to observed data, between these points it is likely that the approximation is increasingly less smooth and probably inadequate. An alternative to adding further terms to the approximation is to make the approximation rational. Equation 1.2 shows a rational polynomial, 3rd order in the numerator and denominator. A rational polynomial approximation allows poles and this can greatly enhance an approximation. In Sections 2 and 3 two different methods for fitting rational polynomials to a given data set are detailed. In Section 4, consideration is given to different rational polynomials used on adjacent regions. Section 5 shows the performance of the rational polynomial algorithms. Conclusions are presented in Section 6.
A Study on Time-Scales Ratio and Turbulent Prandtl Number in Ducts of Industrial Applications
Rokni, Masoud
2006-01-01
This investigation concerns numerical time-scales ratio and turbulent Prandtl number in fully developed turbulent ﬂows in ducts of various cross-sections. The low Reynolds number version of a non-linear eddy viscosity model is proposed to predict the Reynolds stresses and the temperature ﬁeld...... is solved using a two-equation heat ﬂux model. The computed results compare satisfactory with the available experimental data. The time-scale ratio R is deﬁned as the ratio between the dynamic time-scale (k/ε) and the scalar time-scale(0.5θθ/εθ). Based on existing DNS data and calculations in this work...
Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Predicting Its Dependence on Capillary Number and Viscosity Ratio
Ferer, M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Anna, Shelley L. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tortora, Paul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kadambi, J. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Oliver, M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bromhal, Grant S. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Smith, Duane H. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)
2011-01-01
Motivated by the need to determine the dependencies of two-phase flow in a wide range of applications from carbon dioxide sequestration to enhanced oil recovery, we have developed a standard two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous and capillary effects. This model has been validated through comparison with several experiments. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (M=μ_{injected,nwf}/μ_{defending,wf} ≥ 1), we had increased the capillary number, N_{c} and studied the way in which the flows deviate from fractal capillary fingering at a characteristic time and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. This crossover has enabled predictions for the dependence of the flow behavior upon capillary number and viscosity ratio. Our results for the crossover agreed with earlier theoretical predictions, including the universality of the leading power-law indicating its independence of details of the porous medium structure. In this article, we have observed a similar crossover from initial fractal viscous fingering (FVF) to compact flow, for large capillary numbers and unstable viscosity ratios M < 1. In this case, we increased the viscosity ratio from infinitesimal values, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from FVF at a characteristic time and become compact for non-zero viscosity ratios. This crossover has been studied using both our pore-level model and micro-fluidic flow-cell experiments. The same characteristic time, τ = 1/M^{0.7}, satisfactorily describes both the pore-level results.
Dependence of Strehl ratio on f-number of optical system.
Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri; Novak, Pavel
2012-06-10
Formulas for a minimum of wave aberration variance and a maximum of the Strehl ratio in the optimal image point are derived using the third- and fifth-order aberration theory. Moreover, relations for the calculation of the optimal value of f-number of the optical system were derived, which enabled us to theoretically analyze real optical systems and their image quality. The optimal f-number corresponds to such a value of f-number when the image quality of a real optical system is comparable to an aberration-free optical system. This value may also serve as an auxiliary criterion of the image quality of the optical system, for example, in photography.
The effects of Reynolds number, tip speed ratio, and solidity in VAWTs
Parker, Colin; Schult, Allen; Leftwich, Megan C.
2015-11-01
The wakes of several scale models of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The tip speed ratio, Reynolds number, and solidity (chord to diameter ratio) is varied to see effect each parameter. The solidity is changed by varying the chord length of a three blade turbine of constant diameter. The range of parameters (Reynolds number and tip-speed ratio) investigated, closely matches those of full size turbines. Time averaging behind the turbines shows the asymmetry in wake. A more complete picture of the wake is seen using phase averaging by syncing the imaging to the position of the turbine. These results show a cycle of structures developing on the blades and then being shed into the wake. Imaging is done at the midplane of the turbine from upstream of the turbine back into the wake. Additionally a vertical plane behind the center of the turbine is used to measure the horizontal components in the wake.
Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Number of Older Siblings
Katariina Kangassalo
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non-heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization.
The effect of varying the number of contributors on likelihood ratios for complex DNA mixtures.
Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Jeurissen, Loes; Gill, Peter D; Sijen, Titia
2015-11-01
Interpretation of DNA mixtures with three or more contributors, defined here as high order mixtures, is difficult because of the inevitability of allele sharing. Allele sharing complicates the estimation of the number of contributors, which is an important parameter to assess the probative value. Consequently, these mixtures may not be deemed suitable for interpretation and reporting. In this study, we generated three-, four- and five-person mixtures with little or no drop-out and with varying levels of allele sharing. For these DNA mixtures we computed likelihood ratios (LRs) using the LRmix model, and always using persons of interest that are true contributors. We assessed the influence of different scenarios on the LR, and used (1) the true or an incorrect number of contributors, (2) zero, one or two anchored individuals and (3) an equal number of contributors under Hp and Hd or an extra contributor under Hd. It was shown that the LR varied considerably when the hypotheses used an incorrect number of contributors, especially when individuals were anchored under the hypotheses. Overall, when analysing high order mixtures, there may occur a transition from LR greater than one to less than one if an incorrect number of contributors is conditioned. This is a result of allele sharing among the multiple contributors rather than allele drop-out, since this study only utilised samples with little or no drop-out.
John P Didion
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Significant departures from expected Mendelian inheritance ratios (transmission ratio distortion, TRD are frequently observed in both experimental crosses and natural populations. TRD on mouse Chromosome (Chr 2 has been reported in multiple experimental crosses, including the Collaborative Cross (CC. Among the eight CC founder inbred strains, we found that Chr 2 TRD was exclusive to females that were heterozygous for the WSB/EiJ allele within a 9.3 Mb region (Chr 2 76.9 - 86.2 Mb. A copy number gain of a 127 kb-long DNA segment (designated as responder to drive, R2d emerged as the strongest candidate for the causative allele. We mapped R2d sequences to two loci within the candidate interval. R2d1 is located near the proximal boundary, and contains a single copy of R2d in all strains tested. R2d2 maps to a 900 kb interval, and the number of R2d copies varies from zero in classical strains (including the mouse reference genome to more than 30 in wild-derived strains. Using real-time PCR assays for the copy number, we identified a mutation (R2d2WSBdel1 that eliminates the majority of the R2d2WSB copies without apparent alterations of the surrounding WSB/EiJ haplotype. In a three-generation pedigree segregating for R2d2WSBdel1, the mutation is transmitted to the progeny and Mendelian segregation is restored in females heterozygous for R2d2WSBdel1, thus providing direct evidence that the copy number gain is causal for maternal TRD. We found that transmission ratios in R2d2WSB heterozygous females vary between Mendelian segregation and complete distortion depending on the genetic background, and that TRD is under genetic control of unlinked distorter loci. Although the R2d2WSB transmission ratio was inversely correlated with average litter size, several independent lines of evidence support the contention that female meiotic drive is the cause of the distortion. We discuss the implications and potential applications of this novel meiotic drive system.
Didion, John P.; Morgan, Andrew P.; Clayshulte, Amelia M.-F.; Mcmullan, Rachel C.; Yadgary, Liran; Petkov, Petko M.; Bell, Timothy A.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Crowley, James J.; Hua, Kunjie; Aylor, David L.; Bai, Ling; Calaway, Mark; Chesler, Elissa J.; French, John E.; Geiger, Thomas R.; Gooch, Terry J.; Garland, Theodore; Harrill, Alison H.; Hunter, Kent; McMillan, Leonard; Holt, Matt; Miller, Darla R.; O'Brien, Deborah A.; Paigen, Kenneth; Pan, Wenqi; Rowe, Lucy B.; Shaw, Ginger D.; Simecek, Petr; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Svenson, Karen L; Weinstock, George M.; Threadgill, David W.; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando
2015-01-01
Significant departures from expected Mendelian inheritance ratios (transmission ratio distortion, TRD) are frequently observed in both experimental crosses and natural populations. TRD on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 2 has been reported in multiple experimental crosses, including the Collaborative Cross (CC). Among the eight CC founder inbred strains, we found that Chr 2 TRD was exclusive to females that were heterozygous for the WSB/EiJ allele within a 9.3 Mb region (Chr 2 76.9 – 86.2 Mb). A copy number gain of a 127 kb-long DNA segment (designated as responder to drive, R2d) emerged as the strongest candidate for the causative allele. We mapped R2d sequences to two loci within the candidate interval. R2d1 is located near the proximal boundary, and contains a single copy of R2d in all strains tested. R2d2 maps to a 900 kb interval, and the number of R2d copies varies from zero in classical strains (including the mouse reference genome) to more than 30 in wild-derived strains. Using real-time PCR assays for the copy number, we identified a mutation (R2d2WSBdel1) that eliminates the majority of the R2d2WSB copies without apparent alterations of the surrounding WSB/EiJ haplotype. In a three-generation pedigree segregating for R2d2WSBdel1, the mutation is transmitted to the progeny and Mendelian segregation is restored in females heterozygous for R2d2WSBdel1, thus providing direct evidence that the copy number gain is causal for maternal TRD. We found that transmission ratios in R2d2WSB heterozygous females vary between Mendelian segregation and complete distortion depending on the genetic background, and that TRD is under genetic control of unlinked distorter loci. Although the R2d2WSB transmission ratio was inversely correlated with average litter size, several independent lines of evidence support the contention that female meiotic drive is the cause of the distortion. We discuss the implications and potential applications of this novel meiotic drive system. PMID
Voit, Charles H; Guentert, Donald C; Dugan, James F
1950-01-01
A complete stage of an axial-flow compressor was designed and built to investigate the possibility of obtaining a high pressure ratio with an acceptable efficiency through the use of the optimum combination of high blade loading and high relative inlet Mach number. Over-all stage performance was investigated over a range of flows at equivalent tip speeds of 418 to 836 feet per second. At design speed (836 ft/sec), a peak total-pressure ration of 1.445 was obtained with an adiabatic efficiency of 0.89. For design angle of attack at the mean radius, a total-pressure ratio of 1.392 was obtained.
Y. Ramana Reddy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP using in vitro gas production technique. Materials and Methods: MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of inc ubation. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD, metabolizable energy (ME, truly digestible organic matter (TDOM, partitioning factor (PF, and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation. Results: In vitro gas production (ml at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01 in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01 higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.
Ruilan Dong
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of the trial was to study the relationship between the methane (CH4 production and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS carbohydrate fractions of feeds for cattle and the suitability of CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as the dietary variables in modeling the CH4 production in rumen fermentation. Forty-five rations for cattle with the concentrate/roughage ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 were formulated as feed samples. The Menke and Steingass’s gas test was used for the measurement of CH4 production. The feed samples were incubated for 48 h and the CH4 production was analyzed using gas chromatography. Statistical analysis indicated that the CH4 production (mL was closely correlated with the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g, i.e. CA (sugars; CB1 (starch and pectin; CB2 (available cell wall in a multiple linear pattern: CH4 = (89.16±14.93 CA+ (124.10±13.90 CB1+(30.58±11.72 CB2+(3.28±7.19, R2 = 0.81, p<0.0001, n = 45. Validation of the model using 10 rations indicated that the CH4 production of the rations for cattle could accurately be predicted based on the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions. The trial indicated that the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, CB1 and CB2 were suitable dietary variables for predicting the CH4 production in rumen fermentation in vitro.
The WR / OB Number Ratio Within 2.5-KPC from the Sun
Vanbeveren, D.
Comparing the observed and theoretical HR diagram for massive stars, it is concluded that at least 34% of the stars within 2.5 kpc from the sun with initial ZAMS mass larger than 35 M_sun; have not yet been detected. It is argued that the number of core helium burning pop I WR stars within 2.5 kpc from the sun may be as low as 26. If the progenitors of WR stars have initial ZAMS masses larger than 35 M_sun;, it is then concluded that the observed number ratio (core helium burning pop I WR stars)/(WR progenitors) within 2.5 kpc from the sun ranges between 0.05 and 0.09.
Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and the Mass-to-Number Ratio of Galaxy Clusters
Tinker, Jeremy L; Wechsler, Risa H; Becker, Matthew R; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael; Busha, Michael; Koester, Benjamin P
2011-01-01
We place constraints on the average density (Omega_m) and clustering amplitude (sigma_8) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w_p, and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w_p measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct non-linear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w_p and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Omega_m or sigma_8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, even though this technique does not use abundance inf...
Effects of momentum ratio and Weber number on spray half angles of liquid controlled pintle injector
Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Koo, Jaye; Kwon, Oh Chae; Kim, Jeong Soo
2015-02-01
A pintle injector is advantageous for throttling a liquid rocket engine and reducing engine weight. This study explores the effects of momentum ratio and Weber number at various injection conditions on spray characteristics of the pintle injector for liquid-gas propellants. A liquid sheet is injected from a center pintle nozzle and it is broken by a gas jet from an annular gap. The pressure drops of propellants, and the pintle opening distance were considered as control variables; using 0.1 ˜1.0 as a bar for the pressure drop of the liquid injection, a 0.01˜0.2 bar for the pressure drop of gas jet and a 0.2˜ 1.0 mm for the pintle opening distance. The discharge coefficient was decreased linearly before the pintle opening distance of 0.75 mm and then, the coefficient was slightly increased. Spray images were captured by a CMOS camera with high resolution. Then, the shadow and reflected images were analyzed. Spray distributions were measured by a patternator with an axial distance of 50 mm from a pintle tip. Finally, the spray half angles had an exponentially decreasing correlation as a momentum ratio divided by the Weber number. Also, the spray half angles from the spray distribution were underestimated compared to those measured from the captured images.
Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.
2014-02-01
Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.
Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John
2016-11-01
The momentum coupled dynamics of particles and turbulence are experimentally investigated in a vertical fully developed turbulent square duct flow of air laden with Nickel particles. Significant preferential concentration is present for the Stokes numbers investigated, which vary from 3 to 30 based on the Kolmogorov time scale. Higher order measures of preferential concentration, such as the sizes and shapes of clusters and voids, are analyzed for increasing mass loading ratios. The mass loadings chosen span the one-way and two-way coupled regimes, while the volume loading is kept low. The effect of Stokes number and mass loading is also evaluated for particle velocity statistics and compared to the unladen gas statistics. Planar laser scattering is used to record instantaneous particle images in the center of the duct. Preferential concentration statistics are computed from box counting and Voronoi tessellation algorithms. PIV and PTV techniques are used to calculate particle velocity statistics. The analysis is extended to the near wall region in the logarithmic layer for the case of low mass loading. These results are compared to those from the duct center to assess the effects of strong carrier phase inhomogeneity on the particle distributions. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.
Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios
Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.
2015-01-01
As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.
Lourdes de la Rosa Onuchic
2008-12-01
Full Text Available We address the different “personalities” of the rational number and the concept of proportionality, analyzing the possibilities for using the Mathematics Teaching and Learning through Problem-solving Method. This method is based on the principle that knowledge can be constructed through the use of problems that generate new concepts and new contents. The different meanings of rational number – rational point, quotient, fraction, ratio, and operator – are constructs that depend on mathematical theories in which they are imbedded and the situations that evoke them in problem-solving. Some data will be presented from continuing education courses for teachers, aiming to contribute to understanding regarding the different “personalities” of the rational number. In general, these “personalities” are not easily identified by teachers and students, which is the reason for the many difficulties encountered during problem-solving involving rational numbers. One of these “personalities”, the ratio, provides the basis for the concept of proportionality, which is relevant because it is a unifying idea in mathematics. Key-words: Rational Numbers and Proportionality. Problem Solving. Teacher Education.Neste artigo, pretende-se abordar as diferentes “personalidades” do número racional e o conceito de proporcionalidade, analisando as possibilidades de utilizar a Metodologia de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Matemática através da Resolução de Problemas. Essa metodologia parte do princípio de que a construção do conhecimento pode ser realizada a partir de problemas geradores de novos conceitos e novos conteúdos. Os diferentes significados do número racional: ponto racional, quociente, fração, razão e operador são construtos que dependem das teorias matemáticas em que se inserem e das situações a que se referem na resolução de problemas. Serão apresentados alguns dados que foram desenvolvidos em cursos de formação continuada
K. Arun
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.
Experiments on a low aspect ratio wing at low Reynolds numbers
Morse, Daniel R.
At the start of the 21st century much of the focus of aircraft design has been turned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which generally operate at much lower speeds in higher risk areas than manned aircraft. One subset of UAVs are Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which usually are no larger than 20cm and rely on non-traditional shapes to generate lift at very low velocities. This purpose of this work is to describe, in detail with experimental methods, the flow field around a low aspect ratio wing operating at low Reynolds numbers and at high angles of attack. Quantitative measurements are obtained by Three Component Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (3C TR PIV) which describe the mean and turbulent flow field. This research focuses on the leading edge separation zone and the vortex shedding process which occurs at the leading edge. Streamwise wing tip vortices which dominate the lift characteristics are described with flow visualization and 3C TR PIV measurements. Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is described at the leading edge over several angles of attack. Turbulent Reynolds stresses in all three directions are described over the wing span and several Reynolds numbers. Two primary cyclic processes are observed within the flow field; one low frequency oscillation in the separated region and one high frequency event associated with leading edge vortex formation and convection. Two length scales are proposed and are shown to match well with each other, one based on leading edge vortex shedding frequency and convective velocity and the other based on mean vortex separation distance. A new method of rendering velocity frequency content over large data sets is proposed and used to illustrate the different frequencies observed at the leading edge.
Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density
Whiteman, D.
1988-01-01
The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.
Low Reynolds number flow in rectangular cooling channels provided with low aspect ratio pin fins
Armellini, Alessandro; Casarsa, Luca [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine (Italy); Giannattasio, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.giannattasio@uniud.i [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine (Italy)
2010-08-15
The flow structures around single heat transfer promoters of different shapes (square, circular, triangular and rhomboidal) have been investigated experimentally by means of a 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The geometrical configuration and flow conditions considered are typical of real liquid cooling channels. They include low aspect ratio pin fins confined at both ends by the walls of a rectangular channel, water flow at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 800, 1800, 2800), high core flow turbulence and undeveloped boundary layers at the position of the obstacle. In front of the pin fins the high turbulence level is found to promote a strong instability of the horseshoe vortex system that forms at the wall/obstacle junction. In particular, frequent events of break-away of the primary vortices and inrush of core fluid, which are known to enhance the wall heat transfer, are observed in the cases of square and circular pins already from Re = 1800. The near wake downstream of the obstacles appears to be influenced by streamwise oriented vortical structures produced at the wall/obstacle junction. They give rise to spanwise velocity components (up-wash flow) that lead to a three-dimensional mass recirculation behind the pins. The combination of up-wash flows, low Reynolds number and high core flow turbulence gives rise to a competition between the classical alternate vortex shedding and an irregular shedding mode characterized by the decoupling of the shear layers and the absence of well organized primary structures. At Re = 800, the irregular shedding prevails and the mean wake topology is almost insensitive to the obstacle shape. As the Reynolds number is increased, the junction flow structures reduce in size and strength, their effect on the wake flow weakens and the recirculation structures behind the obstacles differentiate significantly according to the pin shape. Besides investigating complex flow structures in geometrical and flow configurations of
The Factorization of xn+1 on the Rational Number Field%xn＋1在有理数域上的因式分解
陈运栋; 谷秀川
2014-01-01
Factorization of f(x)=xn+1 in rational field Q[x ]leads to the following conclusions.For any positive integer n ,let H(n )denote the number of odd divisors d of n with d>1 .In this paper,using the knowledge of elementary number theory and modern algebraic,we prove that the polynomial xn+1 is bound to resolve into a product of H(n )+1 irreducible factors on the rational number field ,that is D(f )= H(n )+1 .%从特殊情况研究多项式f（x）＝xn＋1在有理数域上的因式分解．对于正整数，设 H （n）是n的大于1的奇约数的个数．本文用初等数论和近世代数的知识证明了：多项式xn＋1在有理数域上可分解为 H （n）＋1个不可约因式的乘积，即D（f）＝ H（n）＋1．
TOP1 gene copy number and TOP1/CEN-20 ratio in stage III colorectal cancer samples
Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed; Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle
AIM OF STUDY To investigate if TOP1 gene copy number and/or the TOP1/CEN-20 ratio in colorectal cancer (CRC) areassociated with prognosis. BACKGROUND TOP1, localized on chromosome 20, encodes topoisomerase I (TOP1), which is the sole molecular target of irinotecan. TOP1 immunoreactivity in formalin...... analyses on 50 FFPE primary CRC tissues. When compared with results from normal colorectal mucosa, 80 % of the tumors showed increased TOP1 gene copy number and 2/3 had increased TOP1/CEN-20 ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS FFPE samples from 154 stage III CRC patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were...... included. For each patient TOP1 gene copy number and CEN-20 reference number were determined in 60 nuclei from the malignant tumor by FISH using a TOP1/CEN-20 probe mix. Similarly, the TOP1 gene copy number and and CEN-20 reference number were dertermined in the normal colorectal mucosa in 105 of the 154...
Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer
Jobes, F.C.
1995-07-01
If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.
Mayo, David J.
1998-01-01
The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…
M Basha; M Al-Qahtani; B S Yilbas
2009-06-01
Flow into a passage resembling a gas turbine blade cooling passage is considered and entropy generation rate in the passage is examined for unique rotation number and density ratios. In the simulations, leading and trailing walls of the passage are assumed to be at constant temperature. A control volume approach is introduced to discretize the governing equations of ﬂow, heat transfer, and entropy generation. Reynolds stress turbulence model is accommodated in the simulation to account for the turbulence. The study is extended to include two rotational speeds and three density ratios. The passage aspect ratio is kept 10:1. It is found that volumetric entropy generation rate attains high values at passage inlet due to attainment of high temperature gradient in this region. Increasing rotation number and density ratio enhances volumetric entropy generation rate in the passage.
Galaxy luminosity functions, M/L ratios, and closure of the Universe - Numbers and problems
Felten, J. E.
1985-01-01
Data on the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies are reviewed and compared, and the result of Kirshner et al. (1983) giving a 'standard LF' is chosen as a best guess. Departures from the 'standard LF' for specific galaxy types and environments (clusters, groups, field) are discussed briefly. A luminosity density of about 1.4 x 10 to the -2nd h 'galaxies' per cubic megaparsec is obtained. The mean M/L ratio needed to give critical cosmological density (Omega sub 0 = 1) is then 920 h in solar units on the face-on magnitude system. Comparison with measured M/L ratios for galaxies and clusters, and with constraints imposed by inflation and nucleosynthesis, poses two problems of 'invisible mass'.
Kassemi, Siavash A.
1988-01-01
High Rayleigh number convection in a rectangular cavity with insulated horizontal surfaces and differentially heated vertical walls was analyzed for an arbitrary aspect ratio smaller than or equal to unity. Unlike previous analytical studies, a systematic method of solution based on linearization technique and analytical iteration procedure was developed to obtain approximate closed-form solutions for a wide range of aspect ratios. The predicted velocity and temperature fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and numerical data.
Hu, Kainan; Zhang, Hongwu
2016-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann scheme associated with flexible Prandtl number and specific heat ratio is proposed, which is based on the polyatomic ellipsoidal statistics model(ES-BGK). The Prandtl number can be modified by a parameter of the Gaussian distribution and the specific heat ratio can be modified by additional free degrees. For the sake of constructing the scheme proposed, the Gaussian distribution is expanded on the Hermite polynomials and the general term formula for the Hermite coefficients of the Gaussian distribution is deduced. Benchmarks are carried out to verify the scheme proposed. The numerical results are in good agreement with the the analytical solutions.
Plunian, Franck; Stepanov, Rodion
2010-10-01
A phenomenology of isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence subject to both rotation and applied magnetic field is presented. It is assumed that the triple correlation decay time is the shortest between the eddy turn-over time and the ones associated to the rotating frequency and the Alfvén wave period. For Pm=1 it leads to four kinds of piecewise spectra, depending on four parameters: injection rate of energy, magnetic diffusivity, rotation rate, and applied field. With a shell model of MHD turbulence (including rotation and applied magnetic field), spectra for Pm ≤ 1 are presented, together with the ratio between magnetic and viscous dissipations.
The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Number Counts and Submillimeter Flux Ratios
Hsu, Li-Yen; Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy; Wang, Wei-Hao
2016-01-01
We present deep number counts at 450 $\\mu$m and 850 $\\mu$m using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We combine data for six lensing cluster fields and three blank fields to measure the counts over a wide flux range at each wavelength. Thanks to the lensing magnification, our measurements extends to fluxes fainter than 1 mJy and 0.2 mJy at 450 $\\mu$m and 850 $\\mu$m, respectively. Our combined data highly constrain the faint end of the number counts. Integrating our counts shows that the majority of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at each wavelength is contributed by faint sources with $L_{\\rm IR} < 10^{12} L_{\\odot }$, corresponding to luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) or normal galaxies. By comparing our result with the 500 $\\mu$m stacking of $K$-selected sources from the literature, we conclude that the $K$-selected LIRGs and normal galaxies still cannot fully account for the EBL that originates from sources with $L_{\\rm IR} < 10^{12} L_{\\odot }$. This suggests that many...
Birla, Bhagyashree S; Chou, Hui-Hsien
2015-01-01
Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.
Bhagyashree S Birla
Full Text Available Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.
Birla, Bhagyashree S.; Chou, Hui-Hsien
2015-01-01
Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly. PMID:26716828
On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock
Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.
1984-01-01
Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.
Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.
2011-10-01
In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.
Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-10-01
In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.
王安东; 郑桂萍; 慕永红; 刘婧琦; 孔宇; 隋阳辉; 解保胜
2012-01-01
[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of rational ratio of magnesium and potassium on yield of rice in cold region, to confirm suitable ration of magnesium and potassium. [Method] Kongyu 131 was used as the material in this test to research the effect of magnesium fertilizer and potassium fertilizer on rice yield and quality, and prove up the rational ratio of magnesium fertilizer and potassium fertilizr er by the randomized block design. [Result] In high, middle and low application potassium fertilizer region, fertilizer application of MgSO4·7H2O:K2O 1: l(magnesium fertilizer 100.5 kg/hrn2, potassium fertilizer 165.0 kg/hm2) or 1:2(magnesium fertilizer 100.5 kg/hm2, potassium fertilizer 276.0 kg/hm2) reasonably increased nitrogen content of rice leaf at critical growth periods; fertilizer application of MgSO4 · 7H2O:K2O 1 : 2(magnesium fertilizer 100.5 kg/hm2, potassium fertilizer 276.0 kg/hm2) kept population leaf area index toward reasonable, against premature senility or remaining green; fertilizer application of MgS04 · 7 H2 O: K2 O 2:1 ( magnesium fertilizer 201. 0 kg/hm , potassium fertilizer 165. 0 kg/hm2) promoted yield by increasing ear number and seed setting rate, and yield reached 9 660 kg/hm2. [ Conclusion] The study has a far — researching significance for keeping soil nutrition balance, then increasing rice yield and modifying rice quality to promote rice industrial sustainable development.%[目的]研究镁钾配施对寒地水稻(Oryza sativa L.)产量的影响,以确定适宜的镁钾配比量.[方法]以空育131为材料,按照随机区组设计,研究镁肥、钾肥对水稻产量的影响,并探明镁肥、钾肥最佳施用比例.[结果]在高中低施钾区,按照七水硫酸镁与氧化钾1∶1(钾肥165.0 kg/hm2,镁肥100.5 kg/hm2)或者1∶2(钾肥276.0 kg/hm2,镁肥100.5 kg/hm2)的重量比配施,能够在水稻关键生育时期合理增加水稻叶片氮含量；按照七水硫酸镁与氧化钾1∶2的重量比配
On a Graphical Technique for Evaluating Some Rational Expectations Models
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders R.
2011-01-01
. In addition to getting a visual impression of the fit of the model, the purpose is to see if the two spreads are nevertheless similar as measured by correlation, variance ratio, and noise ratio. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give a general definition of spread...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...
Shields, Matt
The development of Micro Aerial Vehicles has been hindered by the poor understanding of the aerodynamic loading and stability and control properties of the low Reynolds number regime in which the inherent low aspect ratio (LAR) wings operate. This thesis experimentally evaluates the static and damping aerodynamic stability derivatives to provide a complete aerodynamic model for canonical flat plate wings of aspect ratios near unity at Reynolds numbers under 1 x 105. This permits the complete functionality of the aerodynamic forces and moments to be expressed and the equations of motion to solved, thereby identifying the inherent stability properties of the wing. This provides a basis for characterizing the stability of full vehicles. The influence of the tip vortices during sideslip perturbations is found to induce a loading condition referred to as roll stall, a significant roll moment created by the spanwise induced velocity asymmetry related to the displacement of the vortex cores relative to the wing. Roll stall is manifested by a linearly increasing roll moment with low to moderate angles of attack and a subsequent stall event similar to a lift polar; this behavior is not experienced by conventional (high aspect ratio) wings. The resulting large magnitude of the roll stability derivative, Cl,beta and lack of roll damping, Cl ,rho, create significant modal responses of the lateral state variables; a linear model used to evaluate these modes is shown to accurately reflect the solution obtained by numerically integrating the nonlinear equations. An unstable Dutch roll mode dominates the behavior of the wing for small perturbations from equilibrium, and in the presence of angle of attack oscillations a previously unconsidered coupled mode, referred to as roll resonance, is seen develop and drive the bank angle? away from equilibrium. Roll resonance requires a linear time variant (LTV) model to capture the behavior of the bank angle, which is attributed to the
Macmillan, C. J. B.
1985-01-01
The recognition of teaching as a special relationship among individuals is currently being overlooked in much contemporary educational research and policymaking. The author examines the philosophy of rationality in teaching and relates it to the educational vision presented in George Orwell's novel, "Nineteen Eighty-Four." (CB)
Lam, Chi-Ming
2014-01-01
Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…
T4/T8 ratio and absolute T4 cell numbers in different clinical stages of Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS.
Spornraft, P; Fröschl, M; Ring, J; Meurer, M; Goebel, F D; Ziegler-Heitbrock, H W; Riethmüller, G; Braun-Falco, O
1988-07-01
Thirty-seven men (36 homosexual or bisexual and one heterosexual) with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma and underlying HIV infection were followed up over a period of up to 32 months. Fourteen patients (38%) died, with a median survival time of 7.2 months after the diagnosis of AIDS. Seventeen patients (46%) presented with one or more opportunistic infections, mostly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Eighteen patients (49%) had lymphadenopathy syndrome according to the definition of the CDC. Using the Laubenstein-classification of Kaposi's sarcoma, all patients either remained stable or deteriorated, improvement was never observed. Absolute T4 lymphocyte counts and the T4/T8 ratio were not related to the disease stage. With the onset of B symptoms (systemic symptoms), however, the absolute T4 numbers and the T4/T8 ratio markedly decreased. Delayed type hypersensitivity also showed no relationship to the clinical stages of Kaposi's sarcoma. Thus, the clinical progression of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions seems to be largely independent of the immunological parameters investigated. However, the onset of B symptoms was observed to be related to changes in immune status.
Georg Spielthenner
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations
Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
Yong-Xi Song
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate which is the most suitable classification for colorectal cancer, log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS classification or the classifications based on the number of positive lymph nodes (pN and positive lymph node ratio(LNR in a Chinese single institutional population. DESIGN: Clinicopathologic and prognostic data of 1297 patients with colorectal cancer were retrospectively studied. The log-rank statistics, Cox's proportional hazards model, the Nagelkerke R(2 index and a Harrell's C statistic were used. RESULTS: Univariate and three-step multivariate analyses identified that LNR was a significant prognostic factor and LNR classification was superior to both the pN and LODDS classifications. Moreover, the results of the Nagelkerke R(2 index (0.130 and a Harrell's C statistic (0.707 of LNR showed that LNR and LODDS classifications were similar and LNR was a little better than the other two classifications. Furthermore, for patients in each LNR classification, prognosis was homologous between those in different pN or LODDS classifications. However, for patients in pN1a, pN1b, LODDS2 and LODDS3 classifications, significant differences in survival were observed among patients in different LNR classifications. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with colorectal cancer, the LNR classification is more suitable than pN and LODDS classifications for prognostic assessment in a Chinese single institutional population.
Binmore, Ken
2008-01-01
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
张新宝; 耿宝龙; 杨一帆
2013-01-01
To improve the straight alignment and the rational alignment method, a rational alignment method of the propulsive shafting was proposed, which can ensure the ratio of the load of the forward stern-tube bearing to the load of the afterward stern-tube bearing to be the optimal. The shaft-line of a running propulsive shaft was optimized and the shaft alignment calculation was carried out for the model of a simplified propulsive shaft. The result illustrate that if load-ratio is in the scope of 1/2~ 1/3, the shaft-line is curvilinear and all bearings of propulsion shaft are not in a straight-line, and the vertical bearing slope of the afterward stern-tube bearing (to reference of straight-line) is more than 3.5×10-4 rad.%针对推进轴系直线校中方法的缺陷和目前轴承负荷法校中方法的局限性,提出了满足艉管前后轴承的负荷比最佳的轴系合理校中设计方法.对旋转时的轴线进行优化设计,并对一个简化轴系模型进行校中计算,计算结果显示:艉管前后轴承的负荷比在1/2～1/3的范围内时,全轴系的轴线是曲线且轴承不是都在一条直线上,后轴承对设计轴线的偏离量较大；艉管后轴承支撑点处截面转角超过了3.5× 10-4 rad.
Rationalization: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…
Tsuji, Takeshi; Jiang, Fei; Christensen, Kenneth T.
2016-09-01
To characterize the influence of reservoir conditions upon multiphase flow, we calculated fluid displacements (drainage processes) in 3D pore spaces of Berea sandstone using two-phase lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations. The results of simulations under various conditions were used to classify the resulting two-phase flow behavior into three typical fluid displacement patterns on the diagram of capillary number (Ca) and viscosity ratio of the two fluids (M). In addition, the saturation of the nonwetting phase was calculated and mapped on the Ca-M diagram. We then characterized dynamic pore-filling events (i.e., Haines jumps) from the pressure variation of the nonwetting phase, and linked this behavior to the occurrence of capillary fingering. The results revealed the onset of capillary fingering in 3D natural rock at a higher Ca than in 2D homogeneous granular models, with the crossover region between typical displacement patterns broader than in the homogeneous granular model. Furthermore, saturation of the nonwetting phase mapped on the Ca-M diagram significantly depends on the rock models. These important differences between two-phase flow in 3D natural rock and in 2D homogeneous models could be due to the heterogeneity of pore geometry in the natural rock and differences in pore connectivity. By quantifying two-phase fluid behavior in the target reservoir rock under various conditions (e.g., saturation mapping on the Ca-M diagram), our approach could provide useful information for investigating suitable reservoir conditions for geo-fluid management (e.g., high CO2 saturation in CO2 storage).
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Brahim Berrabah Miloud Aminallah
.... The density ratios were 0.13, 0.23 and 0.50. The results show that at high buoyancy parameter and high rotation number with a low density ratio, the flow in the first passage is governed by the secondary flow induced by the rotation whereas...
孙慧
2015-01-01
研究了通过未定元替换应用Eisenstein判别法的等价条件，并借鉴Eisenstein判别法的研究思路，给出了一类整系数多项式在有理数域上不可约的判别方法。%The equivalent conditions of Eisenstein discriminant method to replace the of application by in-finite element x was studied .The train thought of Eisenstein discriminant method was used in the study .A class of integral coefficients polynomial was given on the rational number field irreducible discriminant method .
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Kuhlman, John M.; Liaw, Paul; Cerney, Michael J.
1988-01-01
A numerical design study was conducted to assess the drag reduction potential of winglets installed on a series of low aspect ratio wings at a design point of M=0.8, C sub L=0.3. Wing-winglet and wing-alone design geometries were obtained for wings of aspect ratios between 1.75 and 2.67, having leading edge sweep angles between 45 and 60 deg. Winglet length was fixed at 15% of wing semispan. To assess the relative performance between wing-winglet and wing-alone configurations, the PPW nonlinear extended small disturbance potential flow code was utilized. This model has proven to yield plausible transonic flow field simulations for the series of low aspect ratio configurations selected. Predicted decreases in pressure drag coefficient for the wing-winglet configurations relative to the corresponding wing-alone planform are about 15% at the design point. Predicted decreases in wing-winglet total drag coefficient are about 12%, relative to the corresponding wing-alone design. Longer winglets (25% of the wing semispan) yielded decreases in the pressure drag of up to 22% and total drag of up to 16.4%. These predicted drag coefficient reductions are comparable to reductions already demonstrated by actual winglet designs installed on higher aspect ratio transport type aircraft.
Silvia Erina
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.
Juliusson Gunnar
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Illumina Infinium whole genome genotyping (WGG arrays are increasingly being applied in cancer genomics to study gene copy number alterations and allele-specific aberrations such as loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH. Methods developed for normalization of WGG arrays have mostly focused on diploid, normal samples. However, for cancer samples genomic aberrations may confound normalization and data interpretation. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conventionally used normalization method for Illumina Infinium arrays when applied to cancer samples. Results We demonstrate an asymmetry in the detection of the two alleles for each SNP, which deleteriously influences both allelic proportions and copy number estimates. The asymmetry is caused by a remaining bias between the two dyes used in the Infinium II assay after using the normalization method in Illumina's proprietary software (BeadStudio. We propose a quantile normalization strategy for correction of this dye bias. We tested the normalization strategy using 535 individual hybridizations from 10 data sets from the analysis of cancer genomes and normal blood samples generated on Illumina Infinium II 300 k version 1 and 2, 370 k and 550 k BeadChips. We show that the proposed normalization strategy successfully removes asymmetry in estimates of both allelic proportions and copy numbers. Additionally, the normalization strategy reduces the technical variation for copy number estimates while retaining the response to copy number alterations. Conclusion The proposed normalization strategy represents a valuable tool that improves the quality of data obtained from Illumina Infinium arrays, in particular when used for LOH and copy number variation studies.
Yu, Jia-Jia; Wu, Chun-Mei; Li, You-Rong; Chen, Jie-Chao
2016-08-01
A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations on thermal-solutal capillary-buoyancy flow in an annular pool were carried out. The pool was filled with silicon-germanium melt with an initial silicon mass fraction of 1.99%. The Prandtl number and the Lewis number of the working fluid are 6.37 × 10-3 and 2197.8, respectively. Both the radial temperature gradient and the solute concentration gradient were applied to the annular pool. The capillary ratio was assumed to be -1, which means that the solutal and thermal capillary effects were equal and opposite. Results show that the thermal-solutal capillary-buoyancy flow always occurs at this special case with the capillary ratio of -1, and even in a shallow annular pool with an aspect ratio of 0.05. With the increase of the thermal Marangoni number, four kinds of flow patterns appear orderly, including concentric rolls, petal-like, spoke, and rosebud-like patterns. These flow patterns are strongly influenced by the local interaction between the solutal and thermal capillary effects and the vertical solute concentration gradient near the outer cylinder. A small vortex driven by the dominant solutal capillary effect emerges near the inner cylinder, which is different from the flow pattern in a pure fluid. In addition, the critical thermal Marangoni number of the initial three-dimensional flow decreases with the increase of the aspect ratio of the annular pool.
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
刘香坤; 姬玉梅
2011-01-01
With the theory of unascertained rational number, a kind of evaluation model on adjustment of agricultural production structure was established combined with the actual situation of adjustment of agricultural production structure. The model could be used to quantitatively study the effect of adjustment of agricultural production structure.%利用未确知有理数理论,结合农业生产结构调整的实际情况,建立了一种评价农业生产结构调整的模型,该模型可用于定量研究农业生产结构调整的效果.
Lycett-Brown, Daniel; Luo, Kai H
2016-11-01
A recently developed forcing scheme has allowed the pseudopotential multiphase lattice Boltzmann method to correctly reproduce coexistence curves, while expanding its range to lower surface tensions and arbitrarily high density ratios [Lycett-Brown and Luo, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023305 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.023305]. Here, a third-order Chapman-Enskog analysis is used to extend this result from the single-relaxation-time collision operator, to a multiple-relaxation-time cascaded collision operator, whose additional relaxation rates allow a significant increase in stability. Numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme enables almost independent control of density ratio, surface tension, interface width, viscosity, and the additional relaxation rates of the cascaded collision operator. This allows simulation of large density ratio flows at simultaneously high Reynolds and Weber numbers, which is demonstrated through binary collisions of water droplets in air (with density ratio up to 1000, Reynolds number 6200 and Weber number 440). This model represents a significant improvement in multiphase flow simulation by the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method in which real-world parameters are finally achievable.
Lycett-Brown, Daniel; Luo, Kai H.
2016-11-01
A recently developed forcing scheme has allowed the pseudopotential multiphase lattice Boltzmann method to correctly reproduce coexistence curves, while expanding its range to lower surface tensions and arbitrarily high density ratios [Lycett-Brown and Luo, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023305 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.023305]. Here, a third-order Chapman-Enskog analysis is used to extend this result from the single-relaxation-time collision operator, to a multiple-relaxation-time cascaded collision operator, whose additional relaxation rates allow a significant increase in stability. Numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme enables almost independent control of density ratio, surface tension, interface width, viscosity, and the additional relaxation rates of the cascaded collision operator. This allows simulation of large density ratio flows at simultaneously high Reynolds and Weber numbers, which is demonstrated through binary collisions of water droplets in air (with density ratio up to 1000, Reynolds number 6200 and Weber number 440). This model represents a significant improvement in multiphase flow simulation by the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method in which real-world parameters are finally achievable.
甘延标; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏
2011-01-01
We further develop the lattice Boltzmann （LB） model [Physica A 382 （2007） 502] for compressible flows from two aspects. Firstly, we modify the Bhatnagar Gross Krook （BGK） collision term in the LB equation, which makes the model suitable for simulating flows with different Prandtl numbers. Secondly, the flux limiter finite difference （FLFD） scheme is employed to calculate the convection term of the LB equation, which makes the unphysical oscillations at discontinuities be effectively suppressed and the numerical dissipations be significantly diminished. The proposed model is validated by recovering results of some well-known benchmarks, including （i） The thermal Couette flow; （ii） One- and two-dlmenslonal FLiemann problems. Good agreements are obtained between LB results and the exact ones or previously reported solutions. The flexibility, together with the high accuracy of the new model, endows the proposed model considerable potential for tracking some long-standing problems and for investigating nonlinear nonequilibrium complex systems.
On rationally supported surfaces
Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.
2008-01-01
We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...
Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.
2016-09-01
The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.
Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle
2000-01-01
and optically preamplified receivers. The authors know of no other published formulas which include the number of crosstalk contributions. The crosstalk penalty formulas are empirical, and they are based on a numerical model. This model is described briefly along with its experimental verification before...... destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power, the number of contributions carrying this power and the signal extinction ratio. We consider both PIN...... the formulas themselves are presented...
Vigren, E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Odelstad, E. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Galand, M.; Schwartz, S. J., E-mail: erik.vigren@irfu.se [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-10-10
We compute partial photoionization frequencies of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO, the major molecules in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, the target comet of the ongoing ESA Rosetta mission. Values are computed from Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energy and Dynamics/Solar EUV Experiment solar EUV spectra for 2014 August 1, 2015 March 1, and for perihelion (2015 August, as based on prediction). From the varying total photoionization frequency of H{sub 2}O, as computed from 2014 August 1 to 2015 May 20, we derive a simple analytical expression for the electron-to-neutral number density ratio as a function of cometocentric and heliocentric distance. The underlying model assumes radial movement of the coma constituents and does not account for chemical loss or the presence of electric fields. We discuss various effects/processes that can cause deviations between values from the analytical expression and actual electron-to-neutral number density ratios. The analytical expression is thus not strictly meant as predicting the actual electron-to-neutral number density ratio, but is useful in comparisons with observations as an indicator of processes at play in the cometary coma.
Using rational numbers to key nested sets
Hazel, Dan
2008-01-01
This report details the generation and use of tree node ordering keys in a single relational database table. The keys for each node are calculated from the keys of its parent, in such a way that the sort order places every node in the tree before all of its descendants and after all siblings having a lower index. The calculation from parent keys to child keys is simple, and reversible in the sense that the keys of every ancestor of a node can be calculated from that node's keys without having to consult the database. Proofs of the above properties of the key encoding process and of its correspondence to a finite continued fraction form are provided.
Mahto, Navin Kumar; Choubey, Gautam; Suneetha, Lakka; Pandey, K. M.
2016-11-01
The two equation standard k-ɛ turbulence model and the two-dimensional compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations have been used to computationally simulate the double cavity scramjet combustor. Here all the simulations are performed by using ANSYS 14-FLUENT code. At the same time, the validation of the present numerical simulation for double cavity has been performed by comparing its result with the available experimental data which is in accordance with the literature. The results are in good agreement with the schlieren image and the pressure distribution curve obtained experimentally. However, the pressure distribution curve obtained numerically is under-predicted in 5 locations by numerical calculation. Further, investigations on the variations of the effects of the length-to-depth ratio of cavity and Mach number on the combustion characteristics has been carried out. The present results show that there is an optimal length-to-depth ratio for the cavity for which the performance of combustor significantly improves and also efficient combustion takes place within the combustor region. Also, the shifting of the location of incident oblique shock took place in the downstream of the H2 inlet when the Mach number value increases. But after achieving a critical Mach number range of 2-2.5, the further increase in Mach number results in lower combustion efficiency which may deteriorate the performance of combustor.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2013-01-01
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love
Gustavo Ortiz-Millán
Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.
Counting rational points on cubic curves
HEATH-BROWN; Roger; TESTA; Damiano
2010-01-01
We prove upper bounds for the number of rational points on non-singular cubic curves defined over the rationals.The bounds are uniform in the curve and involve the rank of the corresponding Jacobian.The method used in the proof is a combination of the "determinant method" with an m-descent on the curve.
Ruscello, Bruno; Tozzo, Nazzareno; Briotti, Gianluca; Padua, Elvira; Ponzetti, Francesco; D'Ottavio, Stefano
2013-07-01
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there were different trends in physical fatigue observed in 3 different sets, of 7 trials each, in repeated sprint training, performed in 3 different modes: straight sprinting over 30 m, shuttle sprinting over 15 + 15 m, and sprinting over 30 m with changes of direction. Recovery time among trials in the sets was administered according to the 1:5 exercise to rest ratio. The sets were performed on 3 different days, with at least 48 hours between each set. The study involved 17 trained male soccer players (height, 177.33 ± 6.21 cm; body mass, 71.63 ± 9.58 kg; body mass index, 23 ± 2.39 kg·m; age, 21.94 ± 3.58 years). To compare the different values of the time recorded, an index of fatigue was used. Significant differences among trials within each set (repeated measures analysis of variance; p repeated sprint ability in nonlinear and multidirectional sprints (shuttle and change of direction), which might imply a different number of trials within the set or different exercise to rest ratios from the ones usually adopted for straight sprinting, to induce similar trends of fatigue. As practical applications, the estimated numbers of necessary trials in the different sets and the possible exercise to rest ratios, resulting from mathematical modeling, are provided for each investigated sprinting mode.
Dincer, K.; Baskaya, S.; Uysal, B. Z.
2008-01-01
In this experimental study, performance of counter flow type Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes (RHVT), with a length to diameter ratio of 10, 15 and 18, were investigated with 2, 4, 6 nozzles. The measure of performance was chosen as the difference between the temperatures of hot output stream and cold output stream. The performances of RHVTs were experimentally tested by making use of velocity and temperature measurements of the input and output streams. It was determined that the difference between the temperatures of these streams, changed between 9 and 56 K. When all the results were assessed, it was concluded that the best performance was obtained when the ratio of vortex tube’s length to the diameter was 15 and the nozzle number was at least four, and the inlet pressure was as high as possible. Desired performance could be obtained by controlling the rate of the hot output stream.
Dincer, K. [Selcuk University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Gazi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)
2008-01-15
In this experimental study, performance of counter flow type Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes (RHVT), with a length to diameter ratio of 10, 15 and 18, were investigated with 2, 4, 6 nozzles. The measure of performance was chosen as the difference between the temperatures of hot output stream and cold output stream. The performances of RHVTs were experimentally tested by making use of velocity and temperature measurements of the input and output streams. It was determined that the difference between the temperatures of these streams, changed between 9 and 56 K. When all the results were assessed, it was concluded that the best performance was obtained when the ratio of vortex tube's length to the diameter was 15 and the nozzle number was at least four, and the inlet pressure was as high as possible. Desired performance could be obtained by controlling the rate of the hot output stream. (orig.)
Keenan, James A.; Kuhlman, John M.
1991-01-01
A computational study was conducted on two wings, of aspect ratios 1.244 and 1.865, each having 65 degree leading edge sweep angles, to determine the effects of nonplanar winglets at supersonic Mach numbers. A Mach number of 1.62 was selected as the design value. The winglets studied were parametrically varied in alignment, length, sweep, camber, thickness, and dihedral angle to determine which geometry had the best predicted performance. For the computational analysis, an available Euler marching technique was used. The results indicated that the possibility existed for wing-winglet geometries to equal the performance of wing-alone bodies in supersonic flows with both bodies having the same semispan. The first wing with winglet used NACA 1402 airfoils for the base wing and was shown to have lift-to-pressure drag ratios within 0.136 percent to 0.360 percent of the NACA 1402 wing-alone. The other base wing was a natural flow wing which was previously designed specifically for a Mach number of 1.62. The results obtained showed that the natural wing-alone had a slightly higher lift-to-pressure drag than the natural wing with winglets.
Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-10-01
A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.
Jacilene Maria da Cunha Castro
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dieta completa formulada com diferentes proporções de feno de maniçoba. Foram utilizados 32 animais Santa Inês machos, não-castrados (idade inicial de 70 dias e peso vivo de 16,02±2,37 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As dietas foram constituídas de concentrado e feno de maniçoba (FM nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%. As proporções de feno na dieta não influenciaram os consumos de MS, PB e CT, cujas médias diárias foram 1,214; 0,201 e 0,816 kg, respectivamente. Os níveis de feno tiveram efeito linear positivo sobre o consumo de FDN e efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de EM e CNF. O ganho de peso diário foi afetado pelos níveis de feno na dieta, apresentando médias de 290,84; 293,62; 253,35 e 208,48 g, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba. As dietas influenciaram a conversão (Y = 3,332+0,028x e a eficiência alimentar (Y = 0,280,0013x. Pela análise econômica, observaram-se relações custo:benefício de 1,49; 1,57; 1,69 e 1,84 para os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta. O custo operacional efetivo por quilograma de carcaça produzida foi de R$ 3,68; R$ 3,49; R$ 3,23 e R$ 2,98, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba em dietas completas possibilitou a obtenção de desempenho satisfatório dos cordeiros e melhor retorno financeiro.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (C to ceara rubbertree hay (CRH; Manihot Glaziovii Muell. Arg. on performance of lambs. Thirty two intact Santa Inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80C:20CRH (diet A, 60C:40CRH (diet B, 40C:60CRH (diet C, or 20C:80CRH (diet D in a completely
Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.
2017-01-01
Ranque Hilsch vortex tube is a device that can produce cold and hot air streams simultaneously from pressurized air. Performance of vortex tube is influenced by a number of geometrical and operational parameters. In this study parametric analysis of vortex tube is carried out. Air is used as the working fluid and geometrical parameters like length to diameter ratio (15, 16, 17, 18), exit valve angles (30°-90°), orifice diameters (5, 6 and 7 mm), 2 entry nozzles and tube divergence angle 4° is used for experimentation. Operational parameters like pressure (200-600 kPa), cold mass fraction (0-1) is varied and effect of Mach number at the inlet of the tube is investigated. The vortex tube is tested at sub sonic (0 tube is observed for CMF up to 0.5. Experimental correlations are proposed for optimum COP. Parametric correlation is developed for geometrical and operational parameters.
Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.
1993-01-01
Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.
Félix-Urquídez, Dalmira; Pérez-Urquiza, Melina; Valdez Torres, José-Benigno; León-Félix, Josefina; García-Estrada, Raymundo; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham
2016-01-05
Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%-100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio.
Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles
Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg
2014-01-01
We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.
Vigren, Erik; Altwegg, Kathrin; Edberg, Niklas J. T.; Eriksson, Anders I.; Galand, Marina; Goetz, Charlotte; Henri, Pierre; Héritier, Kevin; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Odelstad, Elias; Tzou, Chia-Yu
2016-04-01
The ESA Rosetta spacecraft has followed comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko closely (typically at tens to hundreds of km) since early August 2014 covering heliocentric distances from ~3.6 AU to ~1.25 AU at perihelion in August 2015. Since arrival at the comet the neutral number density, nN, at the spacecraft location, has been probed by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA/COPS [1]). Likewise, the dual Langmuir Probe (LAP [2]) and the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP [3]), both being subsystems of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC [4]), have operated allowing for the retrieval of the electron number density, ne. Arguably, the electron-to-neutral number density ratio, ne/nN, accessible from these observations, is key to gain insights into the processes dictating the ionization balance within the inner coma of 67P [5]. In January 2015, at a heliocentric distance of ~2.4-2.6 AU (and when not being disturbed by by-passing co-rotating interaction regions [6]) we find that a Field Free Chemistry Free (FFCF) solar EUV deposition model reasonably well captures the observed ne/nN ratio in the H2O dominated summer hemisphere of 67P. For the same period we find ratios often elevated by more than a factor of 2 (with respect to modeled values) in the winter hemisphere and argue that this partly could be caused by high mixing ratios of CO2 [see 7]. We are currently conducting a study of ne/nN ratios in the coma of 67P when close to perihelion, which includes time-intervals when within the diamagnetic cavity as attested from observations [8] by the RPC/Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG, [9]). Results of these investigations will be presented at the meeting. The closer distance to the sun and the enhanced activity bring about several effects that are anticipated to at least somewhat reduce ne/nN ratios from values predicted by the FFCF-model. As an example one may expect an increased influence of dissociative recombination on the ionization
Simple Equational Specifications of Rational Arithmetic
Lawrence S. Moss
2001-12-01
Full Text Available We exhibit an initial specification of the rational numbers equipped with addition, subtraction, multiplication, greatest integer function, and absolute value. Our specification uses only the sort of rational numbers. It uses one hidden function; that function is unary. But it does not use an error constant, or extra (hidden sorts, or conditional equations. All of our work is elementary and self-contained.
Determinants of Actor Rationality
Ellegaard, Chris
Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...
Cox, M.E.; Thomas, D.M.
1979-11-01
Because of the complex geological and hydrological conditions and the virtual lack of thermal springs, regional geothermal investigations in Hawaii require the use of techniques substantially different from those conventionally applied in other geothermal environments. The large number of hydrological wells in the state provides an appreciable source of groundwater chemical data. However, largely because of the island environment, interpretation of much of these data as geothermal indicators becomes ambiguous. Initially, SiO/sub 2/ and temperature of groundwaters were used to identify thermally anomalous zones, but on a regional basis it has been found that these criteria are not always successful. As a further criterion for assessment, the Cl/Mg ratio of the groundwater has been used. On a state-wide basis, this ratio has been successful in further screening the SiO/sub 2/-temperature selected sites, and in defining more specific areas which warrant further investigation. Temperature, SiO/sub 2/ and Cl/Mg values for nearly 400 groundwater samples are included.
Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich
2011-01-01
Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher
Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan
None
1980-06-01
The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)
Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab
2007-03-01
Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.
Irrational Rationality of Terrorism
Robert Nalbandov
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.
Cengic, Ismet; Tureli, Derya; Altas, Hilal; Ozden, Ferhat; Bugdayci, Onur; Aribal, Erkin
2017-03-01
Background Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules, though the most accurate method to rule out malignancy, still has an inherent risk of yielding non-diagnostic specimens despite immediate assessment of specimen adequacy by an on-site cytopathologist. Purpose To evaluate the effects of nodule volume and extent of cystic degeneration on total biopsy time and number of aspirations required for obtaining an adequate specimen. Material and Methods A total of 510 patients underwent FNAB by a single radiologist accompanied by a cytopathologist who immediately assessed each sample for specimen adequacy. All sampled nodules were single and had one maximum diameter > 10 mm. Nodule volumes and cystic degeneration ratios were calculated prior to the intervention. Aspirations were repeated until the cytological material was deemed adequate by the cytopathologist; the number of aspirations and total biopsy time were then recorded. Results Nodule volumes did not have significant effect on neither number of aspirations necessary for achieving specimen adequacy ( P > 0.05) nor total biopsy time (r = -0.148 with P = 0.001). Predominantly cystic nodules, compared to predominantly solid nodules, required more sampling per nodule (4.58 ± 1.11 vs. 3.44 ± 1.19 aspirations, P = 0.001) and longer total biopsy time (16.40 ± 6.19 vs. 11.15 ± 6.18 min, P = 0.001). Conclusion Predominantly cystic nodules require allocation of more time for biopsy. To ensure specimen adequacy when immediate specimen evaluation by an on-site cytopathologist is not possible, four samples from predominantly solid nodules and five passes through predominantly cystic nodules are required.
Bharadwaj, P.
2013-01-10
The theory of supervirtual interferometry is modified so that free-surface related multiple refractions can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of primary refraction events by a factor proportional to√Ns, where Ns is the number of post-critical sources for a specified refraction multiple. We also show that refraction multiples can be transformed into primary refraction events recorded at virtual hydrophones located between the actual hydrophones. Thus, data recorded by a coarse sampling of ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations can be transformed, in principle, into a virtual survey with P times more OBS stations, where P is the order of the visible free-surface related multiple refractions. The key assumption is that the refraction arrivals are those of head waves, not pure diving waves. The effectiveness of this method is validated with both synthetic OBS data and an OBS data set recorded offshore from Taiwan. Results show the successful reconstruction of far-offset traces out to a source-receiver offset of 120 km. The primary supervirtual traces increase the number of pickable first arrivals from approximately 1600 to more than 3100 for a subset of the OBS data set where the source is only on one side of the recording stations. In addition, the head waves associated with the first-order free-surface refraction multiples allow for the creation of six new common receiver gathers recorded at virtual OBS station located about half way between the actual OBS stations. This doubles the number of OBS stations compared to the original survey and increases the total number of pickable traces from approximately 1600 to more than 6200. In summary, our results with the OBS data demonstrate that refraction interferometry can sometimes more than quadruple the number of usable traces, increase the source-receiver offsets, fill in the receiver line with a denser distribution of OBS stations, and provide more reliable picking of first arrivals. Apotential liability
Percents Are Not Natural Numbers
Jacobs, Jennifer A.
2013-01-01
Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…
Babiloni, Fabio; Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Romani, Gian Luca; Rossini, Paolo M; Angelone, Leonardo M; Cincotti, Febo
2004-05-01
Previous simulation studies have stressed the importance of the multimodal integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in the estimation of cortical current density. In such studies, no systematic variations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and of the number of sensors were explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. We investigated effects of variable SNR and number of sensors on the accuracy of current density estimate by using multimodal EEG and MEG data. This was done by using as the dependent variable both the correlation coefficient (CC) and the relative error (RE) between imposed and estimated waveforms at the level of cortical region of interests (ROI). A realistic head and cortical surface model was used. Factors used in the simulations were: (1). the SNR of the simulated scalp data (with seven levels: infinite, 30, 20, 10, 5, 3, 1); (2). the particular inverse operator used to estimate the cortical source activity from the simulated scalp data (INVERSE, with two levels, including minimum norm and weighted minimum norm); and (3). the number of EEG or MEG sensors employed in the analysis (SENSORS, with three levels: 128, 61, 29 for EEG and 153, 61, or 38 in MEG). Analysis of variance demonstrated that all the considered factors significantly affect the CC and the RE indexes. Combined EEG-MEG data produced statistically significant lower RE and higher CC in source current density reconstructions compared to that estimated by the EEG and MEG data considered separately. These observations hold for the range of SNR values presented by the analyzed data. The superiority of current density estimation by multimodal integration of EEG and MEG was not due to differences in number of sensors between unimodal (EEG, MEG) and combined (EEG-MEG) inverse estimates. In fact, the current density estimate relative to the EEG-MEG multimodal integration involved 61 EEG plus 63 MEG sensors, whereas estimations carried out
Exploring rationality in schizophrenia
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth
2015-01-01
Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....
RATIONAL SOLUTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Sokolov, A.; Sokolov, N.
2014-01-01
The number of complicated problems has to be solved during modernization of the telecommunication networks. Some problems can be defined as a search for rational solutions instead of the traditional approach that consists in finding the cost function optimum. This new approach minimizes the risk that inevitably arises when elaborating a long term plan for the telecommunication networks development. The article discusses the proposed methodological approach of finding rational solutions. Probl...
Peng Gao
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: At present, only the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs+ is used for the pN category of AJCC TNM system for colon cancer. Recently, the ratio of metastatic to examined lymph nodes (LNR has been reported to represent powerful independent predictive capacity in colon cancer. We sought to propose a novel category (nLN which intergrades LNR and LNs+ into the AJCC staging system for colon cancer. DESIGN: 34476 patients from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER dataset with stage III colon cancer were reviewed. Harrell's C statistic was used to evaluate the predictive capacity. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to construct a novel category. RESULTS: The LNR category had more predictive capacity than the pN category in whole groups of patients (Harrell's C index: 0.6194 vs 0.6113, p = 0.003. Subgroup analysis showed that the LNR category was not better than pN category in predictive capacity if the number of lymph nodes examined was more than 13. We also found that there was significant survival heterogeneity among different pN categories at the same LNR category (P<0.001. The Harrell's C index for our nLN category which intergrades LNR and LNs+ was 0.6228, which was significant higher than that of the pN category (Harrell's C index: 0.6113, P<0.001 or LNR category (Harrell's C index: 0.6194, P = 0.005, respectively. CONCLUSION: To evaluate the prognosis of colon cancer, our nLN category which intergrades LNR with LNs+ is more accurate than the pN category or LNR category, respectively.
Tarnopolski, Mariusz
2016-11-01
The long range dependence of the fractional Brownian motion (fBm), fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), and differentiated fGn (DfGn) is described by the Hurst exponent H. Considering the realizations of these three processes as time series, they might be described by their statistical features, such as half of the ratio of the mean square successive difference to the variance, A, and the number of turning points, T. This paper investigates the relationships between A and H, and between T and H. It is found numerically that the formulae A(H) = aebH in case of fBm, and A(H) = a + bHc for fGn and DfGn, describe well the A(H) relationship. When T(H) is considered, no simple formula is found, and it is empirically found that among polynomials, the fourth and second order description applies best. The most relevant finding is that when plotted in the space of (A , T) , the three process types form separate branches. Hence, it is examined whether A and T may serve as Hurst exponent indicators. Some real world data (stock market indices, sunspot numbers, chaotic time series) are analyzed for this purpose, and it is found that the H's estimated using the H(A) relations (expressed as inverted A(H) functions) are consistent with the H's extracted with the well known wavelet approach. This allows to efficiently estimate the Hurst exponent based on fast and easy to compute A and T, given that the process type: fBm, fGn or DfGn, is correctly classified beforehand. Finally, it is suggested that the A(H) relation for fGn and DfGn might be an exact (shifted) 3 / 2 power-law.
Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy L., E-mail: rmredd@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2014-03-10
Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω {sub m} and σ{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.
Tarnopolski, Mariusz
2015-01-01
The long range dependence of the fractional Brownian motion (fBm), fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), and differentiated fGn (DfGn) is described by the Hurst exponent $H$ (HE). Considering these three processes in terms of time series, they might be described by their statistical features, such as half of the ratio of the mean square successive difference to the variance, $\\mathcal{A}$, and the number of turning points, $T$. This paper investigates the correlations between $\\mathcal{A}$ and $T$ on $H$. It is found that the formulas $\\mathcal{A}=a{\\rm e}^{bH}$ in case of fBm, and $\\mathcal{A}=a+bH^c$ for fGn and DfGn, describe the $\\mathcal{A}(H)$ relationship. When $T(H)$ is considered, no simple formula is found, and it is empirically found that among polynomials, the fourth and second order description applies. When plotted in the space of $(\\mathcal{A},T)$, the three process types form separated branches. Hence, it is examined whether $\\mathcal{A}$ and $T$ may serve as HE indicators. Some real world data are...
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Hoek, Wiebe van der
2006-01-01
Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Crab Rationalization Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...
Janusz J. Charatonik
1994-05-01
Full Text Available Spaces which are metrizable completions of the space Q of rationals are described. A characterization of metrizable spaces having the same family of metrizable completions as Q is deduced.
[Concepts of rational taxonomy].
Pavlinov, I Ia
2011-01-01
The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the
Controllability under rational expectations.
Hughes Hallett Andrew; Di Bartolomeo Giovanni; Acocella Nicola
2008-01-01
We show that rational expectations do not affect the controllability of an economic system, either in its static or in its dynamic version, even though their introduction in many other circumstances may make it impossible for the policymaker to affect certain variables due to policy invariance, policy neutrality or time inconsistency problems. The controllability conditions stated by Tinbergen and subsequent authors continue to hold under rational expectations; and when they are satisfied rat...
Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality
Michał Januszkiewicz
2016-01-01
The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis). Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as underst...
Gulyás, A I; Megías, M; Emri, Z; Freund, T F
1999-11-15
The least known aspect of the functional architecture of hippocampal microcircuits is the quantitative distribution of synaptic inputs of identified cell classes. The complete dendritic trees of functionally distinct interneuron types containing parvalbumin (PV), calbindin D(28k) (CB), or calretinin (CR) were reconstructed at the light microscopic level to describe their geometry, total length, and laminar distribution. Serial electron microscopic reconstruction and postembedding GABA immunostaining was then used to determine the density of GABA-negative asymmetrical (excitatory) and GABA-positive symmetrical (inhibitory) synaptic inputs on their dendrites, somata, and axon initial segments. The total convergence and the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs were then calculated using the light and electron microscopic data sets. The three populations showed characteristic differences in dendritic morphology and in the density and distribution of afferent synapses. PV cells possessed the most extensive dendritic tree (4300 microm) and the thickest dendrites. CR cells had the smallest dendritic tree (2500 microm) and the thinnest shafts. The density of inputs as well as the total number of excitatory plus inhibitory synapses was several times higher on PV cells (on average, 16,294) than on CB (3839) or CR (2186) cells. The ratio of GABAergic inputs was significantly higher on CB (29.4%) and CR (20.71%) cells than on PV cells (6.4%). The density of inhibitory terminals was higher in the perisomatic region than on the distal dendrites. These anatomical data are essential to understand the distinct behavior and role of these interneuron types during hippocampal activity patterns and represent fundamental information for modeling studies.
崔李平; 李继泉
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE:To analyze the irrational drug use in Jiaozuo Municipal Second Peoples'Hosipital ( hereinafter referred to as“our hospital”) with regard to the drug cost ratio so as to further reduce the drug cost ratio and promote rational use of drug.METHODS:1 350 filed medical records from January 2011 to September 2014 in our hospital were randomly selected for statistical analysis regarding the rationality of drug use.RESULTS: Of the 1 350 cases reviewed, 298(22.07%) were irrational on account of higher drug cost ratio.The irrationality in 26.51%(79/298 ) manifested as off-label course of adminstraiton followed by off-label in drug concentration or dosage etc. CONCLUSIONS:Efforts need to be taken in our hospital to strengthen clinical pharmacists'rational level in drug use to keep the drug cost ratio under control.%目的：从控制药占比方面对焦作市第二人民医院（以下简称“我院”）的不合理用药进行分析，以进一步降低药占比，促进合理用药。方法：随机抽取我院2011年1月—2014年9月的归档病历1350份，对药物应用的合理性进行统计分析。结果：在抽查的1350份病历中，导致药占比偏高的不合理用药病历共298份（占22.07％）。其中，超疗程用药问题居多，占不合理用药病历数的26.51％（79／298）；其次为超浓度用药、超剂量用药等问题。结论：我院仍需通过各方面努力，加强临床医师的合理用药水平，以进一步控制药占比。
Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love
Gustavo Ortiz-Millán
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten
[Rational use of antibiotics].
Walger, P
2016-06-01
International and national campaigns draw attention worldwide to the rational use of the available antibiotics. This has been stimulated by the high prevalence rates of drug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a threatening spread of development of resistance in Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria and the selection of Clostridium difficile with a simultaneous clear reduction in the development of new antibiotics. The implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs aims to maintain their effectiveness by a rational use of the available antibiotics. The essential target of therapy with antibiotics is successful treatment of individual patients with bacterial infections. The optimal clinical treatment results can only be achieved when the toxicity, selection of pathogens and development of resistance are minimized. This article presents the principles of a rational antibiotic therapy.
Rational Expansion for Nonlinear Input-Output Maps
1988-01-01
This paper introduces a Rational Expansion for Nonlinear Input-Output MAPS. The method is new and is based on the rational expansion of functions of several complex variables. If truncated, this series reduces to a ratio of truncated Volterra series, A "feedback form" will be presented.
渭干河平原绿洲灌区合理灌排比探讨%Rational Ratio of Irrigation to Drainage in Weigan River Irrigat ion District
胡顺军; 艾尼瓦尔·吾买尔; 田长彦; 周宏飞; 宋郁东; 王永平; 蒋庆华; 艾则孜; 黄文山; 吐尔逊
2001-01-01
根据灌区盐量平衡原理，采用实际监测资料，对渭干河及其所属的库车、沙雅、新和县平原绿洲灌区进行盐均衡分析，深入探讨了临界灌排比的影响因素及其确定方法。研究结果表明：（1）灌排比的概念简捷明了，体现了干旱区水利建设、灌溉农业的特点，可作为衡量干旱区绿洲灌区水盐运动状况的一个指标，同时亦是进行灌排管理、规划设计的科学依据。（2）临界灌排比与灌溉引水量、排水量、河水含盐浓度、排水含盐浓度等因素有关。渭干河、库车、沙雅、新和灌区临界灌排比分别为10.80，6.55，20.09，21.48。若没有特殊的地形地貌，干旱区绿洲灌区临界灌排比为21左右。（3）在干旱区进行水量平衡计算，制定灌溉制度以及进行灌溉排水管理时，应保证有一定量的深层渗漏，便于淋洗盐分，同时应完善排水系统，使灌区在小于临界灌排比下运行。%Based on the principle of salt equilibrium in irrigationdistricts, the salt e qu ilibrium of Weigan river irrigation district is analyzed by using measured data. The factors of affecting critical ratio of irrigation to drainage and the metho d of determining critical ratio of irrigation to drainage are also discussed pro foundly. The results show that: (1) The conception of the ratio of irrigation to drainage is brief, embodies the characteristics of water conservation construct ion and irrigation agriculture, which can be used as the criterion of estimating the dynamics of moisture-salt movement in plain oasis irrigation distract in arid area，and can also used as the scientific basis of management of irrigatio n and drainage ,planning and designing.(2)Critical ratio of irrigation to drainage is related to the irrigation water volume, drainage water volume ,salt content of irrigation water and drainage water and so on. The critical ratio of irrigati o n to drainage for Weigan
Algebraic Topology, Rational Homotopy
1988-01-01
This proceedings volume centers on new developments in rational homotopy and on their influence on algebra and algebraic topology. Most of the papers are original research papers dealing with rational homotopy and tame homotopy, cyclic homology, Moore conjectures on the exponents of the homotopy groups of a finite CW-c-complex and homology of loop spaces. Of particular interest for specialists are papers on construction of the minimal model in tame theory and computation of the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category by means articles on Moore conjectures, on tame homotopy and on the properties of Poincaré series of loop spaces.
Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality
Michał Januszkiewicz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis. Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as understanding in the hermeneutic sense.
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Haberma...
In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge...
Dryden, Windy
2010-01-01
In this title, highly respected author, Windy Dryden, discusses some of the ideas that are central to the theory underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). Founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (1913-2007) and developed in the intervening years, REBT was the first approach to be created within what is now known as the cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) tradition.
Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.
Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.
1997-01-01
Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...
Rationality and social behavior.
Tullberg, Jan
2003-10-21
This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for
VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...
Number pi from the decoration of the Langstrup plate
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
2012-01-01
Studies of ancient bronze artifacts can be useful in understanding the progression of human knowledge of mathematics and geometry. Here I discuss the decoration composed by several circles and spirals of the Langstrup belt disk, an artifact of the Bronze Age found in Denmark. I am showing by measurements of diameters and distances of spirals, that the artist who made the decoration knew some approximations by rational numbers of the number pi, the dimensionless physical quantity representing the ratio of circumference to diameter.
Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour
1953-01-01
The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.
Rational management of epilepsy.
Viswanathan, Venkataraman
2014-09-01
Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.
Alternative Disaster Feeding Ration
2012-06-08
is that a healthy person can last about a week without food, but children are more vulnerable lasting for just a few days. In these scenarios, the...ration bar could be edible across different health or dietary constrained populations. For example, diabetics or those with high cholesterol could...Hurricane Katrina was a powerful Category 5 storm that devastated the southeastern states along the Gulf of Mexico in 2005.2 Having seen the aftermath
Realization theory for rational systems
Ně mcová, J.; Schuppen, J.H. van
2008-01-01
In this paper we solve the problem of realization of response maps for rational systems. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a response map to be realizable by a rational system are presented. The properties of rational realizations such as observability, controllability, and minimality are stud
Computational Intelligence Determines Effective Rationality
无
2008-01-01
Rationality is a fundamental concept in economics. Most researchers will accept that human beings are not fully rational.Herbert Simon suggested that we are "bounded rational". However, it is very difficult to quantify "bounded rationality", and therefore it is difficult to pinpoint its impact to all those economic theories that depend on the assumption of full rationality. Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model bounded rationality by explicitly specifying the decision makers' decision-making procedures. This paper takes a computational point of view to Rubinstein's approach. From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. We argue that, everything else being equal, the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational power - we refer to this as the computational intelligence determines effective rationality (CIDER) theory. This is not an attempt to propose a unifying definition of bounded rationality. It is merely a proposal of a computational point of view of bounded rationality. This way of interpreting bounded rationality enables us to (computationally) reason about economic systems when the full rationality assumption is relaxed.
Computational examples of rational string operations on Gorenstein spaces
Naito, Takahito
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give computational examples of string operations over the rational numbers field on Gorenstein spaces introduced by Félix and Thomas. Especially, we determine the structure of rational string operations on the classifying space of a compact connected Lie group and the Borel construction associated to an action of $S^{1}$ to $S^{2}$.
Rational Curves on Calabi-Yau Threefolds
Katz, S
1992-01-01
The point is to compare the mathematical meaning of the ``number of rational curves on a Calabi-Yau threefold'' to the meaning ascribed to the same notion by string theorists. By considering mirror symmetry applied to conformal field theories corresponding to strings propagating in quintic hypersurfaces in projective 4-space, Candelas, de la Ossa, Green and Parkes calculated the ``number of rational curves on the hypersurface'' by comparing three point functions. Actually, the number of curves may be infinite for special examples; what is really being calculated is a path integral. The point of this talk is to give mathematical techniques and examples for computing the finite number that ``should'' correspond to an infinite family of curves (which coincides with that given by the path integral in every known instance), and to suggest that these techniques should provide the answer to the not yet solved problem of how to calculate instanton corrections to the three point function in general.
2014-09-26
RD-Ali57 830 ADA (TRADE NAME) COMPILER VALIDATION SUMMARY REPORT: 1/ RATIONAL ENVIRONMENT VERSION R296 FOR RATIONAL Ri888 (U) SOFTECH INC FAIRBORN OH...USoCPY WSSOS.UTM iTS GWAT % : 4 AVF Control Number: AVF-VSR-09.0585 0 IAda Compiler Validation Summary Report: Rational Environment Version A.2.0.6 For...77. . 77-4- .- REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGERED1S1IT0$ L~~~~ 1YP 0061 1tO REPORT 6 PL eDD COVERED Ada* Compiler Validation Summary Report: Rational May
Y. Ramana Reddy
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study is to know the effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue (SSCR based complete ration on growth, feeding behavior and cost of gain in Murrah buffalo calves in order to compare the feeding value of SSCR with sorghum straw (SS and also find out the efficient way of utilization of SSCR in the diets of growing buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Experimental complete rations were formulated with SSCR and concentrate in 50:50 ratio and processed in to SSCR chopped and concentrate (SSCRC, mash (SSCRM and expander extruder pellets (SSCRP. The control ration was SS based complete feed processed in to mash (SSM. 24 Murrah buffalo calves (Average 137 kg body weight and aged 1 year 2 months were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design and the experimental rations were offered to 4 groups randomly for a period of 150 days. A 7 day digestion trial was conducted at the end of 150 day growth trial to find out the nutrient digestibility of experimental rations. Eating and ruminating activities were noted every 5 minutes, and each activity was assumed to persist for the entire 5 minutes. Sorting behavior in the calves was observed physically at the time of feeding. The cost of the rations was calculated on the basis of processing cost and the prevailing market prices of the feed ingredients. Results: The DM intake (g/d, digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen (N balance were higher (P<0.05 in buffalo calves fed SSCRP ration but, comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Higher (P<0.01 average daily gain (g, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed in calves fed SSCRP ration, while comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Eating, rumination and total chewing time (minutes/d,minutes/kg DMI and minutes/kg NDFI and number of chews for eating, rumination
Mandal, Soma; Moudgil, Mee'nal; Mandal, Sanat K
2009-12-25
In this article, current knowledge of drug design is reviewed and an approach of rational drug design is presented. The process of drug development is challenging, expensive, and time consuming, although this process has been accelerated due to the development of computational tools and methodologies. The current target based drug design approach is incomplete because most of the drugs developed by structure guided approaches have been shown to have serious toxic side effects. Otherwise these drugs would have been an ideal choice for the treatment of diseases. Hence, rational drug design would require a multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, incorporation of gene expression technology and bioinformatics tools would be indispensable in the structure based drug design. Global gene expression data and analysis of such data using bioinformatics tools will have numerous benefits such as efficiency, cost effectiveness, time saving, and will provide strategies for combination therapy in addition to overcoming toxic side effects. As a result of incorporation of gene expression data, partial benefit of the structure based drug design is slowly emerging and rapidly changing the approach of the drug development process. To achieve the full benefit of developing a successful drug, multidisciplinary approaches (approaches such as computational chemistry and gene expression analysis, as discussed in this article) would be necessary. In the future, there is adequate room for the development of more sophisticated methodologies.
Approximation of quadrilaterals by rational quadrilaterals in the plane
2017-02-01
Many questions about triangles and quadrilaterals with rational sides, diagonals and areas can be reduced to solving certain diophantine equations. We look at a number of such questions including the question of approximating arbitrary triangles and quadrilaterals by those with rational sides, diagonals and areas. We transform these problems into questions on the existence of infinitely many rational solutions on a two parameter family of quartic curves. This is further transformed to a two parameter family of elliptic curves to deduce our main result concerning density of points on a line which are at a rational distance from three collinear points (Theorem 4). We deducefrom this a new proof of density of rational quadrilaterals in the space of all quadrilaterals (Theorem 39). The other main result (Theorem 3) of this article is on the density of rational triangles which is related to analyzing rational points on the unit circle. Interestingly, this enables us to deduce that parallelograms with rational sides and area are dense in the class of all parallelograms. We also give a criterion for density of certain sets in topological spaces using local product structure and prove the density Theorem 6 in the appendix section. An application of this proves the density of rational points as stated in Theorem 31.
Combinatorial Constructions for Sifting Primes and Enumerating the Rationals
Gnang, Edinah K
2012-01-01
We describe a combinatorial approach for investigating properties of rational numbers. The overall approach rests on structural bijections between rational numbers and familiar combinatorial objects, namely rooted trees. We emphasize that such mappings achieve much more than enumeration of rooted trees. We discuss two related structural bijections. The first corresponds to a bijective map between integers and rooted trees. The first bijection also suggests a new algorithm for sifting primes. The second bijection extends the first one in order to map rational numbers to a family of rooted trees. The second bijection suggests a new combinatorial construction for generating reduced rational numbers, thereby producing refinements of the output of the Wilf-Calkin[1] Algorithm.
Credit rationing and firm size
G. CALCAGNINI
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the likelihood of credit rationing faced by firms of different size. Contrary to common thought, several recent contributions on this topic argue that, when rationing credit, size alone is not a sufficient condition for discriminating between firms. We show that this result can be predicted using a framework based on the Stiglitz-Weiss model. In particular, in an environment of asymmetric information, we highlight how the likelihood of credit rationing depends upon the shape of the distribution function of project returns, especially its asymmetry and Kurtosis. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that small firms face more credit rationing than larger firms.
Hegel's phenomenology of rationality
Huggler, Jørgen
2009-01-01
The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression......, although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....
Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions
Volchik Vyacheslav, V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.
Qualitative behavior of a rational difference equation
Qian Xiao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article is concerned with the following rational difference equation yn+1 = (yn + yn-1/(p + ynyn-1 with the initial conditions; y-1, y0 are arbitrary positive real numbers, and p is positive constant. Locally asymptotical stability and global attractivity of the equilibrium point of the equation are investigated, and non-negative solution with prime period two cannot be found. Moreover, simulation is shown to support the results.
Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials
Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman
2014-01-01
In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...
Maria José Ferreira da Silva
2008-12-01
Full Text Available We present a reflection regarding operations with fractional numbers focusing on the part-all conception through some activities that can contribute to teaching practices at the elementary school level. A brief characterization of the all-part conception is provided along with descriptions of activities involving the four basic operations based on the use of flat figures, although other conceptions may emerge during the solution. We limit our considerations to this conception because it is the most frequent, in textbooks as well as teacher practice, although it is not used to justify operational rules of fractional numbers. Key-words: Fractions. Fractional Numbers. Operations.Neste artigo, apresentamos uma reflexão a respeito das operações com números fracionários focalizando a concepção parte-todo por meio de algumas atividades que possam contribuir para a prática docente na escola básica. O estudo explicita uma breve caracterização da concepção parte-todo e atividades envolvendo as quatro operações fundamentais tratadas em figuras planas, embora outras concepções possam ser mobilizadas durante a solução. Restringimos nossas considerações a essa concepção visto ser a mais freqüente, tanto em livros didáticos, quanto na prática do professor, embora não seja utilizada para justificar as regras operatórias dos números fracionários. Palavras-chave: Frações. Números Fracionários. Operações.
Rational formality of mapping spaces
Felix, Yves
2010-01-01
Let X and Y be finite nilpotent CW complexes with dimension of X less than the connectivity of Y. Generalizing results of Vigu\\'e-Poirrier and Yamaguchi, we prove that the mapping space Map(X,Y) is rationally formal if and only if Y has the rational homotopy type of a finite product of odd dimensional spheres.
Rationality problem for algebraic tori
Hoshi, Akinari
2017-01-01
The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...
Quantum contextuality for rational vectors
Cabello, Adan
2010-01-01
The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D. A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3751 (1999)] that the inconsistency would disappear when we are restricted to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A. A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 020403 (2008)] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.
Quantum contextuality for rational vectors
Cabello, Adan, E-mail: adan@us.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.larsson@liu.s [Institutionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoepings Universitet, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
2010-12-01
The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D.A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3751] that the inconsistency would disappear when restricting to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A.A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 020403] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.
Limited rationality and strategic interaction
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2008-01-01
Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...
Standby gasoline rationing plan: narrative
1979-02-01
The objectives of the rationing plan are to provide a mechanism capable of maintaining an orderly and equitable market for gasoline in a severe supply shortfall, and capable of rapid implementation; and to comply with requirements of EPCA, which mandates the development of a contingency rationing plan. Eligibility for ration allotments will be based principally on motor vehicle registration records, maintained in a national vehicle registration file. Supplemental allotments will be granted for certain priority activities to ensure the maintenance of essential public services. Supplemental allotments will also be granted to businesses and government organizations with significant off-highway gasoline requirements. Local rationing boards or other offices will be established by states, to provide special allotments to hardship applicants, within DOE guidelines. The background and history of the plan are described. The gasoline rationing plan operations, government operations, program costs, staffing, and funding are also detailed in this report. (MCW)
Implicitization of rational maps
Botbol, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Motivated by the interest in computing explicit formulas for resultants and discriminants initiated by B\\'ezout, Cayley and Sylvester in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and emphasized in the latest years due to the increase of computing power, we focus on the implicitization of hypersurfaces in several contexts. Our approach is based on the use of linear syzygies by means of approximation complexes, following [Bus\\'e Jouanolou 03], where they develop the theory for a rational map $f:P^{n-1}\\dashrightarrow P^n$. Approximation complexes were first introduced by Herzog, Simis and Vasconcelos in [Herzog Simis Vasconcelos 82] almost 30 years ago. The main obstruction for this approximation complex-based method comes from the bad behavior of the base locus of $f$. Thus, it is natural to try different compatifications of $A^{n-1}$, that are better suited to the map $f$, in order to avoid unwanted base points. With this purpose, in this thesis we study toric compactifications $T$ for $A^{n-1}$. We provide re...
Rationality in a general model of choice
Somdeb Lahiri
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.
Rational offset approximation of rational Bézier curves
CHENG Min; WANG Guo-jin
2006-01-01
The problem of parametric speed approximation of a rational curve is raised in this paper. Offset curves are widely used in various applications. As for the reason that in most cases the offset curves do not preserve the same polynomial or rational polynomial representations, it arouses difficulty in applications. Thus approximation methods have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper, it has been pointed out that the crux of offset curve approximation lies in the approximation of parametric speed. Based on the Jacobi polynomial approximation theory with endpoints interpolation, an algebraic rational approximation algorithm of offset curve, which preserves the direction of normal, is presented.
Brothers, Kyle B
2011-04-01
Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.
Scalable Mechanisms for Rational Secret Sharing
Dani, Varsha; Saia, Jared
2012-01-01
We consider the classical secret sharing problem in the case where all agents are selfish but rational. In recent work, Kol and Naor show that, when there are two players, in the non-simultaneous communication model, i.e. when rushing is possible, there is no Nash equilibrium that ensures both players learn the secret. However, they describe a mechanism for this problem, for any number of players, that is an epsilon-Nash equilibrium, in that no player can gain more than epsilon utility by deviating from it. Unfortunately, the Kol and Naor mechanism, and, to the best of our knowledge, all previous mechanisms for this problem require each agent to send O(n) messages in expectation, where n is the number of agents. This may be problematic for some applications of rational secret sharing such as secure multi-party computation and simulation of a mediator. We address this issue by describing mechanisms for rational secret sharing that are designed for large n. Both of our results hold for n > 2, and are Nash equil...
Vaccines: from empirical development to rational design.
Christine Rueckert
Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for an overwhelming number of deaths worldwide and their clinical management is often hampered by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains. Therefore, prevention through vaccination currently represents the best course of action to combat them. However, immune escape and evasion by pathogens often render vaccine development difficult. Furthermore, most currently available vaccines were empirically designed. In this review, we discuss why rational design of vaccines is not only desirable but also necessary. We introduce recent developments towards specifically tailored antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems, and discuss the methodological gaps and lack of knowledge still hampering true rational vaccine design. Finally, we address the potential and limitations of different strategies and technologies for advancing vaccine development.
On curves over finite fields with many rational points
Fuhrmann, R; Fuhrmann, Rainer; Torres, Fernando
1996-01-01
We study arithmetical and geometrical properties of {\\it maximal curves}, that is, curves defined over the finite field \\mathbb F_{q^2} whose number of \\mathbb F_{q^2}-rational points reachs the Hasse-Weil upper bound. Under a hypothesis on non-gaps at rational points we prove that maximal curves are \\mathbb F_{q^2}-isomorphic to y^q+y=x^m for some m\\in \\mathbb Z^+.
Morris, V B; Cowan, R
1995-07-01
Growth curves of the retinal cell population of embryonic chicks were fitted by a branching-process model of cell population growth, thereby estimating the proliferative ratios and mean cell-cycle times of the generations of cell cycles that underlie retinal growth. The proliferative ratio determines the proportion of cells that divides in the next generation, so the numbers of proliferative and non-proliferative cells in each generation of cell cycles were obtained. The mean cell-cycle times determine the times over which the generations are extant. Assuming growth starts from one cell in generation 0, the proliferative cells reach 3.6 x 10(6) and the non-proliferative cells reach 1.1 x 10(6) by generation 23. The next four generations increase the proliferative cell numbers to 13.9 x 10(6) and produce 20.1 x 10(6) non-proliferative cells. In the next five generations in the end phase of growth, non-proliferative cells are produced in large numbers at an average of 13.9 x 10(6) cells per generation as the retinal lineages are completed. The retinal cell population reaches a maximum estimated here at 98.2 x 10(6) cells. The mean cell-cycle time estimates range between 6.8 and 10.1 h in generations before the end phase of growth and between 10.6 and 17.2 h in generations in the end phase. The retinal cell population growth is limited by the depletion of the proliferative cell population that the production of non-proliferative cells entails. The proliferative ratios and the cell-cycle-time distribution parameters are the likely determinants of retinal growth rates. The results are discussed in relation to other results of spatial and temporal patterns of the cessation of cell cycling in the embryonic chick retina.
From whole number to real number: Applying Rasch measurement to investigate threshold concepts
Caroline Long
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The developments in mathematics that take place in Grades 7 to 9 constitute critical nodes in a learner’s scholing. One of the major transitions to be made is from whole numbers to real numbers, which involves theunderstanding of rational (and irrational numbers, and concepts such as ratio, proportion and percent. I hypothesise that ratio is a threshold concept that provides the conceptual gateway to higher order concepts. The research problem is to describe the learning challenges and provide an array of insightsand strategies that will inform teaching. The theory of conceptual fields provides the framework for this research (Vergnaud, 1988. The Rasch measurement model (Rasch, 1960/1980 articulates the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the research. This paper provides an overview of the broader study and reports on an aspect of the data analysis.
Kβ/Kα X-ray intensity ratios for some elements in the atomic number range 28≤Z≤39 at 16.896 keV
R. Yılmaz
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The K shell intensity ratios (Kβ/Kα have been experimentally determined for some elements in the atomic number range 28 ≤ Z ≤ 39 by using secondary excitation method. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si (Li detector with 160 eV resolutions at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with the theoretical and experimental values. In general, the values obtained are in good agreement with the calculated values.
Collective action and rationality models
Luis Miguel Miller Moya
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.
Rationality in the Cryptographic Model
Hubacek, Pavel
This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk....... The second part presents a study of the problem of verifiable delegation of computation in the rational setting. We define rational arguments, an extension of the recent concept of rational proofs into the computational setting, and give a single round delegation scheme for the class NC1, of search problems...... computable by log-space uniform circuits of logarithmic depth, with a sub-linear time verifier. While our approach provides a weaker (yet arguably meaningful) guarantee of soundness, it compares favorably with each of the known delegation schemes in at least one aspect. Our protocols are simple, rely...
Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns
Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2010-01-01
We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.
Rational reconstructions of modern physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2013-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...
The rationing agenda in the NHS. Rationing Agenda Group.
New, B
1996-06-22
The Rationing Agenda Group has been founded to deepen the British debate on rationing health care. It believes that rationing in health care is inevitable and that the public must be involved in the debate about issues relating to rationing. The group comprises people from all parts of health care, none of whom represent either their group or their institutions. RAG has begun by producing this document, which attempts to set an agenda of all the issues that need to be considered when debating the rationing of health care. We hope for responses to the document. The next stage will be to incorporate the responses into the agenda. Then RAG will divide the agenda into manageable chunks and commission expert, detailed commentaries. From this material a final paper will be published and used to prompt public debate. This stage should be reached early in 1997. While these papers are being prepared RAG is developing ways to involve the public in the debate and evaluate the whole process. We present as neutrally as possible all the issues related to rationing and priority setting in the NHS. We focus on the NHS for two reasons. Firstly, for those of us resident in the United Kingdom the NHS is the health care system with which we are most familiar and most concerned. Secondly, focusing on one system alone allows more coherent analysis than would be possible if issues in other systems were included as well. Our concern is with the delivery of health care, not its finance, though we discuss the possible effects of changing the financing system of the NHS. Finally, though our position is neutral, we hold two substantive views--namely, that rationing is unavoidable and that there should be more explicit debate about the principles and issues concerned. We consider the issues under four headings: preliminaries, ethics, democracy, and empirical questions. Preliminaries deal with the semantics of rationing, whether rationing is necessary, and with the range of services to which
Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?
2010-01-01
This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...
Interpolation of rational matrix functions
Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba
1990-01-01
This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...
Weesie, H.M.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Buskens, V.W.
2009-01-01
Our research starts from the assumption that actors use a single decision theory to guide them on how to behave in all possible one-shot two-person encounters. To address which decision theories perform well, we let 17 theories compete in a large number of randomly selected symmetric 2 × 2 games. It
A rational treatment of Mendelian genetics
Porteous John W
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The key to a rational treatment of elementary Mendelian genetics, specifically to an understanding of the origin of dominant and recessive traits, lies in the facts that: (1 alleles of genes encode polypeptides; (2 most polypeptides are catalysts, i.e. enzymes or translocators; (3 the molecular components of all traits in all cells are the products of systems of enzymes, i.e. of fluxing metabolic pathways; (4 any flux to the molecular components of a trait responds non-linearly (non-additively to graded mutations in the activity of any one of the enzymes at a catalytic locus in a metabolic system; (5 as the flux responds to graded changes in the activity of an enzyme, the concentrations of the molecular components of a trait also change. Conclusions It is then possible to account rationally, and without misrepresenting Mendel, for: the origin of dominant and recessive traits; the occurrence of Mendel's 3(dominant:1(recessive trait ratio; deviations from this ratio; the absence of dominant and recessive traits in some circumstances, the occurrence of a blending of traits in others; the frequent occurrence of pleiotropy and epistasis.
Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality
Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels
2008-01-01
' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual......This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers...
Torus knots and the rational DAHA
Gorsky, Eugene; Rasmussen, Jacob; Shende, Vivek
2012-01-01
We conjecturally extract the triply graded Khovanov-Rozansky homology of the (m, n) torus knot from the unique finite dimensional simple representation of the rational DAHA of type A, rank n - 1, and central character m/n. The conjectural differentials of Gukov, Dunfield and the third author receive an explicit algebraic expression in this picture, yielding a prescription for the doubly graded Khovanov-Rozansky homologies. We match our conjecture to previous conjectures of the first author relating knot homology to q, t-Catalan numbers, and of the last three authors relating knot homology to Hilbert schemes on singular curves.
Axioms for Rational Reinforcement Learning
Sunehag, Peter
2011-01-01
We provide a formal, simple and intuitive theory of rational decision making including sequential decisions that affect the environment. The theory has a geometric flavor, which makes the arguments easy to visualize and understand. Our theory is for complete decision makers, which means that they have a complete set of preferences. Our main result shows that a complete rational decision maker implicitly has a probabilistic model of the environment. We have a countable version of this result that brings light on the issue of countable vs finite additivity by showing how it depends on the geometry of the space which we have preferences over. This is achieved through fruitfully connecting rationality with the Hahn-Banach Theorem. The theory presented here can be viewed as a formalization and extension of the betting odds approach to probability of Ramsey and De Finetti.
Epistemic Immodesty and Embodied Rationality
Giovanni Rolla
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on Pritchard's distinction (2012, 2016 between favoring and discriminating epistemic grounds, and on how those grounds bear on the elimination of skeptical possibilities, I present the dream argument as a moderate skeptical possibility that can be reasonably motivated. In order to block the dream argument skeptical conclusion, I present a version of phenomenological disjunctivism based on Noë's actionist account of perceptual consciousness (2012. This suggests that perceptual knowledge is rationally grounded because it is a form of embodied achievement - what I call embodied rationality -, which offers a way of dissolving the pseudo-problem of epistemic immodesty, namely, the seemingly counterintuitive thesis that one can acquire rationally grounded knowledge that one is not in a radical skeptical scenario.
Robie A Bombardelli
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.
Rational choice in field archaelology
Cătălin Pavel
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.
Jesica Formoso
2016-06-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La habilidad de estimar y discriminar cantidades es de aparición temprana en el desarrollo y previa a la adquisición de un sistema numérico simbólico. El rendimiento en tareas de discriminación está modulado por la razón numérica que diferencia los conjuntos, de forma tal que razones más pequeñas resultan en comparaciones más lentas y menos efectivas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la precisión y velocidad con que niños de 4 y 6 años discriminan entre dos cantidades en función de la razón numérica que las diferencia. Método: se administró una tarea de discriminación no simbólica de cantidades (ad hoc a 60 niños de 4 y 6 años de edad de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se realizó un ANOVA de diseño mixto para analizar la cantidad de aciertos y los tiempos de reacción (TR en función de la edad y la razón numérica que diferencia los conjuntos. Se utilizó la prueba de contraste de Bonferroni para detectar las diferencias en aciertos y TR entre cada razón. Resultados: (a Los niños de 6 años mostraron TR más pequeños y mayor cantidad de aciertos que los niños de 4 años. Esto sugiere que la discriminación de cantidades atraviesa un proceso de desarrollo evolutivo. (b Cuanto mayor fue la razón numérica en la diferenciación de los conjuntos, más efectiva fue la discriminación. Esto sugiere que la razón modula el rendimiento, independientemente de la edad del sujeto. ABSTRACT: The ability to estimate and discriminate quantities is of early onset in the development and prior to the acquisition of a symbolic numerical system. The performance on tasks of discrimination is modulated by the number ratio that differentiates the sets, so that smaller reasons result in slower and less effective comparisons. The objective of the present study is to analyze the precision and speed by which 4 and 6 year old children discriminate between two quantities based on the number ratio that
S. Rittidech
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A visualization study of the internal flow patterns of a closedloop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV at normal operating condition for several evaporator lengths (Le, and ratio of check valves to number of turns (Rcv has been conducted. This article describes the effects of varying Le, and Rcv on flow patterns. The CLOHP/CV used a Pyrex glass tube with inside diameter of 2.4 mm. The evaporator length of 50 and 150 mm. (the lengths of evaporator, adiabatic and condenser were equal were employed with 10 turns, with Rcv of 0.2 and 1. R123 was used as the working fluid with filling ratio of 50% of internal volume of tube. It was found that the internal flow patterns could be classified according to the Le and Rcv as follows: At the high heat source when the Le decreases the main flow changes from the bubble flow with slug flow to disperse bubble flow. The Rcv decreases the main flow changes from the disperse bubble flow with bubble flow to disperse bubble When the velocity of slug increases, the length of vapor bubbles rapidly decreases and the heat flux rapidly increases.
Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.
Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi
2002-01-01
Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Mental health as rational autonomy.
Edwards, R B
1981-08-01
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
Public policy, rationality and reason
Rodolfo Canto Sáenz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.
Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2011-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.
MOK Ngaiming
2008-01-01
In 1993,Tsai proved that a proper holomorphic mapping f : Ω→Ω' from an irreducible bounded symmetric domain Ω of rank ≥ 2 into a bounded symmetric domain Ω' is necessarily totally geodesic provided that r' : = rank(Ω') ≤ rank(Ω) := r,proving a conjecture of the author's motivated by Hermitian metric rigidity.As a first step in the proof,Tsai showed that df preserves almost everywhere the set of tangent vectors of rank 1.Identifying bounded symmetric domains as open subsets of their compact duals by means of the Borel embedding,this means that the germ of f at a general point preserves the varieties of minimal rational tangents (VMRTs).In another completely different direction Hwang-Mok established with very few exceptions the Cartan-Fubini extension priniciple for germs of local biholomorphisms between Fano manifolds of Picard num-ber 1,showing that the germ of map extends to a global biholomorphism provided that it preserves VMRTs.We propose to isolate the problem of characterization of special holomorphic embeddings between Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,especially in the case of classical manifolds such as ratio-nal homogeneous spaces of Picard number 1,by a non-equidimensional analogue of the Cartan-Fubini extension principle.As an illustration we show along this line that standard embeddings between com-plex Grassmahn manifolds of rank ≤ 2 can be characterized by the VMRT-preserving property and a non-degeneracy condition,giving a new proof of a result of Neretin's which on the one hand paves the way for far-reaching generalizations to the context of rational homogeneous spaces and more generally Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,on the other hand should be applicable to the study of proper holomorphic mappings between bounded domains carrying some form of geometric structures.
Jarvis, Frazer
2014-01-01
The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...
Optimal public rationing and price response.
Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert
2011-12-01
We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth.
Teaching Rational Decision-Making.
Woolever, Roberts
1978-01-01
Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)
Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions
Denny, J. K.
2012-01-01
Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.
Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.
Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest
That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…
Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.
Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.
1991-01-01
Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…
Yu. V. Zelenko
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose.The success of the traffic on the railways of Ukraine depends on the number and the operational fleet of electric locomotives. Today, the locomotive depot exploit physically and morally outdated locomotives that have low reliability. Modernization of electric locomotives is not economically justified. The aim of this study is to improve the safety of the traction rolling stock by the frequency analysis of dynamical systems, which allows conducting the calculation of the natural (of resonant frequencies of the design and related forms of vibrations.Methodology.The study was conducted by methods of analytical mechanics and mathematical modeling of operating loads of freight locomotive when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. The theoretical value of the work is the technique of choice of constructive schemes and rational parameters of perspective electric locomotive taking into account the electric inertia ratios and stiffness coefficients of Lagrange second-order equations.Findings. The problems of theoretical research and the development of a mathematical model of the spatial electric vibrations are solved. The theoretical studies of the effect of inertia ratios and stiffness coefficients on the dynamic values and the parameter values of electric locomotive undercarriages are presented.Originality.The set of developed regulations and obtained results is a practical solution to selecting rational parameters of bogies of the freight mainline locomotive for railways of Ukraine. A concept of choice of constructive scheme and rational parameters of perspective locomotive is formulated. It is developed the method of calculation of spatial electric locomotive oscillations to determine its dynamic performance. The software complex for processing the data of experimental studies of dynamic parameters of electric locomotive and comparing the results of the theoretical calculations with the data of full
Showalter, Timothy N.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Berger, Adam C.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Benson, Al B.; MacDonald, John S.; Willett, Christopher G.
2010-01-01
Purpose Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of RTOG 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR-ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR=1.06, p=0.001) and DFS (HR=1.05, p=0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15, were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n =142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR=1.01, p<0.0001) and DFS (HR=1.006, p=0.002). Conclusion In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques. PMID:20934270
Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Department of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Miriam Hospital, Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Benson, Al B. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); MacDonald, John S. [St. Vincent' s Cancer Care Center, New York, NY (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2011-12-01
Purpose: Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results: There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.06, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15 were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n = 142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.01, p < 0.0001) and DFS (HR = 1.006, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques.
Are investors rational, irrational or normal?
Md Al Mamun
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The nature of investor’s rationality vs. irrationality debate drawn attention of thousands of academic papers, hundreds of conferences, roundtables discussion leading to two ends: the classical theorist i.e. the proponents of efficient market hypothesis (EMH and the behaviorist. From Fisher’s (1906 Nature of Capital & Income to Ross (1977; investor’s rationality has been considered as the principal assumption in the development of theoretical finance. Unfortunately though, various studies have shown repeated form of investor’s irrationality and incompetence in their decision process. Even the very proponents of EMH, Fama (1965 has later on in 1993 advocated the lack of market efficiency! Indeed the story of black Monday in the USA to the global financial tsunami (2007-2012 has put the proponents of EMH into the cluelessness. While, the behaviorists argument that the financial markets can be best understood by studying the psychology is also subject to criticism that there will be no existence of standard models to study agent’s behavior in the market! Therefore, this study aims at finding out the true scenarios of investor’s behavior by working on 200 individual investors in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE. Investors’ response to different questions relating to fundamental assumption of “rationality’ or ‘presence of irrationality." The result shows a complete absence of the assumption of rationality or irrationality in number of critical issues. Therefore, the idea of EMH or mere psychologically driven behavioral finance should become less acknowledgeable in understanding the agents of financial market i.e. the investors. Rather a combination of these two may give more insight in understanding the investor’s behavior in the financial market.
Professor Stewart's incredible numbers
Stewart, Ian
2015-01-01
Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,
WAVELET RATIONAL FILTERS AND REGULARITY ANALYSIS
Zheng Kuang; Ming-gen Cui
2000-01-01
In this paper, we choose the trigonometric rational functions as wavelet filters and use them to derive various wavelets. Especially for a certain family of wavelets generated by the rational filters, the better smoothness results than Daubechies' are obtained.
Rationality, mental causation and social sciences
Mladenović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.
Construction of `Wachspress Type' Rational Basis Functions over Rectangles
P L Powar; S S Rana
2000-02-01
In the present paper, we have constructed rational basis functions of 0 class over rectangular elements with wider choice of denominator function. This construction yields additional number of interior nodes. Hence, extra nodal points and the flexibility of denominator function suggest better approximation.
Sierpinski and Carmichael Numbers
2013-01-16
appear. 31 [21] E. M. Matveev, ‘An explicit lower bound for a homogeneous rational linear form in logarithms of algebraic numbers. II,’ Izv. Ross. Akad...Math. Comp. 37 (1981), 587–593. [23] C. Pontreau, ‘A Mordell- Lang plus Bogomolov type result for curves in G2m,’ Monatsh. Math. 157 (2009), 267–281. [24
Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*
Clore, Gerald L.
2011-01-01
Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.
Kant on empiricism and rationalism
Vanzo, Alberto
2013-01-01
This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...
Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?
John-Michael Kuczynski
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue that this reasoning is entirely fallacious. It is true that, in some cases, a causal liason between subject and object is part of one’s concept of that object. Consequently, to grasp certain propositions, one must have certain kids of causal ties to one’s environment. But this means that we must rethink some old views on what rationality is. It does not mean, pace Davidson, that a precondition for being rational is being causally embedded in one’s environment in a certain way. If Tur-ing’s machine isn’t capable of thinking (I leave it open whether it is or is not, that has nothing to do with its lacking certain kinds of causal con-nections to the environment. The larger significance of our discussion is this: rationality consists either in one’s ability to see the bearing of purely existential propositions on one another or rationality is simply not to be understood as the ability see the bearing that propositions have on one another.
Rational approximation of vertical segments
Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
2007-08-01
In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c＞0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c＜0.
Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
2011-01-01
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Distribution theory of algebraic numbers
Yang, Chung-Chun
2008-01-01
The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.
DETERMINANTS OF RATIONAL-IRRATIONAL CONSUMPTION AND RESEARCH IN ISPARTA
Zafer YILDIZ
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Consumption means that depleting the product or service by using it. Each one has to consume to sustain their life. The increase in the number and diversity of goods and services that meet needs by emerging technology over time has brought with it the obligation to electing and decision-making while consuming them. People remain under the influence of many internal and external factors while consuming and they make consumption decisions under the same influences. In this case, the consumption moves away from rationality time to time. Internal and external factors affecting the consumer decisions and how they affect the consumption must be known to understand consumption is rational or not. This study was carried out for research the factors that caused the consumption is rational or irrational. The data were collected through face to face interviews from the sample group of 205 people in Isparta centrum. The obtained data were entered into SPSS software in an appropriate format and analyzes such as reliability, factor and correlation were performed. As a result of the analysis, the factors affecting the human's consumption rationality are divided into two groups as rational and irrational by the interpretation of findings. Also, information about consumption behaviors of the respondents has been reached by applying the Crosstab analysis to data.
Alizadeh, N
2001-01-01
A proton NMR method for the study of the effect hydrogen binding and determination of solvation numbers of alkaline earth cations with methanol (MeOH) in in tromethane (NM) as diluent is described. The method is based on monitoring the resonance frequency of MeOH protons as a function of MeOH to metal ion mole ratio at constant metal ion concentration. the average solvation number of cation, n, at any MeOH/ metal ion mole ration was calculated from the NMR chemical shift-mole ration data and was plotted against the mole ration values. The solvation numbers of alkaline earth cations were obtained from the limiting values of the corresponding n, vs. mole ratio plots.
Multi-Parameter Sampling for Rational Languages
Bodini, Olivier
2010-01-01
This paper addresses how to efficiently sample words from a rational language (over an alphabet of size $k$), while constraining every letter to a targeted frequencies of occurrence. Our approach consists in an extended -- multivariate -- version of the classical Boltzmann samplers \\cite{Duchon2004}. We prove that, under relatively weak hypotheses, our sampler returns a word of size in $[(1-\\epsilon)n, (1+\\epsilon)n]$ and exact frequency in $\\mathcal{O}(n^{1+k/2})$ expected time. Moreover, if we accept a tolerance interval of length in $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{n})$ for the number of occurrences of each letters, our sampler reaches an approximate-size generation of words in expected $\\mathcal{O}(n)$ time. We illustrate these techniques on the generation of perfect Tetris histories (Tesselations of a $w\\times h$ rectangle).
Rational choice theory and suicide.
Lester, D
1988-12-01
The implications of viewing the decision to kill oneself as a rational choice, based on an analysis of the costs and benefits, were explored. Suicide is but one symptom for an individual in distress to choose, and if suicide is prevented, other symptoms may appear in its place. Similarly, a critical question to be asked in suicide prevention is whether restriction of the availability of one method for suicide (such as detoxifying domestic gas or car exhaust) will result in suicidal individuals switching to a different method for suicide or to a different symptom of distress.
Identify Fractions and Decimals on a Number Line
Shaughnessy, Meghan M.
2011-01-01
Tasks that ask students to label rational number points on a number line are common not only in curricula in the upper elementary school grades but also on state assessments. Such tasks target foundational rational number concepts: A fraction (or a decimal) is more than a shaded part of an area, a part of a pizza, or a representation using…
Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory
Katalin Martinas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.
Rational approximations to fluid properties
Kincaid, J. M.
1990-05-01
The purpose of this report is to summarize some results that were presented at the Spring AIChE meeting in Orlando, Florida (20 March 1990). We report on recent attempts to develop a systematic method, based on the technique of rational approximation, for creating mathematical models of real-fluid equations of state and related properties. Equation-of-state models for real fluids are usually created by selecting a function tilde p(T,rho) that contains a set of parameters (gamma sub i); the (gamma sub i) is chosen such that tilde p(T,rho) provides a good fit to the experimental data. (Here p is the pressure, T the temperature and rho is the density). In most cases, a nonlinear least-squares numerical method is used to determine (gamma sub i). There are several drawbacks to this method: one has essentially to guess what tilde p(T,rho) should be; the critical region is seldom fit very well and nonlinear numerical methods are time consuming and sometimes not very stable. The rational approximation approach we describe may eliminate all of these drawbacks. In particular, it lets the data choose the function tilde p(T,rho) and its numerical implementation involves only linear algorithms.
Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)
2007-05-15
In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.
Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation
I.P Kompiang
1997-10-01
Full Text Available A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30% . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm. Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage for 4 weeks. Increasing the level of cassapro significantly reduced body weight gain (P < 0.005, increased feed conversion ratio (FCR (P < 0.0005 with no effect on feed intake (P < 0.10 . Halquinol supplementation has no effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain (P <0.05 and improved the FCR (P < 0.01 . It is concluded that high level of cassapro in the ration will cause poorer performance of the birds, however it can be alleviated by halquinolsupplementation.
Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha
2014-03-01
Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
Jiang, Caigui
2016-06-20
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without
Mehtap Sahingoz
2013-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they
Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.
1986-05-29
Yellen, J. (1985). Can small deviations from rationality make significant differences to economic equilibria? American Economic Review , 75, 708-720...theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon. American Economic Review , 69, 623-38. Hagen, 0. (1979). Towards a positive theory of preferences...Publishing Co. Haltiwanger, J. & Waldman, M. (1985). Rational expectations and the limits of rationality: An analysis of heterogeneity. American Economic Review , 75
Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks
Xiaoou, Liu
2009-01-01
This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.
Frequency Spectrum of Fluctuations Near a Rational Surface in a Toroidal Heliac
Zama, Tatsuya; Kitajima, Sumio; Takayama, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Nobunao; Watanabe, Hiroshige
1993-03-01
Density and space potential fluctuations have been studied in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) plasma of a helical axis stellarator TU Heliac using Langmuir probe techniques. These fluctuations are coherent and global, which can be explained by a drift instability model in cylindrical geometry. A particular fluctuation mode vanishes inside a rational surface. The ratio of this mode, n/m, corresponds to the rotational transform \\includegraphics{dummy.eps} of this rational surface, (m, n: poloidal, toroidal fluctuation modes, respectively). This phenomenon near the rational surface can also be explained by a drift instability theory.
The structure of bivariate rational hypergeometric functions
Cattani, Eduardo; Villegas, Fernando Rodriguez
2009-01-01
We describe the structure of all codimension-two lattice configurations $A$ which admit a stable rational $A$-hypergeometric function, that is a rational function $F$ all whose partial derivatives are non zero, and which is a solution of the $A$-hypergeometric system of partial differential equations defined by Gel'fand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky. We show, moreover, that all stable rational $A$-hypergeometric functions may be described by toric residues and apply our results to study the rationality of bivariate series whose coefficients are quotients of factorials of linear forms.
RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY
S. Marchev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.
Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents
Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles
Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.
Essays on Rational Portfolio Theory
Nielsen, Simon Ellersgaard
This dissertation is comprised of five research papers written during the period January 2013 -December 2015. Their abstracts are: The Fundamental Theorem of Derivative Trading. When estimated volatilities are not inperfect agreement with reality, delta hedged option portfolios will incur a non...... is proportional to volatility, we can deriveclosed form expressions for the optimal portfolio using the formalism of Hamilton-JacobixiiiBellman. We also perform an empirical investigation, which strongly suggests that there inreality are no tangible welfare gains associated with hedging stochastic volatility...... in a bondstockeconomy. Stochastic Volatility for Utility Maximisers Part II. Using martingale methods we derivebequest optimising portfolio weights for a rational investor who trades in a bond-stockderivativeeconomy characterised by a generic stochastic volatility model. For illustrativepurposes we then proceed...
Kalberg, Stephen
1980-01-01
Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)
A Mixed Integer Programming Poultry Feed Ration Optimisation Problem Using the Bat Algorithm
Godfrey Chagwiza
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a feed ration problem is presented as a mixed integer programming problem. An attempt to find the optimal quantities of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration was done and the problem was solved using the Bat algorithm and the Cplex solver. The study used findings of previous research to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera inclusion in poultry feed ration. The results show that the farmer is likely to gain US$0.89 more if Moringa oleifera is included in the feed ration. Results also show superiority of the Bat algorithm in terms of execution time and number of iterations required to find the optimum solution as compared with the results obtained by the Cplex solver. Results revealed that there is a significant economic benefit of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration.
The Motivation for the Conversation——Rationality
刘蕾
2005-01-01
In 1957, Grice suggested the theory of meaning-nn as atheory of communication. Later, he developed Cooperative Prin ciple(CP) as guidelines for the efficient and effective use of language in conversation. Some philosophers and linguists try to develop and modify the Grice's Cooperative Principle or attempt to challenge the validity of this and suggest some other principles.However, very few try to explore the driving force behind conversation. What is the mechanism underlying the use of a sentence to convey extra meaning.? After a more detailed examination of Grice's work on philosophy and language, we discover that the importance of rationality is shown throughout his work. Therefore we can conclude that ratio nality, not the cooperation, is the real motivation, though Grice invents the Cooperative Principle.Cooperation is the realization of rationality applied at the level of discourse.
The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Velten, Emmett
1996-01-01
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Velten, Emmett
1996-01-01
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics
Brown, Tony
2016-01-01
This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…
Linear parameter estimation of rational biokinetic functions
Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.
2009-01-01
For rational biokinetic functions such as the Michaelis-Menten equation, in general, a nonlinear least-squares method is a good estimator. However, a major drawback of a nonlinear least-squares estimator is that it can end up in a local minimum. Rearranging and linearizing rational biokinetic
曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏
2001-01-01
We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.
Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market
Raahauge, Peter
2003-01-01
for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...
Is facet analysis based on rationalism?
Hjørland, Birger
2014-01-01
, rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...
Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment
Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis
2015-01-01
This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…
The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment
Tillson, John
2017-01-01
How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…
Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.
Peterson, Steven A.
Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…
Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics
Brown, Tony
2016-01-01
This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…
Rationality : a social-epistemology perspective
Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E. P.; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an “individualistic” perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In pr
MOK; Ngaiming
2008-01-01
In 1993,Tsal proved that a proper holomorphic mapping f:Ω→Ω’ from an irreducible bounded symmetric domainΩof rank≥2 into a bounded symmetric domainΩ’ is necessarily totally geodesic provided that r’:=rank(Ω’)≤rank(Ω):= r,proving a conjecture of the author’s motivated by Hermitian metric rigidity.As a first step in the proof,Tsai showed that df preserves almost everywhere the set of tangent vectors of rank 1.Identifying bounded symmetric domains as open subsets of their compact duals by means of the Borel embedding,this means that the germ of f at a general point preserves the varieties of minimal rational tangents(VMRTs). In another completely different direction Hwang-Mok established with very few exceptions the Cartan- Fubini extension priniciple for germs of local biholomorphisms between Fano manifolds of Picard num- ber 1,showing that the germ of map extends to a global biholomorphism provided that it preserves VMRTs.We propose to isolate the problem of characterization of special holomorphic embeddings between Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,especially in the case of classical manifolds such as ratio- nal homogeneous spaces of Picard number 1,by a non-equidimensional analogue of the Cartan-Fubini extension principle.As an illustration we show along this line that standard embeddings between com- plex Grassmann manifolds of rank≤2 can be characterized by the VMRT-preserving property and a non-degeneracy condition,giving a new proof of a result of Neretin’s which on the one hand paves the way for far-reaching generalizations to the context of rational homogeneous spaces and more generally Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,on the other hand should be applicable to the study of proper holomorphic mappings between bounded domains carrying some form of geometric structures.
Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras
Toppan, F
1994-01-01
Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.
GILSON ON THE RATIONALITY OF CHRISTIAN BELIEF
CURTIS L. HANCOCK
2012-12-01
, showing how moral understanding must transcend Pharisaical legalism. Additionally, Jesus’ native philosophical power shows in his ability to explain away doctrinal confusions and to expose sophistical traps set by his enemies. If fideism is unconvincing, and if the great examples of the Patristics, the Apostles, and Jesus himself show an affinity for philosophy, then it is necessary to conclude that Christianity is a rational religion. Accordingly, the history of Christian culture is arguably an adventure in faith and reason. Since God is truth and the author of all truths, there is nothing in reality that is incompatible with Christian teaching. As John Paul II explains effectively in the encyclical, Fides et Ratio, Christianity is a religion that is rational and can defend itself. This ability to marshal a defense makes Christianity a religion for all seasons.
Rationality, institutions and environmental policy
Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)
2005-11-01
This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.
[RATIONAL ASPECTS OF BACTERIOPHAGES USE].
Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F
2015-01-01
Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).
Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under uncertainty
Sibasis Bandyopadhyay; Swapan Raha; Prasun Kumar Nayak
2015-06-01
In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influenced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval numbers. A multisection technique has been applied to obtain a rational solution. In the process, it has been found that the degree of satisfaction of the rational players converges to its optimum value with the convergence of the iterations. A comparative study has been made with methods existing in the literature.
Senior doctors' opinions of rational suicide.
Ginn, Stephen; Price, Annabel; Rayner, Lauren; Owen, Gareth S; Hayes, Richard D; Hotopf, Matthew; Lee, William
2011-12-01
The attitudes of medical professionals towards physician assisted dying have been widely discussed. Less explored is the level of agreement among physicians on the possibility of 'rational suicide'-a considered suicide act made by a sound mind and a precondition of assisted dying legislation. To assess attitudes towards rational suicide in a representative sample of senior doctors in England and Wales. A postal survey was conducted of 1000 consultants and general practitioners randomly selected from a commercially available database. The main outcome of interest was level of agreement with a statement about rational suicide. The corrected participation rate was 50%; 363 questionnaires were analysed. Overall 72% of doctors agreed with the possibility of rational suicide, 17% disagreed, and 11% were neutral. Doctors who identified themselves as being more religious were more likely to disagree. Some doctors who disagreed with legalisation of physician assisted suicide nevertheless agreed with the concept of rational suicide. Most senior doctors in England and Wales feel that rational suicide is possible. There was no association with specialty. Strong religious belief was associated with disagreement, although levels of agreement were still high in people reporting the strongest religious belief. Most doctors who were opposed to physician assisted suicide believed that rational suicide was possible, suggesting that some medical opposition is best explained by other factors such as concerns of assessment and protection of vulnerable patients.
The rationality of round Interpretation
H. Bastiaanse
2009-01-01
Expanding on a point made by Krifka [6, p.7-8], we show that the fact that a round number has been used significantly increases the posterior probability that that number was intended as an approximation. This increase should typically be enough to make assuming that an approximation was indeed inte
X Q Jia
2015-01-01
Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that NR of positive to excised nodes, but not number of positive lymph nodes is better to predict group to avoid chemotherapy among postmenopausal ER-positive, lymph node-positive T1-T2 breast cancer patients.
Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games
Youssouf Oualhadj
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.
COMPUTATION OF VECTOR VALUED BLENDING RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
檀结庆
2003-01-01
As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline
Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice......Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...
Height Estimates for Equidimensional Dominant Rational Maps
Silverman, Joseph H
2009-01-01
Let F : W --> V be a dominant rational map between quasi-projective varieties of the same dimension. We give two proofs that h_V(F(P)) >> h_W(P) for all points P in a nonempty Zariski open subset of W. For dominant rational maps F : P^n --> P^n, we give a uniform estimate in which the implied constant depends only on n and the degree of F. As an application, we prove a specialization theorem for equidimensional dominant rational maps to semiabelian varieties, providing a complement to Habegger's recent theorem on unlikely intersections.
Stability and convergence of a higher order rational difference Equation
Gazor, Hamid
2011-01-01
In this paper the asymptotic stability of equilibria and periodic points of the following higher order rational difference Equation x_{n+1} =(alpha x_{n-k})/(1+x_{n}...x_{n-k}), k>=1, n=0,1,... is studied where the parameters ?alpha, betta, and gamma are positive real numbers, and the initial conditions x_{-k}, ..., x_{0} are given arbitrary real numbers. The forbidden set of this equation is found and then, the order reduction method is used to facilitate the analysis of its asymptotic dynamics
Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.
Jay Chok
Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.
Rationing health care--should it be done?
Perrin, K
1989-09-01
1. The utilitarian view supports allocation of goods to meet the needs of the greatest number of people; Lamm contends that the only just rationing would be according to age. 2. Some theorists assume that all individuals will live relatively healthily until the end of their natural lifespan; they do not distinguish between therapeutic medications and those that alleviate suffering. 3. According to intergenerational arguments, children should receive priority in funding, with the elderly at the lower end of the scale. 4. The Advisory Panel of the Office of Technology Assessment recommends rationing based on prognosis and quality of life; however, good prognostic skills are lacking and there is no consensus on quality of life.
A General Theory of Computational Scalability Based on Rational Functions
Gunther, Neil J
2008-01-01
The universal scalability law (USL) of computational capacity is a rational function C_p = P(p)/Q(p) with P(p) a linear polynomial and Q(p) a second-degree polynomial in the number of physical processors p, that has long been used for statistical modeling and prediction of computer system performance. We prove that C_p is equivalent to the synchronous throughput bound for a machine-repairman with state-dependent service rate. Simpler rational functions, such as Amdahl's law and Gustafson speedup, are corollaries of this queue-theoretic bound. C_p is both necessary and sufficient for modeling all practical characteristics of computational scalability.
Rationality of trace and norm L-functions
Rojas-León, Antonio
2010-01-01
For a given l-adic sheaf F on the affine line A^1 over a finite field k (respectively on the torus G_m) and an positive integer r we define the r-th local trace L-function of F at a point t of k (resp. its local norm L-function at a non-zero t in k) and prove its rationality. This function gives information on the sum of the local Frobenius traces of F over the points of k_r (the extension of degree r of k) with trace t (resp. with norm t). These sums can in turn be used to estimate the number of rational points on curves or the absolute value of exponential sums which are invariant under a large group of translations or homotheties.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
A Theory of Rational Junk-Food Consumption
Levy, Amnon
2002-01-01
An expected lifetime-utility maximizing diet of junk and health food is analyzed. The stationary junk-food consumption level is equal to the ratio of the recovery capacity of a perfectly healthy person to the sensitivity of her health to junk food. The greater the difference between the relative taste and the stationary relative price of junk food, rate of time preference, and elasticity of satisfaction from food, the better the stationary health of the rational junk-food consumer. The greate...
On rational solution of the state equation of a finite automaton
R. Chaudhuri
1988-01-01
Full Text Available We prove that the necessary and sufficient condition for the state equation of a finite automaton M to have a rational solution is that the lexicographical Gödel numbers of the strings belonging to each of the end-sets of M form an ultimately periodic set. A method of determining the existence of a rational solution of the state equation is also given.
Holomorphic Cartan geometries and rational curves
Biswas, Indranil
2010-01-01
We prove that any compact K\\"ahler manifold bearing a holomorphic Cartan geometry contains a rational curve just when the Cartan geometry is inherited from a holomorphic Cartan geometry on a lower dimensional compact K\\"ahler manifold.
Beyond rationality : Counterfactual thinking and behavior regulation
Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
2007-01-01
Counterfactual thinking may be described as disciplined realistic, and rational, but we move a step further to describe a theoretical perspective centering on behavior regulation. According to this perspective, counterfactual thinking primarily centers on coordination of ongoing behavior. In short,
Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science
Danny Frederick
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.
Is crime in Turkey economically rational?
2014-01-01
The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...
Multinode rational operators for univariate interpolation
Dell'Accio, Francesco; Di Tommaso, Filomena; Hormann, Kai
2016-10-01
Birkhoff (or lacunary) interpolation is an extension of polynomial interpolation that appears when observation gives irregular information about function and its derivatives. A Birkhoff interpolation problem is not always solvable even in the appropriate polynomial or rational space. In this talk we split up the initial problem in subproblems having a unique polynomial solution and use multinode rational basis functions in order to obtain a global interpolant.
2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters
M Shrivastava; J Joseph
2000-08-01
In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.
Is crime in Turkey economically rational?
Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Zeren, Fatma; Ari, Ayse
2014-01-01
The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...
Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features
Dryden, Windy
2008-01-01
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...
Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making
Marwala, Tshilidzi
2014-01-01
Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Integral Models of Extremal Rational Elliptic Surfaces
Jarvis, Tyler J; Ricks, Jeremy R
2009-01-01
Miranda and Persson classified all extremal rational elliptic surfaces in characteristic zero. We show that each surface in Miranda and Persson's classification has an integral model with good reduction everywhere (except for those of type X_{11}(j), which is an exceptional case), and that every extremal rational elliptic surface over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0 can be obtained by reducing one of these integral models mod p.
Rational emotive behavior therapy: disputing irrational philosophies.
Sacks, Susan Bendersky
2004-05-01
This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.
Municipal management cooperation : managing multiple rationalities
Holmberg, Leif
2010-01-01
Multiple rationality organizations are characterized by the simultaneously incorporation of different kinds of logic and control systems. They have to provide not only for efficiency but also to comply with e.g. ideal of fairness, sportsmanship, equal rights, and aesthetic values. Elite sport clubs, theatres, and several municipality activities are examples of organizations that have to cope with multiple rationalities. These organizations are often governed through a combination of politica...
Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.
Vicente Martínez-Tur
Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín
2014-01-01
The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments
1978-12-01
Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)
Onstad, Torgeir
1991-01-01
After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)
CAO Jun-Peng; HOU Bo-Yu; YUE Rui-Hong
2001-01-01
The Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are constructed based on the nonrelativistic limit of the SU(3) chain. After the quantum determinant being well defined, the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are given. These results can be generalized to any number of constituting spins (SU( N) ).
无
2001-01-01
The Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are constructed based on the nonrelativistic limit of the SU(3) chain.After the quantum determinant being well defined,the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Geudin model are given.These results can be generalized to any number of constituting spins (SU(N)).
Rationally Dealing with Test Anxiety.
Rogers, George W., Jr.
Test anxiety is a common problem manifested by many college students. The Testing and Psychological Services Center at Northern Kentucky University sees a number of such students each semester. The possible causes of test anxiety are frequently the illogical or unrealistic demands that some students place on themselves. The methods of treatment…
Market equilibria under procedural rationality
Anufriev, M.; Bottazzi, G.
2010-01-01
We analyze the endogenous price formation mechanism of a pure exchange economy with two assets, riskless and risky. The economy is populated by an arbitrarily large number of traders whose investment choices are described by means of generic smooth functions of past realizations. These choices can
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation
1999-12-01
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
Verifiable Rational Secret Sharing Scheme in Mobile Networks
En Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the development of mobile network, lots of people now have access to mobile phones and the mobile networks give users ubiquitous connectivity. However, smart phones and tablets are poor in computational resources such as memory size, processor speed, and disk capacity. So far, all existing rational secret sharing schemes cannot be suitable for mobile networks. In this paper, we propose a verifiable rational secret sharing scheme in mobile networks. The scheme provides a noninteractively verifiable proof for the correctness of participants’ share and handshake protocol is not necessary; there is no need for certificate generation, propagation, and storage in the scheme, which is more suitable for devices with limited size and processing power; in the scheme, every participant uses her encryption on number of each round as the secret share and the dealer does not have to distribute any secret share; every participant cannot gain more by deviating the protocol, so rational participant has an incentive to abide by the protocol; finally, every participant can obtain the secret fairly (means that either everyone receives the secret, or else no one does in mobile networks. The scheme is coalition-resilient and the security of our scheme relies on a computational assumption.
Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers.
Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun
2014-01-07
We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller's optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product's user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a "stubborn" expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice.
From Whole Numbers to Invert and Multiply
Cavey, Laurie O.; Kinzel, Margaret T.
2014-01-01
Teachers report that engaging students in solving contextual problems is an important part of supporting student understanding of algorithms for fraction division. Meaning for whole-number operations is a crucial part of making sense of contextual problems involving rational numbers. The authors present a developed instructional sequence to…
Ufnarovski, Victor; Ahlander, Bo
2003-09-01
We define the derivative of an integer to be the map sending every prime to 1 and satisfying the Leibnitz rule. The aim of the article is to consider the basic properties of this map and to show how to generalize the notion to the case of rational and arbitrary real numbers. We make some conjectures and find some connections with Goldbach's Conjecture and the Twin Prime Conjecture. Finally, we solve the easiest associated differential equations and calculate the generating function.
Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
2016-01-01
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...
Bending energetics of tablet-shaped micelles: a novel approach to rationalize micellar systems.
Bergström, L Magnus
2007-02-19
A novel approach to rationalize micellar systems is expounded in which the structural behavior of tablet-shaped micelles is theoretically investigated as a function of the three bending elasticity constants: spontaneous curvature (H0), bending rigidity (k(c)), and saddle-splay constant (k(c)). As a result, experimentally accessible micellar properties, such as aggregation number, length-to-width ratio, and polydispersity, may be related to the different bending elasticity constants. It is demonstrated that discrete micelles or connected cylinders form when H0 > 1/4xi, where xi is the thickness of a surfactant monolayer, whereas various bilayer structures are expected to predominate when H0 bending rigidity is lowered, approaching the critical point at k(c) = 0, whereas monodisperse globular micelles (small length-to-width ratio) are expected to be present at large k(c) values. The spontaneous curvature mainly determines the width of tablet-shaped or ribbonlike micelles, or the radius of disklike micelles, whereas the saddle-splay constant primarily influences the size but not the shape of the micelles.
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Cosmin Toth
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.
Number names and number understanding
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
D.Th. Younis
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the effect of ration wetting with water contained mixture of probiotic, Potassium chloride and Vitamin C in productive and some physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature. Four hundred unsexed quails (one day old on litter in semi opened house. Proper environmental condition was available and the house minimum and maximum temperature was about 25-40C. Birds distributed randomly into four treatments each with four replicate (25 birds/ replicate.Two rations. Starter and finisher were used and water and diets were supplemented ad libitum until age of marketing (42 days.The experimental treatments were as follow: T1 reared on standard ration (control without wetting T2, T3 and T4 ration supplemented with 25, 50 and 75 ml water contains mixture of 6 gram probiotic, 3 mg potassium chloride and 150 mg Vit. C/kg ration, respectively at the time of feeding. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant increase in live body weight, weight gain of birds fed wetted ration compared with control and significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in T4 and no significant differences between treatments in feed consumption, dressing percentage, mortality rate, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, liver glycogen concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and a significant decrease in serum glucose, glycogen concentration in heart tissue and ALT, AST concentration.
Birzvalk, Yu.
1978-01-01
The shunting ratio and the local shunting ratio, pertaining to currents induced by a magnetic field in a flow channel, are properly defined and systematically reviewed on the basis of the Lagrange criterion. Their definition is based on the energy balance and related to dimensionless parameters characterizing an MHD flow, these parameters evolving from the Hartmann number and the hydrodynamic Reynolds number as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, and the Lundquist number. These shunting ratios, of current density in the core of a stream (uniform) or equivalent mean current density to the short-circuit (maximum) current density, are given here for a slot channel with nonconducting or conducting walls, for a conduction channel with heavy side rails, and for an MHD-flow around bodies. 5 references, 1 figure.
On computing closed forms for summations. [polynomials and rational functions
Moenck, R.
1977-01-01
The problem of finding closed forms for a summation involving polynomials and rational functions is considered. A method closely related to Hermite's method for integration of rational functions derived. The method expresses the sum of a rational function as a rational function part and a transcendental part involving derivatives of the gamma function.
Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.
Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie
1988-01-01
Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)
Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game
Jan Fiala
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.
Rational drug design applied to myeloperoxidase inhibition.
Van Antwerpen, P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K
2015-06-01
Rational drug design is a general approach using protein-structure technique in which the discovery of a ligand can be driven either by chance, screening, or rational theory. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was rapidly identified as a therapeutical target because of its involvement in chronic inflammatory syndromes. In this context, the research of MPO inhibitors was intensified and development of new chemical entities was rationally driven by the research of ligands that enter into the MPO catalytic pocket. Actually, as soon as crystallography data of MPO have become available and its structure was virtually designed, the rational drug design has been applied to this peroxidase. Pharmaceutical industries and academic laboratories apply rational drug design on MPO by either optimizing known inhibitors or searching new molecules by high-throughput virtual screening. By these ways, they were able to find efficient MPO inhibitors and understand their interactions with the enzyme. During this quest of MPO inhibition, it appears that Glu268 is a crucial residue in order to optimize ligand-target interaction. This amino acid should be carefully considered by medicinal chemist when they design inhibitors interfering with MPO activity.
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Oligopolistic Banks, Bounded Rationality, and the Credit Cycle
Tobias F. Rötheli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies how boundedly rational default expectations affect the credit cycle. I propose a simple model of oligopolistic bank competition which serves to compare situations with just a portion of boundedly rational banks to situations where either all banks are rational or all banks are boundedly rational. When all banks are boundedly rational, the credit cycle is most amplified relative to the situation where all banks are rational. However, the amplifying effect of bounded rationality on the side of banks largely remains even when only a portion of banks are boundedly rational. Hence, the interest rate decisions of a minority of boundedly rational banks induce the more rational competitors to aggravate the credit cycle.
IDENTITIES INVOLVING RATIONAL SUMS BY INVERSION AND PARTIAL FRACTION DECOMPOSITION
Helmut Prodinger
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Identities appearing recentlyin: {sc J. L. D'{i}az-Barrero, J. Gibergans-B'agu-ena, P. G. Popescu:}{it Some identities involving rational sums}. Appl. Anal. Discrete Math., {f 1} (2007, 397--402, aretreated by inverting them; the resulting sums areevaluated using partial fraction decomposition, following{sc Wenchang Chu:} {it A binomial coefficient identity associated with {B}eukers' conjectureon {A}p'ery numbers.} Electron. J. Combin., {f 11} (1: Note 15, 3 pp. (electronic, 2004.This approach produces a general formula, not only special cases.
Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing
Gábor Orosz
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Conspiracy theory (CT beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813: exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.
Decision Making: Between Rationality and Reality
Marko Polič
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.
Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view
Radonjić Ognjen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.
Direct Extraction of One Loop Rational Terms
Badger, S D
2009-01-01
We present a method for the direct extraction of rational contributions to one-loop scattering amplitudes, missed by standard four-dimensional unitarity techniques. Working in D=4-2*epsilon dimensions, we interpret the dependence on the additional dimensions as equivalent to introducing an internal mass. We combine this with the use of generalised unitarity to write the loop amplitudes in terms of products of massive tree amplitudes. We find that the rational terms in 4-2*epsilon dimensions can be determined from quadruple, triple and double cuts without the need for independent pentagon contributions using a massive integral basis. The additional mass-dependent integral coefficients may then be extracted analytically or numerically using discrete Fourier projections. We check the method by computing the rational parts of all gluon helicity amplitudes with up to six external legs.
A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.
Kerbel, Sandra Sandor
1982-01-01
Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)
Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?
何满辉; 梁明秋
2008-01-01
By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.
[The role of economics in fair rationing].
Prenzler, A
2012-10-01
For several years academic disciplines have discussed the potential conflict between scarcity of funding and fair health care. This review article shows the necessity of involving economic scientists in this discussion as well as their contribution to rationalisation, prioritisation and rationing of health care services. Thereby, it becomes clear that rationing and justice are not a contradiction per se. The interdisciplinary discussion in Germany needs less disciplinary egotism and more willingness to seek solutions and compromises. In this context the procedures followed in other countries can serve as examples.
Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.
Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I
2004-05-01
The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing.
Topological Field Theory and Rational Curves
Aspinwall, Paul S; Aspinwall, Paul S.; Morrison, David R.
1993-01-01
We analyze the superstring propagating on a Calabi-Yau threefold. This theory naturally leads to the consideration of Witten's topological non-linear sigma-model and the structure of rational curves on the Calabi-Yau manifold. We study in detail the case of the world-sheet of the string being mapped to a multiple cover of an isolated rational curve and we show that a natural compactification of the moduli space of such a multiple cover leads to a formula in agreement with a conjecture by Candelas, de la Ossa, Green and Parkes.
Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture
Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak
This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...
Rationality: A Social-Epistemology Perspective
Sylvia eWenmackers
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an 'individualistic' perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm
Clark, M A
2006-01-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm
Clark, Michael
2006-12-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors
Yarmoluk S. M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.
Rational homotopy theory and differential forms
Griffiths, Phillip
2013-01-01
This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented. New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu
Planas Vilà, Mercedes
2014-01-01
The current economic situation is the reason for this conference that will be split in two main areas: first, we will focus on general concepts on rationalizing versus rationing in health care, and secondly, on rationing in the practice of clinical nutrition. According to the Spanish Royal Academy of the Language, to rationalize is to organize the production or the work in a manner such the yields are increased or the costs are reduced with the least effort. However, to ration is the action and effect of rationing or limiting the consumption of something to prevent negative consequences. In Europe, the percentage of the Gross National Product dedicated to health care progressively decreases whereas the costs of health care are ever increasing. From the economic viewpoint, this would be the main reason why the health care authorities have no other option but rationing. Until what extent the ethical principle of justice is compatible with rationing? Ethically, it seems that in order to accept rationing, not only a fair distribution of the limited resources should be achieved, but also a rational use of them. If we accept that limiting the health care allowances is necessary, we should then answer some questions: is it ethical not to limit? Who decides what is medically necessary? How is it decided? With no coherent answers to these questions it is ethically difficult to accept rationing from a healthcare viewpoint. When dealing with rationing in the practice of clinical nutrition, we should focus on how rationing impacts on hyponutrition, and more particularly on disease-related hyponutrition, since this is the focus of Clinical Nutrition. Given its importance and its implications, in several countries, including Spain, actions integrated in the European Union strategy "Together for health: a Strategic Approach for the EU 2008-2013", are being performed aimed at taking decisions for preventing and managing hyponutrition. However, restrictions persist with the
Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-07-15
We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)
无
2004-01-01
THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Phillip M. Ligrani
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection
Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.
2015-01-01
We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We gi
MINIMAL RATIONAL INTERPOLATION AND PRONYS METHOD
ANTOULAS, AC; WILLEMS, JC
1990-01-01
A new method is proposed for dealing with the rational interpolation problem. It is based on the reachability of an appropriately defined pair of matrices. This method permits a complete clarification of several issues raised, but not answered, by the so-called Prony method of fitting a linear model
Rational bargaining in games with coalitional externalities
Borm, Peter; Ju, Y.; Wettstein, D.
This paper provides a flexible strategic framework to analyze bargaining and values in environments with coalitional externalities. Within this framework we propose a new value that extends the Shapley value to partition function form games, the so-called Rational Belief Shapley (RBS) value. We
Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues
Warren, Jeffrey M.
2011-01-01
Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…
Dr. Strangelove and Irrational Collective Rationality
韩蕾
2012-01-01
Dr. Strangelove or: How I learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 black comedy film with satire of arm races and nuclear scare by the director Stanley Kubrick. In the movie, irrational practice and ideologies manifest them⁃selves as collective rationality and result in the destruction of the earth.
Hietarinta, Jarmo; Hietarinta, Jarmo; Kajiwara, Kenji
1997-01-01
We study the rational solutions of the discrete version of Painleve's fourth equation d-PIV. The solutions are generated by applying Schlesinger transformations on the seed solutions -2z and -1/z. After studying the structure of these solutions we are able to write them in a determinantal form that includes an interesting parameter shift that vanishes in the continuous limit.
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Rational Voters in a Partisanship Model
O.H. Swank (Otto)
1995-01-01
textabstractThis paper examines a voter model for the US which is interconnected with the partisan theory. In our model, voters are rational and forward-looking. They are perfectly informed about the preferences of political parties and about the state of the economy. The predictions of our voter mo
CONSTRAINED RATIONAL CUBIC SPLINE AND ITS APPLICATION
Qi Duan; Huan-ling Zhang; Xiang Lai; Nan Xie; Fu-hua (Frank) Cheng
2001-01-01
In this paper, a kind of rational cubic interpolation functionwith linear denominator is constructed. The constrained interpolation with constraint on shape of the interpolating curves and on the second-order derivative of the interpolating function is studied by using this interpolation, and as the consequent result, the convex interpolation conditions have been derived.
Robust identification for rational fractional transfer functions
王书宁
1997-01-01
An algorithm is proposed for robust identification of a rational fractional transfer function with a fixed degree under the framework of worst-case/deterministic robust identification. The convergence of the algorithm is proven. Its feasibility is shown with a numerical example.
Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing
Saeed Asadi Bagloee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.
Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies
Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri
This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
Matt Ridley
2012-05-01
Full Text Available There is much debate about the state of the world. Matt Ridley argues in The Rational Optimist that we can solve problems such as economic crashes,population explosions, climate change and terrorism, of poverty, AIDS, depression and obesity. His trust of capitalism and progress is examined and challenged in this book review.
An Appraisal of Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Haaga, David A. F.; Davison, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
Scrutinizes rational-emotive therapy (RET) on conceptual and empirical grounds, including its reliance on constructive assessment and ethical stance. Notes that, although metanalytic reviews provide support for general utility of RET, more qualitative reviews question internal and external validity of much of published research. Notes that process…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique
Morris, G. Barry
1976-01-01
The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of "existentialism." (KRP)
Reflections on Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Ellis, Albert
1993-01-01
Reflects rational-emotive therapy (RET) in 1955 and discusses some of its recent constructivist and humanist theories and practice. Distinguishes between general RET, called synonymous with general cognitive-behavioral therapy, from preferential RET, called unique kind of cognitive therapy that partially overlaps with general cognitive-behavioral…
Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.
Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.
1981-01-01
To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)
Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols (II)
Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr
2008-09-26
In this paper we derive a formula for the rank of the self-commutator of hyponormal block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) via the classical Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.
Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols
Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr
2008-05-09
In this paper we show that the hyponormality of block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) is completely determined by the tangential Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.
Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols
Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier
This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...
Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning
Chater, Nick
2009-01-01
This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…
Rationality and its limits in Arianism
Birjukov, Dmitry
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Having considered certain recurrent issues, such as the idea of comprehensibility of God and apopahtic theology, Dmitry Birjukov (Russian Christian Academy, St. Petersburg looks at the rational tendencies in Arianism and, on the basis of available data, shows how from Arius and Asterius to the Neo-Arians the rationalist tendencies in theology gradually increase while apophatic element virtually disappears.
Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.
McCallum, Bennett T.
1994-01-01
Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)
A characterization of quasi-rational polygons
Bedaride, Nicolas
2012-11-01
The aim of this paper is to study quasi-rational polygons related to the outer billiard. We compare different notions introduced in Gutkin and Simányi (1992 Commun. Math. Phys. 143 431-49) and Schwartz (2009 Outer Billiards on Kites (Annals of Mathematics Studies vol 171) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press)) and make a synthesis of them.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
2001-01-01
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.
Watts, Richard E.
1996-01-01
Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)
[Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].
Havlícek, J
1993-11-08
Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.
Viagra: : A success story for rationing?
Klein, R.; Sturm, H.
2002-01-01
The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing strate
Isomorphism, Homogeneity, and Rationalism in University Retrenchment.
Gates, Gordon S.
1997-01-01
Describes the process of retrenchment at a medium-sized state university (pseudonyms used) for the purpose of analyzing the isomorphic pressures (mimetic, coercive, normative) surfacing during the process and the role played by rationalism in decision-making. Draws on the literature of organizational theory and change, and makes comparisons with…
Disability and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).
Gandy, Gerald L.
This article provides information on how Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) can be adapted for use in rehabilitation counseling. It states that although clients with an average range of intelligence have responded well to REBT, clients with borderline intellectual functioning are not suitable candidates for cognitive disputing but can be…
Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
2001-01-01
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.
Watts, Richard E.
1996-01-01
Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...
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Heckman Probit Model with sample selection was used to estimate the ... is organized as follows: section 2 presents the detailed research problem, ... and joint ventures). .... It is at quantity- rationing stage that the bank fine tunes the loan contract ... This implies that firms with a lot of intangible assets, which are difficult to.
Rationing in the presence of baselines
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2013-01-01
We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...
Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
2016-01-01
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...
A note on generators of number fields
Vaaler, Jeffrey D
2012-01-01
We establish upper bounds for the smallest height of a generator of a number field $k$ over the rational field $\\Q$. Our first bound applies to all number fields $k$ having at least one real embedding. We also give a second conditional result for all number fields $k$ such that the Dedekind zeta-function associated to the Galois closure of $k/\\Q$ satisfies GRH. This provides a partial answer to a question of W. Ruppert.
Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.
Azanza, Maria Patricia V
2003-05-01
Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.
Murty, M Ram
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.
Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties
Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri
2015-01-01
This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
Galbraith, Mary J.
1974-01-01
Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)
Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration
Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.H.C., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-07-01
The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)
实践理性辨析%Rational Practice:Discussion Praclice:Rational Discussion
王炳书
2001-01-01
The problem of the rationalities of practice in not only the necessary theoretical content included by the Marxist philosophy,but also a significant task of the present practice.This dissertation,by analysis of the inner relation between practice and rationality and comparison between rationalities of practice and rationalities of theory,is going to throw some light on the innate character and distiguish features of rationalities of practice and basic form of rationalities of practice.%实践理性问题既是马克思主义哲学中必然蕴含着的理论内容，更是当代实践提出的重大课题。实践是理性的真实之所，理性是实践的重要特征，因此,必须从实践与理性的内在结合中揭示实践理性的本质，从实践理性与理论理性的比较与对照中揭示实践理性的特点，从人与世界的关系中探寻实践理性的基本形式。
Binomial Squares in Pure Cubic Number Fields
Lemmermeyer, Franz
2011-01-01
Let K = Q(\\omega) with \\omega^3 = m be a pure cubic number field. We show that the elements\\alpha \\in K^\\times whose squares have the form a - \\omega form a group isomorphic to the group of rational points on the elliptic curve E_m: y^2= x^3 - m.
Van Hoof, Jo; Lijnen, Tristan; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim
2013-01-01
Rational numbers and particularly fractions are difficult for students. It is often claimed that the "natural number bias" underlies erroneous reasoning about rational numbers. This cross-sectional study investigated the natural number bias in first and fifth year secondary school students. Relying on dual process theory assumptions that…
Development of the Rational Behavior Inventory: Initial Validity and Reliability
Shorkey, Clayton T.; Whiteman, Victor L.
1977-01-01
The results of initial validity and reliability studies on the Rational Behavior Inventory are presented. The instrument was developed to be used for assessment, treatment planning, and evaluation of clients by counselors who use Rational Emotive Therapy. (Author/JKS)
Rationality and Organization: the Multiple Aspects of an Enigma
Victor Natanael Schwetter Silveira
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a theoretical discussion about the rationality concept and its impacts over the organization’s context. Starting from the philosophical influences by notions of reason and rationality, a brief historical and philosophical approach is making, discussing about the duality of two basics notions: logic (thought and pragmatic (action. On sequence, the rationality concept it’s considered with regard to Weber’s theory ofbureaucracy. After that, the cognitive boundaries of human rationality are considered and the relationships between rationality, legitimacy and institutionalization are overviewed. Finally, rationality is overviewed based on Critical Theory authors like Habermas (1987a, Horkheimer (2002 and Marcuse (1975. In conclusion, this discussion tries to evidence the range and implications of the multiple facets of rationality concept and also brings concepts to go forward the debates about rationality on organizational theory field.
Behaviorally rational expectations and almost self-fulfilling equilibria
Hommes, C.
2013-01-01
Rational expectations assumes perfect, model consistency between beliefs and market realizations. Here we discuss behaviorally rational expectations, characterized by an observable, parsimonious and intuitive form of consistency between beliefs and realizations. We discuss three case-studies.
A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama
Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw
2013-01-01
This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…
Pistorius, M.; Stolte, J.
2012-01-01
We present a new numerical method to price vanilla options quickly in time-changed Brownian motion models. The method is based on rational function approximations of the Black-Scholes formula. Detailed numerical results are given for a number of widely used models. In particular, we use the variance
Pierre’s Rational and Public Beliefs
Victor M. Verdejo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Paradigmatic cases of disagreement seem not to be compatible with a widespread kind of solution to Kripke’s celebrated Pierre puzzle. As a result, the classical puzzle about rational belief is shown to be also a puzzle about public disagreement/agreement phenomena. In this paper, I defend that the new public version of the puzzle is substantial and challenging and conclude that a full solution to Kripke’s considerations must offer a satisfactory account of both the rational and public character of belief attributions. I then argue that a notion of non-belief-individuating understanding is plausibly the key notion that would allow us to arrest both versions of the Pierre puzzle.
On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup; Hansen, Jens Ulrik; Pedersen, Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding
2014-01-01
Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in cer- tain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear...... on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In this paper, we propose...... and social interactive aspects of the phenomenon. Second, given our characterization of pluralistic ignorance, we argue that the phenomenon can indeed arise in groups of perfectly rational agents. This, in turn, ensures that the tools of formal epistemology can be fully utilized to reason about pluralistic...
On the rationality of Manx crabs
Tove Ahlbom
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs
Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia
Nurus Shalihin
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Health Care Rationing and Distributive Justice
Friedrich Breyer
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid progress in medical technology makes it unavoidable to ration health care. In the discussion how to ration many people claim that principles of justice in distributing scarce resources should be applied. In this paper we argue that medical resources are not scarce as such but scarcity is a necessary by-product of collective financing arrangements such as social health insurance. So the right question to ask is the determination of the benefit package of such an institution. Hartmut Kliemt is currently involved in a commendable interdisciplinary research project in which principles of 'prioritization' of medical care are studied. This contribution adds a specific perspective to this endeavour: we ask how the goal of distributive justice can be interpreted in this context and compare different approaches to implementing 'just' allocation mechanisms.
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Rational Instability in the Natural Coalition Forming
Vinogradova, Galina
2012-01-01
We are investigating a paradigm of instability in coalition forming among countries, which indeed is intrinsic to any collection of individual groups or other social aggregations. Coalitions among countries are formed by the respective attraction or repulsion caused by the historical bond propensities between the countries, which produced an intricate circuit of bilateral bonds. Contradictory associations into coalitions occur due to the independent evolution of the bonds. Those coalitions tend to be unstable and break down frequently. The model extends some features of the physical theory of Spin Glasses. Within the frame of this model, the instability is viewed as a consequence of decentralized maximization processes searching for the best coalition allocations. In contrast to the existing literature, a rational instability is found to result from forecast rationality of countries. Using a general theoretical framework allowing to analyze the countries' decision making in coalition forming, we feature a sys...
Scattering in Three Dimensions from Rational Maps
Cachazo, Freddy; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2013-01-01
The complete tree-level S-matrix of four dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills and ${\\cal N} = 8$ supergravity has compact forms as integrals over the moduli space of certain rational maps. In this note we derive formulas for amplitudes in three dimensions by using the fact that when amplitudes are dressed with proper wave functions dimensional reduction becomes straightforward. This procedure leads to formulas in terms of rational maps for three dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The integrand of the new formulas contains three basic structures: Parke-Taylor-like factors, Vandermonde determinants and resultants. Integrating out some of the Grassmann directions produces formulas for theories with less than maximal supersymmetry, which exposes yet a fourth kind of structure. Combining all four basic structures we start a search for consistent S-matrices in three dimensions. Very nicely, the most natural ones are those corresponding to ABJM and BLG theories. We also make a...
Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.
Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P
2010-09-01
Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.
Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos
2009-01-01
We consider enhancing with privacy concerns a large class of auctions, which include sealed-bid single-item auctions but also general multi-item multi-winner auctions, our assumption being that bidders primarily care about monetary payoff and secondarily worry about exposing information about...... show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...... close to the original equilibrium.Supported by the Center for Algorithmic Game Theory, funded by The Carlsberg Foundation....
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
史海芳; 李树有; 姬永刚
2008-01-01
For two normal populations with u~nown means μi and variances σ2i>0,i=1,2,assume that there is a semi-order restriction between ratios of means and standard deviations and sample numbers of two normal populations are different.A procedure of obtaining the maximum likelihood estimatom of μi's and σ's under the semi-order restrictions is proposed.For i=3 case,some connected results and simulations are given.
Number names and number understanding
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...
Thinking about acting logical foundations for rational decision making
Pollock, John L
2006-01-01
John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""
Shape preserving rational bi-cubic function
Malik Zawwar Hussain
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the development of shape preserving interpolation scheme for monotone and convex data. A rational bi-cubic function with parameters is used for interpolation. To preserve the shape of monotone and convex data, the simple data dependent constraints are developed on these parameters in each rectangular patch. The developed scheme of this paper is confined, cheap to run and produce smooth surfaces.
NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨
2004-01-01
A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.
Innovative process rational choice grounding in organization
S.M. Illiashenko
2015-01-01
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate and scientifically to ground recommendations concerning choice of the rational structure and innovative process content, depending on innovative development potential in the organization and innovation radicalization degree, which provides to coordinate interconnection between SRCCW and innovations marketing at its stages for various innovative business types. The results of the analysis. The generalized scheme of organizati...
Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations
Hoffmann, Kira
This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...
Pattern of the rational worker incentive system
Kopytova A.V.
2017-01-01
The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...
Uniform Ration Cost System - Summary Report
1975-06-01
of food util.ization data from five civil ian organizations judged to be comparable to DoD feeding. Common characteristics included the age, sex ...of this important linkage between the NRL and the FCI, a linkage affecting millions of dollars of subsistence funds annually, there is no legally...lake trout, pickerel, salmon, sole, swordfish , whitefish) or Scallops, fresh or frozen 76 Maximum Daily Ration (ounces) 12 9 9 9 12 12 12
The rational design of photocatalytic semiconductor nanoparticles
2014-01-01
This thesis reports the successful rational design of three highly active photocatalytic semiconductor nanocrystal (SNC) systems by exploiting morphology effects and the electronic properties of type II semiconductor heterojunctions. Novel architectures of colloidal SNCs are produced with the aim of suppressing exciton recombination and improving charge extraction for the successful initiation of desirable redox chemistry. Rod-shaped niobium pentoxide Nb2O5 nanocrystals (NCs) are shown to...
[What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].
Tiles, Mary
2013-01-01
Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism.
周腾锦; 王纯
2013-01-01
Matrix is an important mathematical method of diagonalization, but because of its computational complexity, it has caused great difficulties on the application, The mathematical software has the function of processing of diagonalization, but for rational matrix diagonalization problem in the field of rational number the result is not satisfactory. So the study of rational matrix over the rational number field similarity diagonalization diagonalization, contract and orthogonal diagonalization algorithm and program project, design to realize rational matrices over the field of rational numbers on the diagonalization of utility software, solves the rational matrices over the field of rational numbers on the diagonalization of the accurate determination and computation problem.% 矩阵对角化是重要的数学方法，但因其计算复杂却造成了应用上的极大困难，虽然已有的数学软件具有处理对角化功能，但对有理矩阵在有理数域上的对角化问题的计算结果却不尽人意。所以提出了研究有理矩阵在有理数域上相似对角化、合同对角化以及正交对角化的算法与程序课题，设计出能够实现有理矩阵在有理数域上对角化的实用软件，解决了有理矩阵在有理数域上对角化的精确判定与计算问题。
Rationality in children: the first steps
Andrew Woodfield
1991-12-01
Full Text Available Not all categorization is conceptual. Many of the experimental findings concerning infant and animal categorization invite the hypothesis that the subjects form abstract perceptual representations, mental models or cognitive maps that are not composed of concepts. The paper is a reflection upon the idea that conceptual categorization involves the ability to make categorical judgements under the guidance of norms of rationality. These include a norm of truth-seeking and a norm of good evidence. Acceptance of these norms implies willingness to defer to cognitive authorities, unwillingness to commit oneself to contradictions, and knowledge of how to reorganize one's representational system upon discovering that one has made a mistake. It is proposed that the cognitive architecture required for basic rationality is similar to that which underlies pretend-play. The representational system must be able to make room for separate 'mental spaces' in which alternatives to the actual world are entertained. The same feature underlies the ability to understand modalities, time, the appearance-reality distinction, other minds, and ethics. Each area of understanding admits of degrees, and mastery (up to normal adult level takes years. But rational concept-management, at least in its most rudimentary form, does not require a capacity to form second-order representations. It requires knowledge of how to operate upon, and compare, the contents of different mental spaces.
NOTES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RATIONALITY
Munir Jorge Felício
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The notes for the construction of Environmental Rationality proposed in this text were gathered from a contribution of an analysis of phenomenology, epistemology, and ontology relating to Marx. This initiative aims to broaden and deepen the understanding of environmental issues whose global changes raise challenges, especially for the scientific community. It is to question the development of the economic rationality from the degradation of natural resources engendered by the current socio-economic development model. This model is based on the increase of productivity, technological expansion and maintains the norm as if natural resources were still considered abundant and limitless. The transition of this Environmental Rationality is a development sought by using the knowledge gained from the analysis possibilities of phenomenology. Among these possibilities, the indicated interdisciplinary schools of thought, as required by epistemology, can become an interesting research strategy, since it has as the starting point the external demands, where the elements of the current environmental issue exist, and its consequences.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng
2015-10-01
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on `design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan
2015-08-26
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.
Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.
Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?
Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W
1997-01-01
Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide relevant information regarding the medical procedures prior to patients consenting to have those procedures, they should also assist patients to think more rationally. We distinguish between rational choice/action and rational belief. While autonomous choice need not necessarily be rational, it should be based on rational belief. The implication for the doctrine of informed consent and the practice of medicine is that, if physicians are to respect patient autonomy and help patients to choose and act more rationally, not only must they provide information, but they should care more about the theoretical rationality of their patients. They should not abandon their patients to irrationality. They should help their patients to deliberate more effectively and to care more about thinking rationally. We illustrate these arguments in the context of Jehovah's Witnesses refusing life-saving blood transfusions. Insofar as Jehovah's Witnesses should be informed of the consequences of their actions, they should also deliberate rationally about these consequences. PMID:9358347
Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.
Rogers, George W., Jr.
1981-01-01
Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…
The Properties of Rational Modules and Coideal Subalgebras
张良云
2000-01-01
In this paper, we first prove that the dual module of a rational module is still, a rational module, and maximum rational modules keep their exact properties. Then, we give the Maschke theorem of the coideal subalgebra of quasi-Frobenius algebra, and give some equivalent conditions for the ideal subcoalgebra.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.
Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter
2001-01-01
Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.
Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter
2001-01-01
Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)
Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.
Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.
1998-01-01
Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)
DRGs: justice and the invisible rationing of health care resources.
Fleck, L M
1987-05-01
Are DRGs just? This is the primary question which this essay will answer. But there is a prior methodological question that also needs to be addressed: How do we go about rationally (non-arbitrarily) assessing whether DRGs are just or not? I would suggest that grand, ideal theories of justice (Rawls, Nozick) have only very limited utility for answering this question. What we really need is a theory of "interstitial justice," that is, an approach to making justice judgments that is suitable to assessing the social practices and institutions that comprise the interstices of our social life as opposed to its basic structure. Rawls's appeal to "our considered moral judgments" provides us with a useful starting point for this task, which we shall discuss in the first part of this essay. In the second part, we shall actually assess DRGs from the perspective of interstitial justice. What we shall show is that DRGs violate a large number of our considered judgments regarding a just approach to financing health care for the elderly in a cost-effective manner. This is true to such an extent that efforts to reform DRGs and make them fairer, such as the recent effort by Robert Veatch, should be abandoned. In the concluding section of the essay we discuss one especially pernicious feature of DRGs, namely, that they represent an invisible approach to rationing access to health care. In the minds of many this is one of the virtues of DRGs. That claim needs critical examination.
RESEARCH ON A MORE RATIONAL CONFIGURATION OF THE INVERT CURVE OF A SPILLWAY
Liu Yu-ling; Wei Wen-li; Shen Yong-ming
2003-01-01
This paper is concerned with the research on the rational curve for the bucket of a spillway. A new type of rational curve against cavitation damage to spillway has been proposed; and the numerical results show that the proposed curve (gradually and continuously varied curvature curve, abbreviated as GCVC curve) can greatly raise the minimum cavitation number and cause the distribution of water pressure on the curved surface more reasonable. The proposed curve (GCVC curve) is simple, and can be conveniently used in practical hydraulic engineering.
The tools of rational product range support
A.I. Jakovlev
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to improve the methodological approaches to support the rational range of products under today's market conditions. The results of the analysis. Planning and optimization of product mix does not lose its relevance under the current economic conditions. One of the most important tasks in planning is to determine the range of rational perspective to the enterprise product lines products. In this connection there is a need to expand the use of methodological approaches to support the range of products. Integrated application of methodological approaches for determining the rationality and balance the range of products increases the validity of economic decision-making in the field of marketing of the company by identifying the correlation between the profitability of product lines and their weight in the total production. Using the margin profit as a criterion for ranking groups of products with the construction of the Pareto chart allows for a more flexible product strategy, which under the current market conditions is a significant competitive advantage for the enterprise. The necessary conditions for the effective implementation of the proposals of the authors are the high level of consistency of the strategic, tactical and operational levels of management at the enterprise, as well as the analysis of the results of marketing research about customer satisfaction of product parameters. The using of Pareto charts and Spearman correlation coefficient provides increased sales volumes, increasing the target market share of the enterprise, improving the company's image, reducing the risk of marketing activities, increase the company's profit. The results of this study give the company an opportunity to identify deficiencies in a timely manner in the activities and to identify the main directions of improvement of management systems and production planning. Prospects of this study are to develop the
A. Darmawan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the feeding effect of diets containing different ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and organic Zn on egg production and quality of Magelang duck. A total of 90 ducks of 20 weeks old were randomly divided into 18 experimental units by assigning a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications. There were 6 dietary treatments, namely 1 ration without palm oil, fish oil and organic Zn with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 5 (R0, 2 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 1.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R1, 3 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 3 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R2, 4 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 4.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R3, 5 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 6 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R4, 6 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1 : 7.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R5. Observation was carried out for 9 wk. The results showed that the ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1 : 3 and organic Zn (R2 produced significantly (P<0.05 the highest egg production and the lowest egg production was resulted by the dietary treatment without oil and organic Zn. Ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1: 3 and organic Zn (R2 significantly (P<0.05 decreased feed conversion ratio to the lowest value and it was significantly different as compared to R0 and R5. It can be concluded that feeding diet containing ω-3 and ω-6 with the ratio of 1:3 + 200 ppm organic Zn improves egg production without decreasing egg quality.
F-theory and All Things Rational: Surveying U(1) Symmetries with Rational Sections
Lawrie, Craig; Wong, Jin-Mann
2015-01-01
We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational sections. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with \\bar{5} and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a ...
F-theory and all things rational: surveying U(1) symmetries with rational sections
Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann
2015-09-01
We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational section. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with overline{5} and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a universal study of the U(1)-charged GUT singlets, including their KK-charges, and determine all realizations of singlet fibers. By giving vacuum expectation values to these singlets, we propose a systematic way to analyze the Higgsing of U(1)s to discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory.
A classification of terminal quartic 3-folds and applications to rationality questions
Kaloghiros, Anne-Sophie
2009-01-01
This paper studies the birational geometry of terminal Gorenstein Fano 3-folds. If Y is not Q-factorial, in most cases, it is possible to describe explicitly the divisor class group Cl Y by running a Minimal Model Program (MMP) on X, a small Q-factorialisation of Y. In this case, Weil non-Cartier divisors are generated by "topological traces " of K-negative extremal contractions on X. One can show, as an application of these methods, that a number of families of non-factorial terminal Gorenstein Fano 3-folds are rational. In particular, I give some examples of rational quartic hypersurfaces with Cl Y of rank 2, and show that when Cl Y has rank greater than 6, Y is always rational.
Dynamics of market structure driven by the degree of consumer’s rationality
Yanagita, Tatsuo; Onozaki, Tamotsu
2010-03-01
We study a simple model of market share dynamics with boundedly rational consumers and firms interacting with each other. As the number of consumers is large, we employ a statistical description to represent firms’ distribution of consumer share, which is characterized by a single parameter representing how rationally the mass of consumers pursue higher utility. As the boundedly rational firm does not know the shape of demand function it faces, it revises production and price so as to raise its profit with the aid of a simple reinforcement learning rule. Simulation results show that (1) three phases of market structure, i.e. the uniform share phase, the oligopolistic phase, and the monopolistic phase, appear depending upon how rational consumers are, and (2) in an oligopolistic phase, the market share distribution of firms follows Zipf’s law and the growth-rate distribution of firms follows Gibrat’s law, and (3) an oligopolistic phase is the best state of market in terms of consumers’ utility but brings the minimum profit to the firms because of severe competition based on the moderate rationality of consumers.
RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
Andreea Maha
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbouring countries and aims therefore intensifying cooperation with them in order to establish a zone of prosperity, good neighbourliness, stability and security.
What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.
Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions
Xinlin Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.
A REMARK ON IMPLICITIZING RATIONAL CURVES WITH BASE POINTS
CHENFALAI
1998-01-01
A simple relationship between the Bezout matrix corresponding to a rational curve with base points and the Bezout matrix corresponding to the same rational curve except that whose base points are eliminated is clarified. Based on this relationship,the author proves that the implicit equation of a rational curve with base points is the largest rton-zero leading principal minor of the gezout resultant corresponding to the rational curve assuming that the rational curve doesn't have triva/base point 0,and thus provides a simple approach to Jmplicitze rational curves with base points. Furthermore，as a by-product ，art algorithm is presented to compute the base points of a rational curve.
The semigroup of nonempty finite subsets of rationals
Reuben Spake
1988-01-01
Full Text Available Let Q be the additive group of rational numbers and let ℛ be the additive semigroup of all nonempty finite subsets of Q. For X∈ℛ, define AX to be the basis of 〈X−min(X〉 and BX the basis of 〈max(X−X〉. In the greatest semilattice decomposition of ℛ, let (X denote the archimedean component containing X. In this paper we examine the structure of ℛ and determine its greatest semilattice decomposition. In particular, we show that for X,Y∈ℛ, (X=(Y if and only if AX=AY and BX=BY. Furthermore, if X is a non-singleton, then the idempotent-free (X is isomorphic to the direct product of a power joined subsemigroup and the group Q.
Rational approximants for the Euler-Gompertz constant
Bolbachan, Vasily
2011-01-01
We obtain two sequences of rational numbers which converge to the Euler-Gompertz constant. Denote by the integral of f(x)e^{-x} from 0 to infinity. Recall that the Euler-Gompertz constant \\delta is . Main idea. Let P_n(x) be a polynomial with integer coefficients. It is easy to prove that =a_n+b_n$ for some integers a_n, b_n. Hence if /b_n converges to zero, a_n/b_n converges to - \\delta . Main Theorem. Let u be positive real. There exists polynomials P_n(x)(they are explicitly given in the paper) such that tends to u as n tends to infinity. Proof of Main Theorem is elementary.
Source localization using rational approximation on plane sections
Clerc, M.; Leblond, J.; Marmorat, J.-P.; Papadopoulo, T.
2012-05-01
In functional neuroimaging, a crucial problem is to localize active sources within the brain non-invasively, from knowledge of electromagnetic measurements outside the head. Identification of point sources from boundary measurements is an ill-posed inverse problem. In the case of electroencephalography (EEG), measurements are only available at electrode positions, the number of sources is not known in advance and the medium within the head is inhomogeneous. This paper presents a new method for EEG source localization, based on rational approximation techniques in the complex plane. The method is used in the context of a nested sphere head model, in combination with a cortical mapping procedure. Results on simulated data prove the applicability of the method in the context of realistic measurement configurations.
About the splitting field for rational valued characters
Ion Armeanu
1994-05-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding the splitting field for group characters is very old and important (see [4], Chapter 9. The most part of the papers on this subject are concerned with all irreducible characters of a group under certain conditions. It seems more difficult to obtain minimal splitting fields for only one character without strong conditions about the group. In this case, naturally,the number theoretical methods play an essential role. This paper concerns to prove that under certain circumstances if a rational character of a group has Q(21/2,i as splitting field, then Q(i or even Q(21/2 are splitting fields too.
Intersection of the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate
Dai Meifeng [Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)]. E-mail: daimf@ujs.edu.cn; Tian Lixin [Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)]. E-mail: tianlx@ujs.edu.cn
2007-01-15
Motivated by Mandelbrot's idea of referring to lacunarity of Cantor sets in terms of departure from translation invariance, Nekka and Li studied the properties of these translation sets and showed how they can be used for a classification purpose. In this paper, we pursue this study on the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate. We also get the fractal structure of intersection I(x, y) of the Sierpinski carpet with its translate. We find that the packing measure of these sets forms a discrete spectrum whose non-zero values come only from shifting numbers with a finite triadic expansion. Concretely, when x and y have a finite triadic expansion, a very brief calculation formula of the measure is given.
[Toward a more rational field-genetic epidemiology].
Koizumi, Akio
2010-01-01
Genetic dissection of diseases is one of the epoch-making achievements in modern medicine. Positional cloning is a key method to isolate disease-related genes. For positional cloning, there are two conventional methods: family-based studies and case-control studies. In this review, I would like to describe several family-based studies on single gene diseases which I had conducted including those of Akita diabetic mice, systemic carnitine deficiency and Hartnup disease. The study of systemic carnitine deficiency underscored a potential power of the "Carrier state." Furthermore, cultural and public health practices in Japan such as preservation of umbilical cords and mother and child passbooks enabled us to conduct linkage analysis even 20 years after the deaths of affected patients in Hartnup disease. For multifactorial diseases, I present three family-based studies: intracranial aneurysm, moyamoya and arteriovenous malformation. Finally, I discuss on theoretical issues concerning the relationship among odds ratio, phenocopy rate and penetrance by formulating a single-locus dominant association model. Analysis of the model predicted a notion that a large odds ratio facilitates familial clustering of multifactorial diseases and vice versa is the case. Furthermore, the analysis predicted that genetic markers for screening should have odds ratio >/= eight to maintain similar qualities commonly required for clinical tests. Collectively, the analysis predicted a two-stage study design composed of linkage analysis based on a family study and subsequent replication by a case-control association study is more rational than the currently used two-independent case-control design. This newly proposed method is expected to provide polymorphisms, which have large odds ratios, requiring only minimum research budgets.
Schwerdt, R
2005-08-01
The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria.
Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving
Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao
2011-01-01
Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.
Innovative process rational choice grounding in organization
S.M. Illiashenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate and scientifically to ground recommendations concerning choice of the rational structure and innovative process content, depending on innovative development potential in the organization and innovation radicalization degree, which provides to coordinate interconnection between SRCCW and innovations marketing at its stages for various innovative business types. The results of the analysis. The generalized scheme of organization innovative activity is investigated. It characterizes interconnections between innovative process, innovative business and innovative strategies types. The peculiarities of the works conduct concerning innovative process distinguished types are confirmed by scheme: works essence, type (types of the innovative business, innovative strategy (strategies, which is realized. Recommendations concerning works conduct reasonability of the several stages in the innovative process for organizations, which have innovative business combined type, are suggested. Essence and content of SRRCW works and innovations marketing works are confirmed at the innovative and life cycle stages of the new product. Table of decisions is developed to choose innovative process variants, which are reasonably to realize by concrete organization, depending on subsystems constituents state of its innovative development potential and innovative product radicalization degree. The enlarged block-scheme of the algorithm to choose rational structure in the innovative process within one or every innovative projects, realized by organization, is investigated. The recommendations concerning estimation of the innovative processes possible simultaneous conduct with various or similar variants of the innovative process structures by formal procedures are developed. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Author’s studies together allow to increase validity and decrease risk to choose
Rationally engineering natural protein assemblies in nanobiotechnology.
Howorka, Stefan
2011-08-01
Multimeric protein assemblies are essential components in viruses, bacteria, eukaryotic cells, and organisms where they act as cytoskeletal scaffold, storage containers, or for directional transport. The bottom-up structures can be exploited in nanobiotechnology by harnessing their built-in properties and combining them with new functional modules. This review summarizes the design principles of natural protein assemblies, highlights recent progress in their structural elucidation, and shows how rational engineering can create new biomaterials for applications in vaccine development, biocatalysis, materials science, and synthetic biology.
Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology
Boris Sergeyevich Belov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.
TETRAHEDRAL Cm INTERPOLATION BY RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
Guo-liang Xu; Chuan I Chu; Wei-min Xue
2001-01-01
A general local Cm(m ≥ 0) tetrahedral interpolation scheme bypolynomials of degree 4m + l plus low order rational functions from the given data is proposed. The scheme can have either 4m + l order algebraic precision if C2m data at vertices and Cm data on faces are given or k + E[k/3] + 1 order algebraic precision if Ck (k ≤ 2m) data are given at vertices. The resulted interpolant and its partial derivatives of up to order m are polynomials on the boundaries of the tetrahedra.
Rational interpretation of the postulates in plasticity
Bohua Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article is mainly focussed on revisited of the two well-known postulates of plasticity, i.e., the Drucker and the Il’iushin postulate, and it describes their rational interpretation within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics and using exterior calculus. It shows that the Il’iushin and the Drucker postulate is the integral form and local form of the irreversible thermodynamics of plastic deformation, respectively. The Drucker and Il’iushin postulate is equivalent for both soft and hardening materials.
Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies
Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri
This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium......-sloping” demand curves, (iv) higher prices leading to future returns that are higher in expectation (price drift) and (v) more positively skewed. Discontinuous equilibria can be arbitrarily close to being fully-revealing. Finally, discontinuous equilibria with the same construction also exist in Hellwig (1980)....
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.
Rational defect introduction in silicon nanowires.
Shin, Naechul; Chi, Miaofang; Howe, Jane Y; Filler, Michael A
2013-05-08
The controlled introduction of planar defects, particularly twin boundaries and stacking faults, in group IV nanowires remains challenging despite the prevalence of these structural features in other nanowire systems (e.g., II-VI and III-V). Here we demonstrate how user-programmable changes to precursor pressure and growth temperature can rationally generate both transverse twin boundaries and angled stacking faults during the growth of oriented Si nanowires. We leverage this new capability to demonstrate prototype defect superstructures. These findings yield important insight into the mechanism of defect generation in semiconductor nanowires and suggest new routes to engineer the properties of this ubiquitous semiconductor.
Rational economic strategy and entropic analysis
Allred, J.C.; Howard, H.H.
1978-01-01
The neglect of entropic changes of energy and matter in the economic process leads to incorrect formulation of economic theory, as was first pointed out by the economist, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. Entropic analysis, that is, the reckoning of entropic changes in real-world processes, appears to be a useful guide toward a realistic understanding of the economic process. The example chosen here is the choice between natural gas and coal as fossil fuel. An outline of the necessary analysis is discussed, together with the requirements of rational economic strategy.
The Gross conjecture over rational function fields
OUYANG; Yi
2005-01-01
We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.
The latent rationality of risky decisions
Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology
1999-12-01
The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction
Orthorhombic rational approximants for decagonal quasicrystals
S Ranganathan; Anandh Subramaniam
2003-10-01
An important exercise in the study of rational approximants is to derive their metric, especially in relation to the corresponding quasicrystal or the underlying clusters. Kuo’s model has been the widely accepted model to calculate the metric of the decagonal approximants. Using an alternate model, the metric of the approximants and other complex structures with the icosahedral cluster are explained elsewhere. In this work a comparison is made between the two models bringing out their equivalence. Further, using the concept of average lattices, a modified model is proposed.
A. Thaler Neto
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Este estudo de simulação de dados objetiva avaliar a relação de risco (lambda R como indicador do número de animais genotipados necessário para o mapeamento genético de características binárias, tais como a mastite bovina. Dados foram simulados para diferentes prevalências, modelos genéticos e seus parâmetros, em famílias com aproximadamente cinco meios-irmãos afetados. Analisaram os dados gerados em pares de meios-irmãos afetados ("affected sib pairs analysis". O número necessário de famílias genotipadas aumenta com a prevalência, enquanto os valores de lambda R decrescem, validando lambdaR como indicador do número de animais necessário para o mapeamento para diferentes prevalências. São necessárias mais famílias para características dominantes em relação às recessivas. Penetrância incompleta exerce pouca influência, enquanto fenocópias aumentam o número necessário de animais. Um segundo locus diminui o poder de detecção de genes, especialmente em modelos com heterogeneidade de locus. Pode-se concluir que lambda R é indicador útil para determinar o número de animais necessários em experimentos de mapeamento genético com famílias de meios-irmãos.The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the suitability of risk ratio (lambda R as indicator of the number of genotyped animals necessary for mapping genes for binary traits, such as mastitis in cattle. Data were simulated for different prevalences, genetic models and parameters of these, in families with five affected halfsibs in average. The data were analyzed with methodology of "affected sib pairs". The number of genotyped halfsib families needed increase with the prevalence. As risk ratio is lower with higher prevalences, lambda R is an adequate indicator for comparing power for traits with different prevalences. The number of animals needed was substantially higher for dominant as for recessive traits. Incomplete penetrance had little
Meglino, Bruce M; Korsgaard, M Audrey
2006-11-01
The authors respond to C. K. W. De Dreu's (2006) critique of their article (B. M. Meglino & M. A. Korsgaard, 2004) published in the special section on Theoretical Models and Conceptual Analyses of the Journal of Applied Psychology. They maintain that De Dreu misinterprets their definitions and the psychological processes they addressed and thus raises a number of issues that are not relevant to their model. Meglino and Korsgaard's model focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and other orientation, whereas the approach taken by De Dreu focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and collective rationality. In this response, the authors clarify this distinction, address discrepancies between these two approaches, consider the effect of goals and rationality on other orientated behavior, and suggest directions for future research.
Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team
Oktay Sürücü
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows
Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?
Petru Lucian Curşeu
Full Text Available Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group, and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.
Schizophrenia, mental capacity, and rational suicide.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
A diagnosis of schizophrenia is often taken to denote a state of global irrationality within the psychiatric paradigm, wherein psychotic phenomena are seen to equate with a lack of mental capacity. However, the little research that has been undertaken on mental capacity in psychiatric patients shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely to experience isolated, rather than constitutive, irrationality and are therefore not necessarily globally incapacitated. Rational suicide has not been accepted as a valid choice for people with schizophrenia due in part to a belief that characteristic irrationality prevents autonomous decision-making. Since people with schizophrenia are often seen to lack insight into the nature of their disorder, both psychiatric and ethical perspectives generally presume that suicidal acts result directly from mental illness itself and not from second-order desires. In this article, I challenge notions of global irrationality conferred by a diagnosis of schizophrenia and argue that, where delusional beliefs are unifocal, schizophrenia does not necessarily lead to a state of mental incapacity. I then attempt to show that people with schizophrenia can sometimes be rational with regard to suicide, where this decision stems from a realistic appraisal of psychological suffering.
Rational decision-making in inhibitory control
Pradeep eShenoy
2011-05-01
Full Text Available An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the well-studied stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.
Liberal rationalism and medical decision-making.
Savulescu, Julian
1997-04-01
I contrast Robert Veatch's recent liberal vision of medical decision-making with a more rationalist liberal model. According to Veatch, physicians are biased in their determination of what is in their patient's overall interests in favour of their medical interests. Because of the extent of this bias, we should abandon the practice of physicians offering what they guess to be the best treatment option. Patients should buddy up with physicians who share the same values -- 'deep value pairing'. The goal of choice is maximal promotion of patient values. I argue that if subjectivism about value and valuing is true, this move is plausible. However, if objectivism about value is true -- that there really are states which are good for people regardless of whether they desire to be in them -- then we should accept a more rationalist liberal alternative. According to this alternative, what is required to decide which course is best is rational dialogue between physicians and patients, both about the patient's circumstances and her values, and not the seeking out of people, physicians or others, who share the same values. Rational discussion requires that physicians be reasonable and empathic. I describe one possible account of a reasonable physician.
Rational decision-making in inhibitory control.
Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J
2011-01-01
An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.