Sample records for rational man-machine systems

  1. A review of warship man-machine-environment system engineering

    ZHANG Yumei


    Full Text Available Warship Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE is an integral part of the overall design, and its design principles were proposed according to safety, efficiency, comfort and pleasure. The typical characteristics of MMESE are summarized. The operating environment is extremely terrible on long voyages. High level collaboration is required due to the complex task system and large manpower demand. Owing to the dense computer interface information, the mental cognitive burden on the crew is heavy. The MMESE technology system is divided into four parts:man-machine coordinated, man-environment coordinated, the evaluation of man-machine-environment characteristics and the ergonomic simulation. Based on the MMESE development venation in this paper, the overseas and domestic research statuses are expounded. Interactive optimization can be realized according to the following aspects:researching the basic human characteristics of the crew, applying this to the warship's overall design, and formulating relevant ergonomic standards and norms. Next, Human System Integration (HSI professional engineering was introduced comprehensively into the marines in order to achieve an optimal system. On this basis, we completed the future development trend analysis. All these studies and results have some reference meaning for guiding the integrated optimization of warships as a whole, downsizing the manpower and improving efficiency.

  2. Methodological Aspects of Controlling Multilevel Man-Machine Organization Systems



    Full Text Available Hierarchical on-line control models for multilevel man-machine organization systems (production and project management systems are outlined. The models are based on the conception of emergency situations and risk averse on-line control. By using the idea that hierarchical levels can interact only in special situations, the so-called emergency points, one can decompose general and complex multi-level problems of optimal control into sequences of one-level control problems. A hierarchical on-line control model under chance constraint is presented. The model comprises a chance constraint at the upper level and enables at the lower level optimizing both the units' starting time and the resources to be hired. The objective is the average total expenses within the planning horizon while the chance constraint is the minimal permissible probability of meeting the due date on time.

  3. Research on menu-typed man-machine interaction system of digital TIG welding machine

    何建萍; 张春波; 孙广; 吴毅雄; 焦馥杰


    A digital man-machine interaction system controlled by communications between two processors of TMS320F240 and AT98C2051 was researched in the paper. The system is easy to set and modify welding process parameters by keyboards, and display information of welding site by LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). As one part of multi-task system about TIG welding machine, the coordination of man-machine interaction system with other tasks is the main point to the stability and reliability of its operation. Experiments result indicates that the system is stable, operation-flexible, high precision, and anti-interfering.

  4. Man-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis System (MIDAS): Functional Overview

    Corker, Kevin; Neukom, Christian


    Included in the series of screen print-outs illustrates the structure and function of the Man-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis System (MIDAS). Views into the use of the system and editors are featured. The use-case in this set of graphs includes the development of a simulation scenario.

  5. 13th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    Dhillon, Balbir


    The integrated and advanced science research topic Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of Man-Machine-Environment system...

  6. 14th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    Dhillon, Balbir


    The integrated and advanced science research topic man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of man-machine-environment system...

  7. Stability and Bifurcation Analysis of Man-machine System with Time Delay

    YANG Ji-hua; LIU Mei


    A mathematical model of man-machine system is considered.Based on the reference [4],the direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are determined using the normal form method and the center manifold theory.Furthermore,the existence of Hopf-zero bifurcation is discussed.In the end,some numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the results found.

  8. Comparison of Models Needed for Conceptual Design of Man-Machine Systems in Different Application Domains

    Rasmussen, Jens


    For systematic and computer-aided design of man-machine systems, a consistent framework is needed, i. e. , a set of models which allows the selection of system characteristics which serve the individual user not only to satisfy his goal, but also to select mental processes that match his resource...... of other domains, such as emergency management, CAD/CAM/CIM, and office systems, and describes the characteristic differences in model requirements and requirements for model development....

  9. Optimization of man-machine roll allocation in automatic systems; Jidoka system ni okeru hito to kikai no yakuwari buntan no saitekika

    Yamasaki, H. [Yokokawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Lab.


    Bearing reliability and safety of automatic systems in mind, man-machine roll allocation in the operation of facilities is examined, and the optimal roll allocation is proposed. The outline of the method for man-machine roll allocation is given in process instrumentation system, robotized assembly plant, railroad operation control system, and passenger airplane operation control system. The types of man-machine roll allocation in automatic system is divided into normal and emergency cases. Improvement in the total reliability of man-machine system can be expected by man-machine mutual complementary roll allocation. The core of the intelligent support system for emergency is the growing knowledge base, and the system performs intelligent support automatically or with the support of human in an emergency. For smooth man-machine information interchange at man`s own will, logical difference between man and machine must be adjusted in the man-machine interface. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. 16th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    Dhillon, Balbir


    This research topic was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure "Safety, High efficiency and Economy" of man-machine-environment systems. These...

  11. JACOS: AI-based simulation system for man-machine system behavior in NPP

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Yokobayashi, Masao; Tanabe, Fumiya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawase, Katsumi [CSK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komiya, Akitoshi [Computer Associated Laboratory, Inc., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A prototype of a computer simulation system named JACOS (JAERI COgnitive Simulation system) has been developed at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) to simulate the man-machine system behavior in which both the cognitive behavior of a human operator and the plant behavior affect each other. The objectives of this system development is to provide man-machine system analysts with detailed information on the cognitive process of an operator and the plant behavior affected by operator's actions in accidental situations of a nuclear power plant. The simulation system consists of an operator model and a plant model which are coupled dynamically. The operator model simulates an operator's cognitive behavior in accidental situations based on the decision ladder model of Rasmussen, and is implemented using the AI-techniques of the distributed cooperative inference method with the so-called blackboard architecture. Rule-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with If-Then type of rules. Knowledge-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with MFM (Multilevel Flow Modeling) and qualitative reasoning method. Cognitive characteristics of attentional narrowing, limitation of short-term memory, and knowledge recalling from long-term memory are also taken into account. The plant model of a 3-loop PWR is also developed using a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis code RELAP5/MOD2. This report is prepared as User's Manual for JACOS. The first chapter of this report describes both operator and plant models in detail. The second chapter includes instructive descriptions for program installation, building of a knowledge base for operator model, execution of simulation and analysis of simulation results. The examples of simulation with JACOS are shown in the third chapter. (author)

  12. Asset Analysis Method for the Cyber Security of Man Machine Interface System

    Kang, Sung Kon; Kim, Hun Hee; Shin, Yeong Cheol [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    As digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) is applied in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), cyber security is becoming more and more important. Regulatory guide (KINS/GT-N27) requires that implementation plan for cyber security be prepared in NPP. Regulatory guide recommends the following 4 processes: 1) an asset analysis of MMIS, 2) a vulnerability analysis of MMIS, 3) establishment of countermeasures, and 4) establishment of operational guideline for cyber security. Conventional method for the asset analysis is mainly performed with a table form for each asset. Conventional method requires a lot of efforts due to the duplication of information. This paper presents an asset analysis method using object oriented approach for the NPP

  13. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Johan H. Aas


    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  14. Integrated digital control and man-machine interface for complex remote handling systems

    Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.


    The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments.

  15. A Model of Application System for Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering in Vessels Based on IDEF0

    Zhen Shang; Changhua Qiu; Shifan Zhu


    Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment,environment,and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency,performance,safety,and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems.In the following research,the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases,and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases.The 15 subjects were systemized,and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0),which is a systematical modeling method.This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included,which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole.The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels,especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases.The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

  16. Geometric dimension model of virtual astronaut body for ergonomic analysis of man-machine space system

    Qianxiang, Zhou


    It is very important to clarify the geometric characteristic of human body segment and constitute analysis model for ergonomic design and the application of ergonomic virtual human. The typical anthropometric data of 1122 Chinese men aged 20-35 years were collected using three-dimensional laser scanner for human body. According to the correlation between different parameters, curve fitting were made between seven trunk parameters and ten body parameters with the SPSS 16.0 software. It can be concluded that hip circumference and shoulder breadth are the most important parameters in the models and the two parameters have high correlation with the others parameters of human body. By comparison with the conventional regressive curves, the present regression equation with the seven trunk parameters is more accurate to forecast the geometric dimensions of head, neck, height and the four limbs with high precision. Therefore, it is greatly valuable for ergonomic design and analysis of man-machine system.This result will be very useful to astronaut body model analysis and application.

  17. A study on advanced man-machine interface system for autonomous nuclear power plants

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Noboru; Miyazaki, Keiko; Sugasawa, Shinobu [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)


    Research on Artificial Intelligence Systems for Nuclear Installations has been performed in cooperation with five research institutes (Ship Research Institute, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), from 1989 to 1994 as the Cross-over Research Group with the support of the Science and Technology Agency. Ship Research Institute has been carrying out the research on the Man-Machine Interface (MMI) system for autonomous nuclear power plants. This paper describes the concept of autonomous nuclear power plants, a plant simulator of an autonomous nuclear power plant, a contracted function model of a plant state, three-dimensional color graphic display of a plant state, and a function of automatic classification of plant states by the COBWEB method. A plant simulator has been developed by using the expert system G2 (Gensym Co.). The simulator generates plant process data at each component of a plant. This simulator models a pressurized water reactor and some examples of autonomous functions are incorporated. A contracted function model of a plant state has been produced at the main part of the MMI system based on plant process data from the simulator. The main purpose of the present study is to give the MMI system a function to identify the plant operational state, to update and revise the function model, and to expand a knowledge. A plant state is expressed in a three-dimensional graphic display which receives sensor values from the plant simulator and expresses the plant state in nearly real time speed. A research on the automatic classification of plant states has been also performed, which shows us the relations among different plant states. The study is being continued to the 2nd stage Cross-over Research from 1994, as the Study on Divers, Cooperative Intelligent System for Autonomous Plants. (J.P.N.)

  18. Leadership, communication and decision making in man-machine systems; Fuehrung, Kommunikation und Entscheidungsfindung in Mensch-Maschine-Systemen

    Bluhm, Thomas


    The contribution under consideration spans a wide curve from the first deadly accident of motorized aviation in the year 1908 up to newer tendencies of the so-called team resources management on observation points and control stations in order to pursue fundamental questions in man-machine systems. A continuous differentiation in the consideration of the factor human beings in complex technical systems is described. This is illustrated by the example of concepts for leadership, communication and decision making on observation points and control stations.

  19. Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) v5: Augmentations, Motivations, and Directions for Aeronautics Applications

    Gore, Brian F.


    As automation and advanced technologies are introduced into transport systems ranging from the Next Generation Air Transportation System termed NextGen, to the advanced surface transportation systems as exemplified by the Intelligent Transportations Systems, to future systems designed for space exploration, there is an increased need to validly predict how the future systems will be vulnerable to error given the demands imposed by the assistive technologies. One formalized approach to study the impact of assistive technologies on the human operator in a safe and non-obtrusive manner is through the use of human performance models (HPMs). HPMs play an integral role when complex human-system designs are proposed, developed, and tested. One HPM tool termed the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a NASA Ames Research Center HPM software tool that has been applied to predict human-system performance in various domains since 1986. MIDAS is a dynamic, integrated HPM and simulation environment that facilitates the design, visualization, and computational evaluation of complex man-machine system concepts in simulated operational environments. The paper will discuss a range of aviation specific applications including an approach used to model human error for NASA s Aviation Safety Program, and what-if analyses to evaluate flight deck technologies for NextGen operations. This chapter will culminate by raising two challenges for the field of predictive HPMs for complex human-system designs that evaluate assistive technologies: that of (1) model transparency and (2) model validation.

  20. Function analysis of nuclear power plants for developing of man-machine interface system for Korean next generation reactor

    Goo, In Soo; Kim, Jang Yyul; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Na, Nan Joo; Park, Keun Ok; Park, Won Man; Park, Jae Chang; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Yong Hee; Cha, Kyung Ho; Chun, Se Woo; Hur, Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hoon [Korea Electric Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeon Sik; Lee, Bum Joo [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we developed the methodology and implementation plant of function analysis and performed function analysis, which is one of the major activities for the development of Man-Machine Interface System of the KNGR. Identifying the functions of existing plants followed by structuring the functions, we established functions structured at the conceptual and middle levels. This structure was further checked if it would satisfy regulatory requirements and developed to include the aspects of plant performance and other plant features to emphasize its practicality for the application to the design. (Author) 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The Application of Man-Machine System Theory in Information System%人机系统理论在情报系统中的应用

    王以群; 张力; 张中会


    In the light of cognitive science and man-machine system theory, users' information cognitive behavior models are studied. Three experiments are carried out to study how machine factors influence the cognitive abilities of users. Finally, man and machine problems with information automation system management are discussed.

  2. Man - Machine Communication

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning


    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  3. Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS): Memory Representation and Procedural Implications for Airborne Communication Modalities

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory M.; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)


    The Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) has been under development for the past ten years through a joint US Army and NASA cooperative agreement. MIDAS represents multiple human operators and selected perceptual, cognitive, and physical functions of those operators as they interact with simulated systems. MIDAS has been used as an integrated predictive framework for the investigation of human/machine systems, particularly in situations with high demands on the operators. Specific examples include: nuclear power plant crew simulation, military helicopter flight crew response, and police force emergency dispatch. In recent applications to airborne systems development, MIDAS has demonstrated an ability to predict flight crew decision-making and procedural behavior when interacting with automated flight management systems and Air Traffic Control. In this paper we describe two enhancements to MIDAS. The first involves the addition of working memory in the form of an articulatory buffer for verbal communication protocols and a visuo-spatial buffer for communications via digital datalink. The second enhancement is a representation of multiple operators working as a team. This enhanced model was used to predict the performance of human flight crews and their level of compliance with commercial aviation communication procedures. We show how the data produced by MIDAS compares with flight crew performance data from full mission simulations. Finally, we discuss the use of these features to study communications issues connected with aircraft-based separation assurance.

  4. Re-Design and Beat Testing of the Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System: MIDAS

    Shively, R. Jay; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)


    The Man-machine Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a human factors design and analysis system that combines human cognitive models with 3D CAD models and rapid prototyping and simulation techniques. MIDAS allows designers to ask 'what if' types of questions early in concept exploration and development prior to actual hardware development. The system outputs predictions of operator workload, situational awareness and system performance as well as graphical visualization of the cockpit designs interacting with models of the human in a mission scenario. Recently, MIDAS was re-designed to enhance functionality and usability. The goals driving the redesign include more efficient processing, GUI interface, advances in the memory structures, implementation of external vision models and audition. These changes were detailed in an earlier paper. Two Beta test sites with diverse applications have been chosen. One Beta test site is investigating the development of a new airframe and its interaction with the air traffic management system. The second Beta test effort will investigate 3D auditory cueing in conjunction with traditional visual cueing strategies including panel-mounted and heads-up displays. The progress and lessons learned on each of these projects will be discussed.

  5. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Staveland, Lowell


    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  6. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  7. An Intelligent Control System Based on Non-Invasive Man Machine Interaction

    Drungilas, Darius; Bielskis, Antanas Andrius; Denisov, Vitalij

    This paper presents further development of intelligent multi-agent based e-health care system for people with movement disabilities. The research results present further development of multi-layered model of this system with integration of fuzzy neural control of speed of two wheelchair type robots working in real time by providing movement support for disabled individuals. An approach of filtering of skin conductance (SC) signals using Nadaraya-Watson kernel regression smoothing for emotion recognition of disabled individuals is described and implemented in the system by R software tool. The unsupervised clustering by self organizing maps (SOM) of data sample of physiological parameters extracted from SC signals was proposed in order to reduce teacher noise as well as to increase of speed and accuracy of learning process of multi-layer perceptron (MLP) training.

  8. An Approach for Evaluating Reliability of Man-Machine System in Evolving Environment

    Wang Wuhong; Zhang Dianye; Cao Qi


    In this paper,the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) is first presented to discuss rationale and principal advantages and disadvantages.Then, based on operator behaviour paradigm which can describe human characteristics,an approach is formulated in a mathematical way as a means of evaluating the effect of operator erroneous actions on reliability of manmachine systems in dynamical evolving environment.

  9. Man-machine interface system for neuromuscular training and evaluation based on EMG and MMG signals.

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia


    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  10. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    Patricia Fernández


    Full Text Available This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System, a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS. In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  11. Allocatin of functions in man-machine systems: a perspective and literature review

    Price, H. E.; Maisano, R. E.; Van Cott, H. P.


    This report reviews the literature relevant to allocation of functions and presents a procedure for the allocation process applicable to nuclear power plant control rooms. An historical perspective of man's relationship with technology is given as background. Methods and models that have been developed to aid the allocation process are then considered, followed by examples of real-world applications. The relationship of allocation of function to the system development process is outlined. The report then turns to the proposed procedure of the allocation process.

  12. Man-machine dialogue design and challenges

    Landragin, Frederic


    This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man-machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author's development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intelligence, automated language processing, man-machine interfaces and notably multimodal or multimedia interfaces. Contents Part 1. Historical and Methodological Landmarks 1. An Assessment of the Evolution

  13. FY1995 distributed control of man-machine cooperative multi agent systems; 1995 nendo ningen kyochogata multi agent kikai system no jiritsu seigyo



    In the near future, distributed autonomous systems will be practical in many situations, e.g., interactive production systems, hazardous environments, nursing homes, and individual houses. The agents which consist of the distributed system must not give damages to human being and should be working economically. In this project man-machine cooperative multi agent systems are studied in many kind of respects, and basic design technology, basic control technique are developed by establishing fundamental theories and by constructing experimental systems. In this project theoretical and experimental studies are conducted in the following sub-projects: (1) Distributed cooperative control in multi agent type actuation systems (2) Control of non-holonomic systems (3) Man-machine Cooperative systems (4) Robot systems learning human skills (5) Robust force control of constrained systems In each sub-project cooperative nature between machine agent systems and human being, interference between artificial multi agents and environment and new function emergence in coordination of the multi agents and the environment, robust force control against for the environments, control methods for non-holonomic systems, robot systems which can mimic and learn human skills were studied. In each sub-project, some problems were hi-lighted and solutions for the problems have been given based on construction of experimental systems. (NEDO)

  14. System and Software Design for the Man Machine Interface System for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    Choi, Woong Seock; Kim, Chang Ho; Lee, Yoon Hee; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The design of the safety MMIS(Man Machine Interface System) system has been performed using POSAFE-Q Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The design of the non-safety MMIS has been performed using OPERASYSTEM Distributed Control System (DCS). This paper describes the design experiences from the design work of the MMIS using these new platforms. The SHN 1 and 2 MMIS has been developed using POSAFE-Q platform for safety and OPERASYSTEM for non-safety system. Through the utilization of the standardized platform, the safety system was developed using the above hardware and software blocks resulting in efficient safety system development. An integrated CASE tool has been setup for reliable software development. The integrated development environment has been setup formally resulting in consistent work. Even we have setup integrated development environment, the independent verification and validation including testing environment needs to be setup for more advanced environment which will be used for future plant.

  15. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.


    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  16. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.


    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  17. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    Speckert, G.C.


    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface.

  18. Design of Software of Command and Control System with Multitask and Man-machine Interaction Based on Tilcon%基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件设计

    朱伟; 许春雷; 孔军


    Tilcon是军事特别是指挥控制领域广泛使用的人机交互界面开发工具.简单介绍了Tilcon的组成和人机交互处理流程,分析了应用Tilcon处理多任务人机交互事件的不足,设计了一个基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件架构,并给出了具体实现方法.工程应用表明,该人机交互软件体系结构清晰,具有较好的健壮性、开放性和兼容性,可显著提高指控系统人机交互处理的实时性.%Tilcon is the main development tool of man-machine interaction of command and control system. Tilcon's composition and method of Man-machine Interaction are simply introduced. After analyzing the shortage of handling multitask and man-machine interaction with Tilcon, a multitask man-machine interaction software architecture of command and control system and a realizing method based on Tilcon are lay out. According to practical application, the architecture is legible, with preferable robustness, open and compatibility. It can obviously improve real-time performance of command and control system's Man-machine Interaction.

  19. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.


    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  20. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program: Phase 4 A(3)I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software detailed design document

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Constantine, Betsy; Murray, Jerry; Neukom, Christian; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell


    The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated suite of software components that constitutes a prototype workstation to aid designers in applying human factors principles to the design of complex human-machine systems. MIDAS is intended to be used at the very early stages of conceptual design to provide an environment wherein designers can use computational representations of the crew station and operator, instead of hardware simulators and man-in-the-loop studies, to discover problems and ask 'what if' questions regarding the projected mission, equipment, and environment. This document is the Software Product Specification for MIDAS. Introductory descriptions of the processing requirements, hardware/software environment, structure, I/O, and control are given in the main body of the document for the overall MIDAS system, with detailed discussion of the individual modules included in Annexes A-J.

  1. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.


    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity........This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  2. The Control of Man-machine Interface System Input Module%人机界面系统输入模块的控制方法



    The article describes a resistive touch screen as system input of the touch man-machine interface system based on MCU P89C51, and introduces the structure, operation methods and interface circuit design of 8x15 determinant resistive touch screen. The control method is described in detail.%介绍了一种基于P89C51单片机的触摸式人机界面系统中作为系统输入的电阻触摸屏,介绍了8x15行列式电阻触摸屏的结构、工作方式及接口电路的设计,并详细介绍了控制方法。

  3. Theory in the design of the man-machine engineering



    the article to the man - machine - environment system of interconnected and ergonomics of the content on the investigation and analysis of the role of design in detail, and shows the man-machine engineering opens up a new train of thought for design disciplines; Designer to design the content of the ascension to the height of the humanized design, make the design in line with the ergonomics principle and characteristics of the real reflects the respect of the design aspects of people's listening.

  4. Research on the Optical Quality of the Environment of Man-Machine System%人机系统光环境质量研究

    马广韬; 周洋


    On the light environment design,this paper applies the principles of lamp light distribution curve and makes rational use of natural lighting and artificial lighting integrating the buildings' function and form in order to create a pleasant light environment.The paper applies the lamp light distribution curve through field measurement and evaluation analysis,using calculation method of illumination,combining_with ergonomics principles,to evaluate the illumination and glare on Shenyang Jianzhu University library and conclude the influence factors to the quality of light environment.For large span library,on the premise of obtaining natural lighting through a good orientation,the atrium indirect daylight can make up for the shortage of side lighting and play a complementary role in indoor illumination in the maximum depth about 5m.In addition,if the reflection coefficient of desktop material is smaller,the light reflection illumination curve distribution will be more uniformed.And if the desktop color is too deep,the readers will be lead to eye fatigue.We provide new data to make the optical quality better and make the man-machine system achieve the harmonious unification,for readers to create a comfortable and efficient learning environment.%目的 研究在光环境设计中,合理利用天然采光和人工照明并与建筑的功能、形式有机地结合,创造宜人的光环境.方法 应用灯具的配光曲线原理,通过实地测量和分析评价,运用照度的计算方法,结合人机工程学原理,对建筑大学图书馆的照度及眩光进行评价,得出影响光环境质量的因素.结果 对于大跨度公共阅读工作区来说,在保证通过良好的朝向来获取自然光线的前提基础上,中庭间接采光在最大进深约5 m的范围内,可弥补仅靠侧窗采光的不足,对光环境中最重要的照度因素起到补充作用.另外,桌面材料的反射系数越小,其反射照度曲线的照度值分布越均匀,桌面颜色

  5. Man-machine interactions 3

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław


    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  6. Reliability Analysis of a Man-Machine System with Human Error%具有人为故障的人-机系统的可靠性分析

    常立波; 张玉峰


    介绍了一个具有人为故障的人-机系统的可修复模型,利用算子半群理论证明了新模型系统解的存在唯一性和指数型稳定性.另外,当故障率λ0→∞时,系统的瞬态可用度逼近弱解系统瞬态可用度.即,新模型系统逼近原模型弱解系统.%This paper presents the repairable model of a man-machine with human error. By operator theory ,the existence and uniqueness and the exponential stability of new model system is discussed in the paper.particularly,when Ao approaches to infinity, the instanta- neous stability of the system approach to the instantaneous stability of the weak solution of the system.That is, the new system approximate to the original system with mild solution.

  7. 步态训练机器人人机系统动力学仿真%Man-machine system dynamics simulation of a robot for gait training

    张立勋; 王令军; 王凤良; 王克宽; 高峻


    Based on MATLAB the man-machine system dynamics simulation of a six-degree-of-freedom robot for gait training was completed by applying the Newton-Euler method. The kinematics constraint equations and dynamics equations of the robot were given, and the constrained matrix equation (CME) of it was constituted. Gait characteristics of people walking on the flat ground were analyzed. Combined with the pressure model of people walking on the flat ground, with the MAT-LAB toolbox, the dynamics simulation model of the man-machine system was established, and the simulation analysis of the robot' s tracking of the gait of people walking on the flat ground was carried out. The simulation results verified that the robot has good adaptability to the biped load of people, and the dynamics parameters of the robot can be conveniently acquired,so the study provides theoretical bases for achieving the robot control and performance improvement.%基于MATLAB对6自由度步态训练机器人的人机系统进行了动力学仿真研究.应用Newton-Euler法,推导了机器人的运动约束方程和动力学方程,构成了机器人的约束矩阵方程(constrained matrix equation,CME);分析了正常人在平地行走时的步态特征,并给出了人在行走时双足对地面的压力模型,利用MATLAB工具箱建立了人机系统动力学仿真模型,并对机器人跟踪人在平地行走的步态轨迹进行了仿真分析.仿真结果表明,步态训练机器人对人的双足负载具有良好的适应能力,可以方便获取机器人的动力学参数.该研究为实现机器人的控制及性能改进提供了理论依据.

  8. Study and Development of a Simulation System for Dynamic Evaluation on Man-machine Interface Design of Advanced Main Control Rooms of Nuclear Power Plants

    YangXiaojing; ZhouZhiwei; ChenXiaoming; MaYuanle; LiFu; DongYujie; WuWei; OhiTadashi


    Since the man-machine interfaces (MMI) of a main control room provide the control platform of a nuclear power plant (NPP),the development of the design quality of MMIs plays a very important role in the operation of a NPP. With the development of digital technology, the development of the advanced main control rooms (AMCRs) has become an inexorable trend. Therefore, the positive and the negative effects of AMCRs on human factors engineering need to be evaluated. For this p~, a simulation system has been studied and developed to quantitatively evaluate a MMI design from the viewpoint of human factors. The simulation system takes advantage of computer simulation technology to simulate an operating process of an interaction between operators and a MMI design under an instruction of an operation procedure of the AMCR of a NPP. Meanwhile, the necessary data are recorded for evaluation. It integrates two editors and one simulator. In the paper, the simulation system is presented in detail. Furthermore, one sample is given to show the results of each of these three subsystems.

  9. CaseMIDAS - A reactive planning architecture for the man-machine integration design and analysis system

    Pease, R. Adam


    MIDAS is a set of tools which allow a designer to specify the physical and functional characteristics of a complex system such as an aircraft cockpit, and analyze the system with regard to human performance. MIDAS allows for a number of static analyses such as military standard reach and fit analysis, display legibility analysis, and vision polars. It also supports dynamic simulation of mission segments with 3d visualization. MIDAS development has incorporated several models of human planning behavior. The CaseMIDAS effort has been to provide a simplified and unified approach to modeling task selection behavior. Except for highly practiced, routine procedures, a human operator exhibits a cognitive effort while determining what step to take next in the accomplishment of mission tasks. Current versions of MIDAS do not model this effort in a consistent and inclusive manner. CaseMIDAS also attempts to address this issue. The CaseMIDAS project has yielded an easy to use software module for case creation and execution which is integrated with existing MIDAS simulation components.

  10. Combat Automation for Airborne Weapon Systems: Man/Machine Interface Trends and Technologies (L’Automatisation du Combat Aerien: Tendances et Technologies pour l’Interface Homme/Machine)


    d’action alternatives. Un Systeme bien integre doit concilier dc multiples sources de donnees, potentiellement contradictoires, relatives aux situations...comments constitute my persona ! evaluations of and observations on the content of each presentation. In no sen»; at they intended to summarize the...Aircraft Combat. Evaluation Aid, Expert Sys- tem, Man Machine Interface. 24-2 1-INTRODUCTION Dans les missions atSriennes aussi bien reelles que

  11. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg


    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  12. 舰载C3I系统人机可靠性模糊综合评估%Fuzzy Integrated Evaluation on Man-Machine Reliability of Shipboard C3I System

    许腾; 盖世昌; 朱智


    Based on an analysis of man-machine relationship and the influential factors of the manmachine reliability of the shipboard CSI system, an index system for evaluating the man-machine reliability of a shipboard C3I system is proposed. By the method for fuzz sets and membership function, a membership function for the reliability of "man" factor is given. Two man-machine reliability evaluation models on fuzzy close-degree and ideal membership are built. The models are examined against surveys on naval ship forces. Results indicate that models are valid and usable.%基于舰载C3I系统人机关系和人机可靠性影响因素的全面分析,提出了舰载C3I系统人机可靠性的评估指标体系。利用模糊集和隶属度函数的方法,提出了人的可靠性隶属度函数,据此分别建立了基于模糊贴近度和理想隶属度的舰载C3I系统的人机可靠性评估模型,并根据舰艇部队实际调查数据对模型进行了验证。结果证明该评估模型有效、可行。

  13. The reported incidence of man-machine interface issues in Army aviators using the Aviator's Night Vision System (ANVIS) in a combat theatre

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.


    Background: Army Aviators rely on the ANVIS for night operations. Human factors literature notes that the ANVIS man-machine interface results in reports of visual and spinal complaints. This is the first study that has looked at these issues in the much harsher combat environment. Last year, the authors reported on the statistically significant (p89,000 flight hours of which >22,000 were with ANVIS) participated. Analysis demonstrated high complaints of almost all levels of back and neck pain. Additionally, the use of body armor and other Aviation Life Support Equipment (ALSE) caused significant ergonomic complaints when used with ANVIS. Conclusions: ANVIS use in a combat environment resulted in higher and different types of reports of spinal symptoms and other man-machine interface issues over what was previously reported. Data from this study may be more operationally relevant than that of the peacetime literature as it is derived from actual combat and not from training flights, and it may have important implications about making combat predictions based on performance in training scenarios. Notably, Aircrew remarked that they could not execute the mission without ANVIS and ALSE and accepted the degraded ergonomic environment.

  14. Man-Machine Interface Design for Modeling and Simulation Software

    Arnstein J. Borstad


    Full Text Available Computer aided design (CAD systems, or more generally interactive software, are today being developed for various application areas like VLSI-design, mechanical structure design, avionics design, cartographic design, architectual design, office automation, publishing, etc. Such tools are becoming more and more important in order to be productive and to be able to design quality products. One important part of CAD-software development is the man-machine interface (MMI design.

  15. MARTI: man-machine animation real-time interface

    Jones, Christian M.; Dlay, Satnam S.


    The research introduces MARTI (man-machine animation real-time interface) for the realization of natural human-machine interfacing. The system uses simple vocal sound-tracks of human speakers to provide lip synchronization of computer graphical facial models. We present novel research in a number of engineering disciplines, which include speech recognition, facial modeling, and computer animation. This interdisciplinary research utilizes the latest, hybrid connectionist/hidden Markov model, speech recognition system to provide very accurate phone recognition and timing for speaker independent continuous speech, and expands on knowledge from the animation industry in the development of accurate facial models and automated animation. The research has many real-world applications which include the provision of a highly accurate and 'natural' man-machine interface to assist user interactions with computer systems and communication with one other using human idiosyncrasies; a complete special effects and animation toolbox providing automatic lip synchronization without the normal constraints of head-sets, joysticks, and skilled animators; compression of video data to well below standard telecommunication channel bandwidth for video communications and multi-media systems; assisting speech training and aids for the handicapped; and facilitating player interaction for 'video gaming' and 'virtual worlds.' MARTI has introduced a new level of realism to man-machine interfacing and special effect animation which has been previously unseen.

  16. 轮椅人机系统设计与分析%Design and Analysis of Man-machine System about Wheelchair

    吴晓莉; 刘君清; 黄迎亚


    通过对轮椅各部分的阐述,提出了目前轮椅设计的不合理性,并从轮椅结构及人体尺寸2方面进行了人机工程分析.结合中国成年人坐姿标准尺寸,从人体测量学角度,进行了轮椅尺寸的设计,并按照功能修正的方法,设定了轮椅的主要设计尺寸,绘出了标准尺寸的轮椅视图.根据残疾人、老年人对其舒适的需求,以靠背、坐垫、脚踏、手推柄为例进行了一系列的舒适性设计.%It describes structure of the wheelchair, puts forward that the current wheelchair design is not reasonable. Based on analysis of the man -machine for human body posture and wheelchair structure, it combines our country's adult sitting standard size with the anthropometry angle, designs the wheelchair size, proposes the function correction method, draws the standard size of the wheelchair view. According to the disabled and senior citizens, the comfortable demand to back of a chair, cushion, foot, hand push handle, it shows a series of comfort design.

  17. Task 8.6 -- Advanced man machine interface (MMI)



    The Solar/DOE ATS engine program seeks to improve the utilization of turbomachinery resources through the development of an Advanced Man Machine Interface (MMI). The program goals include timely and succinct feedback to the operations personnel to enhance their decision making process. As part of the Solar ATS Phase 2 technology development program, enabling technologies, including graphics environments, communications technology, and operating systems were explored to determine their viability to support the overall MMI requirements. This report discusses the research and prototyping effort, as well as the conclusions reached.


    Jingyuan YU; Xiaoji ZHOU; Shan FENG


    The target of Hall for Workshop of Meta-synthetic Engineering (HWMSE) is to organically combine the human expert systems, machine systems and knowledge systems so as to realize meta-syntheses. The availability of HWMSE embodies in capabilities of knowledge using and knowledge creation. In HWMSE the knowledge systems could be classed into two types: general knowledge system and object knowledge system. A highly strong and continually accumulated object knowledge system is essential for complex system problem solving. Systematic study of the object system is the foundation for knowledge system construction in HWMSE. It is important to design the knowledge system as a whole for systematic research while at the meanwhile open for accumulation through utilization. Case of object knowledge system construction and utilization in the project Research on the Man-machine Collaborated HWMSE Supporting Macroeconomic Policy Making is discussed.

  19. Advanced man-machine interaction. Fundamentals and implementation

    Kraiss, K.F. (ed.) [Aachen Technische Hochschule (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Informatik und Computerwissenschaften


    Man-machine interaction is the gateway providing access to functions and services, which, due to the ever increasing complexity of smart systems, threatens to become a bottleneck. This book therefore introduces not only advanced interfacing concepts, but also gives insight into the related theoretical background.This refers mainly to the realization of video-based multimodal interaction via gesture, mimics, and speech, but also to interacting with virtual object in virtual environments, cooperating with local or remote robots, and user assistance. While most publications in the field of human factors engineering focus on interface design, this book puts special emphasis on implementation aspects. To this end it is accompanied by software development environments for image processing, classification, and virtual environment implementation. In addition a test data base is included for gestures, head pose, facial expressions, full-body person recognition, and people tracking. These data are used for the examples throughout the book, but are also meant to encourage the reader to start experimentation on his own. Thus the book may serve as a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of man-machine interfaces. It may also be used for graduate-level university courses. (orig.)

  20. 模型驱动的复杂人机系统过程建模仿真方法%Model driven process modeling and simulation of complex man-machine systems

    雷永林; 朱一凡; 谭跃进; 杨峰; 姚剑


    Complex man-machine systems (CMMS),as one of the most challenging areas in the field of sys-tems engineering,encompass complex technological machine behavior,cognitive decision-making behavior,and collaborative man-machine interaction behavior.In many cases,modeling and simulation (M&S)is the only via-ble approach to analyze the performance and effectiveness of CMMS.Various behavior and process modeling and representation methods applied to CMMS are briefed.Taking complex systems and their engagement-level com-bating as an representative example of CMMS,a behavior and process modeling framework featured with a physical-cognitive-structural separation is proposed based on the model driven development (MDD)paradigm.A set of modeling technologies including multiple formalism modeling and domain-specific modeling are employed to better design the simulation models of CMMS behavior and process.The proposed model driven modeling methodology is also applicable to the behavior and process modeling and simulation of other CMMS.%复杂人机系统涉及复杂的技术系统过程、认知决策过程以及人机协同过程,是当前系统工程研究最具挑战的领域之一。建模仿真在很多情况下是分析复杂人机系统过程性能效能的唯一可行选择。分析了复杂人机系统过程建模以及系统仿真模型表示的主要方法。结合平台级作战过程建模应用问题,给出了一种物理域、认知域、模型框架三分的复杂人机系统过程建模框架。在模型驱动方法的指导下,综合运用多方法建模、领域特定建模等方法讨论了复杂人机系统过程仿真模型设计问题。对其他领域的复杂人机系统过程建模仿真问题研究具有示范意义。

  1. Laboratory for Engineering Man/Machine Systems (LEMS): System identification, model reduction and deconvolution filtering using Fourier based modulating signals and high order statistics

    Pan, Jianqiang


    Several important problems in the fields of signal processing and model identification, such as system structure identification, frequency response determination, high order model reduction, high resolution frequency analysis, deconvolution filtering, and etc. Each of these topics involves a wide range of applications and has received considerable attention. Using the Fourier based sinusoidal modulating signals, it is shown that a discrete autoregressive model can be constructed for the least squares identification of continuous systems. Some identification algorithms are presented for both SISO and MIMO systems frequency response determination using only transient data. Also, several new schemes for model reduction were developed. Based upon the complex sinusoidal modulating signals, a parametric least squares algorithm for high resolution frequency estimation is proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance than the usual. Also, the problem was studied of deconvolution and parameter identification of a general noncausal nonminimum phase ARMA system driven by non-Gaussian stationary random processes. Algorithms are introduced for inverse cumulant estimation, both in the frequency domain via the FFT algorithms and in the domain via the least squares algorithm.

  2. The driver in the 21st century. Demands, applications, aspects of man-machine systems. Lectures; Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert. Anforderungen, Anwendungen, Aspekte fuer Mensch-Maschine-Systeme. Plenarvortraege



    A high grade of mobility is the basis of our economic development. The innovations in the automotive- and deliver industry lead to different fulfillments of customer expectations on vehicle operation. Also in the railway sector increasing requirements on the operators involve a change of view within design of man-machine interfaces. The transmission of information and transfer of reactions require advanced and balanced concepts for operating and monitoring of modern automobiles. The integral connection of competence in technology, design and ergonomics, sense- and traffic psychology as well as legal problems lead to new challenges and possibilities. (GL) [German] Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert - Anforderungen, Anwendungen, Aspekte fuer Mensch-Maschine-Systeme - unter diesem Motto wird die interessante Fachtagung ''Der Fahrer im 21. Jahrhundert'' fortgefuehrt. Ein hohes Mass an Mobilitaet ist Grundlage unserer wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Die Innovationen in der Automobil- und Zuliefererindustrie fuehren zu einer differenzierten Erfuellung der Kundenerwartungen an die Bedienung der Fahrzeuge. Auch im Bereich Bahn bedingen die steigenden Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugfuehrer ein Umdenken bei der Gestaltung der Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle. Die Vermittlung von Informationen und die Umsetzung adaequater Reaktionen erfordern neue und ausgewogene Konzepte fuer das Bedienen und Beobachten moderner Fahrzeuge. Die integrale Verbindung von Kompetenz in Technologie, Design und Ergonomie, Wahrnehmungs- und Verkehrspsychologie sowie rechtlichen Fragestellungen fuehren hier zu neuen Herausforderungen und Moeglichkeiten. Die Tagung moechte wieder visionaere Loesungsansaetze aufzeigen und auch das Machbare diskutieren. Nutzen Sie die Gelegenheit, mit namhaften Referenten aus Industrie und Wissenschaft, Fach- und Fuehrungskraeften zu sprechen und auf dieser Veranstaltung neue Bedien- und Informationskonzepte, Teilloesungen fuer die unterschiedlichen Fahraufgaben

  3. 基于工效学的舰桥人机界面数字化评估系统%Man-machine interfaces digital assessment system for bridge based on ergonomics

    余昆; 颜声远


    The digital human model of Chinese was developed,and the assessment indexes system was constructed based on hierarchy analysis method.The bottom assessment indexes were extracted from related ergonomic standards,and the indexes weights were determined.The quantizing methods of assessment indexes were studied,and a fuzzy theory based quantizing model was developed for qualitative indexes.The digital assessment system for bridge was developed by using UG/Open.The mentioned digital human model,assessment indexes system,quantizing model and standards were integrated into the assessment system.With employing the digital design function of Unigraphics NX,the assessment system can complete the man-machine interfaces assessment and improvement work just during the design phase.%开发用于人机界面评估的数字化中国人体模型,根据层次分析法原理构建舰桥人机界面评估指标体系;依据相关工效学设计准则,提取底层评估指标,并确定指标在评估体系中的权重值;研究定量和定性指标的量化方法,建立基于模糊理论的定性指标量化方法模型.采用UG/Open开发数字化的评估系统,集成人体模型、评估指标体系、指标量化方法及设计准则等.评估系统融合了Unigraphics NX数字化设计功能,实现了在设计阶段即完成舰桥人机界面的评估和改进工作.

  4. Realization theory for rational systems

    Ně mcová, J.; Schuppen, J.H. van


    In this paper we solve the problem of realization of response maps for rational systems. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a response map to be realizable by a rational system are presented. The properties of rational realizations such as observability, controllability, and minimality are stud

  5. Design of Maritime Satellite Navigation Equipment Man-Machine Interactive Software Based on ReWorks Operating System%基于ReWorks操作系统海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件开发


    针对海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件,引入了ReWorks操作系统,研究了基于ReWorks的应用软件开发方法,使用ReDe开发环境和DirectX工具实现了海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件的设计开发,最后工程实践表明其正确性和有效性。%According to maritime satellite navigation equipment man-machine interactive software, ReWorks operating system is introduced, software development methods Based on ReWorks operating system is studied, maritime satellite navigation equipment man-machine interactive software design is realized by using the development environment of ReDe and DirectX tool. The final project application proved its correctness and effectiveness.

  6. 基于ARM和Linux的埋弧焊自动控制系统人机界面设计%Design of Man-machine Interface of SAW Control System Based on ARM and Linux

    张文明; 鞠洪涛; 刘鸿钧


    The disadvantages of traditional SAW control system was analyzed. A new kind of man-machine interface for them was designed The control core of the system is S3C2440A, a kind of ARM 9 processor which is made by Samsung Electronics Co.Ltd, and a 640*480 TFT LCD was used. This design transplanted an embedded Linux on the basis of hardware, and how to develop a GUI (Graphical User Interface) with the help of Qt and its C++ class library was introduced. The operators can input the welding parameters, control and even monitor the welding process. This design can achieve the functions such as saving parameters, drawing parameters graphics, abnormalities alarm and outputting VGA signals.%分析了传统埋弧焊控制系统的弊端,并设计了一种新型的埋弧焊控制系统的人机界面.控制核心采用了三星公司的ARM9处理器S3C2440A,使用640*480的TFT液晶显示器.在硬件的基础上移植了嵌入式Linux操作系统,并详细介绍了使用Qt提供的C++类库设计图形用户界面的方法.操作人员可以通过菜单和对话框等形式对焊接过程进行参数输入、过程控制和监视.可以实现焊接参数的保存、监视、绘制参数变化图像、出差报警、VGA输出等功能.

  7. Display Technology Research of Gun Loading System in 3D and Real-time Man-machine Interface%火炮装填系统实时三维人机界面显示技术研究

    张瑞霞; 魏宁波; 郑海鹏; 潘江峰


    A kind of man-machine interface that can display the gun loading system in 3D real-time was de-signed to form a mode of 3D model &data drive by use of combining the traditional virtual prototype tech-nology with bus communication technology.Field sensor data were collected by means of CAN bus,and data process was performed according to communication protocols.Corresponding variable quantity of the component model with processed data were decided and thus to display the real-time running state of the current component model,and the virtual prototype can realize the accuracy and consistent virtual scene a-greed with the actual loading system at the operation terminal.This method can obtain the real-time dis-play effect of visualization,enhance the reality sense of operation staff as well as the authenticity and in-teractivity of combat command personnel,and greatly improve the practicability of the command automa-tion system.%实现了一种火炮装填系统三维实时显示的人机界面,将传统虚拟现实与总线通信技术结合起来,形成一种三维模型+数据驱动的模式。通过CAN总线采集现场传感器数据并根据通信协议进行数据处理,再将运算后的数据赋予部件模型对应的变量,使界面显示出当前部件模型的实时运行状态,从而在操作终端实现与实际装填系统状态准确一致的虚拟视景。此方法达到了可视化的实时显示效果,增强了操作手的真实感,以及作战指挥人员的真实性和交互性,提高了指挥自动化系统的实用性。

  8. Quantitative evaluation of impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface

    Onish, Keiichi [Yamaha Motor Co., Shizuoka (Japan); Kim, Young Woo [Daegu Techno Park R and D Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Obinata, Goro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hase, Kazunori [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)


    We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.

  9. Some trends in man-machine interface design for industrial process plants

    Rasmussen, Jens


    The demands for an efficient and reliable man-machine inter-face in industrial process plant are increasing due to the steadily growing size and complexity of installations. At the same time, computerized technology offers the possibility of powerful and effective solutions to designers....... In the paper, problems related to interface design, operator training and human reliability are discussed in the light of this technological development, and an integrated approach to system design based on a consistent model or framework describing the man-machine interaction is advocated.The work presented...... is part of a Scandinavian research project sponsored by the Board of Nordic Ministers, for the study of control room design and human reliability in nuclear power plants....

  10. Man-machine Function Allocation Based on Uncertain Linguistic Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    ZHANG An; TANG Zhili; ZHANG Chao


    Function allocation is one of the necessary stages in the design course of man-machine systems since appropriate function allocation makes the whole system more effective,reliable and inexpensive.Therefore,our research mainly focuses on the problems of function allocation between man and machine in man-machine systems,analyses each capability advantage of man and machine according to their respective inherent characteristics and makes a comparison between them.In view of highly uncertain characteristics of decision attribute value in the practical process,we introduce the uncertain linguistic multiple attribute decision making (ULMADM) method in the function allocation process.Meanwhile,we also use the uncertain extended weighted arithmetic averaging (UEWAA) method to determine the automation level range of the operator functions.Then,we eventually establish the automation level of man-machine function allocation by using the multi-attribute decision making algorithm,which is combined by UEWAA and uncertain linguistic hybrid aggregation (ULHA) operators.Finally,an example about function allocation is given,that is,fault diagnosis in the cockpit of civil aircraft.The final result of the example demonstrates that the proposed method about function allocation is feasible and effective.

  11. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Nicogossian, A. E.


    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  12. Man-Man-Machine-Machine Etiquette: Towards an Environment to Investigate Behavioral Rules for Dynamic Man-Machine Teams


    simulation (compound and environment) Sensor Simulation Agents (Guards, decision support, sensor support) Man-Machine Interface Ground Truth ( RPR ) G...10]). It is desired to make this interface based on existing standards. HLA is chosen for the M4E interface. The HLA RPR FOM is a data exchange...Definitions For M4E we have define the following additional classes to the RPR FOM: Table 1: Additional FOM classes. Object Classes Interaction Classes

  13. Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System

    HUANG Ling


    Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c>0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c<0.

  14. Man-machine interactive imaging and data processing using high-speed digital mass storage

    Alsberg, H.; Nathan, R.


    The role of vision in teleoperation has been recognized as an important element in the man-machine control loop. In most applications of remote manipulation, direct vision cannot be used. To overcome this handicap, the human operator's control capabilities are augmented by a television system. This medium provides a practical and useful link between workspace and the control station from which the operator perform his tasks. Human performance deteriorates when the images are degraded as a result of instrumental and transmission limitations. Image enhancement is used to bring out selected qualities in a picture to increase the perception of the observer. A general purpose digital computer, an extensive special purpose software system is used to perform an almost unlimited repertoire of processing operations.

  15. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling Human Emotions through Biosignals

    van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.

  16. 作战飞机人机功能分配方法%Search after Methods of Man-Machine Function Allocation of Combat Aircraft

    柳平; 胡孟权; 胡文东; 贾联慧; 陈军


    According to the Man-Machine function allocation requirements of the aircraft design, combined with the characteristics of Man-Machine cooperation, this article comprehensively studies on the principle and method of function allocation of Man-Machine during the design of Man-Machine system. The general flow of the function allocation is established, combined with the qualitative and quantitative analysis and used the Fuzzy mathematics method to found the model of function allocation. It provides a new method reference to the Man-Machine function allocation for the aircraft design.%根据现代作战飞机设计对人机功能分配的需求,结合执行任务过程中人机协作的特点及一般协同工作模式,综合考虑人机功能分配的一般方法,研究了作战飞机设计中人机功能分配的原则和方法.建立了适于大型作战飞机的功能分配一般流程,运用定性和定量相结合的分析方法,引入多目标模糊决策的数学方法,建立了人机功能分配的一般模型.为飞机设计中合理进行人机功能分配提供了一种新的参考方法.

  17. State of the art in nuclear telerobotics: focus on the man/machine connection

    Greaves, Amna E.


    The interface between the human controller and remotely operated device is a crux of telerobotic investigation today. This human-to-machine connection is the means by which we communicate our commands to the device, as well as the medium for decision-critical feedback to the operator. The amount of information transferred through the user interface is growing. This can be seen as a direct result of our need to support added complexities, as well as a rapidly expanding domain of applications. A user interface, or UI, is therefore subject to increasing demands to present information in a meaningful manner to the user. Virtual reality, and multi degree-of-freedom input devices lend us the ability to augment the man/machine interface, and handle burgeoning amounts of data in a more intuitive and anthropomorphically correct manner. Along with the aid of 3-D input and output devices, there are several visual tools that can be employed as part of a graphical UI that enhance and accelerate our comprehension of the data being presented. Thus an advanced UI that features these improvements would reduce the amount of fatigue on the teleoperator, increase his level of safety, facilitate learning, augment his control, and potentially reduce task time. This paper investigates the cutting edge concepts and enhancements that lead to the next generation of telerobotic interface systems.

  18. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    Kopytova A.V.


    The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...

  19. Dialogue-Based Research in Man-Machine Communication


    it is based on case analysis rather than functional system design, the results are in the form of individual computer algorithms (much smaller than systems), and the algorithms are transferable into useful (nonresearch) systems.

  20. Attempt on construction of human friendly man-machine interface. Study and apply about human communication; Human friendly na man machine interface kochiku no kokoromi. Ningen no communication no kento to sono oyo

    Tatsuno, J. [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Kokubo, Y.; Matsumura, I.; Kobayashi, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes an attempt on a construction way of human friendly man-machine interface. At first, we do a simple experiment to find out the characteristic of human verbal communication. From the experimental results, we get some rules in case in human verbal communication. We construct the man-machine interface which is based on these rules. Through teaching process, we examine our verbal communication interface comparing with conventional interfaces. From this comparison, we recognize that the verbal communication interface is valid to construct the user-friendly man-machine interface. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Patterns in rational base number systems

    Morgenbesser, Johannes F; Thuswaldner, Jörg


    Number systems with a rational number $a/b > 1$ as base have gained interest in recent years. In particular, relations to Mahler's 3/2-problem as well as the Josephus problem have been established. In the present paper we show that the patterns of digits in the representations of positive integers in such a number system are uniformly distributed. We study the sum-of-digits function of number systems with rational base $a/b$ and use representations w.r.t. this base to construct normal numbers in base $a$ in the spirit of Champernowne. The main challenge in our proofs comes from the fact that the language of the representations of integers in these number systems is not context-free. The intricacy of this language makes it impossible to prove our results along classical lines. In particular, we use self-affine tiles that are defined in certain subrings of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$ and Fourier analysis in $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$. With help of these tools we are able to reformulate our results as ...

  2. The APS intranet as a man-machine interface.

    Ciarlette, D.; Gerig, R.; McDowell, W.


    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has implemented a number of methods for people to interact with the accelerator systems. The accelerator operators use Sun workstations running MEDM and WCL to interface interactively with the accelerator, however, many people need to view information rather than interact with the machine. One of the most common interfaces for viewing information at the Advanced Photon Source is the World Wide Web. Information such as operations logbook entries, machine status updates, and displays of archived and current data are easily available to APS personnel. This interface between people and the accelerator has proven to be quite useful. Because the Intranet is operating-system independent and inherently unidirectional, ensuring the prevention of unauthorized or accidental control of the accelerators is straightforward.

  3. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    Gerovitch, Slava


    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  4. An information theory based approach for quantitative evaluation of man-machine interface complexity

    Kang, Hyun Gook


    In complex and high-risk work conditions, especially such as in nuclear power plants, human understanding of the plant is highly cognitive and thus largely dependent on the effectiveness of the man-machine interface system. In order to provide more effective and reliable operating conditions for future nuclear power plants, developing more credible and easy to use evaluation methods will afford great help in designing interface systems in a more efficient manner. In this study, in order to analyze the human-machine interactions, I propose the Human-processor Communication(HPC) model which is based on the information flow concept. It identifies the information flow around a human-processor. Information flow has two aspects: appearance and content. Based on the HPC model, I propose two kinds of measures for evaluating a user interface from the viewpoint of these two aspects of information flow. They measure the communicative complexity of each aspect. In this study, for the evaluation of the aspect of appearance, I propose three complexity measures: Operation Complexity, Transition Complexity, and Screen Complexity. Each one of these measures has its own physical meaning. Two experiments carried out in this work support the utility of these measures. The result of the quiz game experiment shows that as the complexity of task context increases, the usage of the interface system becomes more complex. The experimental results of the three example systems(digital view, LDP style view and hierarchy view) show the utility of the proposed complexity measures. In this study, for the evaluation of the aspect of content, I propose the degree of informational coincidence, R (K, P) as a measure for the usefulness of an alarm-processing system. It is designed to perform user-oriented evaluation based on the informational entropy concept. It will be especially useful inearly design phase because designers can estimate the usefulness of an alarm system by short calculations instead

  5. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)


    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area.

  6. Uniform Ration Cost System - Summary Report


    of food util.ization data from five civil ian organizations judged to be comparable to DoD feeding. Common characteristics included the age, sex ...of this important linkage between the NRL and the FCI, a linkage affecting millions of dollars of subsistence funds annually, there is no legally...lake trout, pickerel, salmon, sole, swordfish , whitefish) or Scallops, fresh or frozen 76 Maximum Daily Ration (ounces) 12 9 9 9 12 12 12

  7. 基于人机工程学的机械操作面板设计研究%The machinery operation panel design and study based on man-machine engineering



    Staring from the man-machine interface design concept, fully consider people's factors, the mechanical operation interface design principles and human environment relationship is studied. The operation panel maximum limit match with human body structure. For the operator to create a safe, healthy and comfortable environment. Makes the man-machine system to play out maximum efficiency.%从人机界面设计的概念入手,充分考虑人的因素,对机械操作界面的设计原则和人机环境关系进行了研究,最终使操作面板最大限度地与人体结构相匹配,为操作者创造一个安全、健康、舒适的操作环境,使人机系统发挥出最大的效率.

  8. Innovation in energy systems: a case study of gasoline rationing

    Sullivan, M.C.


    The purpose of the study is to develop a theoretical understanding of the implementation of new programs (innovations) by organizations, verify concepts with a case study of gasoline rationing, and apply knowledge gained to an analysis of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Major hypotheses of the study are: (1) Role specialization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (2) Decentralization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (3) Role specialization hinders implementation during the later stage. (4) Centralization is required during the later stage of implementation. The concept of technology delivery system is employed to demonstrate how organizational structure (degree of specialization centralization, etc.) is related to technological requirements and social need. The four major hypotheses were verified with the innovation theory as well as the case study of rationing. Application to the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan leads to the conclusion that major problems would occur with plan implementation.

  9. Design of the Man-machine Interface Used in Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter%光伏并网逆变器人机界面设计

    余峰; 张志华; 张鹏; 梁星星


    Abstract: In this paper, the technology of the soft and the hardware used in photovoltaic grid-connected inverter is stated. The man-machine interface collects parameter of running state, and transfers data to upper computer monitor system. The designs of%本文阐述了用于光伏并网逆变器的人机界面的软硬件设计技术。该人机界面的主要功能是对系统的运行参数进行采集和监控,并向上位机上传数据。并详细介绍了液晶显示、触摸屏及通讯接口的设计。

  10. Game Over Interdependent Networks: Rationality Makes the System Inherent Deficient

    Fan, Yuhang; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian


    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own interest. In this paper, we study the game over interdependent networks, investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the whole system. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation between different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare only when the average degree of each network is constant. Otherwise, there may be a huge gap between the Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare. Therefore, the rationality of different entities that operates these networks makes the system inherently deficient and even extremely vulnerable in some cases. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of inte...

  11. Man-machine interaction in the 21st century--new paradigms through dynamic scene analysis and synthesis (Keynote Speech)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Orchard, Michael T.


    The past twenty years have witnessed a revolution in the use of computers in virtually every facet of society. While this revolution has been largely fueled by dramatic technological advances, the efficient application of this technology has been made possible through advances in the paradigms defining the way users interact with computers. Today's massive computational power would probably have limited sociological impact is users still communicated with computers via the binary machine language codes used in the 1950's. Instead, this primitive paradigm was replaced by keyboards and ASCII character displays in the 1970's, and the 'mouse' and multiple-window bit-mapped displays in the 1980's. As continuing technological advances make even larger computational power available in the future, advanced paradigms for man-machine interaction will be required to allow this power to be used efficiently in a wide range of applications. Looking ahead into the 21st century, we see paradigms supporting radically new ways of interacting with computers. Ideally, we would like these interactions to mimic the ways we interact with objects and people in the physical world, and, to achieve this goal, we believe that it is essential to consider the exchange of video data into and out of the computer. Paradigms based on visual interactions represent a radical departure from existing paradigms, because they allow the computer to actively seek out information from the user via dynamic scene analysis. For example, the computer might enlarge the display when it detects that the user if squinting, or it might reorient a three- dimensional object on the screen in response to detected hand motions. This contrasts with current paradigms in which the computer relies on passive switching devices (keyboard, mouse, buttons, etc.) to receive information. Feedback will be provided to the user via dynamic scene synthesis, employing stereoscopic three-dimensional display systems. To exploit the

  12. Rational function systems and electrical networks with multiparameters

    Lu, KaiSheng


    To overcome the problems of system theory and network theory over real field, this book uses matrices over the field F(z) of rational functions in multiparameters describing coefficient matrices of systems and networks and makes systems and network description over F(z) and researches their structural properties: reducible condition of a class of matrices over F(z) and their characteristic polynomial; type1 matrix and two basic properties; variable replacement conditions for independent parameters; structural controllability and observability of linear systems over F(z); separability, reducibi

  13. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.


    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  14. MoTiV. Subproject: Man-Machine-Interface (MMI). Final report; Mobilitaet und Transport im intermodalen Verkehr (MoTiV). Teilprojekt: Man-Machine-Interface (MMI) - Sicherheit im Strassenverkehr. Projektabschlussbericht

    Ruehl, H.W. [VDO Car Communication, Wetzlar (Germany)


    The program Motiv was initiated to solve or reduce the problems related to the continuously rising traffic density. The subproject Man-Machine-Interface (MMI) aimed at: - Common specification and collection of speech databases - development of robust methods to recognize speech in the automotive environment - adaptation of voice operated MMIs to the car environment - study of driver behaviour in traffic critical situations - study of driver acceptance and behaviour for new functions and services - development of objective methods to measure safety of use for automotive user interfaces - improvement of a method for objective visibility range estimation. Extensive studies were executed to validate distraction criteria for interaction with displays and control devices. Interaction concepts with improved traffic safety were designed and tested. New measuring technologies and tools were designed. In parallel, practical implementations of e.g. voice controlled MMIs were developed and tested in the field. The project met its goals. Two companies developed new automotive speech recognisers, two demonstrators for a voice controlled automotive MMI were developed. Five speech databases were collected and distributed within the consortium. For speech recognition API and estimation of visibility range, standards and standardisation proposals were achieved. Two tools with different scope to measure safety and ease of use for user interface designs were developed and iteratively improved. Studies on driver behaviour in critical situations will help to improve design guidelines for automotive user interfaces. (orig.) [German] Das MOTIV Programm wurde initiiert, um die Probleme, die das kontinuierlich ansteigende Verkehrsaufkommen auf Verkehrsfluss, Sicherheit und Umwelt hat, zu mindern oder zu loesen. Das vorliegende Teilprojekt Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle (MMI) hatte folgende Ziele: - Gemeinsame Spezifikation und Sammlung von Sprachdatenbasen - Entwicklung von robusten

  15. Man-machine interactive system simplifies computer-aided circuit design

    Bavuso, S. J.


    Langley interactive computerized circuit analysis capability /LICCA/ enables designer to draw electronic circuit diagrams on cathode ray tube screen. This information is submitted as input to user-selected circuit analysis program. LICCA accommodates binary logic circuits and circuits with discrete components, and monitors operator's instructions to detect errors.

  16. Man-Machine Impact of Technology on Coast Guard Missions and Systems


    will be used in extra-legal ways; growth in capabilities to predict natural catastro - phies; and growing potential for accidents. 0 The marine...continuous surveillance of the coast line and offshore areas, arid (2) Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) similar to present drone aircraft, cxipable of being

  17. Challenges to a Man-Machine Interface System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    When the APR1400 project started nearly 20 years ago, advanced features such as intelligent alarms, computer-based procedures, and soft control technology were introduced. Although some of these technologies had been utilized in fossil plants, APR1400 opened a new horizon in MMIS for nuclear power plants. Currently, however, it appears that further challenges do not exist in the MMIS area. Engineers are simply busy in designing and constructing the next nuclear plant without exploiting the new features of MMIS. This paper explains newly emerging and feasible technology and suggests new ideas for MMIS compared with other industries.

  18. Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man Machine Interface Research


    sensor platforms. In this project, we aim to develop distributed algorithms to optimally sense dynamically changing environments by formulating synthetic...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Daniel Pack Daniel Pack , Yufei Huang, Chunjiang Qian, Victor Maldonado, and David Akopian 106012 c...sensor platforms. In this project, we aim to develop distributed algorithms to optimally sense dynamically changing environments by formulating

  19. A Model for Predicting Integrated Man-Machine System Reliability: Model Logic and Description


    were inter- correlated, and the resulting matrix was factored by the centroid method and ro- tated to a simple structure. This procedure yielded...analyses which resulted in counter-intuitive findings are currently being investigated. The present discussion is particularly interested in the...NOSUC(yj)/TEMl 1800 CONTINUE NPRFM(1)«NPRFMə)*1 USHT » USHT ♦ USMtKTEMP) 202 c»»« UPDATE MAX STRM FOR TJE DAY IFfMAxST.GE.GSTR) GO TO 1805 MAXST

  20. Requirements Definition and Design Guidelines for Man-Machine Interface in C3 System Acquisition.


    the American Society for Information Science, 1971, 22, 361-373. Uber , G. T., Williams, P. E. and Hisey, B. L. The organization and formatting of...guidelines should be examined through extended debate and in broad-ranging application before they can be adopted as a general design standard. Some rules

  1. Interactions in multiagent systems fairness, social optimality and individual rationality

    Hao, Jianye


    This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.

  2. Man-machine Interface Design for Three Phase Secondary Rectifying Spot Welding Touch Screen%三相次级整流点焊触摸屏人机界面设计

    胡德安; 周勇奇; 陈益平; 缪明学


    设计了一种三相次级整流点焊触摸屏人机交互界面,介绍了三相次级整流点焊控制系统结构、触摸屏系统软硬件设计.根据点焊的焊接工艺过程和三相次级整流点焊的特点,通过画图软件CORELDRAW制做了四个触摸屏人机界面,通过触摸屏界面制作软件、串口调试助理软件和程序控制,能方便的对参数进行设置和系统的实时监控.%A three phase secondary rectifying spot welding touch screen man-machine interface was designed, three phase secondary rectifying spot welding control system structure, software and hardware design of touch screen system were introduced. According to the spot welding process and phase secondary rectifying spot welding characteristics, by drawing software CORELDRAW producing four touch screen man-machine interface, by the touch screen interface and manufacturing software, serial debugging assistant software and program control, convenient parameter setting and system monitoring were realized.

  3. On rational systems in the plane. I. Riccati Cases

    Lugo, Gabriel


    This paper is the first in a series of papers which will address, on a case by case basis, the special cases of the following rational system in the plane, labeled system #11. $$x_{n+1}=\\frac{\\alpha_{1}}{A_{1}+y_{n}},\\quad y_{n+1}=\\frac{\\alpha_{2}+\\beta_{2}x_{n}+\\gamma_{2}y_{n}}{A_{2}+B_{2}x_{n}+C_{2}y_{n}},\\quad n=0,1,2,...,$$ with $\\alpha_{1},A_{1}>0$ and $\\alpha_{2}, \\beta_{2}, \\gamma_{2}, A_{2}, B_{2}, C_{2}\\geq 0$ and $\\alpha_{2}+\\beta_{2}+\\gamma_{2}>0$ and $A_{2}+B_{2}+C_{2}>0$ and nonnegative initial conditions $x_{0}$ and $y_{0}$ so that the denominator is never zero. In this article we focus on the special cases which are reducible to the Riccati difference equation.

  4. Rational Observational Systems of Educational Accountability and Reform

    Audrey Amrein-Beardsley


    Full Text Available There is something incalculable about teacher expertise and whether it can be observed, detected, quantified, and as per current educational policies, used as an accountability tool to hold America's public school teachers accountable for that which they do (or do not do well. In this commentary, authors (all of whom are former public school teachers argue that rubric-based teacher observational systems, developed to assess the extent to which teachers adapt and follow sets of rubric-based rules, might actually constrain teacher expertise. Moreover, authors frame their comments using the Dreyfus Model (1980, 1986 to illustrate how observational systems and the rational conceptions on which they are based might be stifling educational progress and reform.

  5. An embedded man-machine interface design of full digital resistance welding machine%一种嵌入式全数字化电阻焊机人机界面的设计

    张振法; 王剑; 吴玉香; 田联房


    The design of man -machine interface was an important part of the full -digital high -current intermediate -frequency inverter resistance welding machine. For the development needs of current domestic welding machine, a visualization graphical man-machine interaction interface system was designed based on WinCE embedded operating system in the paper. The MFC of EVC++4.0 and SQLite database was used to overall development design and unified management of the welding machine data in the interface system, and it also could communicate with the lower machine DSP via RS232 or network. Extensive testing showed that the interface system could achieve user rights management, multiple welding controller management, basic specifications and parameter settings, spot control and real-time monitoring sampling etc. Also, it could be easy to operate and had powerful function and strong real-time. A new method was provided for the man-machine interface design of welding machine with embedded WinCE system.%人机交互界面设计是全数字化大电流中频逆变电阻焊机研究的一个重要组成部分.针对当前国内电焊机的发展需求,设计了一款基于WinCE嵌入式操作系统的可视化图形人杌交互界面系统.该界面系统采用EVC++4.0中的MFC进行总体开发设计,利用数椐库SQLite对焊机数据进行统一管理,并能通过RS232或网络与下位机DSP进行通信.通过大量的测试表明,界面能很好地实现焊机用户权限管理、多焊机控制器管理、基本规范与参数设置、打点控制及实时监控采样等功能,操作方便、功能强大、实时性强.采用嵌入式WinCE系统,为电焊杌人机界面的设计提供了一种新方法.

  6. Using a symbiotic man/machine approach to evaluating visual clinical research data.

    Long, J M; Irani, E A; Hunter, D W; Slagle, J R; Matts, J P; Castaneda, W; Pearce, M; Bissett, J; Sawin, H; Edmiston, A


    Some candidate medical expert system applications have a significant visual component. Knowledge engineers usually dismiss such task domains as potential expert systems applications. Our success in developing ESCA, a system for evaluating serial coronary angiograms, shows that such task domains should not be dismissed so quickly. We used a symbiotic approach between man and machine, where technologists provide the visual skills with an expert system imitating the conceptual skills of the expert, to produce a partially automated system that is more consistent and cost effective than one that is fully manual. The agreement between the system's conclusions and that of a panel of experts is good. The expert system actually has a slightly higher agreement rate with the expert panel than the agreement rate between two expert panel teams evaluating the same film pair.

  7. Cognitive adaptive man machine interfaces for the firefighter commander: design framework and research methodology

    de Graaf, Maurits; Varkevisser, Michel; Kempen, Masja; Jourden, Nicolas; Schmorrow, Dylan D.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.


    The ARTEMIS CAMMI project aims at developing a joint-cognitive system to optimise human operator’s performance under demanding labour conditions. The CAMMI domain applications concern avionics, automotive, and civil emergencies. In this paper we address the development of a joint cognitive system

  8. Cognitive adaptive man machine interfaces for the firefighter commander: design framework and research methodology

    Graaf, de Maurits; Varkevisser, Michel; Kempen, Masja; Jourden, Nicolas; Schmorrow, Dylan D.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.


    The ARTEMIS CAMMI project aims at developing a joint-cognitive system to optimise human operator’s performance under demanding labour conditions. The CAMMI domain applications concern avionics, automotive, and civil emergencies. In this paper we address the development of a joint cognitive system fo

  9. Contributions of speech science to the technology of man-machine voice interactions

    Lea, Wayne A.


    Research in speech understanding was reviewed. Plans which include prosodics research, phonological rules for speech understanding systems, and continued interdisciplinary phonetics research are discussed. Improved acoustic phonetic analysis capabilities in speech recognizers are suggested.

  10. The man/machine interface in information retrieval: Providing access to the casual user

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin


    This study is concerned with the difficulties encountered by casual users wishing to employ Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. A casual user is defined as a professional who has neither time nor desire to pursue in depth the study of the numerous and varied retrieval systems. His needs for on-line search are only occasional, and not limited to any particular system. The paper takes a close look at the state of the art of research concerned with aiding casual users of Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Current experiments such as LEXIS, CONIT, IIDA, CITE, and CCL are presented and discussed. Comments and proposals are offered, specifically in the areas of training, learning and cost as experienced by the casual user. An extensive bibliography of recent works on the subject follows the text.

  11. Adaptive Training and Collective Decision Support Based on Man-Machine Interface


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The existence of grandmother cells, i.e. hypothetical cells that respond to specific entities with high specificity, have...EEG system capable of collecting neuro -information for processing and fusion of data in order to detect significant events and to improve situational...remote users. Additionally, missing packets resulting are also handled by the collection proxy. Once data Figure 1: Simple, wireless Emotiv neuro

  12. New and More General Rational Formal Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Toda System


    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation and Riccati equation rational expansion approach, some new and more general rational formal solutions to (2+1)-dimensional Toda system are obtained. The method used here can also be applied to solve other nonlinear differential-difference equation or equations.

  13. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating


    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  14. Chaotification of polynomial continuous-time systems and rational normal forms

    Starkov, Konstantin E-mail:; Chen Guanrong E-mail:


    In this paper we study the chaotification problem of polynomial continuous-time systems in a semiglobal setting. Our results are based on the computation of rational normal forms and time-delay anticontroller design. As examples, the Roessler system, some Sprott systems and the Lorenz system are considered.

  15. New Families of Rational Form Solitary Wave Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt System

    WANG Qi; CHEN Yong; LI Biao; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    Taking the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system as a simple example, some families of rational form solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions, and rational wave solutions are constructed by using the Riccati equation rational expansion method presented by us. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equation or equations.

  16. Degree Growth, Linear Independence and Periods of a Class of Rational Dynamical Systems

    Ostafe, Alina


    We introduce and study algebraic dynamical systems generated by triangular systems of rational functions. We obtain several results about the degree growth and linear independence of iterates as well as about possible lengths of trajectories generated by such dynamical systems over finite fields. Some of these results are generalisations of those known in the polynomial case, some are new even in this case.

  17. Weak Centers and Local Bifurcations of Critical Periods at Infinity for a Class of Rational Systems



    We describe an approach to studying the center problem and local bifurcations of critical periods at infinity for a class of differential systems.We then solve the problem and investigate the bifurcations for a class of rational differential systems with a cubic polynomial as its numerator.

  18. Dynamics of a rational system of difference equations in the plane

    Bajo, Ignacio; Perán, Juan


    We consider a rational system of first order difference equations in the plane with four parameters such that all fractions have a common denominator. We study, for the different values of the parameters, the global and local properties of the system. In particular, we discuss the boundedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, the existence of periodic solutions and the stability of equilibria.


    Yulia A. Anankina


    Full Text Available The main problems that occurs in a process of movement of material flows in the enterprises of transport machine manufacturing enterprises are stated in the article. Particular attention is paid to the rational use of vehicles on the existing capacity of the material flow of the enterprise. Process of transport service of material flow is concerned step by step. The place of transport in the logistics enterprise system is determined by authors. We give guidelines for rationalization of management of performance of logistics system of transport machine manufacturing enterprises in the context of compliance capacity utilization with the current provision of transport.

  20. Rational Choice: The Prevailing Incentive System in the Field.

    Lagon, Mark P.


    Maintains that the tenure system has resulted in departments that are hierarchal, intellectually stagnant, and self- serving. Advocates reforming the current system by introducing merit evaluations and more flexible career paths. Refutes the basic arguments supporting tenure and recommends free market incentives as a cure-all for academic…

  1. Geometrical Field Theory of Hamilton Dynamic System In Rational Mechanics

    Jianhua, Xiao


    When a set of particles are moving in a potential field, two aspects are concerned: 1) the relative motion of particle in spatial domain; 2) the particle velocity variations in time domain. The difficulty on treating the systems is originated from the fact that the motion in time domain and the motion in spatial domain are coupled together completely. Generally, for a Hamilton dynamic system established by a set of general velocity functions, several abstract theories have been well established, such as Lie algebra, Symplectic manifold, Poisson brackets, and others. However, mathematically, to find out a general Hamilton function is very difficult even for very simple problems. Inspired by these abstract mathematic researches, the Hamilton dynamic system is studied by geometrical field theory of deformation. Firstly, referring to the instant configuration, the deformation tensor in spatial domain and the velocity transformation tensor in time domain are established for a dynamic system defined by a set of gen...

  2. Workshop on Interactive Man-Machine Discourse Held at the University of Pennsylvania, 17-20 June 1980,


    contexts undoubted- by a declarative utterance, and interprets it simply as 1. enp asize the instrumental uses of language (e.g.,[1J an inform act that...natural candidate for a theory of instrumental use for the expert using private beliefs about the expert’s ol speech acts is an account of rational action... ANALISIS Starr Roxanne Biltz, Kenneth Johnson, and Ann Marie Rabke Upsala College INTRODUCTION A variable of secondary interest La problem type. Much

  3. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))


    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  4. Rationality of Cross-System Data Duplication: A Case Study

    Hordijk, Wiebe; Wieringa, Roel; Pernici, Barbara


    Duplication of data across systems in an organization is a problem because it wastes effort and leads to inconsistencies. Researchers have proposed several technical solutions but duplication still occurs in practice. In this paper we report on a case study of how and why duplication occurs in a lar

  5. Systems Biology Approaches to a Rational Drug Discovery Paradigm.

    Prathipati, Philip; Mizuguchi, Kenji


    Ligand- and structure-based drug design approaches complement phenotypic and target screens, respectively, and are the two major frameworks for guiding early-stage drug discovery efforts. Since the beginning of this century, the advent of the genomic era has presented researchers with a myriad of high throughput biological data (parts lists and their interaction networks) to address efficacy and toxicity, augmenting the traditional ligand- and structure-based approaches. This data rich era has also presented us with challenges related to integrating and analyzing these multi-platform and multi-dimensional datasets and translating them into viable hypotheses. Hence in the present paper, we review these existing approaches to drug discovery research and argue the case for a new systems biology based approach. We present the basic principles and the foundational arguments/underlying assumptions of the systems biology based approaches to drug design. Also discussed are systems biology data types (key entities, their attributes and their relationships with each other, and data models/representations), software and tools used for both retrospective and prospective analysis, and the hypotheses that can be inferred. In addition, we summarize some of the existing resources for a systems biology based drug discovery paradigm (open TG-GATEs, DrugMatrix, CMap and LINCs) in terms of their strengths and limitations.

  6. Supply rationing in multi-echelon divergent systems

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.


    In this paper we determine a simple inventory control rule for multi-echelon distribution systems under periodic review without lot sizing. The primary focus is the two-echelon model with a stockless central depot, but several extensions (> 2 echelons, central stock allowed) are discussed as well.

  7. Dialectics of Rational Change Management in Regional Social Systems

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin


    Full Text Available In the article, the attention is paid to a role of service-producing industries rendering social services, promoting human development in the modern state. Theoretical positions of scientists considering meaning of the social benefits and need of active state support of the social sphere are generalized. The condition of the Russian service-producing industries is considered, the comparative analysis of indicators of their activity with indicators of service-producing industries of other countries is carried out. In view of indicators of the efficiency ratings of national education systems, world countries on the health systems efficiency, world countries on the level of social development of 2014, the author’s conceptual approach is offered; it considers interconditionality and interdependence of level of public financing of the social sphere and dynamics of a contribution of service-producing industries to the human capital development providing a gain of gross domestic product of the country. Need of innovative changes in socio-economic systems of service-producing industries for the efficiency increase of their activity, taking into account the received results — first of all in health care is proved. Theoretical approaches to management of changes in socio-economic systems are investigated. On the basis of the conducted research, the created theoretical basis of the level increase of change management in open socioeconomic systems for the purpose of the theoretical and methodological approaches to development to change management in relation to health sector, the optimization model of management of health care organizations ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes is offered. The use possibilities of management optimization by ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes in health sector of different management levels are confirmed by the high rates of performance efficiency on micro-, meso- and macrolevel in industry on the

  8. Rational homoclinic solution and rogue wave solution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system

    Chen Wei; Chen Hanlin; Dai Zhengde


    In this paper, a rational homoclinic solution is obtained via the classical homoclinicsolution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system. Based on the structures of ratinal homoclinic solution, the characteristics of homoclinic solution are discussed which might provide us with useful information on the dynamics of the relevant physical fields.

  9. Structural factors of solar system cluster ground coupled storage rationalization

    Viktor V. Wysochin


    Full Text Available The computational investigations of unsteady heat transfer in seasonal solar heat storage system were conducted. This storage system consists of nine ground heat exchangers. The investigations were made for periodical diurnal cycle charging during summer season. The heat exchanger is presented as vertical probe with concentric tubes arrangement. Aim: The aim of the work is the optimization of cluster ground coupled storage – the probes quantity in cluster, their lengths and interval – using high precision mathematical model. Materials and Methods: The mathematical model of conjugate solar system functioning and ground coupled storage involves differential equations describing the incoming and conversion of solar energy in solar collector. Also it includes the heat exchange in ground heat exchangers and three-dimensional soil mass. Results: The need of mutual influence accounting of the solar collector and the ground heat exchanger size ranges is shown. One more thing – capability of effectiveness improvement of the collector based on reasonable step size selection for cluster and selection of active heat exchangers quantity in requisite construction. Conclusions: The recommendations for organization of heat exchangers of the collector work are offered. The five-probe structure is the most effective one for cluster arrangement of seasonal heat storage. The recommended interval between probes is 4 meters.

  10. Adaptive rational block Arnoldi methods for model reductions in large-scale MIMO dynamical systems

    Khalide Jbilou


    Full Text Available In recent years, a great interest has been shown towards Krylov subspace techniques applied to model order reduction of large-scale dynamical systems. A special interest has been devoted to single-input single-output (SISO systems by using moment matching techniques based on Arnoldi or Lanczos algorithms. In this paper, we consider multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO dynamical systems and introduce the rational block Arnoldi process to design low order dynamical systems that are close in some sense to the original MIMO dynamical system. Rational Krylov subspace methods are based on the choice of suitable shifts that are selected a priori or adaptively. In this paper, we propose an adaptive selection of those shifts and show the efficiency of this approach in our numerical tests. We also give some new block Arnoldi-like relations that are used to propose an upper bound for the norm of the error on the transfer function.

  11. 浅析人机交互界面“显性”版式设计%On the "Dominant" Format Design of Man-machine Interface



    The man-machine interface is an emerging carrier of information communication,the media between virtual environment and people,and the point of penetration in which the clients sense and operate computer technology.The "dominant" format design of man-machine interface aims at making people grasp well the operation menu and mode between people and machine technology.Their models must strictly be followed so that the meaning can be understood,the process of interface can be clear and simple,the work process can be understandable,and anyone can make use of new-model interface,receive and convey information just depending on their existing common sense.%人机交互界面是新兴的信息传播的承载物,是虚拟环境与人之间的媒介,界面是用户感知、操作计算机技术的切入点。人机交互界面的"显性"版式设计的目的便是使得人们掌控这个处于人与机器技术之间精通机器运作菜单和模式的操作。必须严格按照它们的模式办事,说它们能听懂的话,才能使一切交互过程都变得简单明了,工作流程简单易懂,任何人都可以仅仅依靠已有的常识,有效率地使用新型界面,接收与传达信息。

  12. Study of an effective structural system with rational parameters based on main energy principles

    Toporkova Katerina


    Full Text Available The effective architectural and construction system with rational parameters based on main energy principles applied to construction of buildings and constructions with a small-step and large-step frames, representing the metal frame of full factory production collected in spatial system on high-strength bolts and previously strained combined prestressed concrete slabs which formed without timbering is proposed in this paper. The main constructive and technological features of the proposed frame, which allows reducing construction period, increasing working efficiency, and reducing labor intensity by using factory-made materials, quick erection of all process elements through the use of highstrength bolts is considered. The advantages of this constructive system in comparison with alternative systems are shown. The basic concepts of "rational decisions" to the design, namely, the objective of the optimal management of the structure parameters, which can not only improve its basic performance indicators, but also, and most importantly, improve operational reliability, is presented.

  13. Robust stability of time-varying uncertain systems with rational dependence on the uncertainty


    Robust stability of time-varying uncertain systems is a key problem in automatic control. This note considers the case of linear systems with rational dependence on an uncertain time-varying vector constrained in a polytope, which is typically addressed in the literature by using the linear fractional representation (LFR). A novel sufficient condition for robust stability is derived in terms of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility test by exploiting homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov fun...

  14. Identification of Nonlinear Rational Systems Using A Prediction-Error Estimation Algorithm


    Identification of discrete-time noninear stochastic systems which can be represented by a rational input-output model is considered. A prediction-error parameter estimation algorithm is developed and a criterion is derived using results from the theory of hypothesis testing to determine the correct model structure. The identification of a simulated system and a heat exchanger are included to illustrate the algorithms.

  15. Research on Evaluation Method about Handing Performance of Man-machine Interface of Weapons%武器装备人机界面操控性评价方法研究

    汪汇川; 解维河; 赵勇


    针对武器装备人机界面操控性难以有效评价的问题,提出人机界面操控易用性的评价指标,利用信息距离对易用性进行分析,并建立武器装备人机界面易用性的评估模型,并通过实例进行武器装备易用性评价分析,为武器装备人机界面操控性设计优化及检验标准的制定提供了指导.%For the problem about evaluation of man-machine interface's handing performance of weapons, the ease-to-use performance indicators is maked, the ease-to-use performance is analyzed by the distance of information-state transition, weapons'man-machine interface assessment model is established, the method is demonstrated by the practical example, to provide a reference for the optimization of handing performance of man-machine interface and the development of standards about the handing performance of man-machine interface of weapons.

  16. System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA) as a tool in rational and transparent drug-decision making.

    Janknegt, Robert; Scott, Mike; Mairs, Jill; Timoney, Mark; McElnay, James; Brenninkmeijer, Rob


    Drug selection should be a rational process that embraces the principles of evidence-based medicine. However, many factors may affect the choice of agent. It is against this background that the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA) process for rational drug-selection was developed. This article describes how the information on which the SOJA process is based, was researched and processed.

  17. Bedside rationing by general practitioners: a postal survey in the Danish public healthcare system

    Lauridsen, Sigurd; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is ethically controversial whether medical doctors are morally permitted to ration the care of their patients at the bedside. To explore whether general practitioners in fact do ration in this manner we conducted a study within primary care in the Danish public healthcare...... of the study were twofold: an assessment of the proportion of GPs who, in a mainly hypothetical setting, would consider cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given their economic impact on the healthcare system; and a measure of the extent to which they would disclose...... this information to patients. RESULTS: In the hypothetical setting 95% of GPs considered cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given the economic impact of such trade-offs on the healthcare system. In all 90% stated that this consideration had been relevant in clinical decision...

  18. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Fernando Gómez-Salas


    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  19. A systems biology perspective on rational design of peptide vaccine against virus infections.

    Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Ying; Guo, Deyin; Shen, Bairong


    With the recent onset of influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the need for improved vaccines against virus infections has become an international priority. Strategies for vaccine development have changed over time, from whole-virus to immunogenic proteins and further to antigenic viral peptides. Various algorithms and bioinformatics tools have been developed to predict immunogenic peptide regions in an antigenic protein sequence. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, as represented by real time DNA sequencing, provide increased throughput and yield of data on viral pathogens and host cells. This enables us to 'mine' the genomic sequence for putative vaccine candidates or targets, allowing a more rational approach to the peptide vaccine design. This review first describes current computational tools available for the rational design of peptide vaccines and then addresses recent attempts to define pathogenic peptides at '- omics' level. As there are interplay between antibody and T cells, as well as intersection between viruses and hosts, the vaccine-mediated immunity are orchestrated by multiple factors within an interaction network. Therefore, single viral peptide alone fails to provide optimal immunity. Systems biology offers a systems-level perspective of how the various arms of the immune response are integrated to give immune response, as well as how host and virus interact, thereby providing an integrated approach to select the most promising candidates for peptide vaccines development. We highlight in this article the system-level application of rational peptide vaccine design, which may be a general paradigm for future viral vaccine development.

  20. Modernization of the subsystem man-machine interface for operation of the combined cycle central of Gomez Palacio; Modernizacion del subsistema de interfaz hombre-maquina para operacion de la central de ciclo combinado de Gomez Palacio

    Rivas S, Alfonso; Uribe B, Carlos E; Alvarez C, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    In order to take care of the modernization of the Combined Cycle Central of Gomez Palacio (CCCGP) of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), through the Management of Supervision of Processes (GSP) developed the subsystem of Interface Man-Machine (IMM), to replace the workstations that are deteriorated and obsolete by personal computers, maintaining the same functions of the IMM of the present system, including the management and processing functions that at the present time another system makes. Also, to replace the equipment of the concentrators of communications by a PC with greater capacity, than allows improving in general the flexibility and robustness of the system. Among the main functions integrated in the IMM subsystem there are: the communications master with the controllers (equipment SAC), redundancy of servers, database, historical registry storage, alarm management, tabulations, tendency graphs in real time and historical, process diagrams and Control Panels. [Spanish] Con el objeto de atender las necesidades de modernizacion de la Central de Ciclo Combinado Gomez Palacio (CCCGP) de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves de la Gerencia de Supervision de Procesos (GSP) desarrollo el subsistema de Interfaz Hmbre-Maquina (IHM), para reemplazar las estaciones de trabajo que se encuentran deterioradas y obsoletas por computadoras personales, manteniendo las mismas funciones de la IHM del sistema actual, incluyendo las funciones de administracion y procesamiento que en la actualidad realiza otro sistema. Asimismo, para reemplazar los equipos de los concentradores de comunicaciones por PC con mayor capacidad, que permitan mejorar la flexibilidad y robustez del sistema en general. Entre las principales funciones integradas en el subsistema de IHM se encuentran: el Maestro de comunicaciones con los controladores (equipo SAC), redundancia de

  1. Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

    Yuanxue Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./maize (Zea mays L./soybean (Glycine max L. relay strip intercropping (W/M/S system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

  2. Game among interdependent networks: The impact of rationality on system robustness

    Fan, Yuhang; Cao, Gongze; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian


    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own payoffs. There exists a game among these entities when designing their own networks. In this paper, we study the game investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the system robustness. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium of the game and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation among different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare in continuous game only when the average degree of each network is constant. Therefore, the huge gap between Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare generally exists. The rationality of entities makes the system inherently deficient and even renders it extremely vulnerable in some cases. We analyze our model for two concrete systems with continuous strategy space and discrete strategy space, respectively. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of interdependent networks, designing a suitable topology dependence of the system) that help reduce the gap and the system vulnerability.

  3. Design of man-machine interface for high power medium frequency inverting resistance welder%大功率中频逆变电阻焊机人机界面设计

    万超; 王剑; 田联房


    针对基于ARM、DSP和CPLD相结合控制的大功率中频逆变电阻焊机,选择PIC24FJ128GA010单片机、键盘输入和液晶显示,采用上、下位机的方式,设计了数字化人机界面系统.该系统能实现焊接参数、规范的读取和设置,具有通信失败原因显示、故障复位、报警复位等功能,有三种用户类型可供选择,具有不同的操作权限,采用RS232方式与下位机通信.下位机反应时间的协调是影响系统稳定可靠操作的关键.实验证明,该系统运行稳定,操作灵活,界面友好,抗干扰能力强.%Aiming at high power medium frequency inverting resistance welder based on ARM,DSP and CPLD.a digital man-machine interface which is consisted of PIC24FJ128GA010, keyboard entry,LCD display and employs upper-lower computer mode is designed.This system realizes reading and setting for welding parameters and norms, displaying cause of communication failure, fault reset,alarm reset etc.There are three types of users which have different operation authority and it communicates with lower computer by RS232.The cooperation of reaction time of lower computer is the key to influence the stability and reliability of proves reliable,flexible,friendly and compatible.

  4. Research on the Relationship between Large Printing Machinery and Man- machine Engineering%大型印刷机械人机工程学关系探讨

    徐岩; 宋君


    Taking the incompatibility between human and machine in printing machinery as the inspiration, it analyzed the content of the man-machine engineering of printing machinery, discussed the human-machine interactions in printing machinery. And on that basis, with the four-color offset press as the carrier, based on ergonomics and related national standards, it discussed the relationship between printing machinery and ergonomics from three aspects: human-computer interface, operating space and color and proposes ergonomics design principles of large printing machine.%以我国大型印刷装备仍存在人和机器交互不协调性为启示,分析了印刷机械人机工程学的内容,论述了印刷机械中存在的人机交互关系。在此基础上,以四色胶印机为裁体,以人机工程学和相关国家标准为理论基础,从人机界面、操作空间和色彩3个方面对印刷机械人机工程学关系进行探讨,提出了大型印刷机械人机工程学关系设计基础原则。

  5. A Pseudospectral Algorithm for Solving Multipantograph Delay Systems on a Semi-Infinite Interval Using Legendre Rational Functions

    E. H. Doha


    Full Text Available A new Legendre rational pseudospectral scheme is proposed and developed for solving numerically systems of linear and nonlinear multipantograph equations on a semi-infinite interval. A Legendre rational collocation method based on Legendre rational-Gauss quadrature points is utilized to reduce the solution of such systems to systems of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations. In addition, accurate approximations are achieved by selecting few Legendre rational-Gauss collocation points. The numerical results obtained by this method have been compared with various exact solutions in order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Indeed, for relatively limited nodes used, the absolute error in our numerical solutions is sufficiently small.

  6. Rational solutions to two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems

    Chen, Junchao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Department of Mathematics, The University of Texas – Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States); Chen, Yong, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Feng, Bao-Feng, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, The University of Texas – Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States); Maruno, Ken-ichi, E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)


    Exact explicit rational solutions of two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa (YO) systems, which contain multi-short-wave components and single long-wave one, are presented by using the bilinear method. For two-dimensional system, the fundamental rational solution first describes the localized lumps, which have three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. Then, rogue waves can be obtained under certain parameter conditions and their behaviors are also classified to above three patterns with different definition. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line localized waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. In particular, two-dimensional intermediate and dark counterparts of rogue wave are found with the different parameter requirements. We demonstrate that multirogue waves describe the interaction of several fundamental rogue waves, in which interesting curvy wave patterns appear in the intermediate times. Different curvy wave patterns form in the interaction of different types fundamental rogue waves. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit the dynamic behaviors that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it, and this transient wave possesses the patterns such as parabolas. Furthermore, different states of higher-order rogue wave result in completely distinguishing lumps and parabolas. Moreover, one-dimensional rogue wave solutions with three states are constructed through the further reduction. Specifically, higher-order rogue wave in one-dimensional case is derived under the parameter constraints. - Highlights: • Exact explicit rational solutions of two-and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima–Oikawa systems. • Two-dimensional rogue wave contains three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. • Multi- and higher-order rogue waves exhibit distinct dynamic behaviors in two-dimensional case

  7. Confluent hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials related to the rational quantum Calogero system with harmonic confinement

    Van Diejen, J F


    Two families (type $A$ and type $B$) of confluent hypergeometric polynomials in several variables are studied. We describe the orthogonality properties, differential equations, and Pieri type recurrence formulas for these families. In the one-variable case, the polynomials in question reduce to the Hermite polynomials (type $A$) and the Laguerre polynomials (type $B$), respectively. The multivariable confluent hypergeometric families considered here may be used to diagonalize the rational quantum Calogero models with harmonic confinement (for the classical root systems) and are closely connected to the (symmetric) generalized spherical harmonics investigated by Dunkl.

  8. Extended Jacobi Elliptic Function Rational Expansion Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Stochastic Dispersive Long Wave System

    SONG Li-Na; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.

  9. Rational Design of Hyperbranched Nanowire Systems for Tunable Superomniphobic Surfaces Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Bielinski, Ashley R.; Boban, Mathew; He, Yang; Kazyak, Eric; Lee, Duck Hyun; Wang, Chongmin; Tuteja, Anish; Dasgupta, Neil P.


    A method for tunable control of geometry in hyperbranched ZnO nanowire (NW) systems is reported, which enables the rational design and fabrication of superomniphobic surfaces. Branched NWs with tunable density and orientation were grown via a sequential hydrothermal process, in which atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used for NW seeding, disruption of epitaxy, and selective blocking of NW nucleation. This approach allows for the rational design and optimization of three-level hierarchical structures, in which the geometric parameters of each level of hierarchy can be individually controlled. We demonstrate the coupled relationships between geometry and contact angle for a variety of liquids, which is supported by mathematical models of structural superomniphobicity. The highest performing superomniphobic surface was designed with three levels of hierarchy and achieved the following advancing/receding contact angles, water: 172°/170°, hexadecane: 166°/156°, octane: 162°/145°, and heptane: 160°/130°. Low surface tension liquids were shown to bounce off the surface from a height of 7 cm without breaking through and wetting. This approach demonstrates the power of ALD as an enabling technique for hierarchical materials by design, spanning the macro, micro, and nano length scales.

  10. Rational Suicide?

    Mayo, David J.


    The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…

  11. Classification of global phase portraits and bifurcation diagrams of Hamiltonian systems with rational potential

    Martínez, Y. P.; Vidal, C.


    In this paper we study the global dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems x ˙ =Hy (x , y), y ˙ = -Hx (x , y), where the Hamiltonian function H has the particular form H (x , y) =y2 / 2 + P (x) / Q (x), P (x) , Q (x) ∈ R [ x ] are polynomials, in particular H is the sum of the kinetic and a rational potential energies. Firstly, we provide the normal forms by a suitable μ-symplectic change of variables. Then, the global topological classification of the phase portraits of these systems having canonical forms in the Poincaré disk in the cases where degree (P) = 0 , 1 , 2 and degree (Q) = 0 , 1 , 2 are studied as a function of the parameters that define each polynomial. We use a blow-up technique for finite equilibrium points and the Poincaré compactification for the infinite equilibrium points. Finally, we show some applications.

  12. A study on regional comprehensive performance evaluation indicator system of rational use of drugs

    Sun Tongda


    Full Text Available The current research presents the design of a 4-degree-3-level performance evaluation indicator system of rational use of drugs for health care institutions accord with the Balanced Score Card (BSC method. Financial index, patient index, professional process index, and development and blazing new trials index are adopted in the light of scientific, guiding, operable and generalizable principles. The index weight is based on the analytic hierarchy process, and comprehensive performance evaluation indicators are calculated by a linear integrated weighting method. Its practical application in 21 state-run health care institutions in Ningbo, from 2008 to 2012, has arrived at the finding that the comprehensive performance evaluation indicator system offers a scientific, practical and effective performance management quantification and is thus worth popularizing.

  13. Graphical Man/Machine Communications


    visual modelling by Patrick Baudelair , the impressive demonstrations of background noise elimination by Neil J. Miller, and the innovation of...Processing In The Context Of A Visual Model," Proceedings of IEEE, July 1972. 3. Baudelaire , Patrick, "Digital Picture Processing And PtychophjrSlcs: A

  14. Consideration about construction system-key to rationalization; Kensetsu shisutemu wo kangaeru/Gorika eno kiwado

    Ishii, Isamu [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The pre-modernity of the construction industry still was in the barrel production system outdated state. The typical labor-intensive work was the installation work of concrete. The elimination of this work became a modern and rational initiator in the construction industry. The problems in the construction system were given as the tender and contract problem, the PM/CM method and the overlay subcontract. The labor accidents occupied 40% of the labor accidents in the Japan, approaches to reduce the labor accidents could be said to connect to the problem points in the existing system. In this paper, the necessary innovation was proposed in order to improve the constitution of barrel construction industry outdated state and ensure a new construction system. At first, the introduction of outsourcing as a production state was given. And then necessity to supply chain management as a management strategy was given. Necessity of information opening and communisation, and development of an automatic construction system was mention to realize those purpose. (NEDO)

  15. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank


    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  16. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface—Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su K.; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank


    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  17. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J


    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  18. ABC of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator systems

    Cariñena, José F.; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.


    The problem of construction of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator (REQHO) systems of a general form is investigated in the light of existence of different schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations by which such systems can be generated from the quantum harmonic oscillator. Any REQHO system is characterized by the number of separated states in its spectrum, the number of ‘valence bands’ in which the separated states are organized, and by the total number of the missing energy levels and their position. All these peculiarities of a REQHO system are shown to be detected and reflected by a trinity (A^+/- , B^+/- , C^+/-) of the basic (primary) lowering and raising ladder operators related between themselves by certain algebraic identities with coefficients polynomially-dependent on the Hamiltonian. We show that all the secondary, higher-order ladder operators are obtainable by a composition of the basic ladder operators of the trinity which form the set of the spectrum-generating operators. Each trinity, in turn, can be constructed from the intertwining operators of the two complementary minimal schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations.

  19. A remote telepresence robotic system for inspection and maintenance of a nuclear power plant

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.


    Progress in reported in the areas of environmental hardening; database/world modeling; man-machine interface; development of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) maintenance inspection robot design; and Articulated Transporter/Manipulator System (ATMS) development.

  20. Design criteria and realization of a computerized supervisory system for nuclear applications

    Maestri, F.; Mangiarotti, M.; Maciocco, G.


    This paper describes the design criteria and the realization modalities of a computerized supervisory system for nuclear applications. The man-machine interface design aspects for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant control room are discussed.

  1. The New Epistemic and Theoretical Rationality Governing the Spatial Organization of Urban Systems

    H. Dadashpoor


    Full Text Available By reviewing the literature of spatial organization and analyzing urban systems as an interdisciplinary field, two different paradigms have been recognized: size-based and network-based paradigms. The first one relies on the definition of urban system as a collection of nodes (urban settlements organized based on their internal attributes. This paradigm, while ignoring interaction among them, focuses on the concentration of activities or functions in nodes. In the last few decades and with the emergence of the system approach, defined as “an interdependent national or regional set of cities” as a system, considerable attention has been paid to investigating reciprocal interurban relationships. In this period, the element of interaction became more important in the description of urban systems. Following this, since the position of a given city in the urban system is a function of interurban flows, it is affected by the relationship with others. This approach considers the interurban relationship as horizontal and non-local interactions, which are features of service economies versus industrial economies. Thus, to understand and apply these approaches, first, the theoretical literature on space organization in urban systems and its evolution were reviewed; then, the new dominant theoretical and epistemological rationality, with its attributes and components, was explained, compared and categorized in order to develop new insights for operational research. This article is fundamental in its objective, and has employed descriptive methodology based on contextual data to do a comparative study of theoretical content and ontological basics of traditional approaches versus new ones.

  2. A multiple Riccati equations rational expansion method and novel solutions of the Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system

    Wang Qi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) and Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail:; Chen Yong [Nonlinear Science Center, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)


    To construct exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equation, a multiple Riccati equations rational expansion method (MRERE) is presented and a series of novel solutions of the Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system are found. The novel solutions obtained by MRERE method include solutions of hyperbolic (solitary) function and triangular periodic functions appearing at the same time.

  3. Developing a Hybrid Model of Rational-Emotive Therapy and Systemic Family Therapy: A Response to Russell and Morrill.

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.


    Challenges Russell and Morrill's (1989) assertion that a practical blending of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and systemic family therapy is possible. Cautions that a connection between these approaches be made only with an appreciation and respect for these schools' epistemological differences and correspondingly disparate cognitive change…

  4. Baseline rationing

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  5. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M


    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  6. A remote telepresence robotic system for inspection and maintenance of a nuclear power plant. Annual research status report

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.


    Progress in reported in the areas of environmental hardening; database/world modeling; man-machine interface; development of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) maintenance inspection robot design; and Articulated Transporter/Manipulator System (ATMS) development.

  7. 巧用三菱MX Component工具进行三菱PLC-PC人机界面设计%How to ingeniously use the Mitsubishi MX Component tools to design the Mitsubishi PLC-PC man-machine interface

    宋爱民; 刘春莲


    With no need to know the details of Mitsubishi PLC communication protocol, the text briefly introduces how to design man-machine interface conveniently by text and picture with the help of the Mitsubishi MX Component and Microsoft Visual Studio tool.%通过文字、图片,简述在不需要详细了解三菱PLC通信协议的情况下,借助三菱MX Component和微软Visual Studio工具,如何很方便地设计出人机界面.

  8. Robust fault diagnosis for non-Gaussian stochastic systems based on the rational square-root approximation model

    YAO LiNa; WANG Hong


    The task of robust fault detection and diagnosis of stochastic distribution control (SDC) systems with uncertainties is to use the measured input and the system output PDFs to still obtain possible faults information of the system. Using the ra-tional square-root B-spline model to represent the dynamics between the output PDF and the input, in this paper, a robust nonlinear adaptive observer-based fault diagnosis algorithm is presented to diagnose the fault in the dynamic part of such systems with model uncertainties. When certain conditions are satisfied, the weight vector of the rational square-root B-spline model proves to be bounded. Conver-gency analysis is performed for the error dynamic system raised from robust fault detection and fault diagnosis phase. Computer simulations are given to demon-strate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. 2-norm error bounds and estimates for Lanczos approximations to linear systems and rational matrix functions

    Frommer, A; Lippert, Th; Rittich, H


    The Lanczos process constructs a sequence of orthonormal vectors v_m spanning a nested sequence of Krylov subspaces generated by a hermitian matrix A and some starting vector b. In this paper we show how to cheaply recover a secondary Lanczos process, starting at an arbitrary Lanczos vector v_m and how to use this secondary process to efficiently obtain computable error estimates and error bounds for the Lanczos approximations to a solution of a linear system Ax = b as well as, more generally, for the Lanczos approximations to the action of a rational matrix function on a vector. Our approach uses the relation between the Lanczos process and quadrature as developed by Golub and Meurant. It is different from methods known so far because of its use of the secondary Lanczos process. With our approach, it is now in particular possible to efficiently obtain upper bounds for the error in the 2-norm, provided a lower bound on the smallest eigenvalue of A is known. This holds for the error of the cg iterates as well ...

  10. Generalized and Stability Rational Functions for Dynamic Systems of Reactor Kinetics

    Ahmed E. Aboanber


    Full Text Available The base of reactor kinetics dynamic systems is a set of coupled stiff ordinary differential equations known as the point reactor kinetics equations. These equations which express the time dependence of the neutron density and the decay of the delayed neutron precursors within a reactor are first order nonlinear and essentially describe the change in neutron density within the reactor due to a change in reactivity. Outstanding the particular structure of the point kinetic matrix, a semianalytical inversion is performed and generalized for each elementary step resulting eventually in substantial time saving. Also, the factorization techniques based on using temporarily the complex plane with the analytical inversion is applied. The theory is of general validity and involves no approximations. In addition, the stability of rational function approximations is discussed and applied to the solution of the point kinetics equations of nuclear reactor with different types of reactivity. From the results of various benchmark tests with different types of reactivity insertions, the developed generalized Padé approximation (GPA method shows high accuracy, high efficiency, and stable character of the solution.

  11. Bending energetics of tablet-shaped micelles: a novel approach to rationalize micellar systems.

    Bergström, L Magnus


    A novel approach to rationalize micellar systems is expounded in which the structural behavior of tablet-shaped micelles is theoretically investigated as a function of the three bending elasticity constants: spontaneous curvature (H0), bending rigidity (k(c)), and saddle-splay constant (k(c)). As a result, experimentally accessible micellar properties, such as aggregation number, length-to-width ratio, and polydispersity, may be related to the different bending elasticity constants. It is demonstrated that discrete micelles or connected cylinders form when H0 > 1/4xi, where xi is the thickness of a surfactant monolayer, whereas various bilayer structures are expected to predominate when H0 bending rigidity is lowered, approaching the critical point at k(c) = 0, whereas monodisperse globular micelles (small length-to-width ratio) are expected to be present at large k(c) values. The spontaneous curvature mainly determines the width of tablet-shaped or ribbonlike micelles, or the radius of disklike micelles, whereas the saddle-splay constant primarily influences the size but not the shape of the micelles.

  12. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan



    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  13. Rational polynomials

    Blackett, S.A. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept of Engineering Science


    Numerical analysis is an important part of Engineering. Frequently relationships are not adequately understood, or too complicated to be represented by theoretical formulae. Instead, empirical approximations based on observed relationships can be used for simple fast and accurate evaluations. Historically, storage of data has been a large constraint on approximately methods. So the challenge is to find a sufficiently accurate representation of data which is valid over as large a range as possible while requiring the storage of only a few numerical values. Polynomials, popular as approximation functions because of their simplicity, can be used to represent simple data. Equation 1.1 shows a simple 3rd order polynomial approximation. However, just increasing the order and number of terms included in a polynomial approximation does not improve the overall result. Although the function may fit exactly to observed data, between these points it is likely that the approximation is increasingly less smooth and probably inadequate. An alternative to adding further terms to the approximation is to make the approximation rational. Equation 1.2 shows a rational polynomial, 3rd order in the numerator and denominator. A rational polynomial approximation allows poles and this can greatly enhance an approximation. In Sections 2 and 3 two different methods for fitting rational polynomials to a given data set are detailed. In Section 4, consideration is given to different rational polynomials used on adjacent regions. Section 5 shows the performance of the rational polynomial algorithms. Conclusions are presented in Section 6.

  14. Intercultural design of man-machine systems: Machine design for the Chinese market; Interkulturelles Design fuer Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: Maschinendesign fuer den chinesischen Markt

    Roese, K.; Zuehlke, D.; Liu, L. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany)


    The ongoing globalization trend has imposed great needs on culture-specific machine design. For the expected business success on the foreign market the target user's special requirements should be well addressed. This paper proposes an effective approach to elicit user's culture-specific requirements on different machine design issues, which bases on the analysis of cultural environment and mentality. The approach was practically implemented in one project to elicit the user's requirements on machine design for the Chinese market. The investigation methods are briefly described and some most important culture specific design features for Mainland China are summarized. (orig.)

  15. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Wahlund, Bertil


    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  16. Controllability under rational expectations.

    Hughes Hallett Andrew; Di Bartolomeo Giovanni; Acocella Nicola


    We show that rational expectations do not affect the controllability of an economic system, either in its static or in its dynamic version, even though their introduction in many other circumstances may make it impossible for the policymaker to affect certain variables due to policy invariance, policy neutrality or time inconsistency problems. The controllability conditions stated by Tinbergen and subsequent authors continue to hold under rational expectations; and when they are satisfied rat...

  17. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Pavlinov, I Ia


    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  18. Anatomy of power system blackouts and preventive strategies by rational supervision and control of protection systems

    Phadke, A.G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Horowitz, S.H.; Thorp, J.S.


    This report establishes the concept of hidden failures in relays and associated devices used for the protection of electric power systems. A hidden failure is a defect such as a component failure, inappropriate setting or incorrect external connection that remains undetected until some other system event causes the hidden failure to initiate a cascading outage. Associated with the study of hidden failures, this report examines the impact such defects might have by defining regions of vulnerability. A region of vulnerability is the area of the system in which a hidden failure will be activated. To determine such areas we have established criteria associated with load flows and steady-state stability, such as lack of convergence, and employed a technique known as importance sampling in which the simulation is done with the probabilities altered so that the rare event happens more frequently. Our purpose is to provide a framework for further research into relay vulnerability, possibly using adaptive techniques to eliminate hidden defects. We believe control strategies can be developed to prevent cascading normal operations from developing into severe outages by extending the present criteria using steady-state stability and load flow studies into the area of transient stability, and further research into importance sampling would provide significant benefits in evaluating corrective actions.

  19. Computational Intelligence Determines Effective Rationality


    Rationality is a fundamental concept in economics. Most researchers will accept that human beings are not fully rational.Herbert Simon suggested that we are "bounded rational". However, it is very difficult to quantify "bounded rationality", and therefore it is difficult to pinpoint its impact to all those economic theories that depend on the assumption of full rationality. Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model bounded rationality by explicitly specifying the decision makers' decision-making procedures. This paper takes a computational point of view to Rubinstein's approach. From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. We argue that, everything else being equal, the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational power - we refer to this as the computational intelligence determines effective rationality (CIDER) theory. This is not an attempt to propose a unifying definition of bounded rationality. It is merely a proposal of a computational point of view of bounded rationality. This way of interpreting bounded rationality enables us to (computationally) reason about economic systems when the full rationality assumption is relaxed.

  20. [Systemic therapy with anti-infective agents. Principles of rational use of systemic antibiotics in dermatology].

    Sunderkötter, C; Brehler, R; Becker, K


    Antibiotics are frequently prescribed and extremely valuable drugs, because they are curative. However, their often incorrect use is the main reason for the increase of multiresistant pathogens. Inappropriate prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections favors the selection and spread of multiresistant bacteria not only in the skin, but also in remote visceral organs (e.g. in the intestines), due to their systemic distribution and effects in the body (so-called collateral damage). For this reason basic knowledge and special prudence when using antibiotics are just as desirable as an awareness of responsibility for the public welfare. This article intends to convey basic knowledge on the indications and selection of suitable antibiotics as well as on the development of bacterial resistance and it gives recommendations for allergological procedures when patients report alleged drug reactions to antibiotics. Systemic antibiotics for soft tissue infections are indicated when the infection spreads within the tissue so that it is no longer accessible for local antiseptics. In addition to the clinical symptoms, important parameters are high blood sedimentation rates (BSR) and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytosis with neutrophilia and fever (not always present in elderly or immunosuppressed patients). Certain constellations, such as the presence of severe underlying diseases, perfusion disorders or a particular localization (e.g. infection of the face) may necessitate early or parenteral administration. There is no need for systemic administration of antibiotics for uncomplicated wounds without soft tissue infections. Due to their curative effects, the decisive criterion for the use of antibiotics is their sufficient antimicrobial efficacy at the site of infection. An inappropriate administration increases both the selection pressure and costs of treatment and can have fatal consequences in serious situations. In

  1. The system identification and control of Hammerstein system using non-uniform rational B-spline neural network and particle swarm optimization


    In this paper a new system identification algorithm is introduced for Hammerstein systems based on observational input/output data. The nonlinear static function in the Hammerstein system is modelled using a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURB) neural network. The proposed system identification algorithm for this NURB network based Hammerstein system consists of two successive stages. First the shaping parameters in NURB network are estimated using particle swarmoptimization (PSO) procedure. ...

  2. Design of Touch Screen Man-Machine Interface Test Bench for Vehicle Power Steering Pump%汽车动力转向油泵试验台触摸屏人-机界面设计

    王玉琳; 王运; 刘光复


    传统的汽车动力转向油泵试验台采用键盘输入和LED显示实现人机交互,这种操作界面对人员的素质要求比较高,操作不直观也不方便,降低了产品的测试速率.触摸屏具有坚固耐用、反应速度快、节省空间、易于交流等诸多优点,使人与机交互更为直截了当.基于以上原因,采用MODBUS通信协议编写单片机通信程序,实现触摸屏和单片机的通信.根据试验大纲流程设计人-机界面的画面,该界面包含手动和自动两种方式,可以实现数据显示、参数设置、自动测试、报警提示等功能.使用结果表明,该人-机界面友好,测控精度高,操作简单方便,应用前景广阔.%Keyboard input and LED display are used in traditional vehicle power steering pump test bench to achieve man-machine interaction, in this interface, a high quality of personnel is required, and operation is neither visualized nor convenient, hence the rate of product testing is reduced. Touch screen has such advantages as a rugged-endurable in use, fast response, space-saving and easy to communicate, and many others, so the interaction between human and machine are made more straightforward. Based on above matters, by using MODBUS communication protocol to write single-chip communication program, the purpose of communication between the touch screen and single-chip was realized. According to the test outline process to design the man-machine interface screen, in the interface, the two modes; manual and automatic operation was contained, and data showing, parameter setting, automatic testing, alarm and other functions could be achieved. The usage results show that this man-machine interface possesses the attributes of friendliness, highly-precision in monitoring, convenient and simple in operation, therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  3. Rational Teaching.

    Macmillan, C. J. B.


    The recognition of teaching as a special relationship among individuals is currently being overlooked in much contemporary educational research and policymaking. The author examines the philosophy of rationality in teaching and relates it to the educational vision presented in George Orwell's novel, "Nineteen Eighty-Four." (CB)

  4. Confucian Rationalism

    Lam, Chi-Ming


    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  5. 管道全位置焊接机器人人祝交互系统%Man-machine interaction system of all-position welding robot of pipeline

    邹勇; 蒋力培; 薛龙; 赵杰



  6. 机器人无线远程控制系统的人机接口%Man-machine interface of robot wirless remote distance control system

    王晓亨; 陆宇平



  7. The Man-machine Interface Test Method of the Fire Control System Software%火控软件的人机界面测试方法

    谷师泉; 李姝丽; 杨军; 牟少锋



  8. A Novel Clinical Pharmacy Management System in Improving the Rational Drug Use in Department of General Surgery

    L Bao


    Full Text Available Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.

  9. Rational valuations

    Georg Spielthenner


    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  10. Bounded Rationality

    Ballester Pla, Coralio


    Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.

    La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.

  11. Deformed oscillator algebra approach of some quantum superintegrable Lissajous systems on the sphere and of their rational extensions

    Marquette, Ian, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 (Australia); Quesne, Christiane, E-mail: [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP229, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    We extend the construction of 2D superintegrable Hamiltonians with separation of variables in spherical coordinates using combinations of shift, ladder, and supercharge operators to models involving rational extensions of the two-parameter Lissajous systems on the sphere. These new families of superintegrable systems with integrals of arbitrary order are connected with Jacobi exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type I (or II) and supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Moreover, we present an algebraic derivation of the degenerate energy spectrum for the one- and two-parameter Lissajous systems and the rationally extended models. These results are based on finitely generated polynomial algebras, Casimir operators, realizations as deformed oscillator algebras, and finite-dimensional unitary representations. Such results have only been established so far for 2D superintegrable systems separable in Cartesian coordinates, which are related to a class of polynomial algebras that display a simpler structure. We also point out how the structure function of these deformed oscillator algebras is directly related with the generalized Heisenberg algebras spanned by the nonpolynomial integrals.

  12. Rational decisions

    Binmore, Ken


    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  13. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    Gray, W. E.


    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  14. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  15. Rationally designed fluorescently labeled sulfate-binding protein mutants: evaluation in the development of a sensing system for sulfate

    Shrestha, Suresh; Salins, Lyndon L E.; Mark Ensor, C.; Daunert, Sylvia


    Periplasmic binding proteins from E. coli undergo large conformational changes upon binding their respective ligands. By attaching a fluorescent probe at rationally selected unique sites on the protein, these conformational changes in the protein can be monitored by measuring the changes in fluorescence intensity of the probe which allow the development of reagentless sensing systems for their corresponding ligands. In this work, we evaluated several sites on bacterial periplasmic sulfate-binding protein (SBP) for attachment of a fluorescent probe and rationally designed a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Eight different mutants of SBP were prepared by employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to introduce a unique cysteine residue at a specific location on the protein. The sites Gly55, Ser90, Ser129, Ala140, Leu145, Ser171, Val181, and Gly186 were chosen for mutagenesis by studying the three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of SBP. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe (MDCC) was then attached site-specifically to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the unique cysteine residue introduced. Each fluorescent probe-conjugated SBP mutant was characterized in terms of its fluorescence properties and Ser171 was determined to be the best site for the attachment of the fluorescent probe that would allow for the development of a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Three different environment-sensitive fluorescent probes (1,5-IAEDANS, MDCC, and acylodan) were studied with the SBP171 mutant protein. A calibration curve for sulfate was constructed using the labeled protein and relating the change in the fluorescence intensity with the amount of sulfate present in the sample. The detection limit for sulfate was found to be in the submicromolar range using this system. The selectivity of the sensing system was demonstrated by evaluating its response to other anions. A fast and selective sensing system with detection limits for sulfate in the

  16. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  17. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  18. Rational design of CPP-based drug delivery systems: considerations from pharmacokinetics.

    Mickan, Arite; Sarko, Dikran; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter


    Therapeutics are restricted from cellular internalization due to the biological barrier formed by the cell membrane. Especially for therapeutics with high molecular weight, strategies are required to enable delivery to intracellular targets. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) represent a powerful tool to mediate the entry of large cargos such as proteins, siRNA and nanoparticles. The high diversity of CPPs is the prerequisite to use this class of carriers for various applications. However, therapies based on CPPs are hampered by their unfavorable pharmacokinetics, mainly dominated by their rapid renal clearance and their lack of specificity. Rational design is required to overcome these disadvantages and thereby exploits the actual potential of CPPs. We summarize and highlight the current state of knowledge with special emphasis on pharmacokinetics. The unclear internalization pathways of CPPs remain one of the main obstacles and therefore have been in the focus of research. In this review, several promising strategies such as the combination with targeting sequences, activatable CPPs and adjustment of the molecular weight are described. In addition, new absorption pathways such as nasal, pulmonary or transdermal uptake expand the applicability of CPPs and may be a promising prospect for clinical application.

  19. Rational kinematics

    Angeles, Jorge


    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  20. Insights into the Rational Design of Multi-Functional Fullerene Systems for Application in Blended Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Cowart, John S., Jr.

    Elucidating the structure-function relationships of organic semiconductors has been central to the advancement of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In particular, enhancing the performance of p-type materials in disordered heterojunctions is broadly acknowledged as the principal factor leading to current trends of improved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). However, two additional factors are crucially important for the next step forward in improving PCEs. First, investigating the influence, design and synthesis of new n-type materials, specifically fullerene acceptors, is of high importance. Second, because fullerene performance is often compromised by the morphological disorder of bulk heterojunctions, developing fullerenes systems that retain fidelity within disordered blends is also of broad interest. In light of these challenges, the field has witnessed a notable shift towards developing a comprehensive understanding of the design rules needed to advance the performance of fullerene acceptors in bulk heterojunctions. This work spotlights two multi-functional fullerene systems designed for blended heterojunctions. First, the synthesis of several novel fullerene-dye adducts with enhanced photon absorption will be presented. The ability of these adducts to absorb visible light in their pure state was evaluated and systematically examined versus their capacity to complement the absorption of low band gap donors and mediate charge transport in bulk heterojunctions. Second, mixed fullerene ternary blends were introduced as a strategy to stabilize the morphology in bulk heterojunctions and prolong operational lifetimes of OPV devices. Combined, these two systems offer unique insight into the rational design of fullerenes for their application in blended systems.

  1. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    Hoshi, Akinari


    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  2. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.


    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  3. Man-Machine Interactive Mode Based on Capturing Hand's Moving%基于手部行为捕捉的人机交互方式

    何明霞; 宁福星; 李萌


    研究开发了一种结构简单、成本低的人机交互方式,实现了鼠标光标移动和按键控制功能将2个特定的符号标记分别贴在操作者手背和指端,采用单个CCD摄像头获取手部运动系列图像,利用ARToolKit软件所提供的标记跟踪算法,计算摄像机和标记之间的相对空间位置,获取符号标记空间坐标的变化坐标系之间关系建立采用小孔成像模型.实验测试确定本系统捕捉能力与最佳标记符尺寸,最高采样频率为15.6Hz,光标移动的控制精度为2个像素,按键功能识别率为96%.%A type of human-computer interaction mode with simple structure and low cost was developed. Only two particular markers are affixed on a hand back and a finger tip respectively to take a series of images of hand moving using a single CCD camera. Markers tracking algorithm were done in the ARToolKit software to acquire markers' coordinate changes and achieve movement and button control of virtual mouse cursor. The relationship between different coordinate systems can be established through the pinhole imaging mode. The test experiments determine the system capacity and capture the best marker size. The maximum sampling frequency is 15.6 Hz, the cursor movement control accuracy is 2 pixels, and the key features recognition rate is 96%.

  4. Rational design of a bimodular model system for the investigation of heterocyclization in nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis.

    Duerfahrt, Thomas; Eppelmann, Katrin; Müller, Rolf; Marahiel, Mohamed A


    Cyclization (Cy) domains in NRPS catalyze the heterocyclization of cysteine and serine/threonine to thiazoline and oxazoline rings. A model system consisting of the first two modules of bacitracin synthetase A fused to the thioesterase (Te) domain of tyrocidine synthetase was constructed (BacA1-2-Te) and shown to be active in production of the heterocyclic IleCys(thiazoline). Based on this model system, the feasibility of Cy domain module fusions was investigated by replacing the BacA2 Cy-A-PCP-module with modules of MbtB and MtaD from the biosynthesis systems of mycobactin and myxothiazol, revealing the formation of novel heterocyclic dipeptides. To dissect the reaction sequence of the Cy domain in peptide bond formation and heterocyclization, several residues of the BacA1-2-Te Cy domain were analyzed by mutagenesis. Two mutants exhibited formation of the noncyclic dipeptide, providing clear evidence for the independence of condensation and cyclization.

  5. Systems Analysis department. Annual progress report 1997

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Petersen, Kurt E.


    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The department is undertaking research within Energy systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 110 refs.

  6. Systems Analysis Department. Annual progress report 1996

    Larsen, H.; Olsson, C.; Petersen, K.E. [eds.


    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1996. The department is undertaking research within Simulation and Optimisation of Energy Systems, Energy and Environment in Developing Countries - UNEP Centre, Integrated Environmental and Risk Management and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 131 refs.

  7. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.


    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interaction and Technology Scenarios. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 111 refs.

  8. Dynamics of a two-dimensional system of rational difference equations of Leslie--Gower type

    Kulenović MRS


    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate global dynamics of the following systems of difference equations x n + 1 = α 1 + β 1 x n A 1 + y n y n + 1 = γ 2 y n A 2 + B 2 x n + y n , n = 0 , 1 , 2 , … where the parameters α 1, β 1, A 1, γ 2, A 2, B 2 are positive numbers, and the initial conditions x 0 and y 0 are arbitrary nonnegative numbers. We show that this system has rich dynamics which depends on the region of parametric space. We show that the basins of attractions of different locally asymptotically stable equilibrium points or non-hyperbolic equilibrium points are separated by the global stable manifolds of either saddle points or non-hyperbolic equilibrium points. We give examples of a globally attractive non-hyperbolic equilibrium point and a semi-stable non-hyperbolic equilibrium point. We also give an example of two local attractors with precisely determined basins of attraction. Finally, in some regions of parameters, we give an explicit formula for the global stable manifold. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000 Primary: 39A10, 39A11 Secondary: 37E99, 37D10

  9. Rationality and Irrationality in Ryke Geerd Hamer's System for Holistic Treatment of Metastatic Cancer

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine if the “medical laws” found by the German physician Ryke Geerd Hamer are substantiated by contemporary holistic medical theory. He developed a psychosomatic theory after a personal emotional trauma that he believed resulted in his subsequent development of a testicular cancer. From our analysis, it is clear that the two most fundamental principles of Hamer's work, the psychosomatic “iron law of cancer” (Hamer's first “law” and the principle of pathogenesis being reversed into salutogenesis (Hamer's second “law”, are well-established principles of holistic medicine today. Hamer's understanding of symbols in medicine, virus and bacteria, and the evolutionary process itself (Hamer's third, fourth, and fifth “law” differs a great deal from both traditional and contemporary holistic medical theory and we did not find them substantiated. Hamer's understanding of cancer metastasis was built on these failing principles and therefore not substantiated either. Altogether, it seems that Hamer's thinking was basically sound as the most fundamental principles of his work were built on an understanding very similar to holistic medical thinkers of today. We found his postulate that metastatic cancer patients can be healed or their health improved by using his system of holistic medicine likely to be true, at least for some motivated patients. This must be tested scientifically, however, before being accepted. His presentation of his system and work has been idiosyncratic and highly provocative, which has alienated him from the whole medical community.

  10. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.


    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  11. A Rational Method for Probing Macromolecules Dissociation: The Antibody-Hapten System

    Henriques, Elsa S


    The unbinding process of a protein-ligand complex of major biological interest was investigated by means of a computational approach at atomistic classical mechanical level. An energy minimisation-based technique was used to determine the dissociation paths of the system by probing only a relevant set of generalized coordinates. The complex problem was reduced to a low-dimensional scanning along a selected distance between the protein and the ligand. Orientational coordinates of the escaping fragment (the ligand) were also assessed in order to further characterise the unbinding. Solvent effects were accounted for by means of the Poisson--Boltzmann continuum model. The corresponding dissociation time was derived from the calculated barrier height, in compliance with the experimentally reported Arrhenius-like behaviour. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  12. Rational modulation of the innate immune system for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke

    Diana eAmantea


    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a dualistic role in the evolution of ischemic brain damage and has also been implicated in ischemic tolerance produced by different conditioning stimuli. Early after ischemia, perivascular astrocytes release cytokines and activate metalloproteases (MMPs that contribute to blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption and vasogenic oedema; whereas at later stages, they provide extracellular glutamate uptake, BBB regeneration and neurotrophic factors release. Similarly, early activation of microglia contributes to ischemic brain injury via the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin (IL-1, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and proteases. Nevertheless, microglia also contributes to the resolution of inflammation, by releasing IL-10 and tumor growth factor (TGF-beta, and to the late reparative processes by phagocytic activity and growth factors production. Indeed, after ischemia, microglia/macrophages differentiate towards several phenotypes: the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype is classically activated via toll-like receptors or interferon-γ, whereas M2 phenotypes are alternatively activated by regulatory mediators, such as ILs 4, 10, 13 or TGF-beta. Thus, immune cells exert a dualistic role on the evolution of ischemic brain damage, since the classic phenotypes promote injury, whereas alternatively activated M2 macrophages or N2 neutrophils prompt tissue remodeling and repair.Moreover, a subdued activation of the immune system has been involved in ischemic tolerance, since different preconditioning stimuli act via modulation of inflammatory mediators, including toll-like receptors and cytokine signaling pathways. This further underscores that the immuno-modulatory approach for the treatment of ischemic stroke should be aimed at blocking the detrimental effects, while promoting the beneficial responses of the immune reaction.

  13. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the elderly: rational use of aliskiren in managing hypertension

    Karl Andersen


    Full Text Available Karl AndersenDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Landspitali University Hospital, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, IcelandAbstract: The overall purpose of hypertension treatment is 2-fold. First, patients often have symptoms that are related to their high blood pressure and although subtle in many instances may be improved dramatically by blood pressure control. The main reason for blood pressure treatment, however, is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular complications and end organ damage related to the condition. This may be considered the ultimate goal of blood pressure treatment. In this respect, actual blood pressure measurements may be seen as surrogate end points as the organ protective effects of two antihypertensive agents may differ significantly even though their blood pressure lowering effects are similar. Thus beta-blockers, once seen as first-line treatment of hypertension for most patients, now are considered as third- or fourth-line agents according to the latest NICE guidelines (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, On the other hand, agents that inhibit the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS are being established as safe, effective and end organ protective in numerous clinical trials, resulting in their general acceptance as first-line treatment in most patients with stage 2 hypertension. This shift in emphasis from beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics is supported by numerous clinical trials and has proven safe and well tolerated by patients. The impact of this paradigm shift will have to be established in future long-term randomized clinical trials. The optimal combination treatment with respect to end organ protection has yet to be determined. Most combinations will include either a RAAS active agent and calcium channel blocker or two separate RAAS active agents working at different levels of the cascade. In this respect direct renin inhibitors

  14. On rationally supported surfaces

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.


    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  15. Political Rationality

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...... ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verba, 1963:12). A political culture is among several aspects characterized by the forms and level...... of participation and particularly how individuals regard themselves as active political citizens. Participation, either voter turnout or other forms of public involvement is regarded as a barometer of the quality of democracy in a country and serve to characterize the political culture in a democracy (Diamond...

  16. The rationing agenda in the NHS. Rationing Agenda Group.

    New, B


    The Rationing Agenda Group has been founded to deepen the British debate on rationing health care. It believes that rationing in health care is inevitable and that the public must be involved in the debate about issues relating to rationing. The group comprises people from all parts of health care, none of whom represent either their group or their institutions. RAG has begun by producing this document, which attempts to set an agenda of all the issues that need to be considered when debating the rationing of health care. We hope for responses to the document. The next stage will be to incorporate the responses into the agenda. Then RAG will divide the agenda into manageable chunks and commission expert, detailed commentaries. From this material a final paper will be published and used to prompt public debate. This stage should be reached early in 1997. While these papers are being prepared RAG is developing ways to involve the public in the debate and evaluate the whole process. We present as neutrally as possible all the issues related to rationing and priority setting in the NHS. We focus on the NHS for two reasons. Firstly, for those of us resident in the United Kingdom the NHS is the health care system with which we are most familiar and most concerned. Secondly, focusing on one system alone allows more coherent analysis than would be possible if issues in other systems were included as well. Our concern is with the delivery of health care, not its finance, though we discuss the possible effects of changing the financing system of the NHS. Finally, though our position is neutral, we hold two substantive views--namely, that rationing is unavoidable and that there should be more explicit debate about the principles and issues concerned. We consider the issues under four headings: preliminaries, ethics, democracy, and empirical questions. Preliminaries deal with the semantics of rationing, whether rationing is necessary, and with the range of services to which

  17. A New Rational Algebraic Approach to Find Exact Analytical Solutions to a (2+1)-Dimensional System


    In this paper, we present a new rational algebraic approach to uniformly construct a series of exact analytical solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. Compared with most existing tanh methods and other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only recovers some known solutions, but also finds some new and general solutions.The solutions obtained in this paper include rational form triangular periodic wave solutions, solitary wave solutions,and elliptic doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equation.

  18. Man-machine Interaction" or "Interpersonal Communication"%“人机交往”还是“人际交往”读屏时代青少年的同伴互动



    “读屏”成为了越来越多青少年的“常规动作”和“生动表情”,青少年的同伴关系在种种屏幕面前也得以再造。电视屏幕为青少年展示了成人的后台景象,使青少年学习到许多人际交往模式以及相应的价值观念、行为方式。在网络虚拟世界中,青少年按照新的规则展开知识的传播、情感的交流、思想的撞击。学习如何同他人交往,并将这些交往技巧迁移到真实的社会情境中。手机作为“流动的现代性”的表征之一,重新结构着青少年的人际交往模式和社会关系网络。然而,青少年的社会需要不可能仅仅从抽象的“人机关系”中得到满足,“人机”关系自然不可能彻底取代“人际”关系。%"Screen reading" has become the "routine" and "vivid expression" of more and more young people. Peer relationships are undergoing a reshape phase in front of various screens. Television screens provide young people with a background picture of the adult world, in which they can learn different ways of handling I interpersonal relationships and the corresponding values and behaviors. In the virtual world, young people use internet to disperse knowledge, exchange feelings and ideas, as well as learn to interact with people. These communication skills can be transferred to real life thereafter. As one of the representations of "the flowing modernity", mobile phones reconstruct young people's interpersonal mode and social relations. However, these abstract "man-machine relationship" can not satisfy young people's need for social connection, let alone replace "interpersonal" relationship.

  19. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba


    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  20. A new compound Riccati equations rational expansion method and its application to the (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov system

    Song Lina [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Qi; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)


    In this paper, based on a new general ansaetze and symbolic computation, a new compound Riccati equations rational expansion method is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to the (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov system. It is shown that more complexiton solutions can be found by this new method. The method can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  1. Rationing with baselines

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....


    V. N. Romaniuk


    Full Text Available The paper considers organization of the industrial enterprise heat and power supply system (HPSS, to be rational from the structure and flow parameter standpoint. Developing HPSS is one of the main lines of implementing energy-saving potential in volumes complying with dictates of the time on reducing the production cost energy component, which is especially vital for the light industry enterprises of Belarus. To reduce the complexity of the task the authors employ the hierarchical structure of HPSS. With regard to textile and knitwear enterprises, they show the irregularity of energy supply on the one hand, and of energy use on the other. The finishing departments of the specified enterprises ensure their thermo-technological status. It is proverbial that accomplished in terms of energy thermo-technological enterprises should not consume the electric energy produced in condensation electric power plants. Instead, for their production needs, they should use thermal energy and electricity generated in the CHP. At the same time, steam turbine CHPs of low power, and consequently of low initial parameters, cannot provide the required electrical and heat energy flow generation balance. The indicated circumstance among others accounts for prevalence of condensation electric power plants in the scheme of electrogenerating capacities that provide work for the light industry enterprises. And this leads to irregularity of their energy supply. Transition to gas CHPs with required scheme of the energy flow generation is associated primarily with creation of inherent generating sources, which in its turn poses a number of challenges on modification of the thermal treatment schemes of technological flows. The problem is solved in package with developing energy consumption of the finishing department as well as the entire enterprise. The study shows the capability of utilizing low pressure hot water alongside with steam, which paves the way to the recuperative

  3. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Marquette, Ian; Quesne, Christiane


    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent PIV, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed Xm1,m2,…,mk Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  4. The relational nature of rational numbers

    Bruce Brown


    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the knowledge and learning of rational numbers is more complex than that of the whole number field. This complexity includes the broader range of application of rational numbers, the increased level of technical complexity in the mathematical structure and symbol systems of this field and the more complex nature of many conceptual properties of the rational number field. Research on rational number learning is divided as to whether children’s difficulties in learning rational numbers arise only from the increased complexity or also include elements of conceptual change. This article argues for a fundamental conceptual difference between whole and rational numbers. It develops the position that rational numbers are fundamentally relational in nature and that the move from absolute counts to relative comparisons leads to a further level of abstraction in our understanding of number and quantity. The argument is based on a number of qualitative, in-depth research projects with children and adults. These research projects indicated the importance of such a relational understanding in both the learning and teaching of rational numbers, as well as in adult representations of rational numbers on the number line. Acknowledgement of such a conceptual change could have important consequences for the teaching and learning of rational numbers.

  5. The structure of bivariate rational hypergeometric functions

    Cattani, Eduardo; Villegas, Fernando Rodriguez


    We describe the structure of all codimension-two lattice configurations $A$ which admit a stable rational $A$-hypergeometric function, that is a rational function $F$ all whose partial derivatives are non zero, and which is a solution of the $A$-hypergeometric system of partial differential equations defined by Gel'fand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky. We show, moreover, that all stable rational $A$-hypergeometric functions may be described by toric residues and apply our results to study the rationality of bivariate series whose coefficients are quotients of factorials of linear forms.

  6. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  7. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Robert Nalbandov


    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  8. Use of Hypertext for the Development of an Office Reference System on Economic Analysis


    Telephone interviews. The Analytic Sciences Corporation, Arlington VA, April through May 1990. 5. Beeman , William 0. and others. "Hypertext and Pluralism...McCracken, Donald L. and Robert M. Akscyn. "Experiences with the ZOG human-computer interface system," International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21: 293

  9. Rational Design of an α-Ketoamide-Based Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe Specific for Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Systems.

    Xie, Xilei; Yang, Xiu'e; Wu, Tianhong; Li, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Tan, Qi; Wang, Xu; Tang, Bo


    Hydrogen peroxide, an important biomolecule, receives earnest attention because of its physiological and pathological functions. In this Article, we present the rational design, characterization, and biological application of a mitochondria-targetable NIR fluorescent sensor, Mito-NIRHP, for hydrogen peroxide visualization. Mito-NIRHP utilizes a unique reaction switch, α-ketoamide moiety, to turn on a highly specific, sensitive, and rapid fluorescence response toward hydrogen peroxide coupled with the intramolecular charge transfer strategy. Mito-NIRHP is competent to track endogenously produced hydrogen peroxide in both living cells and living animals. In addition, utilizing Mito-NIRHP, overgeneration of hydrogen peroxide during ischemia-reperfusion injury was directly visualized at both cell and organ levels.

  10. Better utilisation of district heating systems. Subproject Hanover-Hamburg: 'Analysis of the control characteristics of district heating grids'. Part 1: Optimisation of automatic pump control for fast load variations. Part 2: Automation of district heating pumps at the man-machine communication interface. Part 3: Installation and adaptation of the BoFiT program system (Hanover only). Final report; Bessere Ausnutzung von Fernwaermeanlagen. Teilprojekt Hannover-Hamburg: 'Analyse des Regelverhaltens von Fernwaermenetzen'. T. 1: Optimieren einer automatischen Pumpensteuerung auf schnelle Lastwechsel. T. 2: Darstellen der Automatisierungseinrichtungen von Fernwaermepumpen an der Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikationsschnittstelle (MMK). T. 3: Installation und Anpassung des Programmsystems BoFiT (nur Hannover). Abschlussbericht

    Tuchs, M.; Beecken, J.; Hilmer, W.; Oel, M.; Schaper, H.; Micus, W.; Tegeler, C.; Ridder, M.; Schoettker, P.; Rogalla, B.U.; Feuerriegel, S.


    The general target of the interconnection research intention is discovering margins for optimizing the heat consumption by fast and ensured variation between producers with CHP generation plants and plants for primary heat and reverse. The project is subdivided in three parts: In part 1 the usefulness of automated operation of the communal distributed heating net-work was determined by: Comparison of real measurements with simulated processes calculations of the differential control processes, development and analysis of a control process concept and improvement of the existing controler action in the Hamburg and the Hannover model, investigations of the effects of closed loop control on safety and portrayal of the processes during optimised and automated operation. The advantage of this system can be demonstrated to be both economical and ecological. Safety analysis showed that a higher degree of automation does not compromise safe operation. In Hamburg these findings led to the development of a training simulator for the operating personnel. The optimisation techniques presented in part 1 can therefore be implemented in a model, which provides a very good analogy to the real network. In part 2 innovative forms of presentation of hydraulic relations of the controled District Heating network where developed. They where realised in a computer program. This program was installed in the District Heating control room. The target of part 3 is the practical application of BoFit for the generation of optimized propositions for operation mode of the District Heating net-work. The consideration of the actual condition of the District Heating network was realized by online-connection to the process data processing. The situation of costs of heat supply is found out by simulations for the present moment and for a prognosted period. (orig.)

  11. New analytical solutions for nonlinear physical models of the coupled Higgs equation and the Maccari system via rational exp$(−\\psi(\\eta)$)-expansion method



    In this article, a variety of solitary wave solutions are found for some nonlinear equations. In mathematical physics, we studied two complex systems, the Maccari system and the coupled Higgs field equation. We construct sufficient exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. To study travelling wave solutions, we used a fractional complex transform to convert the particular partial differential equation of fractional order into the corresponding partial differential equation and the rational exp$(−\\psi(\\eta)$)-expansion method is implemented tofind exact solutions of nonlinear equation. We find hyperbolic, trigonometric, rational and exponential function solutions using the above equation. The results of various studies show that the suggested method is very effectiveand can be used as an alternative for finding exact solutions of nonlinear equations in mathematical physics. A comparative study with the other methods gives validity to the technique and shows that the method providesadditional solutions. Graphical representations along with the numerical data reinforce the efficacy of the procedure used. The specified idea is very effective, pragmatic for partial differential equations of fractional order andcould be protracted to other physical phenomena.

  12. 当代中国农民生态理性研究的体系与思路--农民生态理性研究述评%The System and Thinking of Ecological Rational Research of Contemporary Chinese Farmers---Comments on the Research of Famers'Ecological Rationality



    The ecological rational research on farmers mainly focuses on the argument and illustration about the farmers 'rationality, a-nalysis of its necessity , the status analysis of the contemporary Chinese farmers , the reason of their rationality lack , and the way of con-structing the contemporary Chinese farmers'ecological rationality .Meanwhile, based on the above exploration , the system and thinking of the farmers'ecological rationality could be constructed .%目前农民生态理性研究主要包括农民具有理性的论证、农民生态理性内涵阐释、农民生态理性必要性分析、当代中国农民生态理性现状分析、当代中国农民生态理性缺失的原因探讨、构建当代中国农民生态理性的途径等六个方面。对于这六方面的研究正好可以建构起我们对于农民生态理性研究的体系和思路。

  13. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth


    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  14. Integrated practical technology for rationalization of production system in Miike coal mine; Seisan kozo kaikaku no tame no sogo shien gijutsu (Miike tanko ni okeru gijutsu kaikaku)

    Furukawa, H. [Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the improvement of production structure and the reduction since the latter half of FY 1990 in the Miike Coal Mine. The annual production was reduced from 4.5 to 2.35 million tons. The rationalization strategy is composed of the increase in productivity with intensive faces by introducing high performance mining facilities (MHP) and by modifying mining method, the mechanization of driving works, the simplification of underground structures, the reduction of indirect costs, and the rationalization of surface management departments. Faces were reduced to one or two by the MHP, and high operation rate and energy saving are achieved using self-advancing frames. Face moving period was reduced by rotating the MHP within the underground. Labor-saving of belt conveyors was achieved using built-up frames. For the gallery driving, a base gallery was excavated before production, and level driving was expanded through the base gallery. High-speed and systematic face driving was realized through in-seam driving by operating road header without using blasting. To avoid the decrease in operation rate due to unexpected faults or spring waters, early grasping system of face conditions was established, and environmental arrangement was enriched. The efficiency was improved from 96 in FY 1988 to 159 t/person{center_dot}month in FY 1995. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Rational design of liposomal drug delivery systems, a review: Combined experimental and computational studies of lipid membranes, liposomes and their PEGylation.

    Bunker, Alex; Magarkar, Aniket; Viitala, Tapani


    Combined experimental and computational studies of lipid membranes and liposomes, with the aim to attain mechanistic understanding, result in a synergy that makes possible the rational design of liposomal drug delivery system (LDS) based therapies. The LDS is the leading form of nanoscale drug delivery platform, an avenue in drug research, known as "nanomedicine", that holds the promise to transcend the current paradigm of drug development that has led to diminishing returns. Unfortunately this field of research has, so far, been far more successful in generating publications than new drug therapies. This partly results from the trial and error based methodologies used. We discuss experimental techniques capable of obtaining mechanistic insight into LDS structure and behavior. Insight obtained purely experimentally is, however, limited; computational modeling using molecular dynamics simulation can provide insight not otherwise available. We review computational research, that makes use of the multiscale modeling paradigm, simulating the phospholipid membrane with all atom resolution and the entire liposome with coarse grained models. We discuss in greater detail the computational modeling of liposome PEGylation. Overall, we wish to convey the power that lies in the combined use of experimental and computational methodologies; we hope to provide a roadmap for the rational design of LDS based therapies. Computational modeling is able to provide mechanistic insight that explains the context of experimental results and can also take the lead and inspire new directions for experimental research into LDS development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg.

  16. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Marquette, Ian, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Quesne, Christiane, E-mail: [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP229, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent P{sub IV}, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed X{sub m{sub 1,m{sub 2,…,m{sub k}}}} Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  17. Rationalization and sensemaking in care management: an experience of change in a hospital of the SUS (Unified Health System).

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva; Sá, Marilene de Castilho; Cunha, Marcela; Matta, Gustavo Correa; Miranda, Lilian; Grabois, Victor


    This study aimed to analyze organizational processes of change in the hospital care management by using qualitative evaluation developed in the case study. The study was developed at the Hospital Fornecedores de Cana de Piracicaba, in São Paulo State, Brazil, in September and October of 2012. There were 25 interviews with members of the senior board of directors of the hospital, managers and health professionals linked to healthcare of adults, in addition to the analysis of managerial documents and observations of some activities. In this article it is analyzed part of the results, dividing the organizational change in three axes: the planning process developed in the healthcare sectors; The protocol/creation of assisted routines in order to obtain better efficiency and safety for the patient; and the work of hospitalist physicians. The study highlights the complexity of the processes of change in the care management sphere in hospitals and the dynamism between a given management concept and its rational tools and the subjects and groups that seek, in the micropolitic and intersubjective processes, meanings to their practices.

  18. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    Ortega, Pedro A


    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  19. Uncertainty, rationality, and agency

    Hoek, Wiebe van der


    Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency

  20. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  1. Completions of rationals

    Janusz J. Charatonik


    Full Text Available Spaces which are metrizable completions of the space Q of rationals are described. A characterization of metrizable spaces having the same family of metrizable completions as Q is deduced.

  2. Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality

    Michał Januszkiewicz


    The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis). Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as underst...

  3. Rational use of electric energy in public water supply systems - a case study in Macapa - Brazil; Uso racional de energia eletrica em sistemas publicos de abastecimento de agua, um estudo de caso em Macapa

    Andrade, Cynthia S.; Correia, Paulo de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia


    The rational use of energy is becoming a matter of great importance and interest on every sectors of society. Optimization techniques are efficient tools to get rational operations of energy. This paper presents an optimization model applied to a part of the CAESA public system water supply in Macapa, considering a daily programming horizon. CAESA is the company of water and drain of Amapa. The results achieve show a reduction potential up to 25% in actual electrical energy use of the studied system. (author) 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.; e-mail: cynthia e correia at

  4. [Rational use of antibiotics].

    Walger, P


    International and national campaigns draw attention worldwide to the rational use of the available antibiotics. This has been stimulated by the high prevalence rates of drug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a threatening spread of development of resistance in Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria and the selection of Clostridium difficile with a simultaneous clear reduction in the development of new antibiotics. The implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs aims to maintain their effectiveness by a rational use of the available antibiotics. The essential target of therapy with antibiotics is successful treatment of individual patients with bacterial infections. The optimal clinical treatment results can only be achieved when the toxicity, selection of pathogens and development of resistance are minimized. This article presents the principles of a rational antibiotic therapy.

  5. Municipal management cooperation : managing multiple rationalities

    Holmberg, Leif


    Multiple rationality organizations are characterized by the simultaneously incorporation of different kinds of logic and control systems. They have to provide not only for efficiency but also to comply with e.g. ideal of fairness, sportsman­ship, equal rights, and aesthetic values. Elite sport clubs, theatres, and several municipality activities are examples of organizations that have to cope with multiple rationalities. These organizations are often governed through a combination of politica...

  6. Algebraic Topology, Rational Homotopy


    This proceedings volume centers on new developments in rational homotopy and on their influence on algebra and algebraic topology. Most of the papers are original research papers dealing with rational homotopy and tame homotopy, cyclic homology, Moore conjectures on the exponents of the homotopy groups of a finite CW-c-complex and homology of loop spaces. Of particular interest for specialists are papers on construction of the minimal model in tame theory and computation of the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category by means articles on Moore conjectures, on tame homotopy and on the properties of Poincaré series of loop spaces.

  7. Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality

    Michał Januszkiewicz


    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis. Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as understanding in the hermeneutic sense.

  8. On Bounded Rationality in Cyber-Physical Systems Security: Game-Theoretic Analysis with Application to Smart Grid Protection

    Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid


    In this paper, a general model for cyber-physical systems (CPSs), that captures the diffusion of attacks from the cyber layer to the physical system, is studied. In particular, a game-theoretic approach is proposed to analyze the interactions between one defender and one attacker over a CPS. In this game, the attacker launches cyber attacks on a number of cyber components of the CPS to maximize the potential harm to the physical system while the system operator chooses to defend a number of c...

  9. Research on on-line psychology consultation expert system based on man-machine interaction technique%基于人机会话技术的网上心理咨询专家系统

    施海虎; 闫峰; 李冬梅; 胡英飞



  10. 基于跨平台下的嵌入式GUI人机界面系统研究与设计%Research and Design of Embedded GUI Man-machine Interface System Based on Cross-platform

    刘洲洲; 肖军



  11. 基于嵌入式GUI雷达控制系统人机界面设计%Man-machine Interface Design of Radar Control System Based on Embedded GUI




  12. Design of man-machine interactive system in domestic robot based on speech recognition technology of RSC4128%基于RSC4128的家用机器人语音人机交互系统的设计

    李瑞峰; 李麟



  13. Study on Man-Machine Function Allocation of Intelligent Fire and Command Control System%智能火力与指挥控制系统的人机功能分配

    汤志荔; 张安; 曹璐



  14. Evaluate Man-machine Interaction of C4ISR System by Using AHP Method%用AHP法评估C4ISR系统的人机交互性能

    卢盈齐; 张平定; 王睿; 谢波



  15. Dynamic Solution of the Lower Extremity Joint Torques in Man machine System of Lower Extremity Exoskeleton%外骨骼机器人系统中人体下肢关节力矩动态解算

    郭伟; 杨丛为; 邓静; 查富生


    The method uses joint displacement sensors and inertial navigation unit on lower ex-tremity exoskeleton to collect human motion infor-mation.Gets the relative angle of hip,knee and the posture and acceleration of torso.With inverse dy-namics real time calculating the joint driving torque of the wearers.In the procedure,with the 5 bar human model the kinematics and dynamics of human limb’s movement were analyzed.By Mat-lab /Simulink programming to obtain the curve of the joint torque of human lower limb joints in suc-cessive gait cycle.In order to prove the Correct-ness of the result,compare the joint torque of sup-porting leg ankle solved by lagrange dynamics e-quations with the ankle torque which was calculat-ed by the plantar force measured during the experi-ment,the feasibility of the solving method was proved.Exoskeleton robot assiste the wearer with the torques information.%利用下肢外骨骼关节位移传感器及惯性导航单元采集人体运动信息,计算获得下肢髋、膝关节的相对角度以及躯干的姿态和加速度,通过动力学逆解实时解算穿戴者运动所需的关节驱动力矩。在此过程中,利用人体五杆模型,对人体下肢的运动进行了运动学和动力学分析,通过 Matlab/Simulink 软件编程求解,得到了人体下肢关节在连续步态周期内关节力矩的变化,通过对比计算获得的支撑踝关节力矩值与足底力传感器实测值,证明了关节力矩求解方法的正确性,保障了外骨骼机器人能够根据此力矩对穿戴者提供助力。

  16. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Haberma...

  17. Between Magic and Rationality

    In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge...

  18. Strange, but rational

    Dryden, Windy


    In this title, highly respected author, Windy Dryden, discusses some of the ideas that are central to the theory underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). Founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (1913-2007) and developed in the intervening years, REBT was the first approach to be created within what is now known as the cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) tradition.

  19. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.


    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  20. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  1. RPM-WEBBSYS: A web-based computer system to apply the rational polynomial method for estimating static formation temperatures of petroleum and geothermal wells

    Wong-Loya, J. A.; Santoyo, E.; Andaverde, J. A.; Quiroz-Ruiz, A.


    A Web-Based Computer System (RPM-WEBBSYS) has been developed for the application of the Rational Polynomial Method (RPM) to estimate static formation temperatures (SFT) of geothermal and petroleum wells. The system is also capable to reproduce the full thermal recovery processes occurred during the well completion. RPM-WEBBSYS has been programmed using advances of the information technology to perform more efficiently computations of SFT. RPM-WEBBSYS may be friendly and rapidly executed by using any computing device (e.g., personal computers and portable computing devices such as tablets or smartphones) with Internet access and a web browser. The computer system was validated using bottomhole temperature (BHT) measurements logged in a synthetic heat transfer experiment, where a good matching between predicted and true SFT was achieved. RPM-WEBBSYS was finally applied to BHT logs collected from well drilling and shut-in operations, where the typical problems of the under- and over-estimation of the SFT (exhibited by most of the existing analytical methods) were effectively corrected.

  2. Rationalizing the selection of oral lipid based drug delivery systems by an in vitro dynamic lipolysis model for improved oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.

    Dahan, Arik; Hoffman, Amnon


    As a consequence of modern drug discovery techniques, there has been a consistent increase in the number of new pharmacologically active lipophilic compounds that are poorly water soluble. A great challenge facing the pharmaceutical scientist is making these molecules into orally administered medications with sufficient bioavailability. One of the most popular approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of these molecules is the utilization of a lipid based drug delivery system. Unfortunately, current development strategies in the area of lipid based delivery systems are mostly empirical. Hence, there is a need for a simplified in vitro method to guide the selection of a suitable lipidic vehicle composition and to rationalize the delivery system design. To address this need, a dynamic in vitro lipolysis model, which provides a very good simulation of the in vivo lipid digestion process, has been developed over the past few years. This model has been extensively used for in vitro assessment of different lipid based delivery systems, leading to enhanced understanding of the suitability of different lipids and surfactants as a delivery system for a given poorly water soluble drug candidate. A key goal in the development of the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model has been correlating the in vitro data of various drug-lipidic delivery system combinations to the resultant in vivo drug profile. In this paper, we discuss and review the need for this model, its underlying theory, practice and limitations, and the available data accumulated in the literature. Overall, the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model seems to provide highly useful initial guidelines in the development process of oral lipid based drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs, and it predicts phenomena that occur in the pre-enterocyte stages of the intestinal absorption cascade.

  3. Rationality and social behavior.

    Tullberg, Jan


    This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for

  4. An intelligent system for calculating the scale of rational, enlarged production of an underground non-ferrous metal mine

    ZHENG Ming-gui; CAI Si-jing


    The enlarged production scale of underground non-ferrous metal mines is affected by many uncertain factors difficult to describe mathematically with any level of accuracy. The problem can be solved by a synthesis of artificial intelligence. Based on the analysis of the major factors affecting the scale of enlarged production, we first interpreted in detail the design principles and structure of the intelligent system. Secondly, we introduced an ANN subsystem. In order to ensure technological and scale efficiencies of the training samples for ANN, we filtrated the samples with a DEA method. Finally, we trained the intelligent system, which was proved to be very efficient.

  5. Guidelines for Managing the Implementation of Automated Medical Systems

    Brown, Bob; Harbort, Bob; Kaplan, Bonnie; Maxwell, Joseph


    The nontechnical aspects of medical computing systems are as important as the technical. We offer some reasons why. We discuss the social context of systems, the human engineering necessary for medical systems to work, and the specifics of the man machine interface. We offer some suggestions for planning for the change which comes with any new method. Finally, we take a step that has often been neglected in such “how to do it” approaches and describe a theoretical framework for understanding ...

  6. 一种切触有理插值在线性系统模型简化中的应用%An osculatory rational interpolation method of model reduction in linear system

    顾传青; 张莺


    A theorem for osculatory rational interpolation was shown to establish a new criterion of interpolation. On the basis of this conclusion a practical algorithm was presented to get a reduction model of the linear systems. Some numerical examples were given to explain the result in this paper.

  7. Fast-slow analysis for parametrically and externally excited systems with two slow rationally related excitation frequencies.

    Han, Xiujing; Bi, Qinsheng; Ji, Peng; Kurths, Jürgen


    We present a general method for analyzing mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) in parametrically and externally excited systems with two low excitation frequencies (PEESTLEFs) for the case of arbitrary m:n relation between the slow frequencies of excitations. The validity of the approach has been demonstrated using the equations of Duffing and van der Pol, separately. Our study shows that, by introducing a slow variable and finding the relation between the slow variable and the slow excitations, PEESTLEFs can be transformed into a fast-slow form with a single slow variable and therefore MMOs observed in PEESTLEFs can be understood by the classical machinery of fast subsystem analysis of the transformed fast-slow system.

  8. pH measurement and a rational and practical pH control strategy for high throughput cell culture system.

    Zhou, Haiying; Purdie, Jennifer; Wang, Tongtong; Ouyang, Anli


    The number of therapeutic proteins produced by cell culture in the pharmaceutical industry continues to increase. During the early stages of manufacturing process development, hundreds of clones and various cell culture conditions are evaluated to develop a robust process to identify and select cell lines with high productivity. It is highly desirable to establish a high throughput system to accelerate process development and reduce cost. Multiwell plates and shake flasks are widely used in the industry as the scale down model for large-scale bioreactors. However, one of the limitations of these two systems is the inability to measure and control pH in a high throughput manner. As pH is an important process parameter for cell culture, this could limit the applications of these scale down model vessels. An economical, rapid, and robust pH measurement method was developed at Eli Lilly and Company by employing SNARF-4F 5-(-and 6)-carboxylic acid. The method demonstrated the ability to measure the pH values of cell culture samples in a high throughput manner. Based upon the chemical equilibrium of CO(2), HCO(3)(-), and the buffer system, i.e., HEPES, we established a mathematical model to regulate pH in multiwell plates and shake flasks. The model calculates the required %CO(2) from the incubator and the amount of sodium bicarbonate to be added to adjust pH to a preset value. The model was validated by experimental data, and pH was accurately regulated by this method. The feasibility of studying the pH effect on cell culture in 96-well plates and shake flasks was also demonstrated in this study. This work shed light on mini-bioreactor scale down model construction and paved the way for cell culture process development to improve productivity or product quality using high throughput systems.

  9. The Rational Consideration of the Principal Recommendation System in Middle School%关于中学校长推荐制的理性思考



    对于北大的“中学校长推荐制”,社会上始终存在着“热”、“冷”两种声音,既有赞成,又有反对。推荐制的公平和价值问题是社会争论的焦点。推荐制并不一定会导致不公平,公平完全可通过完善制度来保障。符合学生的身心发展规律是推荐制的根本价值,这赋予了推荐制存在的合理性。改革考试技术、完善政策和措施、营造宽松的社会环境是更好地实施推荐制的重要举措。%As to "the principal recommendation system in middle school "" in Peking University, there are two different opinions. Some people approve it and others disapprove it. The fairness and the value of the recommendation system are the focuse of debate. Recommendation system does not cause unfairness in- evitablely and fairness can be guaranted by system. That recommendation system is in accordance with stu-dents' physical and mental development is its basic value, which entrusts rationality to it. Reforming exam technique, improving related policies and creating a good social environment are important measures to car-ry it out much better.

  10. The Effects of Rational and Irrational Self-Verbalizations on Performance Efficiency and Levels of Anxiety.

    Rosin, Lindsay; Nelson, W. M. III


    Investigated effects of rational vs. irrational belief systems and rational vs. irrational self-verbalizations on anxiety and persistence. Subjects (N=40) were instructed to assemble a virtually insolvable task called Soma, and were assigned to either a rational or irrational self-talk condition. Rational self-talk subjects showed a significant…

  11. New Exact Solutions for Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky Equation Using an Extended Riccati Equation Rational Expansion Method

    SONG Li-Na; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    Taking the Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky system as a simple example, some families of rational formal hyperbolic function solutions, rational formal triangular periodic solutions, and rational solutions are constructed by using the extended Riccati equation rational expansion method presented by us. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equation or equations.

  12. Study of drug supersaturation for rational early formulation screening of surfactant/co-solvent drug delivery systems.

    Stillhart, Cordula; Cavegn, Martin; Kuentz, Martin


    To advance in vitro screening of surfactant/co-solvent formulations in early development by considering drug supersaturation and the mechanism of solubilization upon aqueous dilution. Two surfactant/co-solvent model systems were studied at practically relevant aqueous dilution ratios. Precipitation of the model drug fenofibrate was characterized by focused beam reflectance measurement, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. We calculated drug supersaturation in diluted systems and introduced a theoretical model to study the role of excipient interaction in the process of drug solubilization. Finally, vehicle phase changes upon dilution were examined using dynamic light scattering and ultrasound analysis. Phase changes occurred at low dilution levels, while more extensive dilution barely led to further structural changes. In undiluted formulations, ethanol-surfactant domains were responsible for fenofibrate solubilization. In dispersed formulations, however, the co-solvent partitioned out of the surfactant microstructure, leading to drug solubilization by independent micellization and co-solvency. This loss of excipient interaction caused formulation-specific supersaturation, which was indicative for the risk of drug precipitation. Experimental protocols of in vitro formulation screening should include both low and high dilution levels of physiological relevance. The study of excipient interaction and estimation of supersaturation allows the identification of formulations that are prone to drug precipitation. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...

  14. The failure of the insulation system and the development of a rational criminal policy based means probation in Poland

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz


    Full Text Available In the present article, the proposal to reform the system by incorporating punishment the existing order of penal sanctions and measures the average power probation is wishful thinking, confirmed the need for its patency in the right voices representatives of science.There is, however, supporters of the department of the Ministry of Justice. However, based on the current catalog of criminal offenses, including taking into account the supervision of the conditional suspension, cancellation and premature release and independent supervision, can, in implementing rules create conditions for implementation of the first phase of that reform, assuming operation in the so-called guardianship as a prerequisite for clinical success of semi in Poland.

  15. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman


    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  16. Alternative Disaster Feeding Ration


    is that a healthy person can last about a week without food, but children are more vulnerable lasting for just a few days. In these scenarios, the...ration bar could be edible across different health or dietary constrained populations. For example, diabetics or those with high cholesterol could...Hurricane Katrina was a powerful Category 5 storm that devastated the southeastern states along the Gulf of Mexico in 2005.2 Having seen the aftermath

  17. Rational design of a thermalresponsive-polymer-switchable FRET system for enhancing the temperature sensitivity of upconversion nanophosphors

    Xiao, Qingbo; Li, Yanfang; Li, Fujin; Zhang, Mengxin; Zhang, Zhijun; Lin, Hongzhen


    Here we propose a thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM modulated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system to enhance the temperature sensitivity of upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs). By utilizing red/near-infrared dual emitting NaLuF4:Mn2+,Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+) UCNPs as the energy donor and Au nanoparticles as the acceptor, the temperature resolution of the UCNPs is significantly increased from 3.1 °C to 0.9 °C in the physiological temperature range. Conjugating the UCNPs and acceptors into discrete nanocomposites in our samples facilitates reversible regulation of the emission intensity of UCNPs, which thus would extend their application range in biosensing, especially for probing the dynamic changes of local micro-environments in biological tissues. As there are a broad variety of stimuli to which smart polymers can reversibly respond, our experiments are also extendable to various external conditions in local micro-environments, such as pH values, metal ions, glucose, and tissue-specific enzymes.Here we propose a thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM modulated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system to enhance the temperature sensitivity of upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs). By utilizing red/near-infrared dual emitting NaLuF4:Mn2+,Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+) UCNPs as the energy donor and Au nanoparticles as the acceptor, the temperature resolution of the UCNPs is significantly increased from 3.1 °C to 0.9 °C in the physiological temperature range. Conjugating the UCNPs and acceptors into discrete nanocomposites in our samples facilitates reversible regulation of the emission intensity of UCNPs, which thus would extend their application range in biosensing, especially for probing the dynamic changes of local micro-environments in biological tissues. As there are a broad variety of stimuli to which smart polymers can reversibly respond, our experiments are also extendable to various external conditions in local micro

  18. Teaching strategic and systems design to facilitate collaboration and learning

    Andre Liem


    Full Text Available As strategic and systems approaches are becoming more relevant in design education when it concerns collaborative projects with the industry, an explicit systems design methodology is needed to structure collaboration and learning among students, educators, and the Norwegian industry. This article describes three alternative studio projects for teaching strategic and systems design with the involvement of Norwegian companies. Besides this, the approaches and fundamental theories of design thinking and reasoning, which are characteristic of these projects, were reflected against each other. In the undergraduate (year 2 systems thinking design studio, the challenge was to train students to understand how system elements are rationally interconnected with their suprasystems and subsystems based on usability and man-machine interactions. In addition to the challenges pertaining to systems thinking, collabora­tive learning and designing based on a mentorship learning concept were introduced in the Vertical Design Studio, which involved second- and third-year students. Concerning the postgraduate fourth-year strategic design projects with the industry, the challenge was to involve Norwegian companies in product planning and goal finding as well as in innovation and design activities and to assess how supportive and receptive these companies were towards radical innovation/diversification. The analysis of completed projects shows that the Norwegian industry is supportive of strategic design but is rather conservative and risk averse when it concerns accepting and implementing radical innovation initiatives. Referring to user-centred and context-based innovation, this article also supports the implementation of a systems approach to facilitate social and hierarchical learning across the second-year systems design studio, second- and third-year vertical studios, and fourth-year strategic design studio.

  19. 合理用药监测系统模型的建立%Establishment of system model for monitoring rational use of drugs

    罗爱静; 冯麟; 刘建炜; 姚山虎


    介绍了合理用药监测系统及其模型的建立,展示了合理用药监测系统,重点论述了监测系统的功能,如药物过敏史的审查及提示功能,药物相互作用审查及提示功能,药物剂量、给药途径合理性进行审查的功能,药物与疾病之间的禁忌审查功能,使用的药品所带有的副作用以及其禁忌症的提醒功能,药物重复性的监测功能,希望通过使用计算机程序监控临床用药过程,提高医疗质量,保护患者健康安全.%After the system for monitoring rational use of drugs and its model establishment were described , its fol-lowing functions were stressed, such as drug allergic history prompting function, drug interaction prompting func-tion, drug dosage and medication prompting function, contraindication prompting function for drugs and diseases, and drug adverse effect prompting function.The authors hoped to improve the healthcare and protect the health and safety of patients by monitoring the use of drugs in clinical practice with computer programs.

  20. Ruminal digestion and fermentation of high-producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations.

    Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Varga, G A; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W


    Six multiparous Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to study the effect of three feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations (TMR) on ruminal digestion in a 21-wk repeated measures experiment. The three treatments were: 1) pasture plus concentrate (PC), 2) pasture plus partial TMR (pTMR), and 3) TMR (nonpasture). Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower on both the pTMR and TMR treatments (10.2 +/- 0.5 mg/dL) than on the PC treatment (19.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL). Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments and averaged 5.87. Neither total volatile fatty acid concentration (137.5 mmol/L) nor individual volatile fatty acid proportions (63.1,20.6, and 12.0 mol/ 100 mol for acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively) differed among treatments. The pTMR treatment reduced the total potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (85.5 vs. 82.3%) and the potentially digestible fraction of neutral detergent fiber (82.1 vs. 74.9%) of pasture compared to the PC treatment. Ruminal NH3-N losses were reduced when combining pasture and TMR; however this combination decreased the ruminal digestion of pasture, indicating the presence of associative effects in the rumen.

  1. “双诊制”政策的伦理合理性及伦理问题%Ethics Rationality and Ethical Issues of "Two Consultation Systems"



    “双诊制”是健康守门人的基本政策.“双诊制”的伦理合理性在于,该政策是把公共利益放在首位的必然选择,它维护社会公平公正原则进而维护社会公共利益,有利于公共健康利益和公共经济利益.但涉及的伦理问题也需重视,存在公共利益与患者个人利益的关系,各项政策在协调利益时的统一整合,程序公正与实质公正的关系等问题.%As the "Health Gate-keeper" of basic policy, the ethics rationality of "Two Consultation Systems" mainly reflects in the following points. Firstly, the policy is the inevitable choice to put the public interest first. Then, it insists on the principals of fairness and justice so as to maintain public interest. And, it benefits the interests of public health and public economy. Meanwhile, the related ethical issues of the policy need to be paid attention, such as, the relationship between public interest and the patient's interest, integration of every policy for coordinating interests, the relationship between procedural justice and substantive justice, and so on.

  2. KZ1——A Prototype of Intelligent Operating System

    谢立; 孙钟秀; 等


    This paper proposes an intelligent Operating System (IOS) as the next generation operating system.IOS integrates operating system with artificial intelligence technology,and its key feature is an intelligent man-machine communication mechanism which makes the computer systems more friendly.The concepts,functions and architecture of IOS are introduced and an experimental IOS called KZ1 is described in detail.

  3. Quantitative Diagnoses and Comprehensive Evaluations of the Rationality of Chinese Urban Development Patterns

    Chuanglin Fang


    Full Text Available China’s new urbanization development strategy needs to be supported by rational urban systems. Here, a comprehensive diagnostic index system that uses GIS technology and a Chinese urban scale structure rationality diagnostic model, functional structure rationality diagnostic model, spatial structure rationality diagnostic model and Chinese urban development rationality diagnostic model is used to comprehensively evaluate the rationality of Chinese urban development patterns. The results show that the structure of urban development in China is largely rational, with 70.78% of all cities rational in this respect  and with rationality influenced by historical evolution, zoning adjustments and natural conditions; that overall, the scale structure of Chinese cities is rational, with 68.03% of all cities rational in this respect, conforming to Zipf’s law and exhibiting a relatively rational pyramidal pattern with “a slightly larger middle and small bottom end”; that overall, urban spatial structure is rational, with 69.41% of all cities rational in this respect, and irrational cities concentrated in areas with low carrying capacities and regions with few cities with high carrying capacities; and that urban functional structure is largely rational, with 69.11% of all cities rational in this respect, mainly concentrated in urban agglomerations. This study provides a scientific basis for further optimizing the structure of urban development in China and promoting a new type of urbanization.

  4. E-Polytopes in Picard Groups of Smooth Rational Surfaces

    Jae-Hyouk Lee


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce special divisors (root, line, ruling, exceptional system and rational quartic in smooth rational surfaces and study their correspondences to subpolytopes in Gosset polytopes k 21 . We also show that the sets of rulings and exceptional systems correspond equivariantly to the vertices of 2 k 1 and 1 k 2 via E-type Weyl action.

  5. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  6. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    Antill, Lyn


    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  7. Adaptive Control and Multi-agent Interface for Infotelecommunication Systems of New Generation

    Timofeev, Adil


    Problems for intellectualisation for man-machine interface and methods of self-organization for network control in multi-agent infotelecommunication systems have been discussed. Architecture and principles for construction of network and neural agents for telecommunication systems of new generation have been suggested. Methods for adaptive and multi-agent routing for information flows by requests of external agents- users of global telecommunication systems and computer network...

  8. Rational drug design.

    Mandal, Soma; Moudgil, Mee'nal; Mandal, Sanat K


    In this article, current knowledge of drug design is reviewed and an approach of rational drug design is presented. The process of drug development is challenging, expensive, and time consuming, although this process has been accelerated due to the development of computational tools and methodologies. The current target based drug design approach is incomplete because most of the drugs developed by structure guided approaches have been shown to have serious toxic side effects. Otherwise these drugs would have been an ideal choice for the treatment of diseases. Hence, rational drug design would require a multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, incorporation of gene expression technology and bioinformatics tools would be indispensable in the structure based drug design. Global gene expression data and analysis of such data using bioinformatics tools will have numerous benefits such as efficiency, cost effectiveness, time saving, and will provide strategies for combination therapy in addition to overcoming toxic side effects. As a result of incorporation of gene expression data, partial benefit of the structure based drug design is slowly emerging and rapidly changing the approach of the drug development process. To achieve the full benefit of developing a successful drug, multidisciplinary approaches (approaches such as computational chemistry and gene expression analysis, as discussed in this article) would be necessary. In the future, there is adequate room for the development of more sophisticated methodologies.

  9. Rational design of an orthogonal noncovalent interaction system at the MUPP1 PDZ11 complex interface with CaMKIIα-derived peptides in human fertilization.

    Zhang, Yi-Le; Han, Zhao-Feng


    The recognition and association between the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II-α (CaMKIIα) and the multi-PDZ domain protein 1 (MUPP1) plays an important role in the sperm acrosome reaction and human fertilization. Previously, we have demonstrated that the MUPP1 PDZ11 domain is the primary binding partner of the CaMKIIα C-terminal tail, which can be targeted by a rationally designed sia peptide with nanomolar affinity. Here, we further introduced an orthogonal noncovalent interaction (ONI) system between a native hydrogen bond and a designed halogen bond across the complex interface of the PDZ11 domain with the sia [Asn-1Phe] peptide mutant, where the halogen bond was formed by substituting the o-hydrogen atom of the benzene ring of the peptide Phe-1 residue with a halogen atom (F, Cl, Br or I). Molecular dynamics simulations and high-level theoretical calculations suggested that bromine (Br) is a good compromise between the halogen-bonding strength and steric hindrance effect due to introduction of a bulkier halogen atom into the tightly packed complex interface. Fluorescence spectroscopy assays revealed that the resulting o-Br-substituted peptide (Kd = 18 nM) exhibited an ∼7.6-fold affinity increase relative to its native counterpart (Kd = 137 nM). In contrast, the p-Br-substituted peptide, a negative control that is unable to establish the ONI according to structure-based analysis, has decreased affinity (Kd = 210 nM) upon halogenation.

  10. A dual-mediated liposomal drug delivery system targeting the brain: rational construction, integrity evaluation across the blood–brain barrier, and the transporting mechanism to glioma cells

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Na; Wang, Gui-Ling; Hei, Yu; Meng, Shuai; Yang, Ling-Fei; Yuan, Lan; Xie, Ying


    As the global population ages, cancer rates increase worldwide, and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), brain tumors, and inflammation threaten human health more frequently. We designed a dual-mediated (receptor-mediated and adsorption-mediated) liposome, named transferrin–cell penetrating peptide–sterically stabilized liposome (TF-CPP-SSL), to improve therapy for gliomas through combining molecular recognition of transferrin receptors (TF-Rs) on the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells with the internalization and lysosomal escaping ability of CPP. Based on the systematic investigation of structure–activity relations on the cellular level, we constructed TF-CPP-SSL rationally by conjugating TF and CPP moieties to the liposomes via PEG3.4K and PEG2.0K, respectively, and found the optimum densities of TF and CPP were 1.8% and 4%, respectively. These liposomes had the highest targeting efficacy for brain microvascular endothelial cell and C6 cell uptake but avoided capture by normal cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology and coculture models of BBB and glioma C6 cells indicated that TF-CPP-SSL was transported across the BBB without drug leakage, liposome breakup, or cleavage of ligand. TF-CPP-SSL offered advantages for crossing the BBB and entering into glioma C6 cells. Real-time confocal viewing revealed that TF-CPP-SSL was entrapped in endosomes of glioma C6 cells and then escaped from lysosomes successfully to release the liposomal contents into the cytosol. Entrapped contents, such as doxorubicin, could then enter the nucleus to exert pharmacological effects. PMID:28405164

  11. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    Jiang, Caigui


    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  12. Ten years of the rational analysis of cognition.

    Chater; Oaksford


    Rational analysis is an empirical program that attempts to explain the function and purpose of cognitive processes. This article looks back on a decade of research outlining the rational analysis methodology and how the approach relates to other work in cognitive science. We illustrate rational analysis by considering how it has been applied to memory and reasoning. From the perspective of traditional cognitive science, the cognitive system can appear to be a rather arbitrary assortment of mechanisms with equally arbitrary limitations. In contrast, rational analysis views cognition as intricately adapted to its environment and to the problems it faces.

  13. Credit rationing and firm size



    Full Text Available This paper examines the likelihood of credit rationing faced by firms of different size. Contrary to common thought, several recent contributions on this topic argue that, when rationing credit, size alone is not a sufficient condition for discriminating between firms. We show that this result can be predicted using a framework based on the Stiglitz-Weiss model. In particular, in an environment of asymmetric information, we highlight how the likelihood of credit rationing depends upon the shape of the distribution function of project returns, especially its asymmetry and Kurtosis. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that small firms face more credit rationing than larger firms.

  14. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    Huggler, Jørgen


    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression......, although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....

  15. Rational cooling water system for a large blast furnace hearth%大型高炉合理炉缸冷却制度

    宁晓钧; 左海滨; 张建良; 杨天钧


    Since the temperature distribution and erosion of blast furnace hearth are directly affected by cooling system,a rational cooling water system is the assurance for long campaign life of large blast furnace.Combined with a 4 000m3 blast furnace,physical and mathematical models of temperature fields of blast furnace hearth and bottom were built according to heat transfer theory.Two different hearth cooling systems,namely "low water capacity and large temperature difference" and "large water capacity and small temperature difference",are both investigated by modeling and numerical simulation.Effects of different cooling systems on hearth temperature field,hearth erosion and blast furnace life are also analyzed.The results indicate that during the initial period with thicker brick lining,effects of different cooling systems on blast furnace temperature distribution are nearly the same.As the brick lining gradually becomes thinner,different cooling systems have much different effects on temperature distribution.When the brick lining is eroded to a certain level,even the best cooling system is of no use,but "large water capacity and small temperature difference" and enhanced cooling measures will slow down the erosion and prolong the campaign life.%合理的炉缸冷却制度是保证大型高炉长寿的基础,不同冷却制度对高炉炉缸的温度分布和侵蚀状况具有直接影响.结合某4000 m3级高炉,根据传热学理论建立了高炉炉缸、炉底温度场物理模型和数学模型,通过数值模拟对"大水量、小温差"和"小水量、大温差"这两种不同炉缸冷却制度进行了研究,分析了不同冷却制度对炉缸温度场、炉缸侵蚀状况及高炉寿命的影响.结果表明,在炉役初期砖衬较厚时,不同冷却制度对炉内温度分布的影响区别不大;随着砖衬的不断减薄,不同冷却制度对炉内温度分布的影响逐渐明显;当砖衬侵蚀到一定程度后,再好的冷却

  16. Economic Rationalism: Serving Tertiary Business Education Needs? The Australian Case

    Richter, Ewa Maria; Buttery, Ernest Alan


    Economic rationalism is a major driver of the education system in many parts of the world. In the scramble to facilitate economic rationalism, the education needs required at national level to keep nations, like Australia, competitive into the twenty-first century have not been fully considered. Such countries have ignored the needs of education…

  17. Study on HRA-based Method for Assessing Digital Man-machine Interface%一种基于 HRA 的数字化人-机界面评价方法研究

    李鹏程; 戴立操; 张力; 赵明; 胡鸿


    为识别数字化人‐机界面中可能诱发人因失误或弱化操纵员绩效的设计缺陷,建立了一种基于HRA的人‐机界面评价方法:HCR+CREAM+ HEC。首先,采用 HCR方法从事件整体中识别出失误概率高的风险场景;然后,针对高风险场景采用CREAM 方法确定各种失误模式及其失误概率,并对失误概率进行排序;最后,依据数字化人‐机界面特征建立人因工程检查表,对失误概率高的人‐机界面进行审查,以识别人‐机界面设计中存在的缺陷,并提出改进建议。结果表明,该方法能快速有效地识别出数字化人‐机界面设计中存在的容易诱发人因失误的缺陷,通过设计优化提高核电站数字控制系统运行的安全性。%In order to identify the design flaws of digital man‐machine interface (MMI) that may trigger human errors or weaken the performance of operators ,a HRA‐based method (namely HCR+ CREAM + HEC) for assessing digital MMI was established . Firstly ,the HCR method was used to identify the risk scenarios of high human error probability from the overall event as a whole perspective .Then ,for the identified high‐risk scenarios ,the CREAM was adopted to determine the various error modes and its error probability ,and the failure probability was ranked .Finally ,the human factors engineering checklist of digital MMI was established according to the characteristics of digital MMI ,it was used to check the digital MMI with high error probability in order to identify the design flaws of digital MMI ,and the suggestions of optimization were provided . T he results show that the provided assessment method can quickly and efficiently identify the design flaw s of digital M M I w hich easily trigger human errors , and the safety of operation of the digital control system for nuclear power plants can be enhanced by optimization of design .

  18. Rational formality of mapping spaces

    Felix, Yves


    Let X and Y be finite nilpotent CW complexes with dimension of X less than the connectivity of Y. Generalizing results of Vigu\\'e-Poirrier and Yamaguchi, we prove that the mapping space Map(X,Y) is rationally formal if and only if Y has the rational homotopy type of a finite product of odd dimensional spheres.

  19. Quantum contextuality for rational vectors

    Cabello, Adan


    The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D. A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3751 (1999)] that the inconsistency would disappear when we are restricted to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A. A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 020403 (2008)] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.

  20. Quantum contextuality for rational vectors

    Cabello, Adan, E-mail: adan@us.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.larsson@liu.s [Institutionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoepings Universitet, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)


    The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D.A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3751] that the inconsistency would disappear when restricting to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A.A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 020403] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.

  1. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert


    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  2. Standby gasoline rationing plan: narrative


    The objectives of the rationing plan are to provide a mechanism capable of maintaining an orderly and equitable market for gasoline in a severe supply shortfall, and capable of rapid implementation; and to comply with requirements of EPCA, which mandates the development of a contingency rationing plan. Eligibility for ration allotments will be based principally on motor vehicle registration records, maintained in a national vehicle registration file. Supplemental allotments will be granted for certain priority activities to ensure the maintenance of essential public services. Supplemental allotments will also be granted to businesses and government organizations with significant off-highway gasoline requirements. Local rationing boards or other offices will be established by states, to provide special allotments to hardship applicants, within DOE guidelines. The background and history of the plan are described. The gasoline rationing plan operations, government operations, program costs, staffing, and funding are also detailed in this report. (MCW)

  3. Interface Hombre-Máquina para la Estación Neumática PN-2800 de un Centro Integrado de Manufactura utilizando una Pantalla de Interface Man-Machine Interface for the Pneumatics PN-2800 station of an Integrated Center of Manufacture using a Panel View

    Erika J Ramírez


    Full Text Available Se presenta una Interface Hombre-Máquina con el software Panel Builder 32, que interactúa con un una pantalla de interface (Panel View 1000, para realizar el control de la Estación de Neumática PN-2800, que es la abastecedora de materia prima en un Centro Integrado de Manufactura. Se realizó una programación visual y se analizaron las dimensiones de las barras cilíndricas, acrílicos y la abertura de las pinzas de los manipuladores, así como sus ángulos y espacios de trabajo para considerar nuevas materias primas. Para la configuración para la comunicación del protocolo Data Highway Plus y la compatibilidad con el protocolo Modbus Plus se utilizó un convertidor DL-3500. El trabajo presentado en este artículo muestra la integración de nuevos materiales para el proceso de maquilado y el manejo de diferentes protocolos que se encuentran en las diferentes industrias.A Man-Machine Interface with the software Panel Builder 32, that interacts with Panel View 1000, to perform the control of the Pneumatics Station PN-2800 is presented. This station provides raw material to an Integrated Manufacturing Center. Visual programming was used and the dimensions of the cylindrical bars, acrylic parts and the gap of the gripers of the manipulators, as well as their angles and spaces of work to consider new raw material. For the configuration of the communication protocol Dates Highway Plus and the compatibility with the protocol Modbus Plus a converter DL-3500 was used. The work presented in this article shows the integration of new materials for the process of maquilado and the handling of different protocols that are found in different industries.

  4. Implicitization of rational maps

    Botbol, Nicolas


    Motivated by the interest in computing explicit formulas for resultants and discriminants initiated by B\\'ezout, Cayley and Sylvester in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and emphasized in the latest years due to the increase of computing power, we focus on the implicitization of hypersurfaces in several contexts. Our approach is based on the use of linear syzygies by means of approximation complexes, following [Bus\\'e Jouanolou 03], where they develop the theory for a rational map $f:P^{n-1}\\dashrightarrow P^n$. Approximation complexes were first introduced by Herzog, Simis and Vasconcelos in [Herzog Simis Vasconcelos 82] almost 30 years ago. The main obstruction for this approximation complex-based method comes from the bad behavior of the base locus of $f$. Thus, it is natural to try different compatifications of $A^{n-1}$, that are better suited to the map $f$, in order to avoid unwanted base points. With this purpose, in this thesis we study toric compactifications $T$ for $A^{n-1}$. We provide re...

  5. Rational top and its classical r-matrix

    Aminov, G.; Arthamonov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Zotov, A.


    We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero-Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer-Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,{C})-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations.

  6. Rational Top and its Classical R-matrix

    Aminov, G; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A


    We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a coadjoint orbit of ${\\rm SL}_N$ Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric $r$-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero-Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms -- without spectral parameter (related to spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The later gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer-Gervais $r$-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides a classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From a geometrical point of view it describes the modification of ${\\rm SL}(N,\\mathbb C)$-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin ...

  7. Rationality in a general model of choice

    Somdeb Lahiri


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.

  8. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.


    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  9. Function Analysis of TIAPS, Update of CANTASS Functionality and Human Factors Review of OMI Design for Sonar Combat Systems


    literature review should be read in the context of an earlier, more detailed review conducted for DREA (Matthews, Greenley and Webb, 1994), which contains a...Analysis Techniques for Man-Machine Systems Design. Report no. AC/243 (Panel 8)TR/7. 1999. Matthews, M. L., Greenley , M.P. and Webb, R. D. G. Human... Greenley , M.P., & Webb, R. D. G. (1994). Human Inteiface Modeling Issues for Sonar System Evaluation ( DREA CR/94/414): Prepared for Defence Research

  10. Rational offset approximation of rational Bézier curves

    CHENG Min; WANG Guo-jin


    The problem of parametric speed approximation of a rational curve is raised in this paper. Offset curves are widely used in various applications. As for the reason that in most cases the offset curves do not preserve the same polynomial or rational polynomial representations, it arouses difficulty in applications. Thus approximation methods have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper, it has been pointed out that the crux of offset curve approximation lies in the approximation of parametric speed. Based on the Jacobi polynomial approximation theory with endpoints interpolation, an algebraic rational approximation algorithm of offset curve, which preserves the direction of normal, is presented.


    盛中平; 王晓辉; 朱本喜


    Firstly, using the elementary solution, this paper provides the fundammental structure of the general solution of the (m/n)f system of equations in the rational interpolating problem, and points out the significance of the elementary solution. Secondly, it introduces the systems of extended equations and of constrained equations, analyses their properties, gives the structures of their general solution, obtains the relations of both them and the elementary solution, reveals the importance of their describing the elementary solution. And lastly , it computes an example for the two kinds of svstems.

  12. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling human emotions through biosignals

    van den Broek, Egon; Lisy, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.


    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological processes, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and,

  13. Advanced Avionics and the Military Aircraft Man/Machine Interface.


    capter de 1’information A tout prix a 6galement 6t observ6 par chacun dans le m~tro oQ Von ne paut s’emp~cher de lire tout ce qui tombe sous l’oeil, las...poursuivre sur 6cran cathodique une cible dont le rnouvement est plus ou momns al~atoire et rapide, les fonctions de transfert entre les commandes et le...conduit A leur faire perdre une qualification ch~rement acquise au prix d’un long entralnement. Cet 6tat d’esprit n’est pas toujours conscient. mais il se

  14. The ZOG Approach to Man-Machine Communication.


    message handling). Its usefulness as a command language, of course, arises not from any special logica character, but in its potential for explaining and...McCracken and A. Nowell number of options is limited to nine so that digits may be used for selectors. Options share space with the text; that is, the...line. Options are selected by digits , local pads by upper case alphabetics, and global pads by lower case alphabetics. Any selection which is inert (has

  15. Development of techniques to enhance man/machine communication

    Targ, R.; Cole, P.; Puthoff, H.


    A four-state random stimulus generator, considered to function as an ESP teaching machine was used to investigate an approach to facilitating interactions between man and machines. A subject tries to guess in which of four states the machine is. The machine offers the user feedback and reinforcement as to the correctness of his choice. Using this machine, 148 volunteer subjects were screened under various protocols. Several whose learning slope and/or mean score departed significantly from chance expectation were identified. Direct physiological evidence of perception of remote stimuli not presented to any known sense of the percipient using electroencephalographic (EEG) output when a light was flashed in a distant room was also studied.

  16. Man-Machine Control of Space Robots under Uncertainty

    Kanata, S.


    Control problem of space robots is characterized by several challenges. The first one is that the area is full of uncertainties due to lack of information. Another difficulty is tasksharing between an operator and a partly autonomous robot. Moreover, there are several constrains on the robot operations, including communication delay and an appropriate temperature at which robot can work. Design of the robots navigation should be based on consideration of trade-offs between several conf...

  17. Virtual Instrument Testing System for R~T Curve of the High Temperature Superconductor

    Qi,Hanhong; Tian,Yongjun; Wei,Yanjun; Wang,Tiansheng; Zheng,Dongning


    A set of virtual instrument system based on Labview for measuring the R~T curve of the high temperature supercon-ductor is designed in this paper. The control for the Current Source and nanovoltage meter is realized by the IEEE488 bus.The superconductivity is measured based on the zero resistance characteristics of the superconductor. The measurement is of high precision and of high speed. The man-machine interface is direct and friendly.

  18. Dependent rational providers.

    Brothers, Kyle B


    Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.

  19. Analysis of Price Stackelberg Duopoly Game with Bounded Rationality

    Lian Shi


    Full Text Available The classical Stackelberg game is extended to boundedly rational price Stackelberg game, and the dynamic duopoly game model is described in detail. By using the theory of bifurcation of dynamical systems, the existence and stability of the equilibrium points of this model are studied. And some comparisons with Bertrand game with bounded rationality are also performed. Stable region, bifurcation diagram, The Largest Lyapunov exponent, strange attractor, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions are used to show complex dynamic behavior. The results of theoretical and numerical analysis show that the stability of the price Stackelberg duopoly game with boundedly rational players is only relevant to the speed of price adjustment of the leader and not relevant to the follower’s. This is different from the classical Cournot and Bertrand duopoly game with bounded rationality. And the speed of price adjustment of the boundedly rational leader has a destabilizing effect on this model.

  20. Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries

    Aoki, Arata; Tomoda, Kentaro


    We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson-O'Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four dimensions, by using the Maciejewski-Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing-Yano tensors.

  1. Rational Probabilistic Deciders—Part II: Collective Behavior

    P. T. Kabamba


    fractional interactions or N and the minimum amount of product exchange (in Edgeworth economies. The results obtained can be useful for designing rational reconfigurable systems that can autonomously adapt to changing environments.

  2. Collective action and rationality models

    Luis Miguel Miller Moya


    Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.

  3. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk....... The second part presents a study of the problem of verifiable delegation of computation in the rational setting. We define rational arguments, an extension of the recent concept of rational proofs into the computational setting, and give a single round delegation scheme for the class NC1, of search problems...... computable by log-space uniform circuits of logarithmic depth, with a sub-linear time verifier. While our approach provides a weaker (yet arguably meaningful) guarantee of soundness, it compares favorably with each of the known delegation schemes in at least one aspect. Our protocols are simple, rely...

  4. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy


    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  5. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    Mittelstaedt, Peter


    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  6. Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?


    This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...

  7. The rational design of photocatalytic semiconductor nanoparticles


    This thesis reports the successful rational design of three highly active photocatalytic semiconductor nanocrystal (SNC) systems by exploiting morphology effects and the electronic properties of type II semiconductor heterojunctions. Novel architectures of colloidal SNCs are produced with the aim of suppressing exciton recombination and improving charge extraction for the successful initiation of desirable redox chemistry. Rod-shaped niobium pentoxide Nb2O5 nanocrystals (NCs) are shown to...

  8. An insight into the possible mechanism of working of two-cistronic gene expression systems and rational designing of newer systems

    Utpal Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Girish Sahni


    The initial attempts at hyper-expressing buffalo/goat growth hormone (GH)-ORFs in Escherichia coli directly under various strong promoters were not successful despite the presence of a functional gene. High level expression of GH was achieved as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). To produce native GH in an unfused state, we adapted an established strategy of two-cistronic approach in our system. In this strategy, utilizing one of the highly efficient reported sequences as the first cistron led to a nearly 1000-fold enhancement in the level of expression under an E. coli promoter (trc). In search of a newer first-cistron sequence as well as to see the generality of the two-cistronic approach, we explored the ability of different lengths of a highly expressing natural gene to act as an efficient first cistron. Surprisingly, GST, which is naturally highly expressible in E. coli, could not be fitted into a successful two-cistronic construct. In addition, placement of the entire two-cistronic expression cassette (which had earlier given high-level GH expression under trc promoter) under the T7 promoter in E. coli failed to hyper-express GH. These results suggest that the successful exploitation of the two-cistron arrangement for hyper-expression of eukaryotic ORFs in bacteria is not as straightforward as was previously thought. It appears probable that factors such as the sequence context, together with the length and codons used in the first cistron are important as well.

  9. Lenses; systems; sensitive; leadership; models; integral; spiritual; images; evolve; states; stages; consciousness; power; force; determinants; mind; genius; belief systems; evolution; spiritual growth; rationality; attitude

    Jacobus C. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Lenses on spirituality and being church; the road ahead for the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA. At this point of time the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA is facing the seemingly unsolvable dilemma of not being able to handle diversity in a positive manner. By applying three lenses to the current impasse with regards to the church’s struggle with diversity, this article aims at providing an answer to the question of how to proceed. The first lens addresses the challenge to maintain spiritual health and harmony in the midst of differences and tension in the church. The theory behind systems sensitive leadership as lens serves as the guideline to achieve the necessary spiritual health that the church needs in such challenging times. The second lens explores the inner Christian spiritual path in a both developmental and comprehensive way. Drawing on the work of Paul Smith this lens sets forth the developmental framework by which Christians grow inwardly in their understanding of Jesus and his teachings. The third lens is a view on a practice whereby the validity of intellectual positions, statements, or ideologies could be appraised as an innate quality in any subject. This lens opens a unique perspective which provides not only a new understanding of humanity’s journey in the universe, but also serves as a guide to were we and the whole cosmos are on our personal journeys to become who we could be. The vision that is provided by these three lenses has the capacity not only to serve as guidelines, but also to provide the tools to handle the challenges the church has to face on the road a head.

  10. 合理用药软件系统在我院门诊处方调配中的应用%Application of Rational Drug Use Software System in the Drug Dispensing in Outpatient Department of Our Hospital

    陈蓉; 顾宝晨; 龚银华; 虞勋; 包健安


    目的:探讨合理用药软件系统在我院门诊处方调配中的应用。方法:介绍合理用药软件系统(包括临床用药决策支持软件、发药软件、药品管理软件)在我院门诊处方开具(事前预警)、处方调配(事中干预)、处方点评(事后监管)中的应用情况。通过收集我院使用合理用药软件系统后门诊处方审查及干预等情况评价其应用效果。结果与结论:借助合理用药软件系统,实现了对处方用药的事前、事中及事后科学、方便、快捷的监控与管理;我院2015年1-5月共监测门诊处方721507份,系统警示拦截的处方占0.17‰,系统审核提示药师审核的处方占23.25%,处方合格率均在99.96%以上;经药师干预后,各种不合理类型处方数均有明显下降(P<0.01)。建议药师在充分应用信息化系统的同时,在实践中积极探索以对其不断优化改进,从而促进医院合理用药水平的提高。%OBJECTIVE:To discuss the application of rational drug use software system in drug dispensing in outpatient depart-ment of our hospital. METHODS:The application of rational drug use software system (included clinical decision support soft-ware,drug dispensing software and drug management software) in prescribing (warning in advance),dispensing (intervention in the event)and the prescription review(the post review)in outpatient department of our hospital were all introduced. Outpatient pre-scription checking and intervention were collected from our hospital after the application of rational drug use software system to evaluate the effect of the software system. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Rational drug use software system is adopted to realize scientific,convenient and express monitoring and management of prescription drug use in advance,in the course and afterwards. A total of 721 507 outpatient prescriptions were checked in our hospital from Jan. to May in 2015;0.17

  11. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  12. Vaccines: from empirical development to rational design.

    Christine Rueckert

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for an overwhelming number of deaths worldwide and their clinical management is often hampered by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains. Therefore, prevention through vaccination currently represents the best course of action to combat them. However, immune escape and evasion by pathogens often render vaccine development difficult. Furthermore, most currently available vaccines were empirically designed. In this review, we discuss why rational design of vaccines is not only desirable but also necessary. We introduce recent developments towards specifically tailored antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems, and discuss the methodological gaps and lack of knowledge still hampering true rational vaccine design. Finally, we address the potential and limitations of different strategies and technologies for advancing vaccine development.

  13. Rationality in children: the first steps

    Andrew Woodfield


    Full Text Available Not all categorization is conceptual. Many of the experimental findings concerning infant and animal categorization invite the hypothesis that the subjects form abstract perceptual representations, mental models or cognitive maps that are not composed of concepts. The paper is a reflection upon the idea that conceptual categorization involves the ability to make categorical judgements under the guidance of norms of rationality. These include a norm of truth-seeking and a norm of good evidence. Acceptance of these norms implies willingness to defer to cognitive authorities, unwillingness to commit oneself to contradictions, and knowledge of how to reorganize one's representational system upon discovering that one has made a mistake. It is proposed that the cognitive architecture required for basic rationality is similar to that which underlies pretend-play. The representational system must be able to make room for separate 'mental spaces' in which alternatives to the actual world are entertained. The same feature underlies the ability to understand modalities, time, the appearance-reality distinction, other minds, and ethics. Each area of understanding admits of degrees, and mastery (up to normal adult level takes years. But rational concept-management, at least in its most rudimentary form, does not require a capacity to form second-order representations. It requires knowledge of how to operate upon, and compare, the contents of different mental spaces.

  14. Rational use of energy

    Chejne, F.; Hill, A.; Botero, E. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Energia y Termodinamica] [and others


    A description of the main aspects to be considered in order to obtain energy savings in steam compressed air, refrigeration, HVAC and electrical systems, is developed in this paper. Key features for optimal operation of boilers, compressors, refrigeration equipment, transformers and the global system are presented. These features should be often analyzed to avoid energy losses and detriment of machines. Also, a methodology to, obtain energy savings in these systems is proposed. This methodology has been used in more than 50 energy audits which include from different sectors; textile, paper, food and beverages, steel, among others. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.; e-mail: fchejne at

  15. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Janusz Zielinski


    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  16. Automatic Ration Material Distributions Based on GSM and RFID Technology



    Full Text Available Now a day ration card is very important for every home and used for various field such as family members details, to get gas connection, it act as address proof for various purposes etc. All the people having a ration card to buy the various materials (sugar, rice, oil, kerosene, etc from the ration shops. But in this system having two draw backs, first one is weight of the material may be inaccurate due to human mistakes and secondly, if not buy the materials at the end of the month, they will sale to others without any intimation to the government and customers. In this paper, proposed an Automatic Ration Materials Distribution Based on GSM (Global System for Mobile and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology instead of ration cards. To get the materials in ration shops need to show the RFID tag into the RFID reader, then controller check the customer codes and details of amounts in the card. After verification, these systems show the amount details. Then customer need to enter they required materials by using keyboard, after receiving materials controller send the information to government office and customer through GSM technology. In this system provides the materials automatically without help of humans.

  17. A Directory of Human Performance Models for System Design (Defence Research Group Panel 8 on the Defence Applications of Human and Bio-Medical Sciences)


    Government Printing Office. Henneman , R. L (1988): Human problem solving in dynamic environments. In Rouse, W. B. (Ed.). Advances in man-Machine a light) the human must behave as a serial processor. For other tasks (typing. reading. simultaneous translation ) integrated, parallel operation...A perceptual model that translates displayed variables into noisy, delayed, perceived variables. (2) An information processor consisting of an

  18. Development of a systems theoretical procedure for evaluation of the work organization of the cockpit crew of a civil transport airplane

    Fricke, M.; Vees, C.


    To achieve optimum design for the man machine interface with aircraft, a description of the interaction and work organization of the cockpit crew is needed. The development of system procedure to evaluate the work organization of pilots while structuring the work process is examined. Statistical data are needed to simulate sequences of pilot actions on the computer. Investigations of computer simulation and applicability for evaluation of crew concepts are discussed.

  19. Integrating a commercial industrial control system to the accelerator control system: a case study

    Momal, F. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Brahy, J. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Saban, R. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Sollander, P. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))


    At CERN a large number of systems providing services (cooling and ventilation, cryogenics, electricity distribution, personnel and building safety, etc.) are controlled by industrial PLCs. A commercial supervision package is used as a gateway to the accelerator control system. The integration of such a system in the CERN accelerator control environment addresses issues such as the connection to control-rooms and desktop computers, alarm logging and remote or alien man-machine interfaces. The paper describes the components of the system and reports the first operational experience. ((orig.))

  20. Integrating a commercial industrial control system to the accelerator control system: a case study

    Momal, F.; Brahy, J.; Saban, R.; Sollander, P.


    At CERN a large number of systems providing services (cooling and ventilation, cryogenics, electricity distribution, personnel and building safety, etc.) are controlled by industrial PLCs. A commercial supervision package is used as a gateway to the accelerator control system. The integration of such a system in the CERN accelerator control environment addresses issues such as the connection to control-rooms and desktop computers, alarm logging and remote or alien man-machine interfaces. The paper describes the components of the system and reports the first operational experience.

  1. Axioms for Rational Reinforcement Learning

    Sunehag, Peter


    We provide a formal, simple and intuitive theory of rational decision making including sequential decisions that affect the environment. The theory has a geometric flavor, which makes the arguments easy to visualize and understand. Our theory is for complete decision makers, which means that they have a complete set of preferences. Our main result shows that a complete rational decision maker implicitly has a probabilistic model of the environment. We have a countable version of this result that brings light on the issue of countable vs finite additivity by showing how it depends on the geometry of the space which we have preferences over. This is achieved through fruitfully connecting rationality with the Hahn-Banach Theorem. The theory presented here can be viewed as a formalization and extension of the betting odds approach to probability of Ramsey and De Finetti.

  2. Rational points on elliptic curves

    Silverman, Joseph H


    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  3. Epistemic Immodesty and Embodied Rationality

    Giovanni Rolla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on Pritchard's distinction (2012, 2016 between favoring and discriminating epistemic grounds, and on how those grounds bear on the elimination of skeptical possibilities, I present the dream argument as a moderate skeptical possibility that can be reasonably motivated. In order to block the dream argument skeptical conclusion, I present a version of phenomenological disjunctivism based on Noë's actionist account of perceptual consciousness (2012. This suggests that perceptual knowledge is rationally grounded because it is a form of embodied achievement - what I call embodied rationality -, which offers a way of dissolving the pseudo-problem of epistemic immodesty, namely, the seemingly counterintuitive thesis that one can acquire rationally grounded knowledge that one is not in a radical skeptical scenario.

  4. Inverse Quantum Chemistry: Concepts and Strategies for Rational Compound Design

    Weymuth, Thomas


    The rational design of molecules and materials is becoming more and more important. With the advent of powerful computer systems and sophisticated algorithms, quantum chemistry plays an important role in rational design. While traditional quantum chemical approaches predict the properties of a predefined molecular structure, the goal of inverse quantum chemistry is to find a structure featuring one or more desired properties. Herein, we review inverse quantum chemical approaches proposed so far and discuss their advantages as well as their weaknesses.

  5. Rationality, Empathy and Bluntness

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Hekkala, Riitta

    Using Stearns and Stearns’ (1985), and Fineman’s (2008) view on emotionologies, this qualitative case study examines the attitudes that members of an inter-organizational information systems (IOIS) project hold toward emotions and their appropriate expression in this particular project. In order ...

  6. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Cătălin Pavel


    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  7. Design of Digital Imaging System for Optimization of Control Parameters

    SONG Yong; HAO Qun; YANG Guang; SUN Hong-wei


    The design of experimental system of digital imaging system for control parameter is discussed in detail. Signal processing of digital CCD imaging system is first analyzed. Then the real time control of CCD driver and digital processing circuit and man-machine interaction are achieved by the design of digital CCD imaging module and control module. Experimental results indicate that the image quality of CCD experimental system makes a good response to the change of control parameters. The system gives an important base for improving image quality and the applicability of micro imaging system in complex environment.

  8. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi


    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  9. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Edwards, R B


    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  10. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz


    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  11. Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics

    Mittelstaedt, Peter


    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.

  12. Rational extended thermodynamics

    Müller, Ingo


    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  13. Recursive Rational Choice.


    Systems, Annals of Mathematics Studies, No.47, -10- Princeton University Press, [1961], finitary objects and discretized procedures, for the...Ph.D. Thesis, Yeshiva University. Church, Alonzo [1941], The Calculus of Lamda-Conversion, Annals of Mathematics Studies, No.6, Princeton University...Post, Emil L., and Stephen Cole Kleene, [1954], "The Upper Semi-Lattice of Degrees of Recursive Unsolvability", Annals of Mathematics , Vol.59, pp.379

  14. Free-Form Deformation with Rational DMS-Spline Volumes

    Gang Xu; Guo-Zhao Wang; Xiao-Diao Chen


    In this paper, we propose a novel free-form deformation (FFD) technique, RDMS-FFD (Rational DMS-FFD),based on rational DMS-spline volumes. RDMS-FFD inherits some good properties of rational DMS-spline volumes and combines more deformation techniques than previous FFD methods in a consistent framework, such as local deformation,control lattice of arbitrary topology, smooth deformation, multiresolution deformation and direct manipulation of deforma-tion. We first introduce the rational DMS-spline volume by directly generalizing the previous results related to DMS-splies.How to generate a tetrahedral domain that approximates the shape of the object to be deformed is also introduced in this paper. Unlike the traditional FFD techniques, we manipulate the vertices of the tetrahedral domain to achieve deformation results. Our system demonstrates that RDMS-FFD is powerful and intuitive in geometric modeling.

  15. Rasmussen's legacy and the long arm of rational choice.

    Dekker, Sidney W A


    Rational choice theory says that operators and others make decisions by systematically and consciously weighing all possible outcomes along all relevant criteria. This paper first traces the long historical arm of rational choice thinking in the West to Judeo-Christian thinking, Calvin and Weber. It then presents a case study that illustrates the consequences of the ethic of rational choice and individual responsibility. It subsequently examines and contextualizes Rasmussen's legacy of pushing back against the long historical arm of rational choice, showing that bad outcomes are not the result of human immoral choice, but the product of normal interactions between people and systems. If we don't understand why people did what they did, Rasmussen suggested, it is not because people behaved inexplicably, but because we took the wrong perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert


    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth.

  17. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Woolever, Roberts


    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  18. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Almada, Carlos


    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  19. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Denny, J. K.


    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  20. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…

  1. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.


    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  2. Yearly power system planning program (YPSPP)

    Zeljko, M. [Energy Institute `Hrvoje Pozar`, Zagreb, (Croatia)


    Development of a computer program designed for planning the annual operation of an electric power generating system is described. The program is planned in four modules, i.e. load forecasting, hydro scheduling, maintenance scheduling, and production costing. Individual modules communicate by way of a common database designed in ORACLE. The program has been in use during the past two years for the centralized planning of the annual operation of the Croatian electric power system. Further improvements planned include addition of a man-machine interface, and graphic presentation of input data. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Theory and design of CNC systems

    Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian


    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t

  4. The tools of rational product range support

    A.I. Jakovlev


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to improve the methodological approaches to support the rational range of products under today's market conditions. The results of the analysis. Planning and optimization of product mix does not lose its relevance under the current economic conditions. One of the most important tasks in planning is to determine the range of rational perspective to the enterprise product lines products. In this connection there is a need to expand the use of methodological approaches to support the range of products. Integrated application of methodological approaches for determining the rationality and balance the range of products increases the validity of economic decision-making in the field of marketing of the company by identifying the correlation between the profitability of product lines and their weight in the total production. Using the margin profit as a criterion for ranking groups of products with the construction of the Pareto chart allows for a more flexible product strategy, which under the current market conditions is a significant competitive advantage for the enterprise. The necessary conditions for the effective implementation of the proposals of the authors are the high level of consistency of the strategic, tactical and operational levels of management at the enterprise, as well as the analysis of the results of marketing research about customer satisfaction of product parameters. The using of Pareto charts and Spearman correlation coefficient provides increased sales volumes, increasing the target market share of the enterprise, improving the company's image, reducing the risk of marketing activities, increase the company's profit. The results of this study give the company an opportunity to identify deficiencies in a timely manner in the activities and to identify the main directions of improvement of management systems and production planning. Prospects of this study are to develop the




    Full Text Available Pervasive use of information system forms an irresistible force in shaping nearly all lives of our society. It poses great challenge to the previous legal system and requires special attention from the academic field. The purpose of this article is to identify potential change of legal systems in cyberspace, and to deal with the correlation between enhancement of legal literacy and the informed rationality. The article applies Weber’s two-dimensional coordinate system comprised of “formality” and “rationality” and expands it into a three-dimensional model by distinguishing “informability” and “uninformability”. The article also considers the relationship between internal and external control over the cyberspace order. Finally, the article discusses the infeasibility of the idea of computerized justice system

  6. Ensemble Feature Extraction Modules for Improved Hindi Speech Recognition System

    Malay Kumar


    Full Text Available Speech is the most natural way of communication between human beings. The field of speech recognition generates intrigues of man - machine conversation and due to its versatile applications; automatic speech recognition systems have been designed. In this paper we are presenting a novel approach for Hindi speech recognition by ensemble feature extraction modules of ASR systems and their outputs have been combined using voting technique ROVER. Experimental results have been shown that proposed system will produce better result than traditional ASR systems.

  7. Rational defect introduction in silicon nanowires.

    Shin, Naechul; Chi, Miaofang; Howe, Jane Y; Filler, Michael A


    The controlled introduction of planar defects, particularly twin boundaries and stacking faults, in group IV nanowires remains challenging despite the prevalence of these structural features in other nanowire systems (e.g., II-VI and III-V). Here we demonstrate how user-programmable changes to precursor pressure and growth temperature can rationally generate both transverse twin boundaries and angled stacking faults during the growth of oriented Si nanowires. We leverage this new capability to demonstrate prototype defect superstructures. These findings yield important insight into the mechanism of defect generation in semiconductor nanowires and suggest new routes to engineer the properties of this ubiquitous semiconductor.

  8. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua


    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  9. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán


    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  10. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob


    , the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example......In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if...


    Zheng Kuang; Ming-gen Cui


    In this paper, we choose the trigonometric rational functions as wavelet filters and use them to derive various wavelets. Especially for a certain family of wavelets generated by the rational filters, the better smoothness results than Daubechies' are obtained.

  12. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Mladenović Ivan


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  13. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Clore, Gerald L.


    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  14. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    Vanzo, Alberto


    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  15. Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?

    John-Michael Kuczynski


    Full Text Available Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue that this reasoning is entirely fallacious. It is true that, in some cases, a causal liason between subject and object is part of one’s concept of that object. Consequently, to grasp certain propositions, one must have certain kids of causal ties to one’s environment. But this means that we must rethink some old views on what rationality is. It does not mean, pace Davidson, that a precondition for being rational is being causally embedded in one’s environment in a certain way. If Tur-ing’s machine isn’t capable of thinking (I leave it open whether it is or is not, that has nothing to do with its lacking certain kinds of causal con-nections to the environment. The larger significance of our discussion is this: rationality consists either in one’s ability to see the bearing of purely existential propositions on one another or rationality is simply not to be understood as the ability see the bearing that propositions have on one another.

  16. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte


    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  17. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    D. Massaro


    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  18. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry


    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  19. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the complete controllability and observability of systems in series using the coprime factorization of a rational matrix

    Callier, F. M.; Nahum, C. D.


    The series connection of two linear time-invariant systems that have minimal state space system descriptions is considered. From these descriptions, strict-system-equivalent polynomial matrix system descriptions in the manner of Rosenbrock are derived. They are based on the factorization of the transfer matrix of the subsystems as a ratio of two right or left coprime polynomial matrices. They give rise to a simple polynomial matrix system description of the tandem connection. Theorem 1 states that for the complete controllability and observability of the state space system description of the series connection, it is necessary and sufficient that certain 'denominator' and 'numerator' groups are coprime. Consequences for feedback systems are drawn in Corollary 1. The role of pole-zero cancellations is explained by Lemma 3 and Corollaires 2 and 3.

  20. A Virtual Instrument System for Determining Sugar Degree of Honey.

    Wu, Qijun; Gong, Xun


    This study established a LabVIEW-based virtual instrument system to measure optical activity through the communication of conventional optical instrument with computer via RS232 port. This system realized the functions for automatic acquisition, real-time display, data processing, results playback, and so forth. Therefore, it improved accuracy of the measurement results by avoiding the artificial operation, cumbersome data processing, and the artificial error in optical activity measurement. The system was applied to the analysis of the batch inspection on the sugar degree of honey. The results obtained were satisfying. Moreover, it showed advantages such as friendly man-machine dialogue, simple operation, and easily expanded functions.

  1. A Virtual Instrument System for Determining Sugar Degree of Honey

    Qijun Wu


    Full Text Available This study established a LabVIEW-based virtual instrument system to measure optical activity through the communication of conventional optical instrument with computer via RS232 port. This system realized the functions for automatic acquisition, real-time display, data processing, results playback, and so forth. Therefore, it improved accuracy of the measurement results by avoiding the artificial operation, cumbersome data processing, and the artificial error in optical activity measurement. The system was applied to the analysis of the batch inspection on the sugar degree of honey. The results obtained were satisfying. Moreover, it showed advantages such as friendly man-machine dialogue, simple operation, and easily expanded functions.

  2. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros


    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  3. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology


    The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction

  4. A rational treatment of Mendelian genetics

    Porteous John W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The key to a rational treatment of elementary Mendelian genetics, specifically to an understanding of the origin of dominant and recessive traits, lies in the facts that: (1 alleles of genes encode polypeptides; (2 most polypeptides are catalysts, i.e. enzymes or translocators; (3 the molecular components of all traits in all cells are the products of systems of enzymes, i.e. of fluxing metabolic pathways; (4 any flux to the molecular components of a trait responds non-linearly (non-additively to graded mutations in the activity of any one of the enzymes at a catalytic locus in a metabolic system; (5 as the flux responds to graded changes in the activity of an enzyme, the concentrations of the molecular components of a trait also change. Conclusions It is then possible to account rationally, and without misrepresenting Mendel, for: the origin of dominant and recessive traits; the occurrence of Mendel's 3(dominant:1(recessive trait ratio; deviations from this ratio; the absence of dominant and recessive traits in some circumstances, the occurrence of a blending of traits in others; the frequent occurrence of pleiotropy and epistasis.

  5. The Rationality Prohibition of Riba (Usury



    Full Text Available Usury (henceforth called as riba in fact has long been known and have been progressing in meaning. The study of riba was not only discussed seriously by Muslims but also other religions. If flashed back to more than two thousand years ago, the study of riba has been discussed by non-Muslims, such as Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Greek, Roman and Christian. In Islam, debate about riba and bank interest indicated that the problem of riba very closely related to the issue of muamalah especially those that occur in Banks and Non- Bank financial. Riba evolution concept toward interest cannot be separated from the development of the financial institutions. Therefore, this journal examine and analyze the substance of the issues of interest in a rational perspective, and at the end of this journal offers loss and profit sharing system as an alternative solution to the system of interest in transaction systems of bank and non- bank.

  6. New Families of Rational Form Variable Separation Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equations

    WEN Xiao-Yong


    With the aid of symbolic computation system Maple, some families of new rational variable separation solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations are constructed by means of a function transformation, improved mapping approach, and variable separation approach, among which there are rational solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions.

  7. The dynamics of Bertrand model with bounded rationality

    Zhang Jixiang [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189 (China)], E-mail:; Da Qingli [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189 (China); Wang Yanhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    The paper considers a Bertrand model with bounded rational. A duopoly game is modelled by two nonlinear difference equations. By using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems, the existence and stability for the equilibria of this system are obtained. Numerical simulations used to show bifurcations diagrams, phase portraits for various parameters and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. We observe that an increase of the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player may change the stability of Nash equilibrium point and cause bifurcation and chaos to occur. The analysis and results in this paper are interesting in mathematics and economics.

  8. Kasseler symposium on energy-related system engineering: renewable energy sources and rational energy use. Proceedings '98; Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und Rationelle Energieverwendung. Tagungsband '98

    Schwarz, R. [comp.


    The ISET ended the 10th anniversary year since its foundation in 1998 with already the third Kassel symposium on energy-related system engineering: renewable energy sources and rational energy use. Covering several special subjects talks were given about the topics modelling and simulation in the fields of wind energy, photovoltaic systems, hybrid systems or sewage water treatment. The keen interest of the participants shows the importance that modelling of conditions or processes has gained in the meantime in the field of system engineering of renewable energy sources. The core of each simulation is the integration of differential equations, which describe the system. Properties of the system can be easily varied and affects on the overall system can be easily investigated. Critical conditions can be discovered and be taken into consideration at the hardware engineering. Mistakes in terms of component design can be avoided and engineering cost can be reduced considerably. The present conference book gives an ideal overview of the topics discussed during the symposium. (orig.) [German] Sein Jubilaeumsjahr zum zehnjaehrigen Bestehen beschloss das ISET 1998 mit dem nun bereits 3. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik - Erneuerbare Energien und Rationelle Energieverwendung. Fachgebietsuebergreifend wurde zu den Themen Modellbildung und Simulation in Bereichen wie Windenergie, Photovoltaik, Hybridsysteme oder Abwasserbehandlung referiert. Das rege Interesse der Teilnehmer unterstreicht die Bedeutung, die die Modellierung von Zustaenden oder Prozessen in der Systementwicklung bei den erneuerbaren Energien inzwischen gewonnen hat. Der Kern einer jeden Simulation ist die Integration der systembeschreibenden Differentialgleichungen. Eigenschaften des Systems koennen in einfacher Weise variiert und die Auswirkungen auf das Gesamtsystem untersucht werden. Kritische Zustaende koennen entdeckt und in der Entwicklung der Hardware entsprechend beruecksichtigt werden. Fehler

  9. Research on the rationality of transmission system for fast forging hydraulic press%快锻液压机传动系统合理性的探讨

    陈超; 范淑琴; 赵升吨; 崔敏超; 韩晓兰


    The research status of fast forging hydraulic press at home and abroad was introduced, and deficiencies of the fast forging press in the domestic development were pointed out. The structures and principles of valve controlled hydraulic transmission system, pump con-trolled hydraulic transmission system and servo hydraulic transmission system were analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of these three kinds of hydraulic transmission system were pointed out on the above basis. Compared with valve controlled hydraulic transmis-sion system and pump controlled hydraulic transmission system, servo hydraulic transmission system has the advantages of good servo per-formance, low cost, high processing quality and precision. Servo hydraulic transmission system is very suitable for fast forging hydraulic press. Finally, the characteristics of three different hydraulic transmission systems were summarized, and servo hydraulic transmission sys-tem was regarded as the main trend of development in fast forging hydraulic drive system.%首先介绍了快锻液压机的国内外研究现状,指出了国内快锻液压机发展的不足。又分别分析了阀控液压传动系统、泵控液压传动系统和伺服液压传动系统的结构和原理,并以此为基础指出了3种液压传动系统的优缺点。相比于阀控液压传动系统和泵控液压传动系统,伺服液压传动系统具有伺服性能好、成本低、加工质量和精度高等优点。伺服液压系统非常适合应用于快锻液压机。最后总结了3种不同的液压传动系统的特点,指出伺服液压传动系统将成为快锻液压机传动系统的主要发展趋势。

  10. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.


    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.


    Clóvis Ricardo Montenegro de Lima


    Full Text Available In this article, the academic questioning and rationalization of productive processes in organizations are discussed. The organizational dynamics in Luhmann’s theory of systems that emphasize the relationship of the system with its surroundings is also discussed. This theory allows for the analysis of organizations complexity, including their dynamics and processes.The concept of organizational autopoiesis is highlighted in this study. The discussion of quality improvement and innovation of production processes is based on pedagogical issues of the organizations. The possibilities of Habermas’ communicative action theory is discussed, especially in the form of discursive rationalization of complex organizational processes In conclusion, discursive rationalization may be important to build effective and integrated organizations through an ethical and sympathetic basis.

  12. Considering the Practical Rationality of Experimental Operation in Developing Countries: Reality and Challenges under a Rigid Community Forestry System in Cambodia

    Takayuki Kurashima


    Full Text Available Influential stakeholders have highlighted many constraints inherent in conventional scientific forest management plans for community forestry (CF and presented simpler alternatives. Nevertheless, some developing countries continue to use rigid, complex and high-cost plans and regulations. This article considers two issues: (1 why heavily-regulated or rigid CF systems were originally introduced and why they continue to be used in developing countries despite critiques and counterproposals; and (2 under what circumstances will such CF systems face an impasse, and what can be done to resolve the situation. Using Cambodia as a case study, we examine the development of a rigid CF system, review negative factors influencing the upland forested area, clarify the unfavorable situations arising from these factors and discuss likely problems associated with the CF management system. International organizations played a key role in the introduction and maintenance of rigid, complex and high-cost CF systems in Cambodia. Conflicts and crises arise when the administration prosecutes local farmers for illegal cultivation or deprives communities of CF management rights because of the expansion of commercial crop cultivation and the lack of adequate community management in response to unprecedented changes. A likely practical solution to the probable impasse is the development and funding of a functional network of CF management committees, rather than the adoption of an entirely new, alternative system.

  13. Operations management system

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.


    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  14. Administrative gatekeeping - a third way between unrestricted patient advocacy and bedside rationing

    Lauridsen, Sigurd


    rationing. The former requires unrestricted advocacy of patients but prompts distrust, moral hazard and unfairness. The latter commits physicians to rationing at the bedside; but it is bound to introduce unfair inequalities among patients and lack of political accountability towards citizens. In this paper......, physicians are required to follow fair rules of rationing adopted at higher organizational levels within healthcare systems. At the same time, however, they are prohibited from including considerations of cost in their clinical decisions....




    The matrix valued rational interpolation is very useful in the partial realization problem and model reduction for all the linear system theory. Lagrange basic functions have been used in matrix valued rational interpolation. In this paper, according to the property of cardinal spline interpolation, we constructed a kind of spline type matrix valued rational interpolation, which based on cardinal spline. This spline type interpolation can avoid instability of high order polynomial interpolation and we obtained a useful formula.

  16. IT-tools for Mechatronic System Engineering and Design

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben; Andersen, T. O.


    , operation capability, man-machine interface (MMI), robustness, reliability and safety in use. Information Technology (IT) offers both software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design...... the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems. A mechatronic test facility for a hydraulic robot and a CNC XY-machine table was implemented. The controller applies digital signal processors (DSPs). The DSP controller utilizes the dSPACE System suitable...

  17. Rational choice theory and suicide.

    Lester, D


    The implications of viewing the decision to kill oneself as a rational choice, based on an analysis of the costs and benefits, were explored. Suicide is but one symptom for an individual in distress to choose, and if suicide is prevented, other symptoms may appear in its place. Similarly, a critical question to be asked in suicide prevention is whether restriction of the availability of one method for suicide (such as detoxifying domestic gas or car exhaust) will result in suicidal individuals switching to a different method for suicide or to a different symptom of distress.

  18. National Research and Development Program (Large-scale Project). 1. Recycling technology and flexible manufacturing system will save resources and rationalize production

    Kato, S.


    The Japanese government supports basic research on resource-recovery technology to recycle manufacturing, household, and urban wastes, a program which is now in its second phase following operational studies in Yokohama and Tokyo. An integrated production system of machinery components includes laser machining to increase manufacturing speed and flexibility. The finished design will enhance productivity in machinery production. 2 figures. (DCK)

  19. Rational Insight into Reform of the Presiding Judges’ Accountability System%对当前主审法官责任制改革的理性审视



    主审法官责任制的实质是去除司法行政化,还权于审判者,解决审判者权力亏空问题。主审法官责任制改革早在1990年代就开始试行,与审判长负责制没有实质区别。分析主审法官责任制实践路径可知,其在公正与效率之间徘徊,被赋予了诸多的功能。理性审视某些地方主审法官责任制改革措施,其存在强烈的行政化倾向,审判权架构是“等级制”模式,将主审法官职位固定化,并定位为“法官之上的法官”,与法官员额制发生冲突,只是确保了少数法官独立行使审判权,采取先放权后集权的方式来去除司法行政化可能导致改革偏差,存在诸多弊端,可能会跌入“钱穆制度陷阱”。应将主审法官责任制理解为办案法官责任制,构建“扁平化”审判权配置模式,加强法官独任审判制,完善合议庭制度,方能达到司法改革的目的。%The essence of presiding judge accountability system is to empower judges and thus solve the problem of the absence of judicial power .However ,the presiding judge accountability system came into effect in 1990s and had no essential difference from the chief judge accountability system .The en-forcement path of presiding judge accountability system actually stranded in a status of intellectuality wandering ,swinging between equality and efficiency and therefore was attached with too many func -tions .The designation of current justice system is of strong characteristic of administration ,and the structure of judicial power is hierarchical ,which leave the presiding judge above other judges .In this case ,the enforcement of independent judicial power can be guaranteed only for top few judges .How-ever ,it is misleading to get rid of the influence of administration on the judicial system by retaking the judicial power after devolving it in the first place ,which may cause the judicial system more likely to fall

  20. Impacts of the driver's bounded rationality on the traffic running cost under the car-following model

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Kai


    The driver's bounded rationality has significant influences on the micro driving behavior and researchers proposed some traffic flow models with the driver's bounded rationality. However, little effort has been made to explore the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on the trip cost. In this paper, we use our recently proposed car-following model to study the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on his running cost and the system's total cost under three traffic running costs. The numerical results show that considering the driver's bounded rationality will enhance his each running cost and the system's total cost under the three traffic running costs.

  1. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Katalin Martinas


    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  2. Rational approximations to fluid properties

    Kincaid, J. M.


    The purpose of this report is to summarize some results that were presented at the Spring AIChE meeting in Orlando, Florida (20 March 1990). We report on recent attempts to develop a systematic method, based on the technique of rational approximation, for creating mathematical models of real-fluid equations of state and related properties. Equation-of-state models for real fluids are usually created by selecting a function tilde p(T,rho) that contains a set of parameters (gamma sub i); the (gamma sub i) is chosen such that tilde p(T,rho) provides a good fit to the experimental data. (Here p is the pressure, T the temperature and rho is the density). In most cases, a nonlinear least-squares numerical method is used to determine (gamma sub i). There are several drawbacks to this method: one has essentially to guess what tilde p(T,rho) should be; the critical region is seldom fit very well and nonlinear numerical methods are time consuming and sometimes not very stable. The rational approximation approach we describe may eliminate all of these drawbacks. In particular, it lets the data choose the function tilde p(T,rho) and its numerical implementation involves only linear algorithms.

  3. Repercusión del sistema de valoracion energetica sobre el coste de raciones para vacas lecheras - Effect of feed evaluation system on the cost of rations for dairy cows

    Martínez Marín, Andrés L.


    ía empleado en la formulación tiene una importante repercusión sobre el coste de las raciones para vacas lecheras. SummaryThe objective of the present work was to compare energy requirements and supply calculated according to old and modern feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle - Scandinavian feed units (UA, net energy fat (ROSTOCK, metabolizable energy (MAFF, net energy of lactation (NRC and milk fodder units (INRA - to assess the differences in the cost of the ration. The energy requirements were expressed as net energy of lactation (NEL and were calculated every 30 days in milk (DIM for a mature Holstein cow weighing 680 kg, producing 10000 kg of milk in 305 days, and calving every year. Ten rations optimized with CPM-Dairy 1.0 to satisfy the nutritional requirements ofthe model cow every 30 DIM were used to compare the calculated NEL supply according to the systems being evaluated. Except for the values obtained according to the feed units system and the onset of lactation, the differences between the systems in the calculated energy requirements were relatively low (from 1.1% to 7.5% and mainly attributable to the energy value assigned to the live weight change. The differences between the systems in the NEL supply of the rations were high and oscillated between 19.1% and 25.2%. The calculated supplies were smaller than the requirements in all the systems throughout lactation, except for UA from 90 DIM and NRC and MAFF at 30 and 270 DIM, respectively. The average differences were in the range from -1.4 ± 1.1 Mcal d-1 (4.5 ± 2.9%; MAFF to -5.5 ± 1.7 Mcal d-1 (15.6 ± 4.5%; INRA. The cost of the Mcal differed between the systems (from 18.7% to 25.5% and the same was true for the cost of satisfying the daily energy requirements (from 13.5% to 50.2%. It was concluded that, without taking into account the real accuracy, the energy evaluation system used in the formulation affects considerably the cost of rations for lactating dairy cattle.

  4. Model emulates human smooth pursuit system producing zero-latency target tracking.

    Bahill, A T; McDonald, J D


    Humans can overcome the 150 ms time delay of the smooth pursuit eye movement system and track smoothly moving visual targets with zero-latency. Our target-selective adaptive control model can also overcome an inherent time delay and produce zero-latency tracking. No other model or man-made system can do this. Our model is physically realizable and physiologically realistic. The technique used in our model should be useful for analyzing other time-delay systems, such as man-machine systems and robots.

  5. The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems

    Barkstrom, B. R.


    The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

  6. [Evaluation of crossing calibration of (123)I-MIBG H/M ration, with the IDW scatter correction method, on different gamma camera systems].

    Kittaka, Daisuke; Takase, Tadashi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Yasuo; Shinozuka, Akira; Shirai, Muneaki


    (123)I-MIBG Heart-to-Mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) is commonly used as an indicator of relative myocardial (123)I-MIBG uptake. H/M ratios reflect myocardial sympathetic nerve function, therefore it is a useful parameter to assess regional myocardial sympathetic denervation in various cardiac diseases. However, H/M ratio values differ by site, gamma camera system, position and size of region of interest (ROI), and collimator. In addition to these factors, 529 keV scatter component may also affect (123)I-MIBG H/M ratio. In this study, we examined whether the H/M ratio shows correlation between two different gamma camera systems and that sought for H/M ratio calculation formula. Moreover, we assessed the feasibility of (123)I Dual Window (IDW) method, which is a scatter correction method, and compared H/M ratios with and without IDW method. H/M ratio displayed a good correlation between two gamma camera systems. Additionally, we were able to create a new H/M calculation formula. These results indicated that the IDW method is a useful scatter correction method for calculating (123)I-MIBG H/M ratios.

  7. Rationality District Policy Proliferation and Villages in Town Bandar Lampung

    Novita Tresiana


    Full Text Available This study is based on the premise that regional growth is a product of public policy, as the government attempts to solve public problems. Within the framework of rationality, then the expansion policy should be the result of rational choice, including the selection of alternatives for the achievement of objectives, contain a fundamental value and appropriate to achieve the end result (outcome is desired. The purpose of this paper is: to describe the process of policy-making division and rationality that are used to describe the actors in the division policy. The method used is qualitative. This paper raised the research findings that the process of defining the division policy, not the solutif effort the problem for substantive society and rationality that are used in the determination of policy, dominated model of rationality dustbin, as a structural response to the interests of elite (political, transactional, not a system response (legislative and executive to address the factual issues relating to the welfare of society.

  8. Personality and Self-regulation as Determinants of Rational Decision Making in a Political Voting Situation

    Tatiana A. Indina


    Full Text Available The association of self-regulation and personality factors with rational decision making was investigated using an experimental model of political voting. The results revealed different sets of personality characteristics for rational and emotional voters. A self-regulation/personality typology of decision making was then constructed, and traits representing self-regulation, cognition, and personality were examined as predispositions toward rational decision making. As a result, specific connections among these variables were uncovered, through which the primary role of the conscious self-regulation system in the management of rational decision making in a political voting context was established.


    Zhong-qing Wang; Ben-yu Guo


    A mutually orthogonal system of rational functions on the whole line is introduced.Some approximation results are established. As an example of applications, a modified Legendre rational spectral scheme is given for the Dirac equation. Its numerical solu-tion keeps the same conservation as the genuine solution. This feature not only leads to reasonable numerical simulation of nonlinear waves, but also simplifies the analysis. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of this new approach and coincide with the analysis well.

  10. Rational accountability and rational autonomy in academic practice: An extended case study of the communicative ethic of interdisciplinary science

    Robertson, Susan Margaret

    The dissertation investigates the interaction of rational accountability and rational autonomy in interdisciplinary science within the lifeworld of the university. It focuses on the cultural, social and motivational forces that university researchers draw on, and develop, to constitute and regulate interdisciplinary science. Findings are analyzed within an applied critical social theory framework that attends to the interaction of instrumental and communicative rational action within the public spaces that constitute the lifeworld of the university as a public sphere in society. The research raises questions of how academics practice interdisciplinary science and how these practices relate to the reproduction of the regulative ideal of the university as a community that practices public reason. The conceptual framework informing the research is Habermas' (1984) theory of communicative action. Using Burawoy's (1991) extended case study method as an operational strategy, two modes of constituting and regulating interdisciplinary science were found. Instrumental rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where consensus on the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action were pre-existing and pre-supposed by participants. Communicative rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action entered a contested domain. Endorsements for interdisciplinary science policies are coinciding with demands for increased accountability and relevance of Canada's university system. At the same time that the university system must respond to external demands, it must reproduce itself as a public institution open to the discursive redemption of factual and normative validity claims. The study found that academics participate in, but also contest the instrumental regulation of academic inquiry and conduct by using their constitutional autonomy and freedom to

  11. Evaluation of urban river landscape design rationality based on AHP

    Qiao Lifang


    Full Text Available Abstract: An evaluation model for the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers was established with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method so as to provide a foundation for updating the landscape design of urban rivers. The evaluation system was divided into four layers, including the target layer, the comprehensive layer, the element layer, and the index layer. Each layer was made of different indices. The evaluation standards for each index were also given in this paper. This evaluation model was proved tenable through its application to the landscape design rationality evaluation of the Weihe River in Xinxiang City of Henan Province. The results show that the water quality, space, activity, facility, community, width of vegetation, sense of beauty and water content are among the most influential factors and should be considered the main basis for evaluating the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers.

  12. Quadrature Formula of Singular Integral Based on Rational Interpolation


    We construct a quadrature formula of the singular integral with the Chebyshev weight of the second kind by using Lagrange interpolation based on the rational system {1/(x-a1),1/(x-a2),...}, and both the remainder and convergence of the quadrature formula established here are discussed. Our results extend some classical ones.

  13. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär;

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  14. The rational design of biological complexity: a deceptive metaphor.

    Van Regenmortel, Marc H V


    Biologists often claim that they follow a rational design strategy when their research is based on molecular knowledge of biological systems. This claim implies that their knowledge of the innumerable causal connections present in biological systems is sufficient to allow them to deduce and predict the outcome of their experimental interventions. The design metaphor is shown to originate in human intentionality and in the anthropomorphic fallacy of interpreting objects, events, and the behavior of all living organisms in terms of goals and purposes. Instead of presenting rational design as an effective research strategy, it would be preferable to acknowledge that advances in biomedicine are nearly always derived from empirical observations based on trial and error experimentation. The claim that rational design is an effective research strategy was tested in the case of current attempts to develop synthetic vaccines, in particular against human immunodeficiency virus. It was concluded that in this field of biomedicine, trial and error experimentation is more likely to succeed than a rational design approach. Current developments in systems biology may give us eventually a better understanding of the immune system and this may enable us in the future to develop improved vaccines.


    王中庆; 王立联; 郭本瑜


    An orthogonal system of rational functions is derived from the mapped Laguerre polynomials,which is used for numerical solution of singular differential equations.A model problem is considered.A multiple-step algorithm is developed to implement this method.Numerical results show the efficiency of this new approach.

  16. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Mehtap Sahingoz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  17. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.


    Yellen, J. (1985). Can small deviations from rationality make significant differences to economic equilibria? American Economic Review , 75, 708-720...theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon. American Economic Review , 69, 623-38. Hagen, 0. (1979). Towards a positive theory of preferences...Publishing Co. Haltiwanger, J. & Waldman, M. (1985). Rational expectations and the limits of rationality: An analysis of heterogeneity. American Economic Review , 75

  18. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Xiaoou, Liu


    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  19. Reconfigurable Mobile System - Ground, sea and air applications

    Lamonica, Gary L.; Sturges, James W.


    The Reconfigurable Mobile System (RMS) is a highly mobile data-processing unit for military users requiring real-time access to data gathered by airborne (and other) reconnaissance data. RMS combines high-performance computation and image processing workstations with resources for command/control/communications in a single, lightweight shelter. RMS is composed of off-the-shelf components, and is easily reconfigurable to land-vehicle or shipboard versions. Mission planning, which involves an airborne sensor platform's sensor coverage, considered aircraft/sensor capabilities in conjunction with weather, terrain, and threat scenarios. RMS's man-machine interface concept facilitates user familiarization and features iron-based function selection and windowing.

  20. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.


    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  1. The bounded rationality of the educational choices

    Simone Digennaro


    Full Text Available Nowadays, models adopted by the educational systems met with rigidities and doctrinal axioms that are limiting the efficacy of the interventions. This is due to a reduced capacity of adaptability to the reality. There is the tendency to apply a cage of false rationality, in which objectives, times, tools, etc. are defined with rigidity – often dogmatically supported – with the risk to level out the educational activity, without directly acting on the specific features of each individual and on the specific aspects that characterize one context from another. This is one of the main issue that the education is regarded to address today. It is also a topic that needs to be analysed since represents an important viaticum for lines of reasoning concerning the policies to be developed and the changes that might emerge in the educational praxis and in the long-term strategic and political decisions.

  2. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...

  3. Why humans deviate from rational choice.

    Hewig, Johannes; Kretschmer, Nora; Trippe, Ralf H; Hecht, Holger; Coles, Michael G H; Holroyd, Clay B; Miltner, Wolfgang H R


    Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback negativity, an event-related brain potential that originates in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been related to reinforcement learning, predicts the decision to reject unfair offers in the Ultimatum game. Furthermore, the decision to reject is positively related to more negative emotional reactions and to increased autonomic nervous system activity. These findings support the idea that subjective emotional markers guide decision-making and that the anterior cingulate cortex integrates instances of reinforcement and punishment to provide such affective markers. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    , but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces......Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article ex- plores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project...

  5. Modular repowering of power plants with nominal ratings lower than 180 MW: A rational design approach and its application to the Italian utility system

    Melli, R.; Naso, V.; Sciubba, E. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica)


    The paper describes the rationale, the technical/economical details and the results of a study which is part of a large-scale energy conservation program enacted by the Italian Public Utility (ENEL), within a broader framework of structural interventions on the national electricity production/transportation/utilization network. The objectives of the larger, long-term plan is to increase by a significant percentage (> 5 percent) the net conversion efficiency of the national system. The purpose of the present study is to recover'' a large number of nearly obsolete steam power plants by converting them to a combined cycle configuration. The expression generalized repowering'' has been used to synthetically describe this plant reconfiguration plan, and will be employed in this paper. After giving a brief description of the existing Italian electricity generation situation, the authors list some possible criteria for repowering and describe in detail the configurations which were considered to be feasible. Finally, the proposed options are comparatively analyzed, and the major parameters which can be of importance in the actual decision-making process on the part of the Public Utility are computed and presented in tabular form. In the conclusions the authors try to put the present work in the broader perspective of a large-scale (supernational), economically sound and ecologically acceptable energy conservation program.


    S. Marchev


    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  7. Essays on Rational Portfolio Theory

    Nielsen, Simon Ellersgaard

    This dissertation is comprised of five research papers written during the period January 2013 -December 2015. Their abstracts are: The Fundamental Theorem of Derivative Trading. When estimated volatilities are not inperfect agreement with reality, delta hedged option portfolios will incur a non...... is proportional to volatility, we can deriveclosed form expressions for the optimal portfolio using the formalism of Hamilton-JacobixiiiBellman. We also perform an empirical investigation, which strongly suggests that there inreality are no tangible welfare gains associated with hedging stochastic volatility...... in a bondstockeconomy. Stochastic Volatility for Utility Maximisers Part II. Using martingale methods we derivebequest optimising portfolio weights for a rational investor who trades in a bond-stockderivativeeconomy characterised by a generic stochastic volatility model. For illustrativepurposes we then proceed...

  8. Technique for Assessing the Stability and Controllability Characteristics of Naval Aircraft Systems Based on the Rational Combination of Modeling, Identification and Flight Experiments

    S. V. Nikolaev


    motion in the range of main flight operating conditions. This model is aimed at using to not only to support testing, but at subsequent stages of the aviation system life cycle as well. These models are necessary when training the pilots to fly to the ship, when developing the simulators, at the stage of modernization, in examination of aircraft accidents, etc. As a result of the work, have been created a new technique for evaluating the stability and controllability characteristics of the naval aircraft system, including a new procedure for the identification and also the new algorithmic techniques that can be used to visualize the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients as a function of the angle of attack and a new approach to identify longitudinal channel according to lateral test flight modes. All the results are confirmed by processing of flight experiment materials.The work is fulfilled with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR, project 15-08-06237.

  9. Systems Pharmacology and Rational Polypharmacy: Nitric Oxide−Cyclic GMP Signaling Pathway as an Illustrative Example and Derivation of the General Case

    Garmaroudi, Farshid S.; Handy, Diane E.; Liu, Yang-Yu; Loscalzo, Joseph


    Impaired nitric oxide (NO˙)-cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) signaling has been observed in many cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There are several enzymatic determinants of cGMP levels in this pathway, including soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) itself, the NO˙-activated form of sGC, and phosphodiesterase(s) (PDE). Therapies for some of these disorders with PDE inhibitors have been successful at increasing cGMP levels in both cardiac and vascular tissues. However, at the systems level, it is not clear whether perturbation of PDE alone, under oxidative stress, is the best approach for increasing cGMP levels as compared with perturbation of other potential pathway targets, either alone or in combination. Here, we develop a model-based approach to perturbing this pathway, focusing on single reactions, pairs of reactions, or trios of reactions as targets, then monitoring the theoretical effects of these interventions on cGMP levels. Single perturbations of all reaction steps within this pathway demonstrated that three reaction steps, including the oxidation of sGC, NO˙ dissociation from sGC, and cGMP degradation by PDE, exerted a dominant influence on cGMP accumulation relative to other reaction steps. Furthermore, among all possible single, paired, and triple perturbations of this pathway, the combined perturbations of these three reaction steps had the greatest impact on cGMP accumulation. These computational findings were confirmed in cell-based experiments. We conclude that a combined perturbation of the oxidatively-impaired NO˙-cGMP signaling pathway is a better approach to the restoration of cGMP levels as compared with corresponding individual perturbations. This approach may also yield improved therapeutic responses in other complex pharmacologically amenable pathways. PMID:26985825

  10. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend


    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  11. Optimal blackouts: empirical results on reducing the social cost of electricity outages through efficient regional rationing

    de Nooij, M.; Lieshout, R.; Koopmans, C.


    The demand and supply of electricity must always balance. If supply falls short of demand, then price increases or voluntary demand reductions might help to maintain the balance in the system. Should these prove insufficient, then rationing is necessary. Rationing means interrupting the electricity

  12. Topology-dependent rationality and quantal response equilibria in structured populations

    Roman, Sabin; Brede, Markus


    Given that the assumption of perfect rationality is rarely met in the real world, we explore a graded notion of rationality in socioecological systems of networked actors. We parametrize an actors' rationality via their place in a social network and quantify system rationality via the average Jensen-Shannon divergence between the games Nash and logit quantal response equilibria. Previous work has argued that scale-free topologies maximize a system's overall rationality in this setup. Here we show that while, for certain games, it is true that increasing degree heterogeneity of complex networks enhances rationality, rationality-optimal configurations are not scale-free. For the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, we provide analytic arguments complemented by numerical optimization experiments to demonstrate that core-periphery networks composed of a few dominant hub nodes surrounded by a periphery of very low degree nodes give strikingly smaller overall deviations from rationality than scale-free networks. Similarly, for the Battle of the Sexes and the Matching Pennies games, we find that the optimal network structure is also a core-periphery graph but with a smaller difference in the average degrees of the core and the periphery. These results provide insight on the interplay between the topological structure of socioecological systems and their collective cognitive behavior, with potential applications to understanding wealth inequality and the structural features of the network of global corporate control.

  13. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Kalberg, Stephen


    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  14. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Velten, Emmett


    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  15. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Velten, Emmett


    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  16. 妥协理性在协同治理价值体系中的哲学意蕴与实践%Compromise Rationality:Philosophical Implication and Practice in Values System of Collaborative Governance



    把效率视为第一公理的传统公共行政日益暴露出其致命缺陷,它极大程度地忽略了人的价值和人的行为主体意义。建立在公众参与、利益调节以及多元一致基础上的协同治理价值体系初步形成,并有效排除了人们感到受压、非人化和被疏远的心理。多元的社会力量在相互影响、相互作用的公共治理中践行协同治理价值体系,是实现行政哲学由对抗转向妥协理性的方式与途径。%The traditional administration which takes efficiency as the first axiom has increasingly exposed its fatal defect: it largely ignores the value of man and its significance as the behaviour subject.The value system of collaborative governance based on public participation,benefit regulating and multiplicity consistency governance has taken its initial shape,and effectively ruled out people's psychological feeling of being "pressured,dehumanized and estranged".Multiple social forces practise the collaborative governance value system in public management through mutual influence and interaction,and this is way and means to transform the administrative philosophy from confrontation to compromise rationality.

  17. Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics

    Brown, Tony


    This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…

  18. Linear parameter estimation of rational biokinetic functions

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.


    For rational biokinetic functions such as the Michaelis-Menten equation, in general, a nonlinear least-squares method is a good estimator. However, a major drawback of a nonlinear least-squares estimator is that it can end up in a local minimum. Rearranging and linearizing rational biokinetic

  19. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏


    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  20. Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market

    Raahauge, Peter


    for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...

  1. Counting rational points on cubic curves

    HEATH-BROWN; Roger; TESTA; Damiano


    We prove upper bounds for the number of rational points on non-singular cubic curves defined over the rationals.The bounds are uniform in the curve and involve the rank of the corresponding Jacobian.The method used in the proof is a combination of the "determinant method" with an m-descent on the curve.

  2. Is facet analysis based on rationalism?

    Hjørland, Birger


    , rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...

  3. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis


    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  4. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Tillson, John


    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  5. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  6. Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics

    Brown, Tony


    This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…

  7. Rationality : a social-epistemology perspective

    Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E. P.; Douven, Igor


    Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an “individualistic” perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In pr

  8. Realization of Intelligent Measurement and Control System for Limb Rehabilitation Based on PLC and Touch Screen

    Liu, Xiangquan

    According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.

  9. Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras

    Toppan, F


    Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.

  10. Research on Computer Aided Ergonomics System Framework Based on the Analysis of Knowledge Repository and Man-machine System Modeling%基于知识库和系统建模分析的计算机辅助人机系统框架研究

    晏群; 汪海波



  11. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)


    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.


    Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F


    Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).

  13. Progress report to Congress on the standby motor fuel rationing plans



    This report summarizes the standby gasoline rationing plan; describes the differences between this plan and the one that was transmitted by the President to the Congress on March 1, 1979; and cites some problems inherent in rationing gasoline. The mechanisms contained in the plan for meeting the gasoline needs of end users are described: the basic allotments for individuals, basic allotments for firms, hardship allotments, and the ration rights market. A discussion of the ration rights market, an analysis of the gains that result from permitting the exchange of coupons, and an estimate of what the price of a coupon would be in a 20% shortfall is included. The economic impacts of the plan are examined: how rationing would affect the average motorist in a 20% shortfall, how the plan would affect households in different income groups, and how rural, suburban and urban households would fare under rationing. An analysis is presented of the alternative of issuing allotments to all licensed drivers and compares this alternative with the allotment mechanism based on motor vehicles. A description of the measures taken to date, since the enactment of the EECA, to develop a gasoline rationing system, and the costs of these measures are provided. A discussion of the measures necessary to bring the system to a satisfactory state of readiness, the estimated costs of these measures, and a timetable for their completion are included. A brief discussion of diesel fuel rationing is also given.

  14. Software para o planejamento e a racionalização do uso de sistemas de terraceamento em nível Software to planning the use of level terracing systems in more rational ways

    Nori P. Griebeler


    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de técnicas que permitam o aumento da eficiência de práticas de conservação do solo é necessário frente aos grandes prejuízos causados pela erosão. Nesse sentido, elaborou-se um software que utiliza bases de dados geradas em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas e que permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de terraceamento em nível de maneira mais racional, considerando as variações espaciais existentes no terreno. Como dados de entrada ao software, devem ser fornecidas imagens de elevação e declividade e, ainda, características de tipo, uso e manejo do solo, a metodologia para o cálculo do espaçamento entre terraços e a recomendação para a escolha do tipo de terraço mais aconselhado. Como resultados, o software fornece uma imagem com o sistema de terraceamento locado, que pode ser salva em diferentes formatos, bem como um relatório, que poderá ser impresso e usado juntamente com a imagem para a implantação do sistema.The development of techniques that allow the increase of the efficiency of practices of soil conservation is necessary front to the great damages caused by the erosion. In this sense, software was elaborated based on Geographical Information System that allows the planning of level terracing systems in a more rational way, considering the existent space variations in the land. As entrance data to the software, it should be supplied with elevation and slope images characteristics and type, the use and the handling of the soil, the methodology for the calculation of the spacing among terraces and, the recommendation of the type of advised terrace. As results the software supplies a map with the terracing system and a report with information for the implementation of the system.

  15. Rationalization of work of leaders of physical-sports organizations

    Galina Putiatina


    Full Text Available Purpose: to create the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations in the structure of their scientific organization of the work. Material & Methods: the content of the administrative activity of representatives of the system of the regional government of the sphere of physical culture and sport of the Kharkov area, and also directors of sports schools of Kharkov (57 respondents are generalized. Methods – the analysis of references, the organizational analysis, the organizational diagnosis, the poll (questioning, the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the essence and the content of rationalization of the administrative work in the sphere of physical culture and sport are considered. The integrated approach to certain objects of rationalization of the administrative work is established in physical-sports organizations. Conclusions: the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations are: the organization of work concerning the development of motivational mechanisms of the activity of heads; the increase of the economic appeal of work; the formation of ideology of a healthy lifestyle.

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report on the R and D on industrial science and technology for creating new industries. R and D on intelligent material and structure systems (Development of practical technology for rational use of energy); 1998 nendo shinki sangyo soshutsugata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chiteki zairyo kozo system no kenkyu kaihatsu (energy shiyo gorika kankei gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu)



    As a part of development of intelligent material/structure systems, study was made on practical technology for rational use of energy. For resource saving and energy saving (smartening) for large and complex machines and structure systems, light-weight long-life materials/structures are indispensable. Study was thus made on the basic technology of material/structure systems equipped with realtime defect detection function, structural integrity diagnosis function and control function of noise and vibration through information processing and control by integrating composite material/structure and fiber or film sensor material/device. For development of smartening technology, sensing technology was studied to detect the interior structure of composite material/structure compacts. The basic fabrication technology of ceramic actuator materials/devices, and shape memory alloy system actuators were put into development. Smooth connection and cooperation among groups were promoted through the technical committee and research on domestic and overseas trends for forming common knowledge. (NEDO)

  17. Senior doctors' opinions of rational suicide.

    Ginn, Stephen; Price, Annabel; Rayner, Lauren; Owen, Gareth S; Hayes, Richard D; Hotopf, Matthew; Lee, William


    The attitudes of medical professionals towards physician assisted dying have been widely discussed. Less explored is the level of agreement among physicians on the possibility of 'rational suicide'-a considered suicide act made by a sound mind and a precondition of assisted dying legislation. To assess attitudes towards rational suicide in a representative sample of senior doctors in England and Wales. A postal survey was conducted of 1000 consultants and general practitioners randomly selected from a commercially available database. The main outcome of interest was level of agreement with a statement about rational suicide. The corrected participation rate was 50%; 363 questionnaires were analysed. Overall 72% of doctors agreed with the possibility of rational suicide, 17% disagreed, and 11% were neutral. Doctors who identified themselves as being more religious were more likely to disagree. Some doctors who disagreed with legalisation of physician assisted suicide nevertheless agreed with the concept of rational suicide. Most senior doctors in England and Wales feel that rational suicide is possible. There was no association with specialty. Strong religious belief was associated with disagreement, although levels of agreement were still high in people reporting the strongest religious belief. Most doctors who were opposed to physician assisted suicide believed that rational suicide was possible, suggesting that some medical opposition is best explained by other factors such as concerns of assessment and protection of vulnerable patients.

  18. Organización del trabajo y dispositivos de control en el sector automotriz: el toyotismo como sistema complejo de racionalización Labour Structure and Control Devices in the Automotive Industry: The "toyotism" as a complex rationalization system

    Diego Alvarez Newman


    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende problematizar la concepción toyotista a partir de la descripción y el análisis del Sistema de Producción Toyota (SPT, sus principios y estrategias de aplicación. Entendemos al SPT como un sistema complejo de racionalización de la producción y de los trabajadores que opera mediante la aplicación de variados dispositivos de control técnico y social. El SPT postula ciertos principios básicos que apuntan a la mejora continua de la productividad y la calidad, poniendo en juego un andamiaje estratégico para intervenir sobre el control del tiempo y del espacio en la fábrica y sobre el control de los ritmos, movimientos y valores de los trabajadores. Estos dispositivos no operan solo como reguladores de la producción y la productividad sino que además operan como dispositivos de flexibilización de la fuerza de trabajo y dispositivos de cooptación sindical para minimizar la conflictividad laboral. Formar para contar con trabajadores involucrados con los objetivos de la empresa y con un sindicato que adhiera a la filosofía Toyota constituye un fuerte factor de productividad en el sentido en que no se verá afectado el circuito de la mejora continua.The following article intends to examine the concept of "toyotism" based on the description and analysis of the Toyota Production System (TPS and its´ principles and strategies application. We infer the TPS as a complex system which rationalizes both the production and the workers. This system works through the implementation of diverse technical and social devices. The TPS postulates certain basic principles aiming a continuous productivity and quality improvement, applying a strategic configuration to intervene in the control of the factory´s time and space as well as in the regulation of rhythms, movements and worker´s values. These devices do not only operate as production and productivity watchers, but also function as workforce flexibilization and

  19. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Youssouf Oualhadj


    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.




    As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  1. Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles

    Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg


    We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.

  2. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  3. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo


    rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice......Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...

  4. Height Estimates for Equidimensional Dominant Rational Maps

    Silverman, Joseph H


    Let F : W --> V be a dominant rational map between quasi-projective varieties of the same dimension. We give two proofs that h_V(F(P)) >> h_W(P) for all points P in a nonempty Zariski open subset of W. For dominant rational maps F : P^n --> P^n, we give a uniform estimate in which the implied constant depends only on n and the degree of F. As an application, we prove a specialization theorem for equidimensional dominant rational maps to semiabelian varieties, providing a complement to Habegger's recent theorem on unlikely intersections.

  5. Effect of ration size on the growth and food conversion of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Niklas, P.; Kwik, J.K.


    Growth-ration relationship were defined for 2, 5 and 15 g size classes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed commercial prawn pellets and fish flesh. Maintenance rations were 0.7, 0.5 and 0.25% of body weight/day for 2, 5 and 15 g prawns respectively. Optimum rations were 3.5, 2.5 and 0.9% of body weight/day. It was determined that feeding at or near maximum ration levels would result in the most cost effective production of prawns in intensive culture systems where heating costs predominate. A ration and growth rate versus size curve was constructed for determining feeding level requirements for prawns.

  6. Location and acquisition of objects in unpredictable locations. [a teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control

    Sword, A. J.; Park, W. T.


    A teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control to combine the capabilities of both man and computer to accomplish a task is described. This system allows objects in unpredictable locations to be successfully located and acquired. By using a method of characterizing the work-space together with man's ability to plan a strategy and coarsely locate an object, the computer is provided with enough information to complete the tedious part of the task. In addition, the use of voice control is shown to be a useful component of the man/machine interface.

  7. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu


    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  8. Holomorphic Cartan geometries and rational curves

    Biswas, Indranil


    We prove that any compact K\\"ahler manifold bearing a holomorphic Cartan geometry contains a rational curve just when the Cartan geometry is inherited from a holomorphic Cartan geometry on a lower dimensional compact K\\"ahler manifold.

  9. Beyond rationality : Counterfactual thinking and behavior regulation

    Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.


    Counterfactual thinking may be described as disciplined realistic, and rational, but we move a step further to describe a theoretical perspective centering on behavior regulation. According to this perspective, counterfactual thinking primarily centers on coordination of ongoing behavior. In short,

  10. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Danny Frederick


    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  11. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?


    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...

  12. Multinode rational operators for univariate interpolation

    Dell'Accio, Francesco; Di Tommaso, Filomena; Hormann, Kai


    Birkhoff (or lacunary) interpolation is an extension of polynomial interpolation that appears when observation gives irregular information about function and its derivatives. A Birkhoff interpolation problem is not always solvable even in the appropriate polynomial or rational space. In this talk we split up the initial problem in subproblems having a unique polynomial solution and use multinode rational basis functions in order to obtain a global interpolant.

  13. 2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters

    M Shrivastava; J Joseph


    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.

  14. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?

    Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Zeren, Fatma; Ari, Ayse


    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...

  15. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    Dryden, Windy


    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making

    Marwala, Tshilidzi


    Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig

  17. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie


    Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...

  18. Integral Models of Extremal Rational Elliptic Surfaces

    Jarvis, Tyler J; Ricks, Jeremy R


    Miranda and Persson classified all extremal rational elliptic surfaces in characteristic zero. We show that each surface in Miranda and Persson's classification has an integral model with good reduction everywhere (except for those of type X_{11}(j), which is an exceptional case), and that every extremal rational elliptic surface over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0 can be obtained by reducing one of these integral models mod p.


    Sokolov, A.; Sokolov, N.


    The number of complicated problems has to be solved during modernization of the telecommunication networks. Some problems can be defined as a search for rational solutions instead of the traditional approach that consists in finding the cost function optimum. This new approach minimizes the risk that inevitably arises when elaborating a long term plan for the telecommunication networks development. The article discusses the proposed methodological approach of finding rational solutions. Probl...

  20. Rational emotive behavior therapy: disputing irrational philosophies.

    Sacks, Susan Bendersky


    This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.

  1. Simple Equational Specifications of Rational Arithmetic

    Lawrence S. Moss


    Full Text Available We exhibit an initial specification of the rational numbers equipped with addition, subtraction, multiplication, greatest integer function, and absolute value. Our specification uses only the sort of rational numbers. It uses one hidden function; that function is unary. But it does not use an error constant, or extra (hidden sorts, or conditional equations. All of our work is elementary and self-contained.

  2. Computing approximate (symmetric block) rational Krylov subspaces without explicit inversion

    Mach, Thomas; Pranić, Miroslav S.; Vandebril, Raf


    It has been shown, see TW623, that approximate extended Krylov subspaces can be computed —under certain assumptions— without any explicit inversion or system solves. Instead the necessary products A-1v are obtained in an implicit way retrieved from an enlarged Krylov subspace. In this paper this approach is generalized to rational Krylov subspaces, which contain besides poles at infinite and zero also finite non-zero poles. Also an adaption of the algorithm to the block and the symmetric ...

  3. On certain families of rational functions arising in dynamics

    Byrnes, C. I.


    It is noted that linear systems, depending on parameters, can occur in diverse situations including families of rational solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation or to the finite Toda lattice. The inverse scattering method used by Moser (1975) to obtain canonical coordinates for the finite homogeneous Toda lattice can be used for the synthesis of RC networks. It is concluded that the multivariable RC setting is ideal for the analysis of the periodic Toda lattice.

  4. Health care rationing and the ethics of publicity

    Winslow, Gerald R.


    The need to set reasonable limits on expenditures for health care has led to increased discussion of rationing. Given the fact that no single vision of justice will dominate the allocation of health care, it is becoming increasingly important to establish open, democratic procedures for setting limits. Public awareness of the need for limits and public participation in establishing the limits is essential to the development of a just health care system.

  5. Serving two masters: quality teaching and learning versus economic rationalism.

    Kenny, A J; Kendall, S


    Nurse educators face the challenge of competing pressures. Programmes must be developed that more adequately prepare students to meet the demands of a changing and complex health care system. These programmes must reflect excellence in teaching and learning and this needs to be achieved within the constraints of economic rationalism. The design of a model based on principles of self directed learning assisted one university to deliver a high quality clinical skills programme. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  6. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  7. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín


    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  8. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments


    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  9. Information security considerations in open systems architectures

    Klein, S.A. (Atlantic Research Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)); Menendez, J.N. (Atlantic Research Corp., Hanover, MD (United States))


    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Data Bases, SCADA, Inter and Intra-System Communications, and Man Machine Interfaces.'' This paper discusses information security and issues related to its achievement in open systems architectures. Beginning with a discussion of the goals of information security and their relation to open systems, the paper provides examples of the threats to electric utility computer systems and the consequences associated with these threats, presents basic countermeasures applicable to all computer systems, and discusses issues specific to open systems architectures.

  10. Strategic Rationality is not Enough: Hitler and the Concept of Crazy States


    and Sidney Verba , "Assumptions of Rationality and Non-Rationality in Models of the International System," The International System. Theoretical...Essays, eds. Klaus Knorr and Sidney Verba , 2nd printing, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969, p. 107. 9. On ideology, see Seweryn Braler, Stalin’s...see Gabriel Almond , The American People and Foreign Policy, New York: Praeger, 1960. 10. Harold and Margaret Sprout, Foundations of International

  11. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Glenn D. Walters


    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  12. The design of the system in obtaining the fault information from construction machine based on man-machine commensalisms%基于人机共栖的工程机械故障信息获取系统的设计

    盖青; 牛占文; 刘翥寰



  13. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation


    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  14. Sentencing and Other Controversial Issues: Why We Need Rational Debate More Than Ever

    Ian Gray


    Full Text Available The article seeks to demonstrate the importance of rational debate in the community on controversial issues. It focuses on the need for rationalism to prevail in community debates on controversial issues. Issues inclusive of sentencing, climate change, mental health and its prevalence in the prison system and ‘whether courts are out of touch’ with the community. The article recognises the difficulties faced by those engaged in community issues and concludes by promoting the need to maintain a tolerant and harmonious society by engaging in well informed rational debate.

  15. A General Theory of Computational Scalability Based on Rational Functions

    Gunther, Neil J


    The universal scalability law (USL) of computational capacity is a rational function C_p = P(p)/Q(p) with P(p) a linear polynomial and Q(p) a second-degree polynomial in the number of physical processors p, that has long been used for statistical modeling and prediction of computer system performance. We prove that C_p is equivalent to the synchronous throughput bound for a machine-repairman with state-dependent service rate. Simpler rational functions, such as Amdahl's law and Gustafson speedup, are corollaries of this queue-theoretic bound. C_p is both necessary and sufficient for modeling all practical characteristics of computational scalability.

  16. Multi-soliton rational solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations

    Osman Mohamed S.


    Full Text Available The Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV and the (2+ 1-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system (NNV are presented. Multi-soliton rational solutions of these equations are obtained via the generalized unified method. The analysis emphasizes the power of this method and its capability of handling completely (or partially integrable equations. Compared with Hirota’s method and the inverse scattering method, the proposed method gives more general exact multi-wave solutions without much additional effort. The results show that, by virtue of symbolic computation, the generalized unified method may provide us with a straightforward and effective mathematical tool for seeking multi-soliton rational solutions for solving many nonlinear evolution equations arising in different branches of sciences.

  17. Computational approaches for rational design of proteins with novel functionalities

    Manish Kumar Tiwari


    Full Text Available Proteins are the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems and have various important functions, including structural, catalytic, sensory, and regulatory functions. Rational design of enzymes is a great challenge to our understanding of protein structure and physical chemistry and has numerous potential applications. Protein design algorithms have been applied to design or engineer proteins that fold, fold faster, catalyze, catalyze faster, signal, and adopt preferred conformational states. The field of de novo protein design, although only a few decades old, is beginning to produce exciting results. Developments in this field are already having a significant impact on biotechnology and chemical biology. The application of powerful computational methods for functional protein designing has recently succeeded at engineering target activities. Here, we review recently reported de novo functional proteins that were developed using various protein design approaches, including rational design, computational optimization, and selection from combinatorial libraries, highlighting recent advances and successes.

  18. Computational approaches for rational design of proteins with novel functionalities.

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha; Singh, Raushan Kumar; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul


    Proteins are the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems and have various important functions, including structural, catalytic, sensory, and regulatory functions. Rational design of enzymes is a great challenge to our understanding of protein structure and physical chemistry and has numerous potential applications. Protein design algorithms have been applied to design or engineer proteins that fold, fold faster, catalyze, catalyze faster, signal, and adopt preferred conformational states. The field of de novo protein design, although only a few decades old, is beginning to produce exciting results. Developments in this field are already having a significant impact on biotechnology and chemical biology. The application of powerful computational methods for functional protein designing has recently succeeded at engineering target activities. Here, we review recently reported de novo functional proteins that were developed using various protein design approaches, including rational design, computational optimization, and selection from combinatorial libraries, highlighting recent advances and successes.

  19. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    Loczi, Lajos


    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  20. Rationing in Medicine: A Presupposition for Humanity and Justice

    Gundolf Gubernatis


    Full Text Available Limited resources are the permanent condition in health care. Rationing, according to H. Kliemt, is the distribution of limited resources below market prices to all people in need for these resources. Therefore, rationing is a basic component of every kind of human health care system. However, the crucial problem is how to find just and fair rules for this distribution under the premise, that every patient should have the same chance. The allocation of organs for transplant can serve as a paradigmatic example for studying rationing problems, as shortage of organs cannot be denied nor abolished. H. Kliemt compared the situation with the classic decathlon. The selection of factors and the combination and weighing of these factors for 'winning a donor organ' should strictly be related to individuals. Non-medical criteria should generally be accepted and authorized as far as they are relevant to the question of justice and fairness. In this paper the so-called 'solidarity model', an example of joint research with Hartmut Kliemt, is introduced as an allocation system with the power to enhance justice and fairness.