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Sample records for ratio submicron roughness

  1. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting [Ventura, CA

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  2. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Karius, Volker; Luettge, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  3. Correlation between sub-micron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Cornelius, E-mail: cornelius@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Karius, Volker [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Goettingen, Abt. Sedimentologie and Umweltgeologie, Goldschmidtstr. 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Luettge, Andreas [Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Iron oxide encrustations are formed on black slate surfaces during oxidative weathering of iron sulfide and phosphate bearing, organic matter-rich slates. Synchronously, trace elements are released during ongoing weathering. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of a weathered and encrusted slate showed that major portions of the V, Cu, As, Mo, Pb, Th, and U reside in the encrustation. Recently a potential relationship between several micrometer to 500 nm surface topography roughness of such encrustations and its uranium concentration was shown. Based on laser scanning microscopy measurements, the present study shows that this interrelation must be expanded to small submicron-sized half-pores with diameters between 100 nm and 500 nm. We demonstrate that the relationship is not limited to topography variations of a single encrustation in the hand-specimen scale. Surface topography and geochemical analyses of iron oxide encrustations from several locations but from the same geochemical environment and with similar weathering history showed that the concentrations of U, P, Cu, and Zn correlate inversely with the surface roughness parameter F. This parameter represents the total surface area and is - in this case - a proxy for the root-mean square surface roughness Rq. This study substantiates the environmental importance that micrometer- to submicrometer topography variations of fluid-rock interfaces govern the trapping of trace elements.

  4. Exposure to submicron particles (PM1.0) from diesel exhaust and pollen allergens of human lung epithelial cells induces morphological changes of mitochondria tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Gennaro; Lucariello, Angela; Bianco, Andrea; Calabrese, Cecilia; Thanassoulas, Theodoros; Savarese, Leonilde; Fiumarella, Angelamaria; Esposito, Vincenzo; DE Luca, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, little has been said regarding the morphological changes that occur in lung cells after treatment with particles and nanoparticles. Using an in vitro model of type-II lung epithelium (A549), we studied the effects of submicron particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM1.0 + ALL together. To date several biochemical effects have been described, instead few data exist in literature regarding morphological events following these treatments, in particular we focused on the morphological changes and distribution of mitochondria, tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum, using a transmission electron microscopic (TEM) approach. After exposure to PM1.0 particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis as allergen, and PM1.0 with P. officinalis, changes in the cytoplasmic area were observed, such as damage to mitochondria and morphological alterations of the tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The data obtained strongly support the hypothesis that cells in contact with submicron particles (PM1.0), or P. officinalis, undergo alteration of their metabolism. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles: Impact of aspect ratio, incident angle, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2018-03-01

    The so-called wake-moment coefficient C˜h and lateral wake deflection of three-dimensional windbreaks are explored in the near and far wake. Wind-tunnel experiments were performed to study the functional dependence of C˜h with windbreak aspect ratio, incidence angle, and the ratio of the windbreak height and surface roughness (h /z0 ). Supported with the data, we also propose basic models for the wake deflection of the windbreak in the near and far fields. The near-wake model is based on momentum conservation considering the drag on the windbreak, whereas the far-wake counterpart is based on existing models for wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles. Results show that C˜h does not change with windbreak aspect ratios of 10 or greater; however, it may be lower for an aspect ratio of 5. C˜h is found to change roughly with the cosine of the incidence angle, and to depend strongly on h /z0 . The data broadly support the proposed wake-deflection models, though better predictions could be made with improved knowledge of the windbreak drag coefficient.

  6. Dynamic Roughness Ratio-Based Framework for Modeling Mixed Mode of Droplet Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjan, Madhu Ranjan; Raj, Rishi

    2017-07-18

    The spatiotemporal evolution of an evaporating sessile droplet and its effect on lifetime is crucial to various disciplines of science and technology. Although experimental investigations suggest three distinct modes through which a droplet evaporates, namely, the constant contact radius (CCR), the constant contact angle (CCA), and the mixed, only the CCR and the CCA modes have been modeled reasonably. Here we use experiments with water droplets on flat and micropillared silicon substrates to characterize the mixed mode. We visualize that a perfect CCA mode after the initial CCR mode is an idealization on a flat silicon substrate, and the receding contact line undergoes intermittent but recurring pinning (CCR mode) as it encounters fresh contaminants on the surface. The resulting increase in roughness lowers the contact angle of the droplet during these intermittent CCR modes until the next depinning event, followed by the CCA mode of evaporation. The airborne contaminants in our experiments are mostly loosely adhered to the surface and travel along with the receding contact line. The resulting gradual increase in the apparent roughness and hence the extent of CCR mode over CCA mode forces appreciable decrease in the contact angle observed during the mixed mode of evaporation. Unlike loosely adhered airborne contaminants on flat samples, micropillars act as fixed roughness features. The apparent roughness fluctuates about the mean value as the contact line recedes between pillars. Evaporation on these surfaces exhibits stick-jump motion with a short-duration mixed mode toward the end when the droplet size becomes comparable to the pillar spacing. We incorporate this dynamic roughness into a classical evaporation model to accurately predict the droplet evolution throughout the three modes, for both flat and micropillared silicon surfaces. We believe that this framework can also be extended to model the evaporation of nanofluids and the coffee-ring effect, among

  7. Research on the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gears influenced by surface roughness under EHL condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huang; Xiong, Yangshou; Wang, Tao; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Employing high-contact-ratio (HCR) gear is an effective method of decreasing the load on a single tooth, as well as reducing vibration and noise. While the spindlier tooth leads to greater relative sliding, having more teeth participate in contact at the same time makes the HCR gear more sensitive to the surface quality. Available literature regarding HCR gear primarily investigates the geometrical optimization, load distribution, or efficiency calculation. Limited work has been conducted on the effect of rough surfaces on the dynamic performance of HCR gear. For this reason, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model is presented mathematically to characterize the static transmission error based on fractal theory, investigate the relative sliding friction using an EHL-based friction coefficient formula, and detail the time-varying friction coefficient suitable for HCR gear. Based on numerical results, the surface roughness has little influence on system response in terms of the dynamic transmission error but has a large effect on the motion in off-line-of-action (OLOA) direction and friction force. The impact of shaft-bearing stiffness and damping ratio is also explored with results revealing that a greater shaft-bearing stiffness is beneficial in obtaining a more stable motion in OLOA direction, and a larger damping ratio results in a smaller effective friction force. The theory presented in this report outlines a new method of analyzing the dynamics of HCR gear in respect of introducing surface roughness into MDOF model directly, as well as establishing an indirect relationship between dynamic responses and surface roughness. This method is expected to guide surface roughness design and manufacturing in the future.

  8. Procedure to approximately estimate the uncertainty of material ratio parameters due to inhomogeneity of surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hüser, Dorothee; Thomsen-Schmidt, Peter; Hüser, Jonathan; Rief, Sebastian; Seewig, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Roughness parameters that characterize contacting surfaces with regard to friction and wear are commonly stated without uncertainties, or with an uncertainty only taking into account a very limited amount of aspects such as repeatability of reproducibility (homogeneity) of the specimen. This makes it difficult to discriminate between different values of single roughness parameters. Therefore uncertainty assessment methods are required that take all relevant aspects into account. In the literature this is rarely performed and examples specific for parameters used in friction and wear are not yet given. We propose a procedure to derive the uncertainty from a single profile employing a statistical method that is based on the statistical moments of the amplitude distribution and the autocorrelation length of the profile. To show the possibilities and the limitations of this method we compare the uncertainty derived from a single profile with that derived from a high statistics experiment. (paper)

  9. Submicron superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of works concerning superconducting structures of submicron dimensions and a system of such structures is given. It is noted that usage of the above structures in superconducting microelectronics permits, first, to increase the element packing density, to decrease the signal transmission time, capacity, power dissipated in high-frequency applications. Secondly, negligible coherence length in transition metals, their alloys and high-temperature compounds also restrict the dimensions of superconducting weak couplings when the 'classical' Josephson effect is displayed. The most effective methods for production of submicron superconducting structures are the following: lithography, double scribering. Recently the systems of superconducting submicron elements are extensively studied. It is shown that such systems can be phased by magnetic field

  10. UO2 Fuel pellet impurities, pellet surface roughness and n(18O)/n(16O) ratios, applied to nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajo, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, law enforcement has faced the problem of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic science is a new branch of science that enables the identification of seized nuclear material. The identification is not based on a fixed scheme, but further identification parameters are decided based on previous identification results. The analysis is carried out by using traditional analysis methods and applying modern measurement technology. The parameters are generally not unambiguous and not self-explanatory. In order to have a full picture about the origin of seized samples, several identification parameters should be used together and the measured data should be compared to corresponding data from known sources. A nuclear material database containing data from several fabrication plants is installed for the purpose. In this thesis the use of UO 2 fabrication plant specific parameters, fuel impurities, fuel pellet surface roughness and oxygen isotopic ratio in UO 2 were investigated for identification purposes in nuclear forensic science. The potential use of these parameters as 'fingerprints' is discussed for identification purposes of seized nuclear materials. Impurities of the fuel material vary slightly according to the fabrication method employed and a plant environment. Here the impurities of the seized UO 2 were used in order to have some clues about the origin of the fuel material by comparing a measured data to nuclear database information. More certainty in the identification was gained by surface roughness of the UO 2 fuel pellets, measured by mechanical surface profilometry. Categories in surface roughness between a different fuel element type and a producer were observed. For the time oxygen isotopic ratios were determined by Thermal Ionisation Mass Speckometry (TIMS). Thus a TIMS measurement method, using U 16 O + and U 18 0 + ions, was developed and optimised to achieve precise oxygen isotope ratio measurements for the

  11. Proceedings of submicron multiphase materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baney, R.; Gilliom, L.; Hirano, S.I.; Schmidt, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at Symposium R of the spring 1992 Materials Research Society meeting held in San Francisco, California. The title of the symposium, Submicron Multiphase Materials, was selected by the organizers to encompass the realm of composite materials from those smaller than conventional fiber matrix composites to those with phase separation dimensions approaching molecular dimensions. The development of composite materials is as old as the development of materials. Humans quickly learned that, by combining materials, the best properties of each can be realized and that, in fact, synergistic effects often arise. For example, chopped straw was used by the Israelites to limit cracking in bricks. The famed Japanese samurai swords were multilayers of hard oxide and tough ductile materials. One also finds in nature examples of composite materials. These range form bone to wood, consisting of a hard phase which provides strength and stiffness and a softer phase for toughness. Advanced composites are generally thought of as those which are based on a high modulus, discontinuous, chopped or woven fiber phase and a continuous polymer phase. In multiphase composites, dimensions can range from meters in materials such as steel rod-reinforced concrete structures to angstroms. In macrophase separated composite materials, properties frequently follow the rule of mixtures with the properties approximating the arithmetic mean of the properties of each individual phase, if there is good coupling between the phases. As the phases become smaller, the surface to volume ratio grows in importance with respect to properties. Interfacial and interphase phenomena being to dominate. Surface free energies play an ever increasing role in controlling properties. In recent years, much research in materials science has been directed at multiphase systems where phase separations are submicron in at least some dimension

  12. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  13. Electrosprayed Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Submicron Particles Loaded by Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Sriyanti, I.; Edikresnha, D.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal, K.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospraying technique has been successfully used to synthesize composite submicron particles of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and green tea extract (GTE). The precursor solutions were PVP in ethanol (15 wt%) and GTE in ethanol (10 wt%), which were then mixed at varying ratio. The mixed solution then underwent electrospraying process at an applied voltage of 15 kV, a distance of collector to the nozzle at 15 cm, and a flow rate of 3 µL/min. The composite submicron particles of PVP-GTE showed smooth and fine spherical morphology without fibers or beaded fibers. To a certain degree, the increase of GTE content in the PVP-GTE mixed solution decreased the average diameter of PVP-GTE composite particles. Moreover, the analysis of the FTIR spectra confirmed the existing molecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the composite submicron particles as shown by the shift of PVP wavenumber towards GTE, which has typically smaller wavenumber.

  14. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  15. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Feng Weiyue, E-mail: fengwy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Zhu Motao; Wang Yun; Wang Meng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Gu Yiqun [Maternity Hospital of Haidian District (China); Ouyang Hong; Wang Huajian; Li Ming; Zhao Yuliang, E-mail: zhaoyuliang@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang Haifang [Peking University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China)

    2009-01-15

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 {mu}g) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle treatment (p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the

  16. Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.

  17. The effect of arsenic thermal diffusion on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of sub-micron ZnO rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Meng [Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China); Yao Bin, E-mail: binyao@jlu.edu.c [Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China); Fang Fang; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Zhenzhong [Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2010-05-31

    As-doped sub-micron ZnO rods were realized by a simple thermal diffusion process using a GaAs wafer as an arsenic resource. The surface of the sub-micron ZnO rods became rough and the morphology of As-doped sub-micron ZnO rods changed markedly with increasing diffusion temperature. From the results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence, arsenic elements were confirmed to be introduced into the sub-micron ZnO rods. The acceptor ionization energy was deduced to be about 110 meV based on the temperature-dependent PL spectra.

  18. The effect of arsenic thermal diffusion on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of sub-micron ZnO rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meng; Yao Bin; Zhao Dongxu; Fang Fang; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Zhenzhong

    2010-01-01

    As-doped sub-micron ZnO rods were realized by a simple thermal diffusion process using a GaAs wafer as an arsenic resource. The surface of the sub-micron ZnO rods became rough and the morphology of As-doped sub-micron ZnO rods changed markedly with increasing diffusion temperature. From the results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence, arsenic elements were confirmed to be introduced into the sub-micron ZnO rods. The acceptor ionization energy was deduced to be about 110 meV based on the temperature-dependent PL spectra.

  19. Using a novel spectroscopic reflectometer to optimize a radiation-hardened submicron silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.T.; Zawaideh, E.; Vu, T.Q.; Warren, G.; Mead, D.; Do, N.T.; Li, G.P.; Tsai, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation-hardened sub-micron silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process is monitored and optimized using a novel optical technique based on spectroscopic reflectometry. Quantitative measurements of the crystal quality, surface roughness, and device radiation hardness show excellent correlation between this technique and the Atomic Force Microscopy. (authors)

  20. Novel Translucent and Strong Submicron Alumina Ceramics for Dental Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M; Sun, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y

    2018-03-01

    An ideal ceramic restorative material should possess excellent aesthetic and mechanical properties. We hypothesize that the high translucency and strength of polycrystalline ceramics can be achieved through microstructural tailoring. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the superior optical and mechanical properties of a new class of submicron grain-sized alumina ceramics relative to the current state-of-the-art dental ceramic materials. The translucency, the in-line transmission ( T IT ) in particular, of these submicron alumina ceramics has been examined with the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye light-scattering model. The theoretical predictions related very well with the measured T IT values. The translucency parameter ( TP) and contrast ratio ( CR) of the newly developed aluminas were measured with a reflectance spectrophotometer on a black-and-white background. For comparison, the T IT , TP, and CR values for a variety of dental ceramics, mostly measured in-house but also cited from the literature, were included. The flexural strength of the aluminas was determined with the 4-point bending test. Our findings have shown that for polycrystalline alumina ceramics, an average grain size ceramic and zirconias, including the most translucent cubic-containing zirconias. The strength of these submicron grain-sized aluminas was significantly higher than that of the cubic-containing zirconia (e.g., Zpex Smile) and lithia-based glass-ceramics (e.g., IPS e.max CAD HT). A coarse-grained alumina could also reach a translucency level comparable to that of dental porcelain. However, the relatively low strength of this material has limited its clinical indications to structurally less demanding applications, such as orthodontic brackets. With a combined high strength and translucency, the newly developed submicron grain-sized alumina may be considered a suitable material for dental restorations.

  1. Micromagnetic simulations of submicron cobalt dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G. J.; Cerjan, C.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations of submicron Co extruded elliptical dots were performed to illustrate the relative importance of different physical parameters on the switching behavior in the easy direction. Shape, size, magnetic moment magnitude, and the magnitude and distribution of the crystalline anisotropicity were varied. The simulation represents magnetostatic, exchange, and crystalline anisotropicity fields on a structured mesh using finite difference techniques. The smooth boundary of the dots is accurately represented by use of the embedded curve boundary method. Agreement with experimental hysteresis measurements of submicron dot arrays is obtained when an appropriate angular distribution of the grain anisotropicity axes is invoked. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    -averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...

  3. Nanoscale and submicron fatigue crack growth in nickel microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Yao, N.; Imasogie, B.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel edge-notched microbeam technique for the study of short fatigue crack growth. The technique is used to study submicron and nanoscale fatigue in LIGA Ni thin films with columnar microstructures. The edge-notched microbeams were fabricated within LIGA Ni thin films, using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The microbeams were then cyclically deformed to failure at a stress ratio of 0.1. Different slip-band structures were observed below the nanoscale notches. Cyclic deformation resulted in the formation of primary slip bands below the notch. Subsequent crack growth then occurred by the unzipping of fatigue cracks along intersecting slip bands. The effects of the primary slip bands were idealized using dislocation-based models. These were used to estimate the intrinsic fatigue threshold and the fatigue endurance limit. The estimates from the model are shown to be consistent with experimental data from prior stress-life experiments and current/prior fatigue threshold estimates

  4. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  5. SUBMICRON PARTICLES EMISSION CONTROL BY ELECTROSTATIC AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krupa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a device for more effective treatment of flue gases from submicron particles emitted by power plants burning bituminous coal and by this way the reduction of environment pollution. Electrostatic processes were employed to this goal, as the most effective solution. The solutions hitherto applied in electrostatic precipitation techniques were designed for large particles, typically with sizes> 5 µm, which are easily removed by the action of electrostatic force on the electrically charged particles. In submicron size range (0.1-1 µm the collection efficiency of an ESP is minimal, because of the low value of electric charge on such particles. In order to avoid problems with the removal of submicron particles of fly ash from the flue gases electrostatic agglomeration has been used. In this process, by applying an alternating electric field, larger charged particles (> 1 µm oscillate, and the particles "collect" smaller uncharged particles. In the developed agglomerator with alternating electric field, the charging of particles and the coagulation takes place in one stage that greatly simplified the construction of the device, compared to other solutions. The scope of this study included measurements of fractional collection efficiency of particles in the system comprising of agglomerator and ESP for PM1 and PM2.5 ranges, in device made in pilot scale. The collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 90% and PM1 slightly dropped below 90%. The mass collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 95%. The agglomerator stage increases the collection efficiency for PM1 at a level of 5-10%.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  7. Influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into matrix on mechanical properties of plain-woven Carbon Fiber Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumamoto Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into epoxy matrix on mechanical properties of modified plane-woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. To change the locational states of submicron fibers, two kinds of fabrication processes were applied in preparing specimen by hand lay-up method. Submicron fibers were simply added into epoxy resin with ethanol after they were stirred by a dispersion process using homogenizer to be located far from the interface between reinforcement and matrix. In contrast, submicron fibers were attached onto the carbon fibers by injecting from a spray nozzle accompanying with ethanol to be located near the interface, after they were tentatively contained in ethanol. The plain-woven CFRP plates were fabricated by hand lay-up method and cured at 80 degree-C for 1 hour and then at 150 degree-C for 3 hours. After curing, the plain-woven CFRP plates were cut into the dimension of specimen. Tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were determined by tensile lap-shear test and End-notched flexure(ENF test, respectively. When submicron fibers were located far from the interface between carbon fibers and epoxy resin, tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were improved 30% and 18% compared with those of unmodified case. The improvement ratio in modified case was rather low (about few percentages in the case where submicron fibers were located near the interface. The result suggested that crack propagation should be prevented when submicron fibers were existed far from the interface due to the effective stress state around the crack tip.

  8. Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene thin films with hierarchical roughness deposited using a single step vapor phase technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sushant; Arjunan, Arul Chakkaravarthi; Deshpande, Sameer; Seal, Sudipta; Singh, Deepika; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2009-01-01

    Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene films with hierarchical surface roughness were deposited using pulse electron deposition technique. We were able to modulate roughness of the deposited films by controlling the beam energy and hence the electron penetration depth. The films deposited at higher beam energy showed contact angle as high as 166 o . The scanning electron and atomic force microscope studies revealed clustered growth and two level sub-micron asperities on films deposited at higher energies. Such dual-scale hierarchical roughness and heterogeneities at the water-surface interface was attributed to the observed contact angle and thus its superhydrophobic nature.

  9. Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene thin films with hierarchical roughness deposited using a single step vapor phase technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sushant, E-mail: sushant3@ufl.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Arjunan, Arul Chakkaravarthi [Sinmat Incorporated, 2153 SE Hawthorne Road, 129, Gainesville, Florida 32641 (United States); Deshpande, Sameer; Seal, Sudipta [Advanced Material Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Singh, Deepika [Sinmat Incorporated, 2153 SE Hawthorne Road, 129, Gainesville, Florida 32641 (United States); Singh, Rajiv K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene films with hierarchical surface roughness were deposited using pulse electron deposition technique. We were able to modulate roughness of the deposited films by controlling the beam energy and hence the electron penetration depth. The films deposited at higher beam energy showed contact angle as high as 166{sup o}. The scanning electron and atomic force microscope studies revealed clustered growth and two level sub-micron asperities on films deposited at higher energies. Such dual-scale hierarchical roughness and heterogeneities at the water-surface interface was attributed to the observed contact angle and thus its superhydrophobic nature.

  10. Magnetoresistance and magnetization in submicron ferromagnetic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearwood, C.; Blundell, S. J.; Baird, M. J.; Bland, J. A. C.; Gester, M.; Ahmed, H.; Hughes, H. P.

    1994-05-01

    A technique for engineering micron and submicron scale structures from magnetic films of transition metals has been developed using a combination of electron- and ion-beam lithography enabling high-quality arrays of submicron magnetic Fe wires to be fabricated. This process can be used to fabricate novel devices from a variety of metal combinations which would not be possible by the usual liftoff metallization method. The structure and magnetic properties are reported of an epitaxial 25 nm Fe(001)/GaAs(001) film and the wire gratings which are fabricated from it. The width of the wires in the grating is 0.5 μm for all structures studied, but the separation of each wire is varied in the range 0.5 to 16 μm. An artificially induced shape anisotropy field of around 1 kG, consistent with a magnetostatic calculation, was observed for all separations studied. The field dependence of the magneto-optic Kerr effect and magnetoresistance (MR) data is consistent with a twisted magnetization configuration across the width of the sample beneath saturation for transverse applied fields. In this case, the detailed form of the field dependence of the MR is strikingly modified from that observed in the continuous film and is consistent with coherent rotation of the magnetization.

  11. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  12. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  13. Lift-off process for deep-submicron-size junctions using supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, A.; Kubota, H.; Yuasa, S.; Takahachi, T.; Kadoriku, S.; Miyake, K.

    2007-01-01

    Deep-submicron-size (∼100-nm-size) junctions are a key element to investigate spin-torque transfer phenomena such as current induced magnetization reversal or the spin-torque diode effect. In the fabrication of submicron-size junctions using an etching method, the lift-off process after the etching process tends to be difficult as the size of junctions shrinks. In this study, we present a new lift-off process using supercritical CO 2 . In this process, the samples were immersed in solvent (mixture of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and isopropanol), and pressurized by CO 2 gas. The CO 2 gas then went into supercritical phase and the solvent was removed by a continuous flow of CO 2 . We obtained considerable yield rate (success ratio in lift-off process) of more than 50% for the samples down to 100-nm-size junctions

  14. Submicron, soft x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Fontaine, B.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tan, Z.; White, D.L.; Taylor, G.N.; Wood, O.R. II; Bjorkholm, J.E.; Tennant, D.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Submicron fluorescence imaging of soft x-ray aerial images, using a high resolution fluorescent crystal is reported. Features as small as 0.1 μm were observed using a commercially available single-crystal phosphor, STI-F10G (Star Tech Instruments Inc. P. O. Box 2536, Danbury, CT 06813-2536), excited with 139 A light. Its quantum efficiency was estimated to be 5--10 times that of sodium salicylate and to be constant over a broad spectral range from 30 to 400 A. A comparison with a terbium-activated yttrium orthosilicate fluorescent crystal is also presented. Several applications, such as the characterization of the aerial images produced by deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithographic exposure tools, are envisaged

  15. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  16. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.B.; Lee, C.C.; Yi, J.; An, X.H.; Pan, M.X.; Xie, K.Y.; Liao, X.Z.; Cairney, J.M.; Ringer, S.P.; Wang, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  17. Using a novel spectroscopic reflectometer to optimize a radiation-hardened submicron silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process; Utilisation d'une nouvelle reflectometrie spectroscopique pour optimiser un procede de fabrication CMOS/SOS durci aux radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, N.T.; Zawaideh, E.; Vu, T.Q.; Warren, G.; Mead, D. [Raytheon Systems company, Microelectronics Div., Newport Beach, California (United States); Li, G.P.; Tsai, C.S. [California Univ., School of Engineering, Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A radiation-hardened sub-micron silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process is monitored and optimized using a novel optical technique based on spectroscopic reflectometry. Quantitative measurements of the crystal quality, surface roughness, and device radiation hardness show excellent correlation between this technique and the Atomic Force Microscopy. (authors)

  18. Submicron Resolution Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; Jabbour, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    Apparatuses and systems for submicron resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) are disclosed. The system may use white light sources having wavelengths within 400-1000 nanometers, and achieve resolution below 1 .mu

  19. Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Nikolai; Blaser, Florian; Delić, Uroš; Grass, David; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of a levitated submicron particle and an optical cavity field promises access to a unique parameter regime both for macroscopic quantum experiments and for high-precision force sensing. We report a demonstration of such controlled interactions by cavity cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically trapped submicron particle. This paves the way for a light–matter interface that can enable room-temperature quantum experiments with mesoscopic mechanical systems. PMID:23940352

  20. Fatigue crack closure in submicron-thick freestanding copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Toshiyuki; Ishii, Takaki; Hirakata, Hiroyuki; Minoshima, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The fatigue crack closure in approximately 500-nm-thick freestanding copper films were investigated by in situ field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) observations of the fatigue crack opening/closing behavior at three stress ratios of R=0.1, 0.5, and 0.8 in the low–K max (maximum stress intensity factor) region of K max <4.5 MPam 1/2 . The direct observation of fatigue cracks clarified that crack closure occurred at R=0.1 and 0.5, while the fatigue crack was always open at R=0.8. Changes in the gage distance across the fatigue crack during a fatigue cycle were measured from the FESEM images, and the crack opening stress intensity factor K op was evaluated on the basis of the stress intensity factor K vs. the gage distance relationship. The effective stress intensity factor range ΔK eff =K max −K op was then evaluated. The R-dependence of the da/dN vs. ΔK eff relationship was smaller than that of the da/dN vs. ΔK relationship. This suggests that ΔK eff is a dominating parameter rather than ΔK in the fatigue crack propagation in the films. This paper is the first report on the presence of the fatigue crack closure in submicron-thick freestanding metallic films

  1. Submicron Emulsions and Their Applications in Oral Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Veenu; Patel, Mitali; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting. They are designed mainly for pharmaceutical formulations suitable for various routes of administration like parenteral, ocular, transdermal, and oral. This review article describes the marked potential of submicron emulsions for oral drug delivery owing to their numerous advantages like reduced first pass metabolism, inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux system, and enhanced absorption via intestinal lymphatic pathway. To overcome the limitations of liquid dosage forms, submicron emulsions can be formulated into solid dosage forms such as solid self-emulsifying systems. This article covers various types of submicron emulsions like microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), and their potential pharmaceutical applications in oral delivery with emphasis on their advantages, limitations, and advancements.

  2. Submicron Features in Higher Manganese Silicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatir Sadia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis had increased the demand for alternative energy sources and as such is one of the topics at the forefront of research. One way for reducing energy consumption is by thermoelectricity. Thermoelectric effects enable direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy. Higher manganese silicide (HMS, MnSi1.75 is one of the promising materials for applications in the field of thermoelectricity. The abundance and low cost of the elements, combined with good thermoelectric properties and high mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, make it very attractive for thermoelectric applications. Recent studies have shown that Si-rich HMS has improved thermoelectric properties. The most interesting of which is the unusual reduction in thermal conductivity. In the current research, transmission (TEM and scanning (SEM electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction methods were applied for investigation of the govern mechanisms resulting in very low thermal conductivity values of an Si-rich HMS composition, following arc melting and hot-pressing procedures. In this paper, it is shown that there is a presence of sub-micron dislocations walls, stacking faults, and silicon and HMS precipitates inside each other apparent in the matrix, following a high temperature (0.9 Tm hot pressing for an hour. These are not just responsible for the low thermal conductivity values observed but also indicate the ability to create complicate nano-structures that will last during the production process and possibly during the application.

  3. Sub-micron silicon nitride waveguide fabrication using conventional optical lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Kamyab, Lobna; Rostami, Ali; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate sub-micron silicon nitride waveguides using conventional contact lithography with MEMS-grade photomasks. Potassium hydroxide anisotropic etching of silicon facilitates line reduction and roughness smoothing and is key to the technique. The fabricated waveguides is measured to have a propagation loss of 0.8dB/cm and nonlinear coefficient of γ = 0.3/W/m. A low anomalous dispersion of <100ps/nm/km is also predicted. This type of waveguide is highly suitable for nonlinear optics. The channels naturally formed on top of the waveguide also make it promising for plasmonics and quantum efficiency enhancement in sensing applications.

  4. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Rao, Ashutosh [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Fathpour, Sasan, E-mail: fathpour@creol.ucf.edu [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    A chlorine plasma etching-based method for the fabrication of high-performance chalcogenide-based integrated photonics on silicon substrates is presented. By optimizing the etching conditions, chlorine plasma is employed to produce extremely low-roughness etched sidewalls on waveguides with minimal penalty to propagation loss. Using this fabrication method, microring resonators with record-high intrinsic Q-factors as high as 450 000 and a corresponding propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB/cm are demonstrated in submicron chalcogenide waveguides. Furthermore, the developed chlorine plasma etching process is utilized to demonstrate fiber-to-waveguide grating couplers in chalcogenide photonics with high power coupling efficiency of 37% for transverse-electric polarized modes.

  5. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Rao, Ashutosh; Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen; Fathpour, Sasan

    2015-01-01

    A chlorine plasma etching-based method for the fabrication of high-performance chalcogenide-based integrated photonics on silicon substrates is presented. By optimizing the etching conditions, chlorine plasma is employed to produce extremely low-roughness etched sidewalls on waveguides with minimal penalty to propagation loss. Using this fabrication method, microring resonators with record-high intrinsic Q-factors as high as 450 000 and a corresponding propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB/cm are demonstrated in submicron chalcogenide waveguides. Furthermore, the developed chlorine plasma etching process is utilized to demonstrate fiber-to-waveguide grating couplers in chalcogenide photonics with high power coupling efficiency of 37% for transverse-electric polarized modes

  6. Generalized rough sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314

  7. Effect of Blade Roughness on Transition and Wind Turbine Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert S. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); White, E. B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The real-world effect of accumulated surface roughness on wind-turbine power production is not well understood. To isolate specific blade roughness features and test their effect, field measurements of turbine-blade roughness were made and simulated on a NACA 633-418 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Insect roughness, paint chips, and erosion were characterized then manufactured. In the tests, these roughness configurations were recreated as distributed roughness, a forward-facing step, and an eroded leading edge. Distributed roughness was tested in three heights and five densities. Chord Reynolds number was varied between 0:8 to 4:8 × 106. Measurements included lift, drag, pitching moment, and boundary-layer transition location. Results indicate minimal effect from paint-chip roughness. As distributed roughness height and density increase, the lift-curve slope, maximum lift, and lift-to-drag ratio decrease. As Reynolds number increases, natural transition is replaced by bypass transition. The critical roughness Reynolds number varies between 178 to 318, within the historical range. At a chord Reynolds number of 3:2 × 106, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio decreases 40% for 140 μm roughness, corresponding to a 2.3% loss in annual energy production. Simulated performance loss compares well to measured performance loss of an in-service wind turbine.

  8. Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface

  9. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  10. Software testing in roughness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E

    2005-01-01

    A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Submicron Semiconductor Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David; Jacoboni, C

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES...................

  12. An introduction to deep submicron CMOS for vertex applications

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, P; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, K

    2001-01-01

    Microelectronics has become a key enabling technology in the development of tracking detectors for High Energy Physics. Deep submicron CMOS is likely to be extensively used in all future tracking systems. Radiation tolerance in the Mrad region has been achieved and complete readout chips comprising many millions of transistors now exist. The choice of technology is dictated by market forces but the adoption of deep submicron CMOS for tracking applications still poses some challenges. The techniques used are reviewed and some of the future challenges are discussed.

  13. Turbulence modifications in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall with spanwise-alternating roughness strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.

  14. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  15. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  16. Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study dissolution of minerals with initial rough surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and a scaling approach. We consider a simple cubic lattice structure, a thermally activated rate of detachment of a molecule (site), and rough surface configurations produced by fractional Brownian motion algorithm. First we revisit the problem of dissolution of initial flat surfaces, in which the dissolution rate rF reaches an approximately constant value at short times and is controlled by detachment of step edge sites. For initial rough surfaces, the dissolution rate r at short times is much larger than rF ; after dissolution of some hundreds of molecular layers, r decreases by some orders of magnitude across several time decades. Meanwhile, the surface evolves through configurations of decreasing energy, beginning with dissolution of isolated sites, then formation of terraces with disordered boundaries, their growth, and final smoothing. A crossover time to a smooth configuration is defined when r = 1.5rF ; the surface retreat at the crossover is approximately 3 times the initial roughness and is temperature-independent, while the crossover time is proportional to the initial roughness and is controlled by step-edge site detachment. The initial dissolution process is described by the so-called rough rates, which are measured for fixed ratios between the surface retreat and the initial roughness. The temperature dependence of the rough rates indicates control by kink site detachment; in general, it suggests that rough rates are controlled by the weakest microscopic bonds during the nucleation and formation of the lowest energy configurations of the crystalline surface. Our results are related to recent laboratory studies which show enhanced dissolution in polished calcite surfaces. In the application to calcite dissolution in alkaline environment, the minimal values of recently measured dissolution rate spectra give rF ∼10-9 mol/(m2 s), and the calculated rate

  17. Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ishfaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

  18. Modeling photopolarimetric characteristics of comet dust as a polydisperse mixture of polyshaped rough spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Das, H.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely recognized now that the main component of comet dust is aggregated particles that consist of submicron grains. It is also well known that cometary dust obey a rather wide size distribution with abundant particles whose size reaches dozens of microns. However, numerous attempts of computer simulation of light scattering by comet dust using aggregated particles have not succeeded to consider particles larger than a couple of microns due to limitations in the memory and speed of available computers. Attempts to substitute aggregates by polydisperse solid particles (spheres, spheroids, cylinders) could not consistently reproduce observed angular and spectral characteristics of comet brightness and polarization even in such a general case as polyshaped (i.e. containing particles of a variety of aspect ratios) mixture of spheroids (Kolokolova et al., In: Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, Kluwer Acad. Publ., 431, 2004). In this study we are checking how well cometary dust can be modeled using modeling tools for rough spheroids. With this purpose we use the software package described in Dubovik et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006619d, 2006) that allows for a substantial reduction of computer time in calculating scattering properties of spheroid mixtures by means of using pre-calculated kernels - quadrature coefficients employed in the numerical integration of spheroid optical properties over size and shape. The kernels were pre-calculated for spheroids of 25 axis ratios, ranging from 0.3 to 3, and 42 size bins within the size parameter range 0.01 - 625. This software package has been recently expanded with the possibility of simulating not only smooth but also rough spheroids that is used in present study. We consider refractive indexes of the materials typical for comet dust: silicate, carbon, organics, and their mixtures. We also consider porous particles accounting on voids in the spheroids through effective medium approach. The

  19. Analysis system of submicron particle tracks in the fine-grained nuclear emulsion by a combination of hard x-ray and optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Tawara, Y.; Umemoto, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Terada, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Kimura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect and identify charged particles or radiation as tracks have typically utilized optical microscope systems because the targets have lengths from several μm to more than 1000 μm. For recent new nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect tracks of submicron length or less, the current readout systems are insufficient due to their poor resolution. In this study, we developed a new system and method using an optical microscope system for rough candidate selection and the hard X-ray microscope system at SPring-8 for high-precision analysis with a resolution of better than 70 nm resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrated the analysis of submicron-length tracks with a matching efficiency of more than 99% and position accuracy of better than 5 μm. This system is now running semi-automatically

  20. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  1. Manufacturing a submicron structure using a liquid precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishihara, R.; Van de Zwan, M.; Trifunovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for manufacture of a submicron semiconductor structure on a substrate are described. The method may comprise: forming at least one template layer over a support substrate; forming one or more template structures, preferably one or more recesses and/or mesas, in said template layer, said one

  2. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  3. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  4. Roughness Effects on Fretting Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongyan; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2017-05-01

    Fretting is a small oscillatory relative motion between two normal loaded contact surfaces. It may cause fretting fatigue, fretting wear and/or fretting corrosion damage depending on various fretting couples and working conditions. Fretting fatigue usually occurs at partial slip condition, and results in catastrophic failure at the stress levels below the fatigue limit of the material. Many parameters may affect fretting behaviour, including the applied normal load and displacement, material properties, roughness of the contact surfaces, frequency, etc. Since fretting damage is undesirable due to contacting, the effect of rough contact surfaces on fretting damage has been studied by many researchers. Experimental method on this topic is usually focusing on rough surface effects by finishing treatment and random rough surface effects in order to increase fretting fatigue life. However, most of numerical models on roughness are based on random surface. This paper reviewed both experimental and numerical methodology on the rough surface effects on fretting fatigue.

  5. An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

    2005-03-01

    An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm.

  6. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  7. Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by

  8. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  9. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  10. High density submicron magnetoresistive random access memory (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, S.; Chen, E.; Durlam, M.; DeHerrera, M.; Slaughter, J. M.; Shi, J.; Kerszykowski, G.

    1999-04-01

    Various giant magnetoresistance material structures were patterned and studied for their potential as memory elements. The preferred memory element, based on pseudo-spin valve structures, was designed with two magnetic stacks (NiFeCo/CoFe) of different thickness with Cu as an interlayer. The difference in thickness results in dissimilar switching fields due to the shape anisotropy at deep submicron dimensions. It was found that a lower switching current can be achieved when the bits have a word line that wraps around the bit 1.5 times. Submicron memory elements integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors maintained their characteristics and no degradation to the CMOS devices was observed. Selectivity between memory elements in high-density arrays was demonstrated.

  11. Hot-carrier effects on irradiated deep submicron NMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jiangwei; Zheng Qiwen; Yu Xuefeng; Cong Zhongchao; Zhou Hang; Guo Qi; Wen Lin; Wei Ying; Ren Diyuan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how γ exposure impacts the hot-carrier degradation in deep submicron NMOSFET with different technologies and device geometries for the first time. The results show that hot-carrier degradations on irradiated devices are greater than those without irradiation, especially for narrow channel device. The reason is attributed to charge traps in STI, which then induce different electric field and impact ionization rates during hot-carrier stress. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Submicron Resolution Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki

    2013-11-14

    Apparatuses and systems for submicron resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) are disclosed. The system may use white light sources having wavelengths within 400-1000 nanometers, and achieve resolution below 1 .mu.m. The apparatus is aggregated into a unitary piece, and a user can connect the apparatus to a user provided controller and/or light source. The light source may be a supercontinuum source.

  13. Fabrication of submicron proteinaceous structures by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serien, Daniela [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, Shoji, E-mail: takeuchi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); ERATO Takeuchi Biohybrid Innovation Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    In this paper, we provide a characterization of truly free-standing proteinaceous structures with submicron feature sizes depending on the fabrication conditions by model-based analysis. Protein cross-linking of bovine serum albumin is performed by direct laser writing and two-photon excitation of flavin adenine dinucleotide. We analyze the obtainable fabrication resolution and required threshold energy for polymerization. The applied polymerization model allows prediction of fabrication conditions and resulting fabrication size, alleviating the application of proteinaceous structure fabrication.

  14. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Paulius, Lisa; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ_0/Hz"1"/"2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  15. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, John R., E-mail: jkirtley@stanford.edu; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Paulius, Lisa [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Spanton, Eric M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Schiessl, Daniel [Attocube Systems AG, Königinstraße 11A, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Huber, Martin E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217-3364 (United States); Ralph, Daniel C. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ketchen, Mark B. [OcteVue, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2}. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  16. Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C

  17. The investigation of ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in Ni80Fe20 films with submicron rectangular elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterned magnetic films with nano-scaled dots exhibit some special magnetic properties. In this paper, we investigate the in-plane shape anisotropy and the magnetization dynamic damping in permalloy (Ni80Fe20 arrays of submicron rectangular elements using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR. The FMR linewidth exhibits a dependence on the element size, and mainly comes from the contribution of the intrinsic damping. Also the contribution of two-magnon scattering plays an important role and is reduced with increasing aspect ratio. The damping coefficient decreases from 0.0129 to 0.0118 with the element length increasing from 300 nm to 1200 nm, and the theoretical calculation suggests that the change of damping results from the longitudinal and transverse interlayer spin current due to the spatially inhomogeneous magnetization dynamics.

  18. Nanometer, submicron and micron sized aluminum powder prepared by semi-solid mechanical stirring method with addition of ceramic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, X.H.; Jiang, D.L.; Dong, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Composite powder, which is a mixture of Al/Al 2 O 3 composite particles and nanometer, submicron and micron sized aluminum powder, was prepared by semi-solid mechanical stirring method with addition of Al 2 O 3 ceramic particles. The ceramic particles have an average diameter of 80 μm and a volume fraction of 15% in the slurry. The methods used to measure the size distribution of particles greater than 50 μm and less than 50 μm were sieve analysis and photosedimentation, respectively. The surface morphology and transverse sections of the composite powder of different sizes were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results indicate that the composite powder prepared in present work have a wide size distribution ranging from less than 50-900 μm, and the aluminum particles and Al/Al 2 O 3 composite particles are separated and isolated. The particles greater than 200 μm and less than 50 μm are almost pure aluminum powder. The rate of conversion of ingot aluminum into particles less than 1 μm containing nanometer and submicron sizes is 1.777 wt.% in this work. The aluminum powder of different sizes has different shape and surface morphology, quasi-spherical in shape with rough surface for aluminum particles of micron scale, irregular in shape for aluminum particles of submicron scale, and quite close to a globular or an excellent globular in shape for aluminum particles of nanometer size. On the other hand, the surface of ceramic particle was coated by aluminum particles with maximum thickness less than 10 μm containing nanometer and submicron sizes as a single layer. It is suggested that the surface of ceramic particles can provide more nucleation sites for solidification of liquid aluminum and the nucleation of liquid aluminum can take place readily, grow and adhere on the surface of ceramic particles, although it is poorly wetted by the liquid aluminum and the semi-solid slurry can

  19. Insights into Submicron Aerosol Composition and Sources from the WINTER Aircraft Campaign Over the Eastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Campos, T. L.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The WINTER aircraft campaign was a recent field experiment to probe the sources and evolution of gas pollutants and aerosols in Northeast US urban and industrial plumes during the winter. A highly customized Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the NCAR C-130 to characterize submicron aerosol composition and evolution. Thirteen research flights were conducted covering a wide range of conditions, including rural, urban, and marine environments during day and night. Organic aerosol (OA) was a large component of the submicron aerosol in the boundary layer. The fraction of OA (fOA) was smaller (35-40%) than in recent US summer campaigns (~60-70%). Biomass burning was observed to be an important source of OA in the boundary layer, which is consistent with recent wintertime studies that show a substantial contribution of residential wood burning to the OA loadings. OA oxygenation (O/C ratio) shows a broad distribution with a substantial fraction of smaller O/C ratios when compared to previous summertime campaigns. Since measurements were rarely made very close to primary sources (i.e. directly above urban areas), this is consistent with oxidative chemistry being slower during winter. SOA formation and aging in the NYC plume was observed during several flights and compared with summertime results from LA (CalNex) and Mexico City (MILAGRO). Additionally, an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) capable of oxidizing ambient air up to several equivalent days of oxidation was deployed for the first time in an aircraft platform. The aerosol outflow of the OFR was sampled with the AMS to provide real-time snapshots of the potential for aerosol formation and aging. For example, a case study of a flight through the Ohio River valley showed evidence of oxidation of SO2 to sulfate. The measured sulfate enhancements were in good agreement with our OFR chemical model. OFR results for SOA will be discussed.

  20. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  1. ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baseri; G. Alinejad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions...

  2. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  3. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  4. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  5. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  6. Characterization and analysis of sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using White Light Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Surface topography is of great importance in polymer micro fluidics, therefore the replication capability of the process and the surface quality of the tool has to be suitably optimized. In this paper, optical profilometry (white light interferometry, WLI) is implemented for topographical...... characterization of polymer surfaces. In particular the study considers replication performance of injection moulding applied for the realization of microfluidic systems for blood analysis. Parts were produced by means of a series of statistically designed injection moulding experiments. Three process parameters...

  7. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  8. Electrical measurements on submicronic synthetic conductors : carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L [Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Stockman, L [Lab. voor Vaste Stof-Fysika en Magnetisme, Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium); Heremans, J P [Physics Dept., General Motors Research, Warren, MI (United States); Bayot, V [Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olk, C H [Physics Dept., General Motors Research, Warren, MI (United States); Haesendonck, C van [Lab. voor Vaste Stof-Fysika en Magnetisme, Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium); Bruynseraede, Y [Lab. voor Vaste Stof-Fysika en Magnetisme, Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium); Issi, J P [Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1995-03-15

    The synthesis of very small samples has raised the need for a drastic miniaturization of the classical four-probe technique in order to realize electrical resistance measurements. Two methods to realize electrical contacts on very small fibers are described here. Using classical photolithography the electrical resistivity of a submicronic catalytic chemical vapour deposited filament is estimated. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) lithography allowed to attach small gold contacts to a small bundle (diameter 50 nm) of carbon nanotubes. This bundle is found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior at higher temperature and an unexpected drop of the electrical resistivity at lower temperature. (orig.)

  9. Electron acceleration via high contrast laser interacting with submicron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Chen Liming; Wang Weiming; Yan Wenchao; Yuan Dawei; Mao Jingyi; Wang Zhaohua; Liu Cheng; Shen Zhongwei; Li Yutong; Dong Quanli; Lu Xin; Ma Jinglong; Wei Zhiyi; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Li Dazhang; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigated electron acceleration from submicron size argon clusters-gas target irradiated by a 100 fs, 10 TW laser pulses having a high-contrast. Electron beams are observed in the longitudinal and transverse directions to the laser propagation. The measured energy of the longitudinal electron reaches 600 MeV and the charge of the electron beam in the transverse direction is more than 3 nC. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of the interaction has been performed and it shows an enhancement of electron charge by using the cluster-gas target.

  10. Individual domain wall resistance in submicron ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneau, R; Warin, P; Attané, J P; Petej, I; Beigné, C; Fermon, C; Klein, O; Marty, A; Ott, F; Samson, Y; Viret, M

    2002-04-15

    The resistance generated by individual domain walls is measured in a FePd nanostructure. Combining transport and magnetic imaging measurements, the intrinsic domain wall resistance is quantified. It is found positive and of a magnitude consistent with that predicted by models based on spin scattering effects within the walls. This magnetoresistance at a nanometer scale allows a direct counting of the number of walls inside the nanostructure. The effect is then used to measure changes in the magnetic configuration of submicron stripes under application of a magnetic field.

  11. Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-10-01

    One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 106 and 4.0 x 106. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 633 -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 633 -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.

  12. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during

  13. Stochastic control with rough paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  14. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  15. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  16. The surface roughness effect on the performance of supersonic ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, D. V.; Aronson, K. E.; Mazzelli, F.; Milazzo, A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation results of the surface roughness influence on gas-dynamic processes inside flow parts of a supersonic ejector. These simulations are performed using two commercial CFD solvers (Star- CCM+ and Fluent). The results are compared to each other and verified by a full-scale experiment in terms of global flow parameters (the entrainment ratio: the ratio between secondary to primary mass flow rate - ER hereafter) and local flow parameters distribution (the static pressure distribution along the mixing chamber and diffuser walls). A detailed comparative study of the employed methods and approaches in both CFD packages is carried out in order to estimate the roughness effect on the logarithmic law velocity distribution inside the boundary layer. Influence of the surface roughness is compared with the influence of the backpressure (static pressure at the ejector outlet). It has been found out that increasing either the ejector backpressure or the surface roughness height, the shock position displaces upstream. Moreover, the numerical simulation results of an ejector with rough walls in the both CFD solvers are well quantitatively agreed with each other in terms of the mean ER and well qualitatively agree in terms of the local flow parameters distribution. It is found out that in the case of exceeding the "critical roughness height" for the given boundary conditions and ejector's geometry, the ejector switches to the "off-design" mode and its performance decreases considerably.

  17. Information Measures of Roughness of Knowledge and Rough Sets for Incomplete Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ji-ye; QU Kai-she

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address information measures of roughness of knowledge and rough sets for incomplete information systems. The definition of rough entropy of knowledge and its important properties are given. In particular, the relationship between rough entropy of knowledge and the Hartley measure of uncertainty is established. We show that rough entropy of knowledge decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives an information interpretation for roughness of knowledge. Based on rough entropy of knowledge and roughness of rough set. a definition of rough entropy of rough set is proposed, and we show that rough entropy of rough set decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives more accurate measure for roughness of rough set.

  18. Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.

    1990-01-01

    This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)

  19. Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Guo, W.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, I.; Reddy, P.; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Franke, A.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kirste, R.; Mita, S. [Adroit Materials, Inc., 2054 Kildaire Farm Rd., Suite 205, Cary, North Carolina 27518 (United States); Troha, T.; Zgonik, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bagal, A.; Chang, C.-H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Hoffmann, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-27

    Periodically poled AlN thin films with submicron domain widths were fabricated for nonlinear applications in the UV-VIS region. A procedure utilizing metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of AlN in combination with laser interference lithography was developed for making a nanoscale lateral polarity structure (LPS) with domain size down to 600 nm. The Al-polar and N-polar domains were identified by wet etching the periodic LPS in a potassium hydroxide solution and subsequent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. Fully coalesced and well-defined vertical interfaces between the adjacent domains were established by cross-sectional SEM. AlN LPSs were mechanically polished and surface roughness with a root mean square value of ∼10 nm over a 90 μm × 90 μm area was achieved. 3.8 μm wide and 650 nm thick AlN LPS waveguides were fabricated. The achieved domain sizes, surface roughness, and waveguides are suitable for second harmonic generation in the UVC spectrum.

  20. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  1. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  2. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  3. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  4. Submicron organic aerosol in Tijuana, Mexico, from local and Southern California sources during the CalMex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Johnson, A.; Guzman Morales, J.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Rodriguez, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2013-05-01

    The CalMex campaign was conducted from May 15 to June 30 of 2010 to study the properties and sources of air pollution in Tijuana, Mexico. In this study, submicron organic aerosol mass (OM) composition measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and X-ray spectromicroscopy are combined with statistical analysis and measurements of other atmospheric constituents. The average (±one standard deviation) OM concentration was 3.3 ± 1.7 μg m-3. A large source of submicron aerosol mass at this location was determined to be vehicular sources, which contributed approximately 40% to the submicron OM; largely during weekday mornings. The O/C ratio estimated from ACSM measurements was 0.64 ± 0.19; diurnal variations in this value and the more oxygenated fraction of OM as determined from Positive Matrix Factorization and classification analyses suggest the high degree of oxygenation originates from aged OM, rather than locally-produced secondary organic aerosol. A large contribution of this oxygenated aerosol to Tijuana from various source classes was observed; some fraction of this aerosol mass may be associated with non-refractory components, such as dust or BC. Backtrajectory simulations using the HYSPLIT model suggest that the mean wind vector consistently originated from the northwest region, over the Pacific Ocean and near the Southern California coast, which suggests that the origin of much of the oxygenated organic aerosol observed in Tijuana (as much as 60% of OM) may have been the Southern California Air Basin. The marine aerosol contribution to OM during the period was on average 23 ± 24%, though its contribution varied over synoptic rather than diurnal timescales. BB aerosol contributed 20 ± 20% of the OM during the campaign period, with notable BB events occurring during several weekend evenings.

  5. Properties of submicron particles in Atmospheric Brown Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Friedrich, F.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Weidler, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) is an important problem of this century. Investigations of last years and satellite data show that the ABC (or brown gas, smog, fog) cover extensive territories including the whole continents and oceans. The brown gas consists of a mixture of particles of anthropogenic sulfates, nitrates, organic origin, black carbon, dust, ashes, and also natural aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. The brown color is a result of absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the anthropogenic black carbon, ashes, the particles of salt dust, and nitrogen dioxide. The investigation of the ABC is a fundamental problem for prevention of degradation of the environment. At present in the CIS in-situ investigations of the ABC are carried out on Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Kyrgyz Republic). Here, we present the results of experimental investigation of submicron (nanoscale) particles originating from the ABC and the properties of the particles. Samples of dust precipitating from the ABC were obtained at the area of Lidar Station Teplokluchenka as well as scientific station of the Russian Academy of Sciences near Bishkek. The data for determination of the grain composition were obtained with the aid of the scanning electron microscopes JEOL 6460 LV and Philips XL 30 FEG. Analysis of the properties of the particles was performed by means of the X-ray diffraction using diffractometer Siemens D5000. The images of the grains were mapped. The investigation allows us to get (after the image processing) the grain composition within the dust particle size range of 60 nm to 700 μm. Distributions of nano- and microscale particles in sizes were constructed using Rozin-Rammler coordinates. Analysis of the distributions shows that the ABC contain submicron (nanoscale) particles; 2) at higher altitudes the concentration of the submicron (nanoscale) particles in the ABC is higher than at lower altitudes. The chemical compositions of the particles are shown to

  6. Multiscale Analysis of the Roughness Effect on Lubricated Rough Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci , Ibrahim; MEZGHANI , Sabeur; YOUSFI , Mohammed; El Mansori , Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  7. Generation of Submicron Bubbles using Venturi Tube Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiraputra, I. G. P. A. E.; Edikresnha, D.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    In this experiment, submicron bubbles that have diameters less than 1 millimeter were generated by mixing water and gas by hydrodynamic cavitation method. The water was forced to pass through a venturi tube in which the speed of the water will increase in the narrow section, the throat, of the venturi. When the speed of water increased, the pressure would drop at the throat of the venturi causing the outside air to be absorbed via the gas inlet. The gas was then trapped inside the water producing bubbles. The effects of several physical parameters on the characteristics of the bubbles will be discussed thoroughly in this paper. It was found that larger amount of gas pressure during compression will increase the production rate of bubbles and increase the density of bubble within water.

  8. Microscopic methods in analysis of submicron phospholipid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy belongs to the group of tests, used in pharmaceutical technology, that despite the lapse of time and the development of new analytical methods, still remain irreplaceable for the characterization of dispersed drug dosage forms (e.g., suspensions and emulsions. To obtain complete description of a specific drug formulation, such as parenteral colloidal products, a combination of different microscopic techniques is sometimes required. Electron microscopy methods are the most useful ones; however, even such basic methods as optical microscopy may be helpful for determination of some properties of a sample. The publication explicates the most popular microscopical techniques used nowadays for characterization of the morphology of nanoparticles suspended in pharmaceutical formulations; ad vantages and disadvantages of these methods are also discussed. Parenteral submicron formulations containing lecithin or a particular phospholipid were chosen as examples.

  9. Entrapment of dye molecules within submicron silver particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosef, Itzik; Avnir, David, E-mail: david@chem.ch.huji.ac.il [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Chemistry (Israel)

    2011-09-15

    We describe a method for the preparation of metal-organic composites submicron particles. Specifically, the preparation of silver particle-clusters 150-200 nm in size, doped with an organic dye Congo-red, is reported. The use of sodium citrate coupled with sodium hypophosphite facilitated the formation of these particle-clusters, which were fully characterized by TEM analysis, Zeta potential and size measurements, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The latter reveals a catalytic action of the metal on the thermal oxidative decomposition of the entrapped dye. The use of these particles to obtain dense thin metallic films was demonstrated by the coating of ITO glass.

  10. Short range investigation of sub-micron zirconia particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracoche, M C; Martinez, J A [Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, CICPBA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Rivas, P C [IFLP-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Bondioli, F; Cannillo, V [Dipartimento di Ingegniria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ferrari, A M, E-mail: cristina@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Dipartimento di Scienza a Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2009-05-01

    The Perturbed Angular Correlations technique was used to determine the configurations around Zirconium ions and their thermal behavior in non-aggregated sub-micron zirconia spherical particles. Three residues containing- Zr surroundings were determined for the non-crystalline starting particles, which were identified under the assumption of a certain chemical reactions sequence during synthesis. While the one made up mainly by hydroxyl groups was common to both samples, the two involving mainly organic residues were particle size dependent. Upon crystallization, both samples stabilized in the t'- and t- tetragonal forms and the Xc-cubic form but their amounts and temperatures of appearance were different. On heating, the structure of the smaller particles became gradually monoclinic achieving total degradation upon the subsequent cooling to RT.

  11. Highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Sharac, Nicholas; Ragan, Regina; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement. The average enhancement effect is evaluated by measuring the spectral broadening effect caused by self-phase-modulation. The nonlinear refractive index n2 was measured to be 7.0917×10-19 m2/W for a waveguide whose Wopen is 5 μm. Several waveguides at different locations on one wafer were measured in order to take the randomness of the nanoparticle distribution into consideration. The largest enhancement is measured to be as high as 10 times. Fabrication of this waveguide started with a MEMS grade photomask. By using conventional optical lithography, the wide linewidth was transferred to a wafer. Then the wafer was etched anisotropically by potassium hydroxide (KOH) to engrave trapezoidal trenches with an angle of 54.7º. Side wall roughness was mitigated by KOH etching and thermal oxidation that was used to generate a buffer layer for silicon nitride waveguide. The guiding material silicon nitride was then deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The waveguide was then patterned with a chemical template, with 20 nm gold particles being chemically attached to the functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) domains. Since the particles attached only to the PMMA domains, they were confined to localized regions, therefore forcing the nanoparticles into clusters of various numbers and geometries. Experiments reveal that the waveguide has negligible nonlinear absorption loss, and its nonlinear refractive index can be greatly enhanced by gold nano clusters. The silicon nitride trench waveguide has large nonlinear refractive index, rendering itself promising for nonlinear applications.

  12. Near-field flow structures about subcritical surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Charles J.; Drews, Scott D.; Goldstein, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Laminar flow over a periodic array of cylindrical surface roughness elements is simulated with an immersed boundary spectral method both to validate the method for subsequent studies and to examine how persistent streamwise vortices are introduced by a low Reynolds number roughness element. Direct comparisons are made with prior studies at a roughness-based Reynolds number Rek (=U(k) k/ν) of 205 and a diameter to spanwise spacing ratio d/λ of 1/3. Downstream velocity contours match present and past experiments very well. The shear layer developed over the top of the roughness element produces the downstream velocity deficit. Upstream of the roughness element, the vortex topology is found to be consistent with juncture flow experiments, creating three cores along the recirculation line. Streamtraces stemming from these upstream cores, however, have unexpectedly little effect on the downstream flowfield as lateral divergence of the boundary layer quickly dissipates their vorticity. Long physical relaxation time of the recirculating wake behind the roughness remains a prominent issue for simulating this type of flowfield.

  13. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  14. Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  15. Rough set classification based on quantum logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.

  16. Beschrijving van een verdampings-condensatie aerosol generator voor de produktie van submicron aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt; A.*; Meulen; A.van der

    1985-01-01

    Dit rapport is een handleiding voor een bedrijfszeker, routinematig gebruik van een zgn. Evaporation-Condensation aerosol Conditioner. Met deze aerosol generatie apparatuur kunnen op stabiele, reproduceerbare manier zeer hoge concentraties (tot 1 miljoen deeltjes per cc) monodispers submicron

  17. Water ice and sub-micron ice particles on Tethys and Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Nordheim, Tom; Clark, Roger Nelson; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Tosi, Federico; Schenk, Paul M.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.

    2017-10-01

    IntroductionWe present our ongoing work, mapping the variation of the main water ice absorption bands, and the distribution of the sub-micron particles, across Mimas and Tethys’ surfaces using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). We present our results in the form of maps of variation of selected spectral indicators (depth of absorption bands, reflectance peak height, spectral slopes).Data analysisVIMS acquires hyperspectral data in the 0.3-5.1 μm spectral range. We selected VIMS cubes of Tethys and Mimas in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). For all pixels in the selected cubes, we measured the band depths for water-ice absorptions at 1.25, 1.5 and 2.02 μm and the height of the 3.6 μm reflection peak. Moreover, we considered the spectral indictors for particles smaller than 1 µm [1]: (i) the 2 µm absorption band is asymmetric and (ii) it has the minimum shifted to longer λ (iii) the band depth ratio 1.5/2.0 µm decreases; (iv) the reflection peak at 2.6 µm decreases; (v) the Fresnel reflection peak is suppressed; (vi) the 5 µm reflectance is decreased relative to the 3.6 µm peak. To characterize the global variation of water-ice band depths, and of sub-micron particles spectral indicators, across Mimas and Tethys, we sampled the two satellites’ surfacees with a 1°x1° fixed-resolution grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.3. ResultsFor both moons we find that large geologic features, such as the Odysseus and Herschel impact basins, do not correlate with water ice’s abundance variation. For Tethys, we found a quite uniform surface on both hemispheres. The only deviation from this pattern shows up on the trailing hemisphere, where we notice two north-oriented, dark areas around 225° and 315°. For Mimas, the leading and trailing hemispheres appear to be quite similar in water ice abundance, the trailing portion having water ice absorption bands lightly more suppressed than the leading side

  18. Use of metallic glasses for fabrication of structures with submicron dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, John D.; Perepezko, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Patterned structures of submicron dimension formed of supported or unsupported amorphous metals having submicron feature sizes characterized by etching behavior sufficient to allow delineation of sharp edges and smooth flat flanks, resistance to time-dependent dimensional changes caused by creep, flow, in-diffusion of unwanted impurities, out-diffusion of constituent atoms, void formation, grain growth or phase separation and resistance to phase transformations or compound formation.

  19. The Impact of Nonlocal Ammonia on Submicron Particulate Matter and Visibility Degradation in Urban Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland Cornelis Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of submicron particulate matter on visibility degradation in Shanghai, mass concentrations of PM1, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA in PM1, and SIA precursor gasses were on-line monitored during a 4-week intensive campaign in December 2012. During the campaign, 8 haze periods were identified when on average PM1 mass increased to 62.1 ± 25.6 μg/m3 compared to 30.7 ± 17.1 μg/m3 during clear weather periods. The sum of SIA in PM1 increased in mass concentration during the haze from 14.9 ± 7.4 μg/m3 during clear periods to 29.7 ± 10.7 μg/m3 during the haze periods. Correlation coefficients (R2 of the visibility as function of mass concentrations of SIA species in PM1 show negative exponential relations implying the importance of the SIA species in visibility reduction. The important role of ammonia in SIA formation is recognized and demonstrated. Generally, ammonium neutralizes sulfate and nitrate and the molar equivalent ratio of ammonium versus the sum of sulfate and nitrate increases during the haze episodes. Air mass backward trajectories introducing the haze periods show the impact of nonlocal ammonia on visibility degradation in Shanghai.

  20. Block copolymer stabilized nonaqueous biocompatible sub-micron emulsions for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanase, Leonard Ionut; Riess, Gérard

    2013-05-20

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400/Miglyol 812 non-aqueous sub-micron emulsions were developed due to the fact that they are of interest for the design of drug-loaded biocompatible topical formulations. These types of emulsions were favourably stabilized by poly (2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly (butadiene) (P2VP-b-PBut) copolymer with DPBut>DP2VP, each of these sequences being well-adapted to the solubility parameters of PEG 400 and Miglyol 812, respectively. This type of block copolymers, which might limit the Ostwald ripening, appeared to be more efficient stabilizers than low molecular weight non-ionic surfactants. The emulsion characteristics, such as particle size, stability and viscosity at different shear rates were determined as a function of the phase ratio, the copolymer concentration and storage time. It was further shown that Acyclovir, as a model drug of low water solubility, could be incorporated into the PEG 400 dispersed phase, with no significant modification of the initial emulsion characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative internal surface roughness classification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizi Zohari; Mohd Hanif Saad

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a novel new nondestructive method of qualitative internal surface roughness classification for pipes utilizing Acoustic Emission (AE) signal. Two different flowrate are introduced in a pipe obstructed using normally available components (e.g.: valve). The AE signal at suitable location from the obstruction are obtained and the peak amplitudes, RMS amplitude and energy of the AE signal are obtained. A dimensionless number, the Bangi Number, AB, is then calculated as a ratio of the AE parameters (peak amplitude, RMS amplitude or energy) in low flowrate measurement compared to the AE parameters in high flowrate measurement. It was observed that the Bangi Number, AB obtained can then be used to successfully discriminate between rough and smooth internal surface roughness. (author)

  2. Characterization and evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced sub-micron periodic structures generated on titanium to improve osseointegration of implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan E. J.; Exir, Hourieh; Weck, Arnaud; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2018-05-01

    Reproducible and controllable methods of modifying titanium surfaces for dental and orthopaedic applications are of interest to prevent poor implant outcomes by improving osseointegration. This study made use of a femtosecond laser to generate laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicities of 300, 620 and 760 nm on titanium substrates. The reproducible rippled patterns showed consistent submicron scale roughness and relatively hydrophobic surfaces as measured by atomic force microscopy and contact angle, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy identified a thicker oxide layer on ablated surfaces compared to controls. In vitro testing was conducted using osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. Cell metabolism on the laser-ablated surfaces was comparable to controls and alkaline phosphatase activity was notably increased at late time points for the 620 and 760 nm surfaces compared to controls. Cells showed a more elongated shape on laser-ablated surfaces compared to controls and showed perpendicular alignment to the periodic structures. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of generating submicron features on an implant material with the ability to influence cell response and improve implant outcomes.

  3. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    region, supporting the Townsend’s wall similarity hypothesis. The tendency towards the isotropization is investigated through the ratio between the resolved Reynolds stress components, putting in light that the 3D irregular rough wall induces an higher reduction of the anisotropy, with respect to the 2D case.

  4. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled motion of domain walls in submicron amorphous wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţibu, Mihai; Lostun, Mihaela; Rotărescu, Cristian; Atiţoaie, Alexandru; Lupu, Nicoleta; Óvári, Tibor-Adrian, E-mail: taovari@phys-iasi.ro; Chiriac, Horia [Department of Magnetic Materials and Devices, National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iaşi, 700050 (Romania); Allwood, Dan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Results on the control of the domain wall displacement in cylindrical Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} amorphous glass-coated submicron wires prepared by rapid quenching from the melt are reported. The control methods have relied on conical notches with various depths, up to a few tens of nm, made in the glass coating and in the metallic nucleus using a focused ion beam (FIB) system, and on the use of small nucleation coils at one of the sample ends in order to apply magnetic field pulses aimed to enhance the nucleation of reverse domains. The notch-based method is used for the first time in the case of cylindrical ultrathin wires. The results show that the most efficient technique of controlling the domain wall motion in this type of samples is the simultaneous use of notches and nucleation coils. Their effect depends on wire diameter, notch depth, its position on the wire length, and characteristics of the applied pulse.

  6. A novel design of submicron thin film point contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.

    1986-01-01

    A thin film point contact design applicable to SIS-, SNS-, and microbridge-type Josephson junctions is presented, which offers potentially advanced junction characteristics (low capacitance, low stray inductance, increased quasi-particle resistance). The design philosophy is based on the fact that a point contact results if two planes having a common symmetry axis but oriented perpendicular to each other are brought into contact with each other. For the case of thin films, instead of two-dimensional planes, the cross section of the resulting ''point''-contact is defined by the thicknesses of the two thin films. Film thicknesses can be controlled much more precisely than lateral dimensions created by lithography. Hence, submicron junction geometries can be achieved using only conventional fabrication techniques. Following this idea, Josephson weak links of the ultrashort microbridge-type have been fabricated by an all-Nb technique having a 0.3-μm X 0.2-μm cross section with a R /SUB q/ I /SUB c/ product (R /SUB q/ = quasiparticle resistance, I /SUB c/ = critical current) of more than 20 mV

  7. Immobilization of trypsin on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Chunhe [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi Li, E-mail: qili@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu Wenbin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Fuyi [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang Gengliang [College of Pharmacy, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2011-04-29

    A new kind of immobilized trypsin reactor based on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith has been developed. Covalent immobilization of trypsin on this support was performed using the epoxide functional groups in either a one- or a multi-step reaction. The proteolytic activity of the immobilized trypsin was measured by monitoring the formation of N-{alpha}-benzoyl-L-arginine (BA) which is the digestion product of a substrate N-{alpha}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE). Results showed that the digestion speed was about 300 times faster than that performed in free solution. The performance of such an enzyme reactor was further demonstrated by digesting protein myoglobin. It has been found that the protein digestion could be achieved in 88 s at 30 deg. C, which is comparable to 24 h digestion in solution at 37 {sup o}C. Furthermore, the immobilized trypsin exhibits increased stability even after continuous use compared to that in free solution. The present monolithic enzyme-reactor provides a promising platform for the proteomic research.

  8. Sub-micron resolution selected area electron channeling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, J; Mansour, H; Gey, N; Crimp, M A; Chalal, S; Maloufi, N

    2015-02-01

    Collection of selected area channeling patterns (SACPs) on a high resolution FEG-SEM is essential to carry out quantitative electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) studies, as it facilitates accurate determination of the crystal plane normal with respect to the incident beam direction and thus allows control the electron channeling conditions. Unfortunately commercial SACP modes developed in the past were limited in spatial resolution and are often no longer offered. In this contribution we present a novel approach for collecting high resolution SACPs (HR-SACPs) developed on a Gemini column. This HR-SACP technique combines the first demonstrated sub-micron spatial resolution with high angular accuracy of about 0.1°, at a convenient working distance of 10mm. This innovative approach integrates the use of aperture alignment coils to rock the beam with a digitally calibrated beam shift procedure to ensure the rocking beam is maintained on a point of interest. Moreover a new methodology to accurately measure SACP spatial resolution is proposed. While column considerations limit the rocking angle to 4°, this range is adequate to index the HR-SACP in conjunction with the pattern simulated from the approximate orientation deduced by EBSD. This new technique facilitates Accurate ECCI (A-ECCI) studies from very fine grained and/or highly strained materials. It offers also new insights for developing HR-SACP modes on new generation high-resolution electron columns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.

  10. What is the critical height of leading edge roughness for aerodynamics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2016-01-01

    -C2-18 and at three different Reynolds numbers with two different leading edge roughness tape heights. Firstly, an analysis of the momentum thickness as function of Reynolds number was carried out based on the boundary layer theory by Thwaites. Secondly, the wind tunnel measurements combined......In this paper the critical leading edge roughness height is analyzed in two cases: 1) leading edge roughness influencing the lift-drag ratio and 2) leading edge roughness influencing the maximum lift. The analysis was based on wind tunnel measurements on the airfoils NACA0015, Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe...

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  12. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  13. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  14. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  15. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  16. The investigation of ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films with submicron rectangular elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); School of Physical Science and Information Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, 252059 (China); Yue, J. J.; Kou, Z. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Zhai, Y., E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); National Laboratory of Solid Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Zhai, H. R. [National Laboratory of Solid Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Patterned magnetic films with nano-scaled dots exhibit some special magnetic properties. In this paper, we investigate the in-plane shape anisotropy and the magnetization dynamic damping in permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) arrays of submicron rectangular elements using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The FMR linewidth exhibits a dependence on the element size, and mainly comes from the contribution of the intrinsic damping. Also the contribution of two-magnon scattering plays an important role and is reduced with increasing aspect ratio. The damping coefficient decreases from 0.0129 to 0.0118 with the element length increasing from 300 nm to 1200 nm, and the theoretical calculation suggests that the change of damping results from the longitudinal and transverse interlayer spin current due to the spatially inhomogeneous magnetization dynamics.

  17. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  18. A bioactive coating with submicron-sized titania crystallites fabricated by induction heating of titanium after tensile deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning-Bo; Xu, Wen-Hua; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Zhao, Jun-Han; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidation technology was widely investigated as one of effective surface modification method for improving the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys. In this work, the induction heat oxidization method, a fast, efficient, economical and environmental protective technology, was applied to prepare the submicron-morphological oxide coating with variable rutile TiO 2 equiaxed crystallites on the surface of pure Ti substrates after cold-drawing with 10-20% deformations. The results showed the plastic-deformed Ti cylinders recrystallized during induction heating treatment (IHT) for 10-20s which resulted in evolution of microstructures as well as slight improvement of microhardness. The surface characteristics of TiO 2 crystallites in oxidation layers were determined by the microstructural evolutions of Ti substrate in terms of the nucleation and growth of TiO 2 crystallites. Specially, the oxidized surface with 50-75nm roughness and more uniform and finer equiaxed oxide grains remarkablely improved the apatite deposition after bioactive evaluation in 1.5 × SBF for 7 days. This work provided a potential method to create controlled bioactive oxide coatings with submicro-/nano-scaled TiO 2 crystallites on titanium substrate in terms of the role of metallographic microstructure in the formation process of titanium oxides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  20. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  1. Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry turning

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Mahdavinejad; H. Sharifi Bidgoli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The precision of machine tools on one hand and the input setup parameters on the other hand, are strongly influenced in main output machining parameters such as stock removal, toll wear ratio and surface roughnes.Design/methodology/approach: There are a lot of input parameters which are effective in the variations of these output parameters. In CNC machines, the optimization of machining process in order to predict surface roughness is very important.Findings: From this point of view...

  2. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  3. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  4. Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free

  5. High intensity laser interactions with sub-micron droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-density source of liquid ethanol droplets has been developed, characterised and used in laser interaction studies for the first time. Mie Scattering and attenuation measurements show that droplets with a radius of (0.5 ± 0.1) μm and atomic densities of 10 19 atoms/cm 3 can be produced, bridging the gap between clusters and macroscopic solids. Lower density (10 16 cm -3 ) sprays can also be produced and these are electrostatically split into smaller droplets with a radius of (0.3 ± 0.1) μm. This work has been accepted for publication in Review of Scientific Instruments. A range of high intensity interaction experiments have been carried out with this unique sub-micron source. The absolute yield of keV x-rays, generated using 527 nm, 2 ps pulses focused to ∼10 17 W/cm 2 , was measured for the first time. ∼7 μJ of x-rays with photon energies above 1 keV were produced, comparable to yields obtained from much higher Z Xenon clusters. At intensities ≤10 16 W/cm 2 the yield from droplets exceeds that from solid targets of similar Z. The droplet medium is debris free and self-renewing, providing a suitable x-ray source for lithographic techniques. Due to the spacing between the droplets, it was expected that the droplet plasma temperature would exceed that of a solid target plasma, which is typically limited by rapid heat conduction to <1 keV. Analysis of the x-ray data shows this to be true with a mean droplet plasma temperature of (2 ± 0.8) keV, and a number of measurements exceeding 5 keV (to appear in Applied Physics Letters). The absorption of high intensity laser pulses in the dense spray has been measured for the first time and this was found to be wavelength and polarisation independent and in excess of 60%. These first interaction measurements clearly indicate that there are significant differences between the laser heating of droplet, solid and cluster targets. (author)

  6. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Yu Xue-Feng; Cui Jiang-Wei; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan; Cong Zhong-Chao; Zhou Hang

    2014-01-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  8. Fabrication of sub-micron whole waffer SIS tunnel junctions for millimeter wave mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, S.E.; Blamire, M.G.; Evetts, J.E.; Hasko, D.G.; Ahmed, H.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of a programme for the development of a space-qualified sub-mm-wave mixer operating in the region of one terahertz we have been developing the processes required for the fabrication of submicron whole wafer tunnel junctions. Using the self-aligned whole-wafer process (SAWW) with electron beam lithography we have been able to reliably fabricate high quality (V m > 20 mV) submicron tunnel junctions from whole wafer Nb/AlO x /Nb structures. In particular we show that the junction quality is independent of size down to 0.3 μm 2 junction area. The problems of film stress, anodization, registration for electron beam lithography and lift-off, which limit the yield of good quality sub-micron scale junctions are addressed in this paper

  9. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  10. Fabrication, microstructure, and mechanical properties of high strength cobalt sub-micron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Sumin; Burek, Michael J.; Evans, Robert D.; Jahed, Zeinab; Leung, Michael C.; Evans, Neal D.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties exhibited by sub-micron scale columnar structures of cobalt, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating techniques, were investigated through uniaxial compression. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show these specimens possess a microstructure with sub-micron grains which are elongated and aligned near to the pillar loading axis. In addition, small nanocrystalline cobalt crystals are also present within the columnar structure. These specimens display exceptional mechanical strength comparable with both bulk polycrystalline and nanocrystalline cobalt deposited by electroplating. Size-dependent softening with shrinking sample dimensions is also observed in this work. Additionally, the strength of these sub-micron structures appears to be strain rate sensitive and comparable with bulk nanocrystalline cobalt specimens.

  11. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi-Wen; Yu, Xue-Feng; Cui, Jiang-Wei; Guo, Qi; Ren, Di-Yuan; Cong, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Hang

    2014-10-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device.

  12. Submicron Particle-Bound Mercury in University Teaching Rooms: A Summer Study from Two Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Majewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine the concentrations of submicron particulate matter (PM1 and of the mercury contained in it (Hgp in the air in two teaching rooms in two Polish cities, Gliwice and Warsaw. The levels of atmospheric particulate matter (PM differ greatly between these two cities. The relations between the indoor (I and outdoor (O 24-h concentrations for each PM1 and Hgp were determined and, based on the conclusions, an attempt was made to identify the main sources of the indoor Hgp in both cities. During the whole measuring period (April–June 2015, in both Warsaw and Gliwice, the 24-h outdoor PM1 concentrations were slightly higher than the indoor ones (outdoor and indoor averages were equal to 19.3 µg m−3 and 14.5 µg·m−3, respectively, in Gliwice and to 13.2 µg·m−3 and 9.5 µg·m−3 in Warsaw. In Gliwice, the indoor concentrations of Hgp (2.4 pg·m−3 to 27.7 pg·m−3 were much higher than the outdoor ones (1.1 pg·m−3 to 6.1 pg·m−3; in Warsaw the average concentrations of Hgp were equal to 1.4 pg m−3 indoors and outdoors. The 24-h concentrations of Hgp and the 24-h I/O ratios for Hgp varied more intensely in Gliwice than in Warsaw throughout the whole measuring period. In Warsaw, the teaching room Hgp came mainly from the infiltration of atmospheric (outdoor Hgp. In Gliwice, a part of the indoor Hgp infiltrated into the teaching room with the outdoor PM1 that most probably was then enriched with gaseous indoor Hg, what resulted in the relatively high indoor Hgp concentrations.

  13. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  14. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  15. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  16. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by

  17. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  18. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  19. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  20. Lung deposition of sub-micron aerosols calculated as a function of age and breathing rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of lung deposition and especially of regional deposition, of aerosols in the sub-micron size range have been so few that it is worthwhile establishing a method of calculation. A computer routine has therefore been developed to calculate aerosol deposition in successive bronchial and bronchiolar generations of the Weibel 'A' model of human lung for the sub-micron size range where deposition occurs solely by diffusion. This model can be scaled to represent lungs at various ages and vital capacities. Some calculated results are presented here and compared with measurements of lung deposition made under carefully controlled conditions in humans. (author)

  1. Mechanisms of Current Transfer in Electrodeposited Layers of Submicron Semiconductor Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, N. D.; Mosiyash, D. S.; Sinev, I. V.; Khazanov, A. A.; Smirnov, A. V.; Lapshin, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    Current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of conductance in multigrain layers of submicron particles of silicon, gallium arsenide, indium arsenide, and indium antimonide have been studied. Nanoparticles of all semiconductors were obtained by processing initial single crystals in a ball mill and applied after sedimentation onto substrates by means of electrodeposition. Detailed analysis of the I- V curves of electrodeposited layers shows that their behavior is determined by the mechanism of intergranular tunneling emission from near-surface electron states of submicron particles. Parameters of this emission process have been determined. The proposed multigrain semiconductor structures can be used in gas sensors, optical detectors, IR imagers, etc.

  2. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  3. Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical UT/LS: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring in the tropical upper troposphere (UT, the Tropical Transition Layer (TTL, and the lower stratosphere (LS are of importance for the global climate, for stratospheric dynamics and air chemistry, and for their influence on the global distribution of water vapour, trace gases and aerosols. In this contribution we present aerosol and trace gas (in-situ measurements from the tropical UT/LS over Southern Brazil, Northern Australia, and West Africa. The instruments were operated on board of the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" and the DLR Falcon-20 during the campaigns TROCCINOX (Araçatuba, Brazil, February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Darwin, Australia, December 2005, and SCOUT-AMMA (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, August 2006. The data cover submicron particle number densities and volatility from the COndensation PArticle counting System (COPAS, as well as relevant trace gases like N2O, ozone, and CO. We use these trace gas measurements to place the aerosol data into a broader atmospheric context. Also a juxtaposition of the submicron particle data with previous measurements over Costa Rica and other tropical locations between 1999 and 2007 (NASA DC-8 and NASA WB-57F is provided. The submicron particle number densities, as a function of altitude, were found to be remarkably constant in the tropical UT/LS altitude band for the two decades after 1987. Thus, a parameterisation suitable for models can be extracted from these measurements. Compared to the average levels in the period between 1987 and 2007 a slight increase of particle abundances was found for 2005/2006 at altitudes with potential temperatures, Θ, above 430 K. The origins of this increase are unknown except for increases measured during SCOUT-AMMA. Here the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano in the Caribbean caused elevated particle mixing ratios. The vertical profiles from Northern hemispheric mid-latitudes between 1999 and 2006 also are

  4. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  5. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  6. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  7. Skin friction measurements of systematically-varied roughness: Probing the role of roughness amplitude and skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  8. Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    For over eight decades, researchers have noted an appreciable increase in the nondimensional shear stress (Shields number) at initiation of fluvial bedload transport with increasing bed slope. The precise cause of the trend, however, is obscured by the covariance of several factors with increased slope: a greater downstream component of the gravity acting on the grains and fluid, changes in bed morphology, increased grainsize relative to the channel width that may lead to grain bridging, and increased grainsize relative to flow depth (relative roughness) that may change flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy. Here, we report on ongoing laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of bed slopes (2% to 67%) designed to isolate these variables and determine the true cause of heightened critical Shields numbers on steep slopes. First, we eliminated bed morphology as a factor by using only planar beds. To investigate the effect of grain bridging, we used two different channel widths, representing width-to-grainsize ratios of 23:1 and 9:1. Finally, to separate the effects of slope from relative roughness, we compared incipient motion conditions for acrylic particles (submerged specific gravity of 0.15) to natural siliciclastic gravel (submerged specific gravity of 1.65). Different particle densities allowed us to explore incipient motion as a function of relative roughness, independent of channel slope, because lighter particles move at shallower flow depths than heavier ones of the same size. Results show that both materials exhibit a positive trend between bed slope and critical Shields number despite the existence of planar beds for all slopes. Furthermore, changing the grainsize-to-width ratio had a negligible effect on this trend. For all slopes, the critical Shields number for bedload transport was higher for the acrylic particles than for gravel, indicating that relative roughness has a strong control on incipient sediment motion independent of channel slope. These

  9. Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.

  10. Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

  11. Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-05-01

    The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.

  12. The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.

  13. Chemical characteristics of submicron particles at the central Tibetan Plateau: insights from aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed a significant influx of anthropogenic aerosol from South Asia to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP during pre-monsoon period. In order to characterize the chemical composition, sources, and transport processes of aerosol in this area, we carried out a field study during June 2015 by deploying a suite of online instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP at Nam Co station (90°57′ E, 30°46′ N; 4730 m a.s.l. at the central of the TP. The measurements were made at a period when the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon occurred. The average ambient mass concentration of submicron particulate matter (PM1 over the whole campaign was  ∼  2.0 µg m−3, with organics accounting for 68 %, followed by sulfate (15 %, black carbon (8 %, ammonium (7 %, and nitrate (2 %. Relatively higher aerosol mass concentration episodes were observed during the pre-monsoon period, whereas persistently low aerosol concentrations were observed during the monsoon period. However, the chemical composition of aerosol during the higher aerosol concentration episodes in the pre-monsoon season was on a case-by-case basis, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions and air mass transport routes. Most of the chemical species exhibited significant diurnal variations with higher values occurring during afternoon and lower values during early morning, whereas nitrate peaked during early morning in association with higher relative humidity and lower air temperature. Organic aerosol (OA, with an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O ∕ C of 0.94, was more oxidized during the pre-monsoon period than during monsoon (average O ∕ C ratio of 0.72, and an average O ∕ C was 0.88 over the entire campaign period, suggesting overall highly oxygenated aerosol in the central TP. Positive matrix factorization of the

  14. Chemical characteristics of submicron particles at the central Tibetan Plateau: insights from aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Jinsen; Ge, Xinlei; Xie, Conghui; Wang, Junfeng; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Ruixiong; Wang, Yuhang

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a significant influx of anthropogenic aerosol from South Asia to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) during pre-monsoon period. In order to characterize the chemical composition, sources, and transport processes of aerosol in this area, we carried out a field study during June 2015 by deploying a suite of online instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) at Nam Co station (90°57' E, 30°46' N; 4730 m a.s.l.) at the central of the TP. The measurements were made at a period when the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon occurred. The average ambient mass concentration of submicron particulate matter (PM1) over the whole campaign was ˜ 2.0 µg m-3, with organics accounting for 68 %, followed by sulfate (15 %), black carbon (8 %), ammonium (7 %), and nitrate (2 %). Relatively higher aerosol mass concentration episodes were observed during the pre-monsoon period, whereas persistently low aerosol concentrations were observed during the monsoon period. However, the chemical composition of aerosol during the higher aerosol concentration episodes in the pre-monsoon season was on a case-by-case basis, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions and air mass transport routes. Most of the chemical species exhibited significant diurnal variations with higher values occurring during afternoon and lower values during early morning, whereas nitrate peaked during early morning in association with higher relative humidity and lower air temperature. Organic aerosol (OA), with an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.94, was more oxidized during the pre-monsoon period than during monsoon (average O / C ratio of 0.72), and an average O / C was 0.88 over the entire campaign period, suggesting overall highly oxygenated aerosol in the central TP. Positive matrix factorization of the high-resolution mass spectra of OA identified two oxygenated

  15. Breaking Frontiers: Submicron Structures in Physics and Biology - 52 Zakopane School of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 52 Zakopane School of Physics held in Zakopane from 19 to 24 May 2008. The main task of the symposium was to present the newest results of research in field of submicron structures in physics, biology and medicine. Some new technologies as well as their applications are also presented

  16. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, M.S.; Assafrao, A.C.; Scharf, T.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Brun, M.; Olivier, S.; Nicoletti, S.; Herzig, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (?-SIL) made of SiO2. Such structured focal spots are characterized by a

  17. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  18. Thermophoretic motion behavior of submicron particles in boundary-layer-separation flow around a droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Ji, Bingqiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As a key mechanism of submicron particle capture in wet deposition and wet scrubbing processes, thermophoresis is influenced by the flow and temperature fields. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the characteristics of the flow and temperature fields around a droplet at three droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) that correspond to three typical boundary-layer-separation flows (steady axisymmetric, steady plane-symmetric, and unsteady plane-symmetric flows). The thermophoretic motion of submicron particles was simulated in these cases. Numerical results show that the motion of submicron particles around the droplet and the deposition distribution exhibit different characteristics under three typical flow forms. The motion patterns of particles are dependent on their initial positions in the upstream and flow forms. The patterns of particle motion and deposition are diversified as Re increases. The particle motion pattern, initial position of captured particles, and capture efficiency change periodically, especially during periodic vortex shedding. The key effects of flow forms on particle motion are the shape and stability of the wake behind the droplet. The drag force of fluid and the thermophoretic force in the wake contribute jointly to the deposition of submicron particles after the boundary-layer separation around a droplet.

  19. Breaking Frontiers: Submicron Structures in Physics and Biology - 52 Zakopane School of Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 52 Zakopane School of Physics held in Zakopane from 19 to 24 May 2008. The main task of the symposium was to present the newest results of research in field of submicron structures in physics, biology and medicine. Some new technologies as well as their applications are also presented.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Low-dose Submicron Diclofenac Compared With Generic Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladsi, Deirdre; Ronquest, Naoko; Odom, Dawn; Miles, LaStella; Saag, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    NSAIDs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Despite the effectiveness of NSAIDs, concerns exist regarding their tolerability. Worldwide health authorities, including the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and the US Food and Drug Administration, have advised that NSAIDs be prescribed at the lowest effective dosage and for the shortest duration. Effective lowering of NSAID dosage without compromising pain relief has been demonstrated in randomized, controlled trials of the recently approved NSAID lower-dose submicron diclofenac. Building on previously published work from an independently published systematic review and meta-analysis, a linear dose-toxicity relationship between diclofenac dose and serious gastrointestinal (GI) events was recently demonstrated, indicating that reductions in adverse events (AEs) may be seen even with modest dose reductions in many patients. The objective of the present study was to estimate the potential reduction in risk for NSAID dose-related AEs, corresponding savings in health care costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of submicron diclofenac compared with generic diclofenac in the United States. Our decision-analytic cost-effectiveness model considered a subset of potential AEs that may be avoided by lowering NSAID dosage. To estimate the expected reductions in upper GI bleeding/perforation and major cardiovascular events with submicron diclofenac, our model used prediction equations estimated by meta-regressions using data from systematic literature reviews. Utilities, lifetime costs, and health outcomes associated with AEs were estimated using data from the literature. The face validity of the model structure and inputs was confirmed by clinical experts in the United States. Results were evaluated in 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The model predicted that submicron diclofenac versus generic diclofenac could reduce the occurrence of modeled GI events (by 18

  1. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  2. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  3. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  4. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  5. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  6. Production of solid lipid submicron particles for protein delivery using a novel supercritical gas-assisted melting atomization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Elvassore, Nicola; Bertucco, Alberto; Caliceti, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide micronization technique based on gas-assisted melting atomization has been designed to prepare protein-loaded solid lipid submicron particles. The supercritical process was applied to homogeneous dispersions of insulin in lipid mixtures: (1) tristearin, Tween-80, phosphatidylcholine and 5 kDa PEG (1:0.1:0.9:1 and 1:0.1:0.9:2 weight ratio); and (2) tristearin, dioctyl sulfosuccinate and phosphatidylcholine (1:1:0.5 weight ratio). Optimized process conditions yielded dry nonagglomerated powders with high product recovery (70%, w/w). Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that two size fractions of particles, with 80-120 and 200-400 nm diameters, were produced. In all final products, dimethylsulfoxide used to prepare the insulin/lipid mixture was below 20 ppm. Protein encapsulation efficiency increased up to 80% as the DMSO content in the insulin/lipid mixture increased. Compared to the particles without PEG, the polymer-containing particles dispersed rapidly in water, and the dispersions were more stable under centrifugation as less than 20% of suspended particles precipitated after extensive centrifugation. In vitro, the protein was slowly released from the formulation without PEG, while a burst and faster release were obtained from the formulations containing PEG. Subcutaneous injection to diabetic mice of insulin extracted from the particles showed that the supercritical process did not impair the protein hypoglycemic activity.

  7. Electron beam fabrication of a microfluidic device for studying submicron-scale bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled restriction of cellular movement using microfluidics allows one to study individual cells to gain insight into aspects of their physiology and behaviour. For example, the use of micron-sized growth channels that confine individual Escherichia coli has yielded novel insights into cell growth and death. To extend this approach to other species of bacteria, many of whom have dimensions in the sub-micron range, or to a larger range of growth conditions, a readily-fabricated device containing sub-micron features is required. Results Here we detail the fabrication of a versatile device with growth channels whose widths range from 0.3 μm to 0.8 μm. The device is fabricated using electron beam lithography, which provides excellent control over the shape and size of different growth channels and facilitates the rapid-prototyping of new designs. Features are successfully transferred first into silicon, and subsequently into the polydimethylsiloxane that forms the basis of the working microfluidic device. We demonstrate that the growth of sub-micron scale bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli cultured in minimal medium can be followed in such a device over several generations. Conclusions We have presented a detailed protocol based on electron beam fabrication together with specific dry etching procedures for the fabrication of a microfluidic device suited to study submicron-sized bacteria. We have demonstrated that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be successfully loaded and imaged over a number of generations in this device. Similar devices could potentially be used to study other submicron-sized organisms under conditions in which the height and shape of the growth channels are crucial to the experimental design. PMID:23575419

  8. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  9. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F

    2008-12-18

    Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal

  10. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state

  11. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  12. Chemical composition, sources, and aging process of submicron aerosols in Beijing: Contrast between summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yuan, Bin; Chen, Wentai; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zhibin; Peng, Jianfei; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the seasonal characteristics of submicron aerosol (PM1) in Beijing urban areas, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol-mass-spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was utilized at an urban site in summer (August to September 2011) and winter (November to December 2010), coupled with multiple state of the art online instruments. The average mass concentrations of PM1 (60-84 µg m-3) and its chemical compositions in different campaigns of Beijing were relatively consistent in recent years. In summer, the daily variations of PM1 mass concentrations were stable and repeatable. Eighty-two percent of the PM1 mass concentration on average was composed of secondary species, where 62% is secondary inorganic aerosol and 20% secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In winter, PM1 mass concentrations changed dramatically because of the different meteorological conditions. The high average fraction (58%) of primary species in PM1 including primary organic aerosol (POA), black carbon, and chloride indicates primary emissions usually played a more important role in the winter. However, aqueous chemistry resulting in efficient secondary formation during occasional periods with high relative humidity may also contribute substantially to haze in winter. Results of past OA source apportionment studies in Beijing show 45-67% of OA in summer and 22-50% of OA in winter can be composed of SOA. Based on the source apportionment results, we found 45% POA in winter and 61% POA in summer are from nonfossil sources, contributed by cooking OA in both seasons and biomass burning OA (BBOA) in winter. Cooking OA, accounting for 13-24% of OA, is an important nonfossil carbon source in all years of Beijing and should not be neglected. The fossil sources of POA include hydrocarbon-like OA from vehicle emissions in both seasons and coal combustion OA (CCOA) in winter. The CCOA and BBOA were the two main contributors (57% of OA) for the highest OA concentrations (>100 µg m-3) in winter. The POA

  13. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  14. Atmospheric stability analysis over statically and dynamically rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Emina; Metzger, Meredith; Singha, Arindam; Sadr, Reza

    2011-11-01

    The ratio of buoyancy flux to turbulent kinetic energy production in the atmospheric surface layer is investigated experimentally for air flow over two types of surfaces characterized by static and dynamic roughness. In this study, ``static'' refers to the time-invariant nature of naturally-occurring roughness over a mud/salt playa; while, ``dynamic'' refers to the behavior of water waves along an air-water interface. In both cases, time-resolved measurements of the momentum and heat fluxes were acquired from synchronized 3D sonic anemometers mounted on a vertical tower. Field campaigns were conducted at two sites, representing the ``statically'' and ``dynamically'' rough surfaces, respectively: (1) the SLTEST facility in Utah's western desert, and (2) the new Doha airport in Qatar under construction along the coast of the Persian Gulf. Note, at site 2, anemometers were located directly above the water by extension from a tower secured to the end of a 1 km-long pier. Comparisons of the Monin-Obukhov length, flux Richardson number, and gradient Richardson number are presented, and discussed in the context of the observed evolution of the turbulent spectra in response to diurnal variations of atmospheric stability. Supported by the Qatar National Research Fund.

  15. Effect of geometric base roughness on size segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric roughness at boundaries has a profound impact on the dynamics of granular flows. For a bumpy base made of fixed particles, two major factors have been separately studied in the literature, namely, the size and spatial distribution of base particles. A recent work (Jing et al. 2016 has proposed a roughness indicator Ra, which combines both factors for any arbitrary bumpy base comprising equally-sized spheres. It is shown in mono-disperse flows that as Ra increases, a transition occurs from slip (Ra 0.62 conditions. This work focuses on such a phase transition in bi-disperse flows, in which Ra can be a function of time. As size segregation takes place, large particles migrate away from the bottom, leading to a variation of size ratio between flow- and base-particles. As a result, base roughness Ra evolves with the progress of segregation. Consistent with the slip/non-slip transition in mono-disperse flows, basal sliding arises at low values of Ra and the development of segregation might be affected; when Ra increases to a certain level (Ra > 0.62, non-slip condition is respected. This work extends the validity of Ra to bi-disperse flows, which can be used to understand the geometric boundary effect during segregation.

  16. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  17. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  18. Mars radar clutter and surface roughness characteristics from MARSIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Whitten, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    Radar sounder studies of icy, sedimentary, and volcanic settings can be affected by reflections from surface topography surrounding the sensor nadir location. These off-nadir ;clutter; returns appear at similar time delays to subsurface echoes and complicate geologic interpretation. Additionally, broadening of the radar echo in delay by surface returns sets a limit on the detectability of subsurface interfaces. We use MARSIS 4 MHz data to study variations in the nadir and off-nadir clutter echoes, from about 300 km to 1000 km altitude, R, for a wide range of surface roughness. This analysis uses a new method of characterizing ionospheric attenuation to merge observations over a range of solar zenith angle and date. Mirror-like reflections should scale as R-2, but the observed 4 MHz nadir echoes often decline by a somewhat smaller power-law factor because MARSIS on-board processing increases the number of summed pulses with altitude. Prior predictions of the contributions from clutter suggest a steeper decline with R than the nadir echoes, but in very rough areas the ratio of off-nadir returns to nadir echoes shows instead an increase of about R1/2 with altitude. This is likely due in part to an increase in backscatter from the surface as the radar incidence angle at some round-trip time delay declines with increasing R. It is possible that nadir and clutter echo properties in other planetary sounding observations, including RIME and REASON flyby data for Europa, will vary in the same way with altitude, but there may be differences in the nature and scale of target roughness (e.g., icy versus rocky surfaces). We present global maps of the ionosphere- and altitude-corrected nadir echo strength, and of a ;clutter; parameter based on the ratio of off-nadir to nadir echoes. The clutter map offers a view of surface roughness at ∼75 m length scale, bridging the spatial-scale gap between SHARAD roughness estimates and MOLA-derived parameters.

  19. Volatility measurement of atmospheric submicron aerosols in an urban atmosphere in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Min; He, Ling-Yan

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol pollution has been a very serious environmental problem in China for many years. The volatility of aerosols can affect the distribution of compounds in the gas and aerosol phases, the atmospheric fates of the corresponding components, and the measurement of the concentration of aerosols. Compared to the characterization of chemical composition, few studies have focused on the volatility of aerosols in China. In this study, a thermodenuder aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS) system was deployed to study the volatility of non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1) species during winter in Shenzhen. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report of the volatilities of aerosol chemical components based on a TD-AMS system in China. The average PM1 mass concentration during the experiment was 42.7±20.1 µg m-3, with organic aerosol (OA) being the most abundant component (43.2 % of the total mass). The volatility of chemical species measured by the AMS varied, with nitrate showing the highest volatility, with a mass fraction remaining (MFR) of 0.57 at 50 °C. Organics showed semi-volatile characteristics (the MFR was 0.88 at 50 °C), and the volatility had a relatively linear correlation with the TD temperature (from the ambient temperature to 200 °C), with an evaporation rate of 0.45 % °C-1. Five subtypes of OA were resolved from total OA using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for data obtained under both ambient temperature and high temperatures through the TD, including a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, accounting for 13.5 %), a cooking OA (COA, 20.6 %), a biomass-burning OA (BBOA, 8.9 %), and two oxygenated OAs (OOAs): a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA, 39.1 %) and a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA, 17.9 %). Different OA factors presented different volatilities, and the volatility sequence of the OA factors at 50 °C was HOA (MFR of 0.56) > LO-OOA (0.70) > COA (0.85) ≈ BBOA (0.87) > MO-OOA (0.99), which was not completely consistent with the sequence of their O

  20. Long-term Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in the Amazon Forest - ATTO Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Holanda, B. A.; Cirino, G. G.; Saturno, J.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The study of the chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Amazon forest represents a step forward to understand the strong coupling between the atmosphere and the forest. For this reason submicron aerosol particles were investigated in the Amazon forest, where biogenic and anthropogenic aerosol particles coexist at the different seasons (wet/dry). The measurements were performed at the ATTO station, which is located about 150 km northeast of Manaus. At ATTO station the Aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne) and the Multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP, Thermo 5012) have been operated continuously from March 2014 to July 2015. In this study, long-term measurements (near-real-time, ~30 minutes) of PM1 chemical composition were investigated for the first time in this environment.The wet season presented lower concentrations than the dry season (~5 times). In terms of chemical composition, both seasons were dominated by organics (75 and 63%) followed by sulfate (11 and 13%). Nitrate presented different ratio values between the mass-to-charges 30 to 46 (main nitrate fragments) suggesting the presence of nitrate as inorganic and organic nitrate during both seasons. The results indicated that about 75% of the nitrate signal was from organic nitrate during the dry season. In addition, several episodes with elevated amount of chloride, likely in the form of sea-salt from the Atlantic Ocean, were observed during the wet season. During those episodes, chloride comprised up to 7% of the PM1. During the dry season, chloride was also observed; however, with different volatility, which suggested that Chloride was present in different form and source. Moreover, the constant presence of sulfate and BC during the wet season might be related to biomass burning emissions from Africa. BC concentration was 2.5 times higher during the dry season. Further characterization of the organic fraction was accomplished with the positive matrix factorization (PMF), which

  1. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of submicron aerosols measured in Senegal during the 2015 SHADOW campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellini, Laura-Hélèna; Chiapello, Isabelle; Tison, Emmanuel; Fourmentin, Marc; Féron, Anaïs; Diallo, Aboubacry; N'Diaye, Thierno; Goloub, Philippe; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Riffault, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    The present study offers the first chemical characterization of the submicron (PM1) fraction in western Africa at a high time resolution, thanks to collocated measurements of nonrefractory (NR) species with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), black carbon and iron concentrations derived from absorption coefficient measurements with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer, and total PM1 determined by a TEOM-FDMS (tapered element oscillating microbalance-filtered dynamic measurement system) for mass closure. The field campaign was carried out over 3 months (March to June 2015) as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project at a coastal site located in the outskirts of the city of Mbour, Senegal. With an averaged mass concentration of 5.4 µg m-3, levels of NR PM1 in Mbour were 3 to 10 times lower than those generally measured in urban and suburban polluted environments. Nonetheless the first half of the observation period was marked by intense but short pollution events (NR PM1 concentrations higher than 15 µg m-3), sea breeze phenomena and Saharan desert dust outbreaks (PM10 up to 900 µg m-3). During the second half of the campaign, the sampling site was mainly under the influence of marine air masses. The air masses on days under continental and sea breeze influences were dominated by organics (36-40 %), whereas sulfate particles were predominant (40 %) for days under oceanic influence. Overall, measurements showed that about three-quarters of the total PM1 were explained by NR PM1, BC (black carbon) and Fe (a proxy for dust) concentrations, leaving approximately one-quarter for other refractory species. A mean value of 4.6 % for the Fe / PM1 ratio was obtained. Source apportionment of the organic fraction, using positive matrix factorization (PMF), highlighted the impact of local combustion sources, such as traffic and residential activities, which contribute on average to 52 % of the total organic fraction. A new organic aerosol (OA) source

  2. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  3. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  4. A Rough Set Approach for Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Dhandayudam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Customer segmentation is a process that divides a business's total customers into groups according to their diversity of purchasing behavior and characteristics. The data mining clustering technique can be used to accomplish this customer segmentation. This technique clusters the customers in such a way that the customers in one group behave similarly when compared to the customers in other groups. The customer related data are categorical in nature. However, the clustering algorithms for categorical data are few and are unable to handle uncertainty. Rough set theory (RST is a mathematical approach that handles uncertainty and is capable of discovering knowledge from a database. This paper proposes a new clustering technique called MADO (Minimum Average Dissimilarity between Objects for categorical data based on elements of RST. The proposed algorithm is compared with other RST based clustering algorithms, such as MMR (Min-Min Roughness, MMeR (Min Mean Roughness, SDR (Standard Deviation Roughness, SSDR (Standard deviation of Standard Deviation Roughness, and MADE (Maximal Attributes DEpendency. The results show that for the real customer data considered, the MADO algorithm achieves clusters with higher cohesion, lower coupling, and less computational complexity when compared to the above mentioned algorithms. The proposed algorithm has also been tested on a synthetic data set to prove that it is also suitable for high dimensional data.

  5. Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.

  6. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  7. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  8. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  9. Why do rough surfaces appear glossy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike J; Siebert, J Paul; Dong, Junyu

    2014-05-01

    The majority of work on the perception of gloss has been performed using smooth surfaces (e.g., spheres). Previous studies that have employed more complex surfaces reported that increasing mesoscale roughness increases perceived gloss [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010), Curr. Biol.22, 1909 (2012)]. We show that the use of realistic rendering conditions is important and that, in contrast to [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010)], after a certain point increasing roughness further actually reduces glossiness. We investigate five image statistics of estimated highlights and show that for our stimuli, one in particular, which we term "percentage of highlight area," is highly correlated with perceived gloss. We investigate a simple model that explains the unimodal, nonmonotonic relationship between mesoscale roughness and percentage highlight area.

  10. Application of the rigorous method to x-ray and neutron beam scattering on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goray, Leonid I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive numerical analysis of x-ray and neutron scattering from finite-conducting rough surfaces which is performed in the frame of the boundary integral equation method in a rigorous formulation for high ratios of characteristic dimension to wavelength. The single integral equation obtained involves boundary integrals of the single and double layer potentials. A more general treatment of the energy conservation law applicable to absorption gratings and rough mirrors is considered. In order to compute the scattering intensity of rough surfaces using the forward electromagnetic solver, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to average the deterministic diffraction grating efficiency due to individual surfaces over an ensemble of realizations. Some rules appropriate for numerical implementation of the theory at small wavelength-to-period ratios are presented. The difference between the rigorous approach and approximations can be clearly seen in specular reflectances of Au mirrors with different roughness parameters at wavelengths where grazing incidence occurs at close to or larger than the critical angle. This difference may give rise to wrong estimates of rms roughness and correlation length if they are obtained by comparing experimental data with calculations. Besides, the rigorous approach permits taking into account any known roughness statistics and allows exact computation of diffuse scattering.

  11. Characteristics of scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Haiqing; Gu Xin; Pan Kexin; Wang Yiman; Liu Wei; Zhang Ke; Wang Jinshu; Zhou Meiling; Li Ji

    2005-01-01

    We describe in this paper scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped tungsten matrices having an improved uniformity of the Sc distribution. The scandia-doped tungsten powders were made by both liquid-solid doping and liquid-liquid doping methods on the basis of previous research. By improving pressing, sintering and impregnating procedures, we have obtained scandate-impregnated cathodes with a good uniformity of the Sc 2 O 3 - distribution. The porosity of the sub-micron structure matrix and content of impregnants inside the matrix are similar to those of conventionally impregnated cathodes. Space charge limited current densities of more than 30 A/cm 2 at 850 deg. C b have been obtained in a reproducible way. The current density continuously increases during the first 2000 h life test at 950 deg. C b with a dc load of 2 A/cm 2 and are stable for at least 3000 h

  12. High-Q submicron-diameter quantum-dot microcavity pillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Dunzer, Florian

    As/AlAs micropillar design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to significally enhance the cavity mode confinement in the submicron diameter regime. We demonstrate a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µeV of the strong coupling for pillars incorporating quantum dots with modest oscillator strength f ≈ 10....... It is well-known that light-matter interaction depends on the photonic environment, and thus proper engineering of the optical mode in microcavity systems is central to obtaining the desired functionality. In the strong coupling regime, the visibility of the Rabi splitting is described by the light...... coupling in micropillars relied on quantum dots with high oscillator strengths f > 50, our advanced design allows for the observation of strong coupling for submicron diameter quantum dot-pillars with standard f ≈ 10 oscillator strength. A quality factor of 13600 and a vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µe...

  13. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  14. Submicron x-ray diffraction and its applications to problems in materials and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; Celestre, R. S.; MacDowell, A. A.; Padmore, H. A.; Spolenak, R.; Valek, B. C.; Meier Chang, N.; Manceau, A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-03-01

    The availability of high brilliance third generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allows us to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old x-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution, and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic x-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron x-ray diffraction techniques at the Advanced Light Source, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  15. Submicron X-Ray Diffraction and its Applications to Problems in Materials and Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.

    2002-08-16

    The availability of high brilliance 3rd generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allow to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old X-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in-situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic X-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron X-ray diffraction techniques at the ALS, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  16. Submicron X-ray diffraction and its applications to problems in materials and environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Spolenak, R.; Valek, B.C.; Meier Chang, N.; Manceau, A.; Patel, J.R.

    2002-03-26

    The availability of high brilliance 3rd generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allow to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old X-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in-situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic X-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron X-ray diffraction techniques at the ALS, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  17. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  18. Diffuse neutron scattering signatures of rough films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of diffuse neutron scattering from thin films are calculated from a perturbation expansion based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. Diffuse fringes can be categorised into three types: those that occur at constant values of the incident or scattered neutron wavevectors, and those for which the neutron wavevector transfer perpendicular to the film is constant. The variation of intensity along these fringes can be used to deduce the spectrum of surface roughness for the film and the degree of correlation between the film's rough surfaces

  19. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    scanning probe image processor (SPIP) software and the results of the surface roughness parameters obtained were subjected to statistical analyses. The bearing area ratio was introduced and applied to the surface roughness analysis. From the results, the surface quality of the standard comparators...... is successfully characterised and it was established that the areal parameters are more informative for sand cast components. The roughness values of the standard visual comparators can serve as a control for the cast components and for order specifications in the foundry industry. A series of iron castings were...... made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  20. Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in a nanoslit with rough walls: a density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2012-08-07

    Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in an open slit with walls decorated with arrays of pillars are examined using the density functional theory. Compared with the main substrate, the pillars can have the same or different parameters in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential between them and the fluid in the slit. The roughness of the solid surface, defined as the ratio between the area of the actual surface and the area of the surface free of pillars, is controlled by the height of the pillars. It is shown that the capillary condensation pressure first increases with increasing roughness, passes through a maximum, and then decreases. The amount of adsorbed fluid at constant volume of the slit has, in general, a nonmonotonic dependence on roughness. These features of adsorption and capillary condensation are results of increased surface area and changes in the fluid-solid potential energy due to changes in roughness.

  1. Prospects for sub-micron solid state nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with sub-micron voxel dimensions using a combination of low temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Experiments are performed on nitroxide-doped glycerol-water at 9.4 T and temperatures below 40 K, using a 30 mW tunable microwave source for DNP. With DNP at 7 K, a 0.5 microL sample yields a (1)H NMR signal-to-noise ratio of 770 in two scans with pulsed spin-lock detection and after 80 db signal attenuation. With reasonable extrapolations, we infer that (1)H NMR signals from 1 microm(3) voxel volumes should be readily detectable, and voxels as small as 0.03 microm(3) may eventually be detectable. Through homonuclear decoupling with a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg spin echo technique, we obtain 830 Hz (1)H NMR linewidths at low temperatures, implying that pulsed field gradients equal to 0.4 G/d or less would be required during spatial encoding dimensions of an imaging sequence, where d is the resolution in each dimension.

  2. Microscopic Characterization of Individual Submicron Bubbles during the Layer-by-Layer Deposition: Towards Creating Smart Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Riku; Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the individual properties of various polyion-coated bubbles with a mean diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm. Dark field microscopy allows one to track the individual particles of the submicron bubbles (SBs) encapsulated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes (PEs). Our focus is on the two-step charge reversals of PE-SB complexes: the first is a reversal from negatively charged bare SBs with no PEs added to positive SBs encapsulated by polycations (monolayer deposition), and the second is overcharging into negatively charged PE-SB complexes due to the subsequent addition of polyanions (double-layer deposition). The details of these phenomena have been clarified through the analysis of a number of trajectories of various PE-SB complexes that experience either Brownian motion or electrophoresis. The contrasted results obtained from the analysis were as follows: an amount in excess of the stoichiometric ratio of the cationic polymers was required for the first charge-reversal, whereas the stoichiometric addition of the polyanions lead to the electrical neutralization of the PE-SB complex particles. The recovery of the stoichiometry in the double-layer deposition paves the way for fabricating multi-layered SBs encapsulated solely with anionic and cationic PEs, which provides a simple protocol to create smart agents for either drug delivery or ultrasound contrast imaging.

  3. Design and characterization of radiation resistant integrated circuits for the LHC particle detectors using deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, Giovanni Maria

    2000-01-01

    The electronic circuits associated with the particle detectors of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to work in a highly radioactive environment. This work proposes a methodology allowing the design of radiation resistant integrated circuits using the commercial sub-micron CMOS technology. This method uses the intrinsic radiation resistance of ultra-thin grid oxides, the technology of enclosed layout transistors (ELT), and the protection rings to avoid the radio-induced creation of leakage currents. In order to check the radiation tolerance level, several test structures have been designed and tested with different radiation sources. These tests have permitted to study the physical phenomena responsible for the damages induced by the radiations and the possible remedies. Then, the particular characteristics of ELT transistors and their influence on the design of complex integrated circuits has been explored. The modeling of the W/L ratio, the asymmetries (for instance in the output conductance) and the performance of ELT couplings have never been studied yet. The noise performance of the 0.25 μ CMOS technology, used in the design of several integrated circuits of the LHC detectors, has been characterized before and after irradiation. Finally, two integrated circuits designed using the proposed method are presented. The first one is an analogic memory and the other is a circuit used for the reading of the signals of one of the LHC detectors. Both circuits were irradiated and have endured very high doses practically without any sign of performance degradation. (J.S.)

  4. Microscopic Characterization of Individual Submicron Bubbles during the Layer-by-Layer Deposition: Towards Creating Smart Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Kato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the individual properties of various polyion-coated bubbles with a mean diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm. Dark field microscopy allows one to track the individual particles of the submicron bubbles (SBs encapsulated by the layer-by-layer (LbL deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes (PEs. Our focus is on the two-step charge reversals of PE-SB complexes: the first is a reversal from negatively charged bare SBs with no PEs added to positive SBs encapsulated by polycations (monolayer deposition, and the second is overcharging into negatively charged PE-SB complexes due to the subsequent addition of polyanions (double-layer deposition. The details of these phenomena have been clarified through the analysis of a number of trajectories of various PE-SB complexes that experience either Brownian motion or electrophoresis. The contrasted results obtained from the analysis were as follows: an amount in excess of the stoichiometric ratio of the cationic polymers was required for the first charge-reversal, whereas the stoichiometric addition of the polyanions lead to the electrical neutralization of the PE-SB complex particles. The recovery of the stoichiometry in the double-layer deposition paves the way for fabricating multi-layered SBs encapsulated solely with anionic and cationic PEs, which provides a simple protocol to create smart agents for either drug delivery or ultrasound contrast imaging.

  5. Deep sub-micron FD-SOI for front-end application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Arai, Y.; Hara, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Hirose, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Ishino, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Kawasaki, T.; Kohriki, T.; Martin, E.; Miyake, H.; Mochizuki, A.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, T.; Takashima, T.; Terada, S.; Tomita, H.; Tsuboyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to confirm benefits of a deep sub-micron FD-SOI and to identify possible issues concerning front-end circuits with the FD-SOI, we have submitted a small design to Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. via the multi-chip project service of VDEC, the University of Tokyo. The initial test results and future plans for development are presented

  6. Number Size Distributions and Seasonality of Submicron Particles in Europe 2008–2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asmi, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Laj, P.; Fjaeraa, A.-M.; Sellegri, K.; Birmili, W.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda; Putaud, J.-P.; Marioni, A.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.; Fiebig, M.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Asmi, E.; Ulevicius, V.; Aalto, P.P.; Swietlicki, E.; Kristensson, E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalivitis, N.; Kalapov, I.; Kiss, G.; de Leeuw, G.; Henzig, B.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D.; O´Dowd, C.; Jennings, S.G.; Flentje, H.; Weinhold, K.; Meinhardt, F.; Ries, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), s. 5505-5538 ISSN 1680-7316 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026140; European Commission(XE) 36833; European Commission(IT) Ev-K2-CNR Grant - others:AFCE(FI) 1118615 Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosol particle number * aerosol concentrations * european submicron Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2011

  7. Limitation and suppression of hot electron fluctuations in submicron semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelap, V.A.; Zahleniuk, N.A.; Sokolov, V.N.

    1992-09-01

    We present theoretical investigations of fluctuations of hot electrons in submicron active regions, where the dimensions 2 d of the region is comparable to the electron energy relaxation length L ε . The new physical phenomenon is reported; the fluctuations depend on the sample thickness, with 2d ε a suppression of fluctuations arises in the range of fluctuation frequencies ω much less than T -1 ε , T ε is the electron energy relaxation time. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs

  8. Development and scintigraphic evaluation of submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation of fluticasone propionate in healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sultana S.; Ahmad, F.J.; Khar, R.K.; Rathore, V.P.; Ali, Rashid; Rawat, H.S.; Chopra, M.K.; Mittal, G.; Bhatnagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Objective of the present study concerns formulation and evaluation of submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation of Fluticasone propionate for the treatment of bronchial asthma, COPD and a new life saving treatment option in restrictive lung diseases such as Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD), toxic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary inflammations or pulmonary edema, which have no effective treatment presently. Materials and Methods: The submicron sized particles were prepared by precipitation method using acetone as solvent and water as antisolvent. Poloxamer F127 was used as stabilizer. Both submicronized and micronized particles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM and TEM. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the submicronized and micronized API was calculated using Andersen cascade impactor. The prepared particles and micronized Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) were radiolabeled with 99m Tc. Size3 HPMC capsules were filled with the 12.5 mg radiolabeled blend (100μg Fluticasone propionate and 12.4mg inhalable lactose) and given to healthy volunteers to assess the comparative pulmonary deposition. Results: The prepared formulation has shown better lung deposition as compared to micronized API. The MMAD of submicronized particles was in the range of 1 - 5 μm while the MMAD of micronized API was in the range of 5 - 15μm. Conclusion: The developed submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation has better lung deposition as compared to micron sized API and it will become a better treatment option for the bronchial asthma, COPD and ILDs

  9. Influence of PEG Stoichiometry on Structure-Tuned Formation of Self-Assembled Submicron Nickel Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxue Pu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled submicron nickel particles were successfully synthesized via the one-step surfactant-assisted solvothermal method. The impact of surfactant and reducing agent stoichiometry is investigated in this manuscript. Different morphologies and structures of Ni particles, including flower-like nanoflakes, hydrangea-like structures, chain structures, sphere-like structures, and hollow structures were prepared through different processing conditions with two parameters such as temperature and time. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, the submicron nickel particles show good saturation magnetization and excellent thermal stabilities with a possible growth mechanism for the variety of the structure-tuned formation. Importantly, the microwave absorption properties of the submicron nickel particles were studied. The lowest reflection loss of Ni-P9/T200/H15 with a thin layer thickness of 1.7 mm can reach −42.6 dB at 17.3 GHz.

  10. Degradation of CMOS image sensors in deep-submicron technology due to γ-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padmakumar R.; Wang, Xinyang; Theuwissen, Albert J. P.

    2008-09-01

    In this work, radiation induced damage mechanisms in deep submicron technology is resolved using finger gated-diodes (FGDs) as a radiation sensitive tool. It is found that these structures are simple yet efficient structures to resolve radiation induced damage in advanced CMOS processes. The degradation of the CMOS image sensors in deep-submicron technology due to γ-ray irradiation is studied by developing a model for the spectral response of the sensor and also by the dark-signal degradation as a function of STI (shallow-trench isolation) parameters. It is found that threshold shifts in the gate-oxide/silicon interface as well as minority carrier life-time variations in the silicon bulk are minimal. The top-layer material properties and the photodiode Si-SiO2 interface quality are degraded due to γ-ray irradiation. Results further suggest that p-well passivated structures are inevitable for radiation-hard designs. It was found that high electrical fields in submicron technologies pose a threat to high quality imaging in harsh environments.

  11. A new route for the synthesis of submicron-sized LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihong, Bao; Wurentuya,; Wei, Wei; Tegus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Submicron crystalline LaB 6 has been successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction of La 2 O 3 with NaBH 4 at 1200 °C. The effects of reaction temperature on the crystal structure, grain size and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It is found that when the reaction temperature is in the range of 1000–1100 °C, there are ultrafine nanoparticles and nanocrystals that coexist. When the reaction temperature elevated to 1200 °C, the grain morphology transformed from ultrafine nanoparticle to submicron crystals completely. High resolution transmission electron microscope images fully confirm the formation of LaB 6 cubic structure. - Highlights: • Single-phased LaB 6 have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction in a continuous evacuating process. • The reaction temperature has a important effect on the phase composition. • The grain size increase from nano-size to submicron with increasing reaction temperature

  12. Assessment of Sub-Micron Particles by Exploiting Charge Differences with Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Romero-Creel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, separation, and enrichment of submicron particles are critical steps in many applications, ranging from bio-sensing to disease diagnostics. Microfluidic electrokinetic techniques, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP have proved to be excellent platforms for assessment of submicron particles. DEP is the motion of polarizable particles under the presence of a non-uniform electric field. In this work, the polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior of polystyrene particles with diameters ranging for 100 nm to 1 μm were studied employing microchannels for insulator based DEP (iDEP and low frequency (<1000 Hz AC and DC electric potentials. In particular, the effects of particle surface charge, in terms of magnitude and type of functionalization, were examined. It was found that the magnitude of particle surface charge has a significant impact on the polarization and dielectrophoretic response of the particles, allowing for successful particle assessment. Traditionally, charge differences are exploited employing electrophoretic techniques and particle separation is achieved by differential migration. The present study demonstrates that differences in the particle’s surface charge can also be exploited by means of iDEP; and that distinct types of nanoparticles can be identified by their polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior. These findings open the possibility for iDEP to be employed as a technique for the analysis of submicron biological particles, where subtle differences in surface charge could allow for rapid particle identification and separation.

  13. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  14. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  15. Potential roughness near lithographically fabricated atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Andersson, L. M.; Wildermuth, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Potential roughness has been reported to severely impair experiments in magnetic microtraps. We show that these obstacles can be overcome as we measure disorder potentials that are reduced by two orders of magnitude near lithographically patterned high-quality gold layers on semiconductor atom chip...

  16. Rough flows and homogenization in stochastic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, I.; Catellier, R.

    2016-01-01

    We provide in this work a tool-kit for the study of homogenisation of random ordinary differential equations, under the form of a friendly-user black box based on the tehcnology of rough flows. We illustrate the use of this setting on the example of stochastic turbulence.

  17. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluat...

  18. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  19. Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.

  20. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....

  1. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s"−"1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s"−"1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. (paper)

  2. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  3. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  4. Fabrication of submicron-scale rectangular bar of transparent In-Ga-Zn-O: A study of the possible application of transparent In-Ga-Zn-O optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Masashi

    2014-05-01

    We studied the optical properties of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) films and found a very low extinction coefficient of the films. For the potential application of the films, we propose an optical waveguide device made of IGZO. We have succeeded in producing a submicron-scale rectangular-bar structure of IGZO using our newly developed dry etching process. Simulation results showed an ˜5 dB/cm propagation loss of a 400 × 400 nm2 square optical waveguide device of amorphous IGZO at a wavelength of 1.55 µm, when a standard deviation of ˜4 nm and a correlation length of ˜100 nm of sidewall roughness were achieved.

  5. Evaluating model parameterizations of submicron aerosol scattering and absorption with in situ data from ARCTAS 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alvarado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of the scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols is essential for accurate simulations of atmospheric chemistry and climate. Closure studies using in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption can be used to evaluate and improve models of aerosol optical properties without interference from model errors in aerosol emissions, transport, chemistry, or deposition rates. Here we evaluate the ability of four externally mixed, fixed size distribution parameterizations used in global models to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption at three wavelengths using in situ data gathered during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS campaign. The four models are the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI Combo model, GEOS-Chem v9-02, the baseline configuration of a version of GEOS-Chem with online radiative transfer calculations (called GC-RT, and the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds (OPAC v3.1 package. We also use the ARCTAS data to perform the first evaluation of the ability of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1 to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption when in situ data on the aerosol size distribution are used, and examine the impact of different mixing rules for black carbon (BC on the results. We find that the GMI model tends to overestimate submicron scattering and absorption at shorter wavelengths by 10–23 %, and that GMI has smaller absolute mean biases for submicron absorption than OPAC v3.1, GEOS-Chem v9-02, or GC-RT. However, the changes to the density and refractive index of BC in GC-RT improve the simulation of submicron aerosol absorption at all wavelengths relative to GEOS-Chem v9-02. Adding a variable size distribution, as in ASP v2.1, improves model performance for scattering but not for absorption, likely due to the assumption in ASP v2.1 that BC is present at a constant mass

  6. Reducing DRIFT backgrounds with a submicron aluminized-mylar cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Fox, J. R.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gold, M.; Harmon, L.; Harton, J.; Lafler, R.; Landers, J.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Matthews, J.; Miller, E. H.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Walker, D.

    2015-09-01

    Background events in the DRIFT-IId dark matter detector, mimicking potential WIMP signals, are predominantly caused by alpha decays on the central cathode in which the alpha particle is completely or partially absorbed by the cathode material. We installed a 0.9 μm thick aluminized-mylar cathode as a way to reduce the probability of producing these backgrounds. We study three generations of cathode (wire, thin-film, and radiologically clean thin-film) with a focus on the ratio of background events to alpha decays. Two independent methods of measuring the absolute alpha decay rate are used to ensure an accurate result, and agree to within 10%. Using alpha range spectroscopy, we measure the radiologically cleanest cathode version to have a contamination of 3.3±0.1 ppt 234U and 73±2 ppb 238U. This cathode reduces the probability of producing an RPR from an alpha decay by a factor of 70±20 compared to the original stainless steel wire cathode. First results are presented from a texturized version of the cathode, intended to be even more transparent to alpha particles. These efforts, along with other background reduction measures, have resulted in a drop in the observed background rate from 500/day to 1/day. With the recent implementation of full-volume fiducialization, these remaining background events are identified, allowing for background-free operation.

  7. Influence of bounce mode on surface roughness of CH coating on microshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baoling; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; He Zhibing; Wu Weidong; Liu Xinghua; Ma Xiaojun; Yang Mengsheng; Lin Huaping; Yang Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    The CH coating on microshells was fabricated by low-pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition (LPPCVD) with a bounce pan system. The influence of bounce modes on the surface topography of the CH coating was discussed. The surface topography was probed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Roughness and sphericity were measured with an atomic force microscopy(AFM). X-radiography was used to obtain the concentricity. The results show that the surface topography of the coating is improved significantly by the intermittent bounce mode, and the roughness of medium high mode is reduced. The surface finish is improved ulteriorly by the intermittent bounce mode as the duty ratio is reduced. The RMS roughness of 30 μm CH coating is less than 30 nm. The spericity and concentricity of hydrocarbon-polystyrene (CH-PS) microshell are all better than 99% when the duty ratio is 1/4. (authors)

  8. Terahertz oscillations in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As submicron planar Gunn diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Ata, E-mail: ata.khalid@glasgow.ac.uk; Thoms, S.; Macintyre, D.; Li, C.; Steer, M. J.; Papageorgiou, V.; Thayne, I. G.; Cumming, D. R. S. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Dunn, G. M.; Macpherson, R. F.; Stephen, A. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 SFX (United Kingdom); Kuball, M.; Montes Bajo, M. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Oxley, C. H.; Glover, J. [Electronic Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-21

    The length of the transit region of a Gunn diode determines the natural frequency at which it operates in fundamental mode—the shorter the device, the higher the frequency of operation. The long-held view on Gunn diode design is that for a functioning device the minimum length of the transit region is about 1.5 μm, limiting the devices to fundamental mode operation at frequencies of roughly 60 GHz. Study of these devices by more advanced Monte Carlo techniques that simulate the ballistic transport and electron-phonon interactions that govern device behaviour, offers a new lower bound of 0.5 μm, which is already being approached by the experimental evidence that has shown planar and vertical devices exhibiting Gunn operation at 600 nm and 700 nm, respectively. The paper presents results of the first ever THz submicron planar Gunn diode fabricated in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As on an InP substrate, operating at a fundamental frequency above 300 GHz. Experimentally measured rf power of 28 μW was obtained from a 600 nm long × 120 μm wide device. At this new length, operation in fundamental mode at much higher frequencies becomes possible—the Monte Carlo model used predicts power output at frequencies over 300 GHz.

  9. The relationship between the particle properties, mechanical behavior, and surface roughness of some pharmaceutical excipient compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Padma; Hancock, Bruno C.

    2003-01-01

    Several common pharmaceutical excipient powders were compacted at a constant solid fraction (SF) in order to study the relationship between powder properties, compact surface roughness, and compact mechanical properties such as hardness, elasticity, and brittleness. The materials used in this study included microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), fumaric acid, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, spray dried lactose, sucrose, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. A slow consolidation process was used to make compacts at a SF of 0.85 (typical for most pharmaceutical tablets) from single excipient components. A model was proposed to describe the surface roughness of compacts based on the brittle or ductile deformation tendencies of the powder materials. The roughness profile would also be dependent upon the magnitude of the compression stress in relation to the yield stress (onset of irreversible deformation) values of the excipients. It was hypothesized that brittle materials would produce smooth compacts with high surface variability due to particle fracture, and the converse would apply for ductile materials. Compact surfaces should be smoother if the materials were compressed above their yield pressure values. Non-contact optical profilometry was used along with scanning electron microscopy to quantify and characterize the surface morphology of the excipient compacts. The roughness parameters R a (average roughness), R q (RMS roughness), R q /R a (ratio describing surface variability), and R sk (skewness) were found to correlate with the deformation properties of the excipients. Brittle materials such as lactose, sucrose, and calcium phosphate produced compacts with low values of R a and R q , high variability, and negative R sk . The opposite was found with plastic materials such as MCC, mannitol, and fumaric acid. The highly negative skewness values for brittle material compacts may indicate their propensity to be vulnerable to cracks or surface defects. These findings

  10. The relationship between the particle properties, mechanical behavior, and surface roughness of some pharmaceutical excipient compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Padma; Hancock, Bruno C

    2003-08-25

    Several common pharmaceutical excipient powders were compacted at a constant solid fraction (SF) in order to study the relationship between powder properties, compact surface roughness, and compact mechanical properties such as hardness, elasticity, and brittleness. The materials used in this study included microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), fumaric acid, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, spray dried lactose, sucrose, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. A slow consolidation process was used to make compacts at a SF of 0.85 (typical for most pharmaceutical tablets) from single excipient components. A model was proposed to describe the surface roughness of compacts based on the brittle or ductile deformation tendencies of the powder materials. The roughness profile would also be dependent upon the magnitude of the compression stress in relation to the yield stress (onset of irreversible deformation) values of the excipients. It was hypothesized that brittle materials would produce smooth compacts with high surface variability due to particle fracture, and the converse would apply for ductile materials. Compact surfaces should be smoother if the materials were compressed above their yield pressure values. Non-contact optical profilometry was used along with scanning electron microscopy to quantify and characterize the surface morphology of the excipient compacts. The roughness parameters R{sub a} (average roughness), R{sub q} (RMS roughness), R{sub q}/R{sub a} (ratio describing surface variability), and R{sub sk} (skewness) were found to correlate with the deformation properties of the excipients. Brittle materials such as lactose, sucrose, and calcium phosphate produced compacts with low values of R{sub a} and R{sub q}, high variability, and negative R{sub sk}. The opposite was found with plastic materials such as MCC, mannitol, and fumaric acid. The highly negative skewness values for brittle material compacts may indicate their propensity to be vulnerable to

  11. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  12. A Facile Method for Separating and Enriching Nano and Submicron Particles from Titanium Dioxide Found in Food and Pharmaceutical Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Capco, David G.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as a source of material remains elusive. As such, we developed a method for separating the nano and submicron fractions found in commercial-grade TiO2 (E171) and E171 extracted from soluble foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products (e.g., chewing gum, pain reliever, and allergy medicine). Primary particle analysis of commercial-grade E171 indicated that 54% of particles were nano-sized (i.e., < 100 nm). Isolation and primary particle analysis of five consumer goods intended to be ingested revealed differences in the percent of nano-sized particles from 32%‒58%. Separation and enrichment of nano- and submicron-sized particles from commercial-grade E171 and E171 isolated from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals was accomplished using rate-zonal centrifugation. Commercial-grade E171 was separated into nano- and submicron-enriched fractions consisting of a nano:submicron fraction of approximately 0.45:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. E171 extracted from gum had nano:submicron fractions of 1.4:1 and 0.19:1 for nano- and submicron-enriched, respectively. We show a difference in particle adhesion to the cell surface, which was found to be dependent on particle size and epithelial orientation. Finally, we provide evidence that E171 particles are not immediately cytotoxic to the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelium model. These data suggest that this separation method is appropriate for studies interested in isolating the nano-sized particle fraction taken directly from consumer products, in order to study separately the effects of nano and submicron particles. PMID:27798677

  13. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  14. Generalized rough sets hybrid structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    The book introduces the concept of “generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets”. It presents the basic properties of these sets and also, investigates an application of generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making with respect to interval of degree of preference. The concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets” is discussed and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough set based multi criteria group decision making scheme is presented, which refines the primary evaluation of the whole expert group and enables us to select the optimal object in a most reliable manner. The book also details concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type 2. It presents the basic properties of these sets. The book also introduces the concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft topological space (IVIFS topological space)” together with intuitionistic fuzzy soft open sets (IVIFS open sets) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft cl...

  15. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  16. Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    2013-01-01

    This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. Howeve......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future.......This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However...

  17. The contact sport of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Describing the way two surfaces touch and make contact may seem simple, but it is not. Fully describing the elastic deformation of ideally smooth contacting bodies, under even low applied pressure, involves second-order partial differential equations and fourth-rank elastic constant tensors. For more realistic rough surfaces, the problem becomes a multiscale exercise in surface-height statistics, even before including complex phenomena such as adhesion, plasticity, and fracture. A recent research competition, the “Contact Mechanics Challenge” (1), was designed to test various approximate methods for solving this problem. A hypothetical rough surface was generated, and the community was invited to model contact with this surface with competing theories for the calculation of properties, including contact area and pressure. A supercomputer-generated numerical solution was kept secret until competition entries were received. The comparison of results (2) provides insights into the relative merits of competing models and even experimental approaches to the problem.

  18. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    . Ductile crack growth in a thin strip under mode I, overall plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Although overall plane strain loading conditions are prescribed, full 3D analyses are carried out to permit modeling of the three dimensional material microstructure and of the resulting......Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling...... three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating plastic solid is used to model the material. Two populations of second phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low...

  19. Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Ingve; Larsen, Åge G.; Andreassen, Erik; Ommundsen, Espen; Nord-Varhaug, Katrin

    2005-12-01

    Gloss is a quantity used in the optical industry to quantify and categorize materials according to how well they scatter light specularly. With the aid of phase perturbation theory, we derive an approximate expression for this quantity for a one-dimensional randomly rough surface. It is demonstrated that gloss depends in an exponential way on two dimensionless quantities that are associated with the surface randomness: the root-mean-square roughness times the perpendicular momentum transfer for the specular direction, and a correlation function dependent factor times a lateral momentum variable associated with the collection angle. Rigorous Monte Carlo simulations are used to access the quality of this approximation, and good agreement is observed over large regions of parameter space.

  20. Sparseness and Roughness of Foreign Exchange Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, N.; Ausloos, M.

    An accurate multiaffine analysis of 23 foreign currency exchange rates has been performed. The roughness exponent H1 which characterizes the excursion of the exchange rate has been numerically measured. The degree of intermittency C1 has been also estimated. In the (H1,C1) phase diagram, the currency exchange rates are dispersed in a wide region around the Brownian motion value (H1=0.5,C1=0) and have a significantly intermittent component (C1≠0).

  1. Rough surface scattering simulations using graphics cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Poruba, Ales; Necas, David; Ohlidal, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present results of rough surface scattering calculations using a graphical processing unit implementation of the Finite Difference in Time Domain algorithm. Numerical results are compared to real measurements and computational performance is compared to computer processor implementation of the same algorithm. As a basis for computations, atomic force microscope measurements of surface morphology are used. It is shown that the graphical processing unit capabilities can be used to speedup presented computationally demanding algorithms without loss of precision.

  2. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2004), the influence of variable roughness reaches its maximum at the height of local 0z and vanishes at the so- called blending height (Wieringa...the distribution of visibility restrictors such as low clouds, fog, haze, dust, and pollutants . An improved understanding of ABL structure...R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on

  3. Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.

  4. The characteristic function of rough Heston models

    OpenAIRE

    Euch, Omar El; Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that rough volatility models, where the volatility is driven by a fractional Brownian motion with small Hurst parameter, provide very relevant dynamics in order to reproduce the behavior of both historical and implied volatilities. However, due to the non-Markovian nature of the fractional Brownian motion, they raise new issues when it comes to derivatives pricing. Using an original link between nearly unstable Hawkes processes and fractional volatility models, we c...

  5. Turbulent flow and heat transfer in channels with combined rough and smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytekin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A two-part experimental investigation is reported on the effects of transverse square rib roughening on fluid flow and heat transfer in channels with uniform and non-uniform boundary conditions. The first part of the experimental programme consisted of providing detailed measurements of mean and basic turbulent characteristics of fully developed flow in two rectangular ducts of aspect ratios 1.63 and 3.0. In each duct only one wall was roughened. In channels having low aspect ratios secondary flows play an important part in momentum transfer, and an interpretation of their effect on the measured Reynolds shear stress distribution has been attempted. In the second part of the experimental programme mean velocity and temperature profiles, friction factors and Stanton numbers were measured in an internally roughened pipe and annuli composed of a rough inner rod and either a smooth or a rough outer pipe. Heating was always applied on the outer surface. In all the geometries the mean velocities near the rough walls were found to be represented by logarithmic straight lines. The gradients of these lines were independent of Reynolds number but differed for various geometries. The mean temperature profiles, measured in the rough pipe and the fully rough annulus, showed that these could also be represented by logarithmic straight lines, but the slopes of these profiles were markedly different from those of the velocity profiles. (author)

  6. Radiative transfer model for contaminated rough slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, François; Douté, Sylvain; Schmidt, Frédéric; Schmitt, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    We present a semi-analytical model to simulate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a rough slab layer containing impurities. This model has been optimized for fast computation in order to analyze massive hyperspectral data by a Bayesian approach. We designed it for planetary surface ice studies but it could be used for other purposes. It estimates the bidirectional reflectance of a rough slab of material containing inclusions, overlaying an optically thick media (semi-infinite media or stratified media, for instance granular material). The inclusions are assumed to be close to spherical and constituted of any type of material other than the ice matrix. It can be any other type of ice, mineral, or even bubbles defined by their optical constants. We assume a low roughness and we consider the geometrical optics conditions. This model is thus applicable for inclusions larger than the considered wavelength. The scattering on the inclusions is assumed to be isotropic. This model has a fast computation implementation and thus is suitable for high-resolution hyperspectral data analysis.

  7. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  8. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  9. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  10. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  11. Deposition of toxic metal particles on rough nanofiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Zvinowanda, Caliphs Musa [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Molelekwa, Gomotsegang Fred; Jullok, Nora; Bruggen, Bart Van der; Volodine, Alexander; Haesendonck, Chris Van [KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Two nanofiltration (NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012) membranes were investigated for their capacity to remove metal ions. This study presents the effect of membrane roughness on the removal of toxic metal ions during dead end membrane filtration. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, WSXM software and ImageJ were used to characterize the roughness of the membranes. Gradual decrease in filtration permeate flux was observed as foulants accumulated at the interface of the membranes; filtration permeate flux varied from 20 L/m{sup 2}/h to 14 L/m{sup 2}/h and 11 L/ m{sup 2}/h to 6 L/m{sup 2}/h for NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012, respectively. NF90 membrane was more prone to fouling than the Nano-Pro-3012 membrane: the percentage flux reduction was higher for NF90 (3.6%) than Nano-Pro-3012 (0.98%). The bearing ratio of the fouled NF90 exhibited a high peak of 7.09 nm than the fouled Nano-Pro-3012 with the peak of 6.8 nm.

  12. Deposition of toxic metal particles on rough nanofiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Zvinowanda, Caliphs Musa; Molelekwa, Gomotsegang Fred; Jullok, Nora; Bruggen, Bart Van der; Volodine, Alexander; Haesendonck, Chris Van

    2014-01-01

    Two nanofiltration (NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012) membranes were investigated for their capacity to remove metal ions. This study presents the effect of membrane roughness on the removal of toxic metal ions during dead end membrane filtration. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, WSXM software and ImageJ were used to characterize the roughness of the membranes. Gradual decrease in filtration permeate flux was observed as foulants accumulated at the interface of the membranes; filtration permeate flux varied from 20 L/m 2 /h to 14 L/m 2 /h and 11 L/ m 2 /h to 6 L/m 2 /h for NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012, respectively. NF90 membrane was more prone to fouling than the Nano-Pro-3012 membrane: the percentage flux reduction was higher for NF90 (3.6%) than Nano-Pro-3012 (0.98%). The bearing ratio of the fouled NF90 exhibited a high peak of 7.09 nm than the fouled Nano-Pro-3012 with the peak of 6.8 nm

  13. Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.

  14. Volatility measurement of atmospheric submicron aerosols in an urban atmosphere in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-M. Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol pollution has been a very serious environmental problem in China for many years. The volatility of aerosols can affect the distribution of compounds in the gas and aerosol phases, the atmospheric fates of the corresponding components, and the measurement of the concentration of aerosols. Compared to the characterization of chemical composition, few studies have focused on the volatility of aerosols in China. In this study, a thermodenuder aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS system was deployed to study the volatility of non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1 species during winter in Shenzhen. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report of the volatilities of aerosol chemical components based on a TD-AMS system in China. The average PM1 mass concentration during the experiment was 42.7±20.1 µg m−3, with organic aerosol (OA being the most abundant component (43.2 % of the total mass. The volatility of chemical species measured by the AMS varied, with nitrate showing the highest volatility, with a mass fraction remaining (MFR of 0.57 at 50 °C. Organics showed semi-volatile characteristics (the MFR was 0.88 at 50 °C, and the volatility had a relatively linear correlation with the TD temperature (from the ambient temperature to 200 °C, with an evaporation rate of 0.45 % °C−1. Five subtypes of OA were resolved from total OA using positive matrix factorization (PMF for data obtained under both ambient temperature and high temperatures through the TD, including a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, accounting for 13.5 %, a cooking OA (COA, 20.6 %, a biomass-burning OA (BBOA, 8.9 %, and two oxygenated OAs (OOAs: a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA, 39.1 % and a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA, 17.9 %. Different OA factors presented different volatilities, and the volatility sequence of the OA factors at 50 °C was HOA (MFR of 0.56  >  LO-OOA (0.70  >  COA (0.85  ≈  BBOA (0.87

  15. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  16. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, James W.

    1980-03-01

    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  17. Velocity overshoot decay mechanisms in compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with a submicron characteristic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyegal, Jang

    2015-01-01

    Velocity overshoot is a critically important nonstationary effect utilized for the enhanced performance of submicron field-effect devices fabricated with high-electron-mobility compound semiconductors. However, the physical mechanisms of velocity overshoot decay dynamics in the devices are not known in detail. Therefore, a numerical analysis is conducted typically for a submicron GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms. It is found that there exist three different mechanisms, depending on device bias conditions. Specifically, at large drain biases corresponding to the saturation drain current (dc) region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid decrease of the momentum relaxation time, not the mobility, arising from the effect of velocity-randomizing intervalley scattering. It then continues to drop rapidly and decays completely by severe mobility reduction due to intervalley scattering. On the other hand, at small drain biases corresponding to the linear dc region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid increase of thermal energy diffusion by electrons in the channel of the gate. It then continues to drop rapidly for a certain channel distance due to the increasing thermal energy diffusion effect, and later completely decays by a sharply decreasing electric field. Moreover, at drain biases close to a dc saturation voltage, the mechanism is a mixture of the above two bias conditions. It is suggested that a large secondary-valley energy separation is essential to increase the performance of submicron devices

  18. Grain orientation and strain measurements in sub-micron wide passivated individual aluminum test structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Valek, B.C.; Spolenak, R.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Brown, W.L.; Marieb, T.; Bravman, J.C.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray microdiffraction dedicated beamline, combining white and monochromatic beam capabilities, has been built at the Advanced Light Source. The purpose of this beamline is to address the myriad of problems in Materials Science and Physics that require submicron x-ray beams for structural characterization. Many such problems are found in the general area of thin films and nano-materials. For instance, the ability to characterize the orientation and strain state in individual grains of thin films allows us to measure structural changes at a very local level. These microstructural changes are influenced heavily by such parameters as deposition conditions and subsequent treatment. The accurate measurement of strain gradients at the micron and sub-micron level finds many applications ranging from the strain state under nano-indenters to gradients at crack tips. Undoubtedly many other applications will unfold in the future as we gain experience with the capabilities and limitations of this instrument. We have applied this technique to measure grain orientation and residual stress in single grains of pure Al interconnect lines and preliminary results on post-electromigration test experiments are presented. It is shown that measurements with this instrument can be used to resolve the complete stress tensor (6 components) in a submicron volume inside a single grain of Al under a passivation layer with an overall precision of about 20 MPa. The microstructure of passivated lines appears to be complex, with grains divided into identifiable subgrains and noticeable local variations of both tensile/compressive and shear stresses within single grains

  19. Sub-micron accurate track navigation method ''Navi'' for the analysis of Nuclear Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, T; Yoshida, J; Kodama, K

    2011-01-01

    Sub-micron accurate track navigation in Nuclear Emulsion is realized by using low energy signals detected by automated Nuclear Emulsion read-out systems. Using those much dense ''noise'', about 10 4 times larger than the real tracks, the accuracy of the track position navigation reaches to be sub micron only by using the information of a microscope field of view, 200 micron times 200 micron. This method is applied to OPERA analysis in Japan, i.e. support of human eye checks of the candidate tracks, confirmation of neutrino interaction vertexes and to embed missing track segments to the track data read-out by automated systems.

  20. Sub-micron accurate track navigation method ``Navi'' for the analysis of Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Kodama, K.

    2011-03-01

    Sub-micron accurate track navigation in Nuclear Emulsion is realized by using low energy signals detected by automated Nuclear Emulsion read-out systems. Using those much dense ``noise'', about 104 times larger than the real tracks, the accuracy of the track position navigation reaches to be sub micron only by using the information of a microscope field of view, 200 micron times 200 micron. This method is applied to OPERA analysis in Japan, i.e. support of human eye checks of the candidate tracks, confirmation of neutrino interaction vertexes and to embed missing track segments to the track data read-out by automated systems.

  1. Submicron-sized aerosol and radon progeny measurements in an uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, D.; Chouard, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Submicron-sized aerosol was studied in an uranium mine using an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer. In addition radon progeny particle size distributions were measured using a prototype instrument developed by us (SDI 2000). With cascade impactor the number weighted mean electrical mobility diameters and the geometric standard deviations ranged respectively from 0.05 to 0.1 μm and 1.8 to 2. The gross alpha activity weighted mean thermodynamic diameters ranged typically from 0.1 to 0.2 μm. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Bloch-wave engineered submicron-diameter quantum-dot micropillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The semiconductor micropillar is attractive for cavity QED experiments. For strong coupling, the figure of merit is proportional to Q/√V, and a design combining a high Q and a low mode volume V is thus desired. However, for the standard submicron diameter design, poor mode matching between the ca...... the cavity and the DBR Bloch mode limits the Q. We present a novel adiabatic design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to improve the mode matching, allowing the demonstration of a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 μeV and a Q of 13600 for a 850 nm diameter micropillar....

  3. Reduced impact of induced gate noise on inductively degenerated LNAs in deep submicron CMOS technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, P.; Svelto, F.; Mazzanti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of radio-frequency inductively-degenerated CMOS low-noise-amplifiers have usually not followed the guidelines for achieving minimum noise figure. Nonetheless, state-of-the- art implementations display noise figure values very close to the theoretical minimum. In this paper, we point out...... that this is due to the effect of the parasitic overlap capacitances in the MOS device. In particular, we show that overlap capacitances lead to a significant induced-gate-noise reduction, especially when deep sub-micron CMOS processes are used....

  4. Reducing surface roughness by optimising the turning parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar, K.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturers worldwide look for the cheapest quality-manufactured machined components to compete in the market. Good surface quality is desired for the proper functioning of the parts produced. The surface quality is influenced by the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and many other parameters. In this paper, the Taguchi method a powerful tool to design optimisation for quality is used to find the optimal machining parameters for the turning operation. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to investigate the machining characteristics of super duplex stainless steel bars using uncoated carbide cutting tools. The effect of machining parameters on surface roughness was discovered. Confirmation tests were conducted at optimal conditions to compare the experimental results with the predicted values.

  5. Effect of film roughness in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions: model calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati Boostan, Saeideh; Heiliger, Christian [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 (Germany); Moradi, Hosein [Department of Physics,Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    We calculate how interface roughness affects the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in Fe/MgO/Fe (100) junctions. The used method is based on a single-band tight-binding (SBTB) approximation employing the Green's function formalism. We investigate the influence of disorder at the TMR ratio. Thereby, the disorder is modeled by considering different occupation probabilities of Fe and MgO at interface sites. We calculate the current densities for parallel and anti-parallel configurations for different disorders. The results show that the roughness decreases the TMR that match well with experimental observations.

  6. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  7. Estimating small-scale roughness of a rock joint using TLS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    ) is approximately normal. Standard deviation of differences on average slightly increases with the noise level, but is strongly dependent on the analysis direction. As proved by different researches within the field of signal, image and also TLS data processing, noise can be, to a certain extent, removed by a post-processing step called denoising. In this research, four denoising methods, namely discrete WT (DWT) and stationary WT (SWT), and classic NLM (NLM) and probabilistic NLM (PNLM), were used on noisy ATOS data. Results were compared based on the (i) height and (ii) roughness differences between denoised surfaces and reference ATOS surface, (iii) the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and (iv) the visual check of denoised surface. Increased PSNRs and reduced roughness differences prove the importance of the TLS data denoising procedure. In case of SWT, NLM and PNLM the surface is mostly over smoothed, whereas in case of DWT some noise remains. References: - Grasselli, G. (2001). Shear strength of rock joints based on quantified surface description. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Lausanne, EPFL. - Sturzenegger, M. and D. Stead (2009). "Close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for discontinuity characterization on rock cuts." Engineering Geology 106(3-4): 163-182.

  8. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  9. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  10. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  11. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of pastes containing submicron Ag-coated Cu filler with palmitic acid surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication and applied use of submicron Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles as a filler material for epoxy-based conductive pastes having the advantages of a lower material cost and antioxidation behavior were studied. Submicron Cu@Ag particles were successfully prepared and surface-modified using palmitic acid. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the formation of an organic layer by the chemical interaction between the Cu@Ag surface and palmitic acid and the survival of the organic layer after treatment at 160 °C for 3 h in air. The printed pastes containing both commercial micron Cu@Ag flakes and the fabricated submicron Cu@Ag particles showed a greatly reduced electrical resistivity (4.68 × 10-4 Ω cm) after surface modification compared to an initial value of 1.85 × 10-3 Ω cm when cured.

  12. Hot carrier degradation and a new lifetime prediction model in ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xiao-Yi; Liu Hong-Xia; Zhang Kai; Zhang Yue; Zheng Xue-Feng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    The hot carrier effect (HCE) of an ultra-deep sub-micron p-channel metal—oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (pMOSFET) is investigated in this paper. Experiments indicate that the generation of positively charged interface states is the predominant mechanism in the case of the ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET. The relation of the pMOSFET hot carrier degradation to stress time (t), channel width (W), channel length (L), and stress voltage (V d ) is then discussed. Based on the relation, a lifetime prediction model is proposed, which can predict the lifetime of the ultra-deep sub-micron pMOSFET accurately and reflect the influence of the factors on hot carrier degradation directly. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  14. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  15. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  16. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  17. A Facile Method for Separating and Enriching Nano and Submicron Particles from Titanium Dioxide Found in Food and Pharmaceutical Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, James J; Doudrick, Kyle; Yang, Yu; Capco, David G; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as a source of material remains elusive. As such, we developed a method for separating the nano and submicron fractions found in commercial-grade TiO2 (E171) and E171 extracted from soluble foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products (e.g., chewing gum, pain reliever, and allergy medicine). Primary particle analysis of commercial-grade E171 indicated that 54% of particles were nano-sized (i.e., E171 and E171 isolated from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals was accomplished using rate-zonal centrifugation. Commercial-grade E171 was separated into nano- and submicron-enriched fractions consisting of a nano:submicron fraction of approximately 0.45:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. E171 extracted from gum had nano:submicron fractions of 1.4:1 and 0.19:1 for nano- and submicron-enriched, respectively. We show a difference in particle adhesion to the cell surface, which was found to be dependent on particle size and epithelial orientation. Finally, we provide evidence that E171 particles are not immediately cytotoxic to the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelium model. These data suggest that this separation method is appropriate for studies interested in isolating the nano-sized particle fraction taken directly from consumer products, in order to study separately the effects of nano and submicron particles.

  18. Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG

    1998-01-01

    Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the

  19. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  20. Rough sets applied in sublattices and ideals of lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of rough hyperlattice. In this regards we introduce rough sublattice and rough ideals of lattices. We will proceed by obtaining lower and upper approximations in these lattices.

  1. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...

  2. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  3. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; Ślęzak, Dominik; Yao, Yiyu

    2012-01-01

    Introduced in the early 1980s, Rough Set Theory has become an important part of soft computing in the last 25 years. This book provides a practical, context-based analysis of rough set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets.

  4. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  5. Kinetics of Sub-Micron Grain Size Refinement in 9310 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmel, Thomas; Chen, Edward Y.; Chen, Charlie C.; Tin, Sammy

    2014-05-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel manufacturing processes capable of producing microstructures dominated by sub-micron grains. For structural applications, grain refinement has been shown to enhance mechanical properties such as strength, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Through control of the thermo-mechanical processing parameters, dynamic recrystallization mechanisms were used to produce microstructures consisting of sub-micron grains in 9310 steel. Starting with initial bainitic grain sizes of 40 to 50 μm, various levels of grain refinement were observed following hot deformation of 9310 steel samples at temperatures and strain rates ranging from 755 K to 922 K (482 °C and 649 °C) and 1 to 0.001/s, respectively. The resulting deformation microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to quantify the extent of carbide coarsening and grain refinement occurring during deformation. Microstructural models based on the Zener-Holloman parameter were developed and modified to include the effect of the ferrite/carbide interactions within the system. These models were shown to effectively correlate microstructural attributes to the thermal mechanical processing parameters.

  6. Airborne studies of submicron aerosol in the troposphere over West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchenko, M.V.; Zuev, V.E.; Belan, B.D.; Terpugova, S.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    Submicron fraction particles that have the longest lifespan and are included in almost all atmospheric processes are of special importance among the great variety of sizes of particles present in the atmosphere. Submicron particles mainly determine the opticle state of the atmosphere in the visible spectral range, essentially cause the absorption of infrared radiation and, since they are the products and participants in all aerosol-to-gas transformations, accumulate of a lot of various chemical compounds and transfer them to large distances. Investigation of the processes of the spatial-temporal variability of aerosol particles for different climatic zones of the earth is the experimental base for studying their effect on climatically and ecologically significant factors and estimating their unfavorable tendencies. The increasing anthropogenic loading of the earth`s atmosphere is creating an urgency for aerosol research. Regardless of how perfect the analytical and numerical methods of solving radiation problems may be, success in forecasting climatic change is mainly determined by the reliability of the experimental data on optical parameters of the atmosphere and of the description of their variability under the effect of external factors.

  7. Submicron and ultrafine grained hardmetals for microdrills and metal cutting inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gille, G.; Szesny, B.; Dreyer, K.; Berg, H. van den; Schidt, J.; Gestrich, T.; Leitner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Although round tools as carbide drills and mills are dominating by far the application of submicron and ultrafine hardmetals the consumption for PCB microdrills had the strongest growth rate over the last decade. This paper deals with the latest developments of ultrafine hardmetals and their application for PCB microdrills and metal cutting inserts. Based on optimized processing and properties such as hardness, hot hardness, toughness, strength and wear resistance a new generation of microdrills is presented. In particular the failure probability of the microdrills could be considerably reduced and the number of drilling strokes was nearly doubled. Combining improved pressing behavior with proper doping and optimized processing new applications of submicron and ultrafine hardmetals could be obtained by using complex shaped metal cutting inserts. Apart from these application examples the paper gives some insight into fundamental investigations an sintering and properties of ultrafine hardmetals and shows in particular the influence of milling, doping and sintering an the properties of ultrafine hardmetals. The paper also presents a new ultrafine WC grade showing a 0.1 μm WC intercept of a sintered WC - 10 wt % Co structure and a hardness of HV 30 = 2050 for a 1 wt % mixed VC/Cr 3 C 2 doping. (author)

  8. Submicron polycaprolactone particles as a carrier for imaging contrast agent for in vitro applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Robin, Sophie; Humbert, Philippe; Viennet, Céline; Agusti, Geraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent materials have recently attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties and high performance as imaging agent in biomedical fields. Different imaging agents have been encapsulated in order to restrict its delivery to a specific area. In this study, a fluorescent contrast agent was encapsulated for in vitro application by polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer. The encapsulation was performed using modified double emulsion solvent evaporation technique with sonication. Fluorescent nanoparticles (20 nm) were incorporated in the inner aqueous phase of double emulsion. A number of samples were fabricated using different concentrations of fluorescent contrast agent. The contrast agent-containing submicron particle was characterized by a zetasizer for average particle size, SEM and TEM for morphology observations and fluorescence spectrophotometer for encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, contrast agent distribution in the PCL matrix was determined by confocal microscopy. The incorporation of contrast agent in different concentrations did not affect the physicochemical properties of PCL particles and the average size of encapsulated particles was found to be in the submicron range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of passive heating for replication of sub-micron patterns in optical disk substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngmin; Bae, Jaecheol; Kim, Hongmin; Kang, Shinill [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-07

    The transcribability of pit or land groove structures in replicating an optical disk substrate greatly affects the performance of a high-density optical disk. However, a solidified layer generated during the polymer filling worsens transcribability because the solidified layer prevents the polymer melt from filling the sub-micron patterns. Therefore, the development of the solidified layer during the filling stage of injection moulding must be delayed. For this delay, passive heating through an insulation layer has been used. In the present study, to examine the development of the solidified layer, delayed by passive heating, the flow of the polymer melt with passive heating was analysed. Passive heating delayed markedly the development of the solidified layer, reduced the viscosity of the polymer melt, and increased the fluidity of the polymer melt in the vicinity of the stamper surface with the sub-micron patterns. As a result, we predict that passive heating can improve the transcribability of an optical disk substrate. To verify our prediction, we fabricated an optical disk substrate by using passive heating of a mould and measured the transcribability of an optical disk substrate.

  10. Modelling of passive heating for replication of sub-micron patterns in optical disk substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngmin; Bae, Jaecheol; Kim, Hongmin; Kang, Shinill

    2004-01-01

    The transcribability of pit or land groove structures in replicating an optical disk substrate greatly affects the performance of a high-density optical disk. However, a solidified layer generated during the polymer filling worsens transcribability because the solidified layer prevents the polymer melt from filling the sub-micron patterns. Therefore, the development of the solidified layer during the filling stage of injection moulding must be delayed. For this delay, passive heating through an insulation layer has been used. In the present study, to examine the development of the solidified layer, delayed by passive heating, the flow of the polymer melt with passive heating was analysed. Passive heating delayed markedly the development of the solidified layer, reduced the viscosity of the polymer melt, and increased the fluidity of the polymer melt in the vicinity of the stamper surface with the sub-micron patterns. As a result, we predict that passive heating can improve the transcribability of an optical disk substrate. To verify our prediction, we fabricated an optical disk substrate by using passive heating of a mould and measured the transcribability of an optical disk substrate

  11. Fabrication of submicron conducting and chemically functionalized structures from poly(3-octylthiophene) by an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S.X.; Kanskar, M.; Nabity, J.C.; Keana, J.F.W.; Wybourne, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a novel method of using an electron beam to both functionalize and cross-link poly (3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) in a single step to produce submicron scale polymer structures carrying functionalized groups. P3OT is shown to be a negative electron-beam resist with a sensitivity of 15-30 μC cm -2 .The electrical conductivity of doped P3OT wire structures was measured at room temperature and was found to be in the range 4.0-5.9 Ω -1 cm -1 . Electron-beam exposure of P3OT films containing 7 wt % of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) functionalized perfluorophenyl azide 2 resulted in the incorporation of the NHS functional groups in the polymer, as well as cross-linking. The functionalized submicron structures were found to be weakly fluorescent under fluorescein excitation (450-490 nm), but after treatment with a solution of 5-(aminoacetamido)fluorescein in ethanol the structures became strongly fluorescent. 27 refs., 3 figs

  12. Effect of interface roughness on Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Tansu, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    Auger recombination in a semiconductor is a three-carrier process, wherein the energy from the recombination of an electron and hole pair promotes a third carrier to a higher energy state. In semiconductor quantum wells with increased carrier densities, the Auger recombination becomes an appreciable fraction of the total recombination rate and degrades luminescence efficiency. Gaining insight into the variables that influence Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells could lead to further advances in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Here we demonstrate the important role that interface roughness has on Auger recombination within quantum wells. Our computational studies find that as the ratio of interface roughness to quantum well thickness is increased, Auger recombination is significantly enhanced. Specifically, when considering a realistic interface roughness for an InGaN quantum well, the enhancement in Auger recombination rate over a quantum well with perfect heterointerfaces can be approximately four orders of magnitude.

  13. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI...

  14. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.

  15. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  16. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  17. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Cong; Ye, Ziran; Gao, Yibo; Xie, Jiao; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  18. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  19. Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.

    2018-03-01

    We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.

  20. Skin friction measurements of mathematically generated roughness in the transitionally- to fully-rough regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Engineering systems are affected by surface roughness which cause an increase in drag leading to significant performance penalties. One important question is how to predict frictional drag purely based upon surface topography. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, this has proven to be challenging. The present work takes a systematic approach by generating surface roughness in which surfaces parameters, such as rms , skewness, can be controlled. Surfaces were produced using the random Fourier modes method with enforced power-law spectral slopes. The surfaces were manufactured using high resolution 3D-printing. In this study three surfaces with constant amplitude and varying slope, P, were investigated (P = - 0 . 5 , - 1 . 0 , - 1 . 5). Skin-friction measurements were conducted in a high Reynolds number turbulent channel flow facility, covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, from hydraulic-smooth to fully-rough regimes. Results show that some long wavelength roughness scales do not contribute significantly to the frictional drag, thus highlighting the need for filtering in the calculation of surface statistics. Upon high-pass filtering, it was found that krms is highly correlated with the measured ks.

  1. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa de Medeiros Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA. Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10 according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing, NF (Nealon technique and finishing, NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing, MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing, and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing. For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6±3.05; MP, 5.36±2.08; NP, 4.96±1.93; MF, 7.36±2.45; and LP, 1.56±0.62 (CFU. The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23±0.15; MP, 0.52±0.05; NP, 0.60±0.08; MF, 2.69±0.12; and LP, 0.07±0.02 (μm. A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  2. The effect of copper substrate’s roughness on graphene growth process via PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tengfei; Yan, Cuixia; Lu, Jianchen; Zhang, Lianchang; Cai, Jinming

    2018-04-01

    Despite many excellent properties, the synthesis of high quality graphene with low-cost way is still a challenge, thus many different factors have been researched. In this work, the effect of surface roughness to the graphene quality was studied. Graphene was synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method on copper substrates with different roughness from 0.074 μm to 0.339 μm, which were prepared via annealing, corrosion or polishing, respectively. Ar+ plasma cleaning was applied before graphene growth in order to accommodate similar surface chemical reactivity to each other. Scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscope were employed to investigate the effect of surface roughness, which reveals that the graphene quality decrease first and then increase again according to the ratio of ID/IG in Raman spectroscopy. When the ratio of ID/IG reaches the largest number, the substrate roughness is 0.127 μm, where is the graphene quality changing point. First principle calculation was applied to explain the phenomenon and revealed that it is strongly affected by the graphene grain size and quantity which can induce defects. This strategy is expected to guide the industrial production of graphene.

  3. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  4. Spatiotemporal Variation in Composition of Submicron Particles in Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Tagle

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of submicron particles (aerodynamic diameter Da < 1.0 μm was investigated at three locations in the Santiago Metropolitan Region (SMR, Chile. Measurements campaigns were conducted in winter and spring 2016, at representative sites of a rural, urban, and urban receptor environment. Instrumentation consisted of an optical analyzer to determine Black Carbon (BC and the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM to measure concentrations of particulate chloride (Cl−, nitrate (NO3-, sulfate (SO42-, ammonium (NH4+, and non-refractory carbonaceous species (organics. Complementary data, such as ozone concentration and meteorological parameters were obtained from the public air quality network. Results showed that in both the winter and spring seasons the organics predominated in the mass of submicron particles. This fraction was followed in decreasing order by NO3-, NH4+, BC, SO42-, and Cl−. The highest average organics concentrations were measured in winter at the urban (32.2 μg m−3 and urban receptor sites (20.1 μg m−3. In winter, average concentrations of both NO3- and NH4+ were higher at the urban receptor site (12.3 and 4.5 μg m−3, respectively when compared to the urban site (6.4 and 3.1 μg m−3, respectively. In general, all the measured species were present in higher concentrations during winter, excepting SO42-, which was the only one that increased during spring. The transition toward spring was also associated with an acidification of the aerosol at the rural and urban receptor site, while at the urban site the aerosol was observed alkaline. The highest average ozone concentration during both the winter and spring seasons were recorded at the urban receptor site (7.2 and 24.0 ppb, respectively. The study reports data showing that the atmosphere in the SMR has a considerable load of particulate organic compounds, NO3- and NH4+, which are in higher concentrations at urban sites during the winter season

  5. The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deane, Grant B.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Ryder, Olivia S.; Stokes, M. Dale; Beall, Charlotte M.; Collins, Douglas B.; Santander, Mitchell V.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Sultana, Camille M.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-06-19

    Covering 71% of the Earth’s surface, oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. The size and composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) affect their ability to serve as cloud seeds and thus understanding the factors controlling their composition is critical to predicting their impact on clouds and climate. SSA particles have been shown to be an external mixture of particles with different compositions. Film and jet drop production mechanisms ultimately determine the individual particle compositions which are comprised of an array of salt/organic mixtures ranging from pure sea salt to nearly pure organic particles. It is often assumed that the majority of submicron SSA are formed by film drops produced from bursting hydrophobic organic-rich bubble film caps at the sea surface, and in contrast, jet drops are postulated to produce larger supermicron particles from underlying seawater comprised largely of salts and water soluble organic species. However, here we show that jet drops produced by bursting sub-100 m bubbles account for up to 40 % of all submicron particles. They have distinct chemical compositions, organic volume fractions and ice nucleating activities from submicron film drops. Thus a substantial fraction of submicron particles will not necessarily be controlled by the composition of the sea surface microlayer as has been assumed in many studies. This finding has significant ramifications for the size-resolved mixing states of SSA particles which must be taken into consideration when accessing SSA impacts on clouds.

  6. A Novel Leakage-tolerant Domino Logic Circuit With Feedback From Footer Transistor In Ultra Deep Submicron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Peiravi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    As the CMOS manufacturing process scales down into the ultra deep sub-micron regime, the leakage current becomes an increasingly more important consideration in VLSI circuit design. In this paper, a high speed and noise immune domino logic circuit is presented which uses the property of the footer...

  7. Submicron InP DHBT technology for high-speed high-swing mixed-signal ICs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godin, Jean; Nodjiadjim, V.; Riet, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a submicron InP DHBT technology, optimized for the fabrication of 50-GHz-clock mixed signal ICs. In-depth study of device geometry and structure has allowed to get the needed performances and yield. Special attention has been paid to critical thermal behavior. Vari...... applications of interest....

  8. Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient

  9. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  10. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  11. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  12. Development of Pixel Front-End Electronics using Advanced Deep Submicron CMOS Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, Miroslav; Dingfelder, Jochen

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R&D; of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore’s laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key pa...

  13. The capture of submicron particles by collector plates - Wind-tunnel investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    The deposition of submicron particles on collector plates parallel to the flow was studied experimentally in a wind-tunnel. The validity of a theoretical model based on brownian diffusion was investigated and its Inadequacies tested. The aerosol sample consisted of uranine particles (mean geometrical radius: about 0. 1 μm). The average flow speeds varied from 1 to 10 m/s and the length of the collector plates between 1 and 10 cm. Results showed that capture was mainly due to diffusion and was in good agreement with the theoretical model; however a noticeable deposit of particles on the front part of the collector edge was observed. Sedimentation was insignificant in almost all the cases. (author) [fr

  14. Calculation of the soft error rate of submicron CMOS logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhnke, T.; Klar, H.

    1995-01-01

    A method to calculate the soft error rate (SER) of CMOS logic circuits with dynamic pipeline registers is described. This method takes into account charge collection by drift and diffusion. The method is verified by comparison of calculated SER's to measurement results. Using this method, the SER of a highly pipelined multiplier is calculated as a function of supply voltage for a 0.6 microm, 0.3 microm, and 0.12 microm technology, respectively. It has been found that the SER of such highly pipelined submicron CMOS circuits may become too high so that countermeasures have to be taken. Since the SER greatly increases with decreasing supply voltage, low-power/low-voltage circuits may show more than eight times the SER for half the normal supply voltage as compared to conventional designs

  15. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  16. Size-Tuned Plastic Flow Localization in Irradiated Materials at the Submicron Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinan; Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (3D-DDD) simulations reveal that, with reduction of sample size in the submicron regime, the mechanism of plastic flow localization in irradiated materials transitions from irradiation-controlled to an intrinsic dislocation source controlled. Furthermore, the spatial correlation of plastic deformation decreases due to weaker dislocation interactions and less frequent cross slip as the system size decreases, thus manifesting itself in thinner dislocation channels. A simple model of discrete dislocation source activation coupled with cross slip channel widening is developed to reproduce and physically explain this transition. In order to quantify the phenomenon of plastic flow localization, we introduce a "deformation localization index," with implications to the design of radiation-resistant materials.

  17. Stochastic process variation in deep-submicron CMOS circuits and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2014-01-01

    One of the most notable features of nanometer scale CMOS technology is the increasing magnitude of variability of the key device parameters affecting performance of integrated circuits. The growth of variability can be attributed to multiple factors, including the difficulty of manufacturing control, the emergence of new systematic variation-generating mechanisms, and most importantly, the increase in atomic-scale randomness, where device operation must be described as a stochastic process. In addition to wide-sense stationary stochastic device variability and temperature variation, existence of non-stationary stochastic electrical noise associated with fundamental processes in integrated-circuit devices represents an elementary limit on the performance of electronic circuits. In an attempt to address these issues, Stochastic Process Variation in Deep-Submicron CMOS: Circuits and Algorithms offers unique combination of mathematical treatment of random process variation, electrical noise and temperature and ne...

  18. A submicron synchrotron X-ray beam generated by capillary optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, P.; Larsson, S.; Rindby, A.; Buttkewitz, A.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1991-01-01

    A novel capillary optics technique for focusing synchrotron X-ray beams has been applied in an experiment performed at the DORIS storage ring at HASYLAB. This new technqiue, which utilizes the total reflection properties of X-rays inside small capillaries, has recently been applied to generate microbeams of X-rays, with a beam size down to about 10 μm using conventional X-ray tubes. The result from our recent experiment shows that capillary optics can also be used to generate a submicron beam of X-rays from a synchrotron light source. A description of the capillary unit, and the alignment procedure is given. The influence of the thermal load on the device caused by the intense flux of synchrotron radiation will be discussed. Future perspectives of the capillary techniques as applied to synchrotron radiation will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Design consideration for dc SQUIDs fabricated in deep sub-micron technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchen, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Design rules for scaling dc SQUID junctions to optimize SQUID performance have been well known for over a decade, and verified down to the sub-micron regime. Practical SQUIDs having well coupled input coils of usable inductance have generally been fabricated at the 2-5 μm level of lithography. Other technologies, silicon in particular, are now routinely practiced at the 0.5 μm level of lithography with impressive demonstrations at the 0.1-0.25 μm level not uncommon. In this paper the implications of applying such fabrication capability to advance dc SQUID technology are explored. In particular the issues of scaling practical dc SQUIDs down to the 0.1-0.25 μm regime are examined, using as a prototype design the basic washer SQUID with a spiral input coil

  20. EQUIPMENT FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF SILICON WAFERS SUBMICRON TOPOLOGY DURING THE FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chizhik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using an atomic force microscopy in manufacturing of submicron integrated circuits are described. The possibilities of characterizing the surface morphology and the etching profile for silicon substrate and bus lines, estimation of the periodicity and size of bus lines, geometrical stability for elementary bus line are shown. Methods of optical and atomic force microcopies are combined in one diagnostic unit. Scanning  probe  microscope  (SPM  200  is  designed  and  produced.  Complex  SPM  200  realizes  nondestructive control of microelectronics elements made on silicon wafers up to 200 mm in diameter and it is introduced by JSC «Integral» for the purpose of operational control, metrology and acceptance of the final product.

  1. A 45 nm Stacked CMOS Image Sensor Process Technology for Submicron Pixel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Seiji; Huang, Yi-Min; Sze, Jhy-Jyi; Wu, Tung-Ting; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Tung-Hsiung; Liao, King; Kuo, Chin-Chia; Chen, Tzu-Hsiang; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Chuang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Keng-Yu; Chung, Chi-Hsien; Chou, Kuo-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Hsien; Wang, Chuan-Joung; Yaung, Dun-Nien

    2017-12-05

    A submicron pixel's light and dark performance were studied by experiment and simulation. An advanced node technology incorporated with a stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS) is promising in that it may enhance performance. In this work, we demonstrated a low dark current of 3.2 e - /s at 60 °C, an ultra-low read noise of 0.90 e - ·rms, a high full well capacity (FWC) of 4100 e - , and blooming of 0.5% in 0.9 μm pixels with a pixel supply voltage of 2.8 V. In addition, the simulation study result of 0.8 μm pixels is discussed.

  2. Submicron confinement effect on electrical activation of B implanted in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Impellizzeri, G.; Priolo, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Raineri, V.; Napolitani, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we studied the effect of B implantation in Si through submicron laterally confined area on B clustering and its electrical activation. For this study, we implanted B 3 keV into a Si wafer grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) through a patterned oxide mask with opening widths down to 0.38 μm. Then, we annealed the sample at 800 deg. C for several times up to 120 min and monitored the 2D carrier profile by quantitative high resolution Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM). We show that by reducing the opening widths, not only the B clustering is strongly reduced, but also the B cluster dissolution is accelerated. This demonstrates the beneficial role of implanted B confinement on the B electrical activation. The above results have a significant impact in the modern Si based electronic device engineering

  3. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Critical current and electric transport properties of superconducting epitaxial Nb(Ti)N submicron structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, A.; Słysz, W.; Guziewicz, M.; Kolkovsky, V.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Marchewka, M.; Seredyński, B.

    2016-12-01

    Critical current and current-voltage characteristics of epitaxial Nb(Ti)N submicron ultrathin structures were measured as function of temperature. For 700-nm-wide bridge we found current-driven vortex de-pinning at low temperatures and thermally activated flux flow closer to the transition temperature, as the limiting factors for the critical current density. For 100-nm-wide meander we observed combination of phase-slip activation and vortex-anti-vortex pair (VAP) thermal excitation. Our Nb(Ti)N meander structure demonstrates high de-pairing critical current densities 107 A/cm2 at low temperatures, but the critical currents are much smaller due to presence of the local constrictions.

  5. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M-S; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P; Assafrao, A C; Wachters, A J H; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P; Brun, M; Olivier, S; Nicoletti, S

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (μ-SIL) made of SiO 2 . Such structured focal spots are characterized by a doughnut-shaped intensity distribution, whose central dark region is of great interest for optical trapping of nano-size particles, super-resolution microscopy and lithography. In this work, we have used a high-resolution interference microscopy technique to measure the structured immersed focal spots, whose dimensions were found to be significantly reduced due to the immersion effect of the μ-SIL. In particular, a reduction of 37% of the dark central region was verified. The measurements were compared with a rigorous finite element method model for the μ-SIL, revealing excellent agreement between them. (paper)

  6. The total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep submicron CMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rongbin; Wang Yuxin; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Using 0.18 μm CMOS transistors, the total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep-submicron CMOS transistors are studied for the first time in mainland China. From the experimental results and the theoretic analysis, we realize that total dose radiation causes a lot of trapped positive charges in STI (shallow trench isolation) SiO 2 layers, which induces a current leakage passage, increasing the 1/f noise power of CMOS transistors. In addition, we design some radiation-hardness structures on the CMOS transistors and the experimental results show that, until the total dose achieves 750 krad, the 1/f noise power of the radiation-hardness CMOS transistors remains unchanged, which proves our conclusion. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxin; Hu Rongbin; Li Ruzhang; Chen Guangbing; Fu Dongbing; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Based on 0.18 μm MOS transistors, for the first time, the total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors are studied. The experimental results show that the total dose radiation magnifies the mismatch among identically designed MOS transistors. In our experiments, as the radiation total dose rises to 200 krad, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of NMOS transistors increase from 0.55% and 1.4% before radiation to 17.4% and 13.5% after radiation, respectively. PMOS transistors seem to be resistant to radiation damage. For all the range of radiation total dose, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of PMOS transistors keep under 0.5% and 2.72%, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Occurrence of weak, sub-micron, tropospheric aerosol events at high Arctic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Pancrati, O.; Baibakov, K.; Eloranta, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Freemantle, J.; McArthur, L. J. B.; Strong, K.; Lindenmaier, R.

    2008-07-01

    Numerous fine mode (sub-micron) aerosol optical events were observed during the summer of 2007 at the High Arctic atmospheric observatory (PEARL) located at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada. Half of these events could be traced to forest fires in southern and eastern Russia and the Northwest Territories of Canada. The most notable findings were that (a) a combination of ground-based measurements (passive sunphotometry, high spectral resolution lidar) could be employed to determine that weak (near sub-visual) fine mode events had occurred, and (b) this data combined with remote sensing imagery products (MODIS, OMI-AI, FLAMBE fire sources), Fourier transform spectroscopy and back trajectories could be employed to identify the smoke events.

  9. Fabrication of magnetic and fluorescent chitin and dibutyrylchitin sub-micron particles by oil-in-water emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Chakravarty, Shatadru; Nkansah, Michael K; Shapiro, Erik M

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is a carbohydrate polymer with unique pharmacological and immunological properties, however, because of its unwieldy chemistry, the synthesis of discreet sized sub-micron particles has not been well reported. This work describes a facile and flexible method to fabricate biocompatible chitin and dibutyrylchitin sub-micron particles. This technique is based on an oil-in-water emulsification/evaporation method and involves the hydrophobization of chitin by the addition of labile butyryl groups onto chitin, disrupting intermolecular hydrogen bonds and enabling solubility in the organic solvent used as the oil phase during fabrication. The subsequent removal of butyryl groups post-fabrication through alkaline saponification regenerates native chitin while keeping particles morphology intact. Examples of encapsulation of hydrophobic dyes and nanocrystals are demonstrated, specifically using iron oxide nanocrystals and coumarin 6. The prepared particles had diameters between 300-400nm for dibutyrylchitin and 500-600nm for chitin and were highly cytocompatible. Moreover, they were able to encapsulate high amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals and were able to label mammalian cells. We describe a technique to prepare sub-micron particles of highly acetylated chitin (>90%) and dibutyrylchitin and demonstrate their utility as carriers for imaging. Chitin is a polysaccharide capable of stimulating the immune system, a property that depends on the acetamide groups, but its insolubility limits its use. No method for sub-micron particle preparation with highly acetylated chitins have been published. The only approach for the preparation of sub-micron particles uses low acetylation chitins. Dibutyrylchitin, a soluble chitin derivative, was used to prepare particles by oil in water emulsification. Butyryl groups were then removed, forming chitin particles. These particles could be suitable for encapsulation of hydrophobic payloads for drug delivery and cell imaging, as well as

  10. New constraints on deformation processes in serpentinite from sub-micron Raman Spectroscopy and TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A. F.; Tarling, M.; Rooney, J. S.; Gordon, K. C.; Viti, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive work has been performed to characterize the mineralogical and mechanical properties of the various serpentine minerals (i.e. antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile, polyhedral and polygonal serpentine). However, correct identification of serpentine minerals is often difficult or impossible using conventional analytical techniques such as optical- and SEM-based microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is the best analytical technique to identify the serpentine minerals, but TEM requires complex sample preparation and typically results in very small analysis areas. Sub-micron confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping of polished thin sections provides a quick and relatively inexpensive way of unambiguously distinguishing the main serpentine minerals within their in-situ microstructural context. The combination of high spatial resolution (with a diffraction-limited system, 366 nm), large-area coverage (up to hundreds of microns in each dimension) and ability to map directly on thin sections allows intricate fault rock textures to be imaged at a sample-scale, which can then form the target of more focused TEM work. The potential of sub-micron Raman Spectroscopy + TEM is illustrated by examining sub-micron-scale mineral intergrowths and deformation textures in scaly serpentinites (e.g. dissolution seams, mineral growth in pressure shadows), serpentinite crack-seal veins and polished fault slip surfaces from a serpentinite-bearing mélange in New Zealand. The microstructural information provided by these techniques has yielded new insights into coseismic dehydration and amorphization processes and the interplay between creep and localised rupture in serpentinite shear zones.

  11. Indoor and Outdoor Levels and Sources of Submicron Particles (PM1) at Homes in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Wallace, Lance A; Wheeler, Amanda J; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève

    2015-06-02

    Exposure to submicron particles (PM1) is of interest due to their possible chronic and acute health effects. Seven consecutive 24-h PM1 samples were collected during winter and summer 2010 in a total of 74 nonsmoking homes in Edmonton, Canada. Median winter concentrations of PM1 were 2.2 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 0.8-6.1 μg/m(3)) and 3.3 μg/m(3) (IQR = 1.5-6.9 μg/m(3)) for indoors and outdoors, respectively. In the summer, indoor (median 4.4 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.4-8.6 μg/m(3)) and outdoor (median 4.3 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.6-7.4 μg/m(3)) levels were similar. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify and apportion indoor and outdoor sources of elements in PM1 mass. Nine sources contributing to both indoor and outdoor PM1 concentrations were identified including secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), traffic, settled and mixed dust, coal combustion, road salt/road dust, and urban mixture. Three additional indoor sources were identified i.e., carpet dust, copper-rich, and silver-rich. Secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and ETS contributed more than 70% (indoors: 0.29 μg/m(3), outdoors: 0.39 μg/m(3)) of measured elemental mass in PM1. These findings can aid understanding of relationships between submicron particles and health outcomes for indoor/outdoor sources.

  12. Experimental Research and Mathematical Modeling of Parameters Effecting on Cutting Force and SurfaceRoughness in CNC Turning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiri, F.; Alkan, M.; Kaya, B.; Toros, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and surface roughness based on Taguchi experimental design method are determined. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to investigate the effects of machining parameters. Optimal cutting conditions are determined using the signal/noise (S/N) ratio which is calculated by average surface roughness and cutting force. Using results of analysis, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces are calculated on Minitab 17 using ANOVA method. The material that was investigated is Inconel 625 steel for two cases with heat treatment and without heat treatment. The predicted and calculated values with measurement are very close to each other. Confirmation test of results showed that the Taguchi method was very successful in the optimization of machining parameters for maximum surface roughness and cutting forces in the CNC turning process.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well

  14. Multi-scale analysis of the roughness effect on lubricated rough contact

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRCI, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  15. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  16. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  17. Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Andre.

    1977-11-01

    It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr

  18. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  19. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  20. Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.

  1. The Effect of Volumetric Porosity on Roughness Element Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, John; Nickling, William; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vicken

    2016-04-01

    Much attention has been given to understanding how the porosity of two dimensional structures affects the drag force exerted by boundary-layer flow on these flow obstructions. Porous structures such as wind breaks and fences are typically used to control the sedimentation of sand and snow particles or create micro-habitats in their lee. Vegetation in drylands also exerts control on sediment transport by wind due to aerodynamic effects and interaction with particles in transport. Recent research has also demonstrated that large spatial arrays of solid three dimensional roughness elements can be used to reduce sand transport to specified targets for control of wind erosion through the effect of drag partitioning and interaction of the moving sand with the large (>0.3 m high) roughness elements, but porous elements may improve the effectiveness of this approach. A thorough understanding of the role porosity plays in affecting the drag force on three-dimensional forms is lacking. To provide basic understanding of the relationship between the porosity of roughness elements and the force of drag exerted on them by fluid flow, we undertook a wind tunnel study that systematically altered the porosity of roughness elements of defined geometry (cubes, rectangular cylinders, and round cylinders) and measured the associated change in the drag force on the elements under similar Reynolds number conditions. The elements tested were of four basic forms: 1) same sized cubes with tubes of known diameter milled through them creating three volumetric porosity values and increasing connectivity between the tubes, 2) cubes and rectangular cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other, and 3) round cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other. The two-dimensional porosity, defined as the ratio of total surface area of the empty space to the solid surface area of the side of the element presented to the fluid flow was conserved at 0.519 for

  2. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  3. Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kozik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.

  4. Effect of surface roughness on heat transfer from horizontal immersed tubes in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, N.S.; Saxena, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the total heat transfer coefficient between 12.7 mm dia copper tubes with four different rough surfaces and glass beads of three different sizes as taken in a 0.305 m x 0.305 m square fluidized bed as a function of fluidizing velocity are reported. The comparison of results for the rough and technically smooth tubes suggests that the heat transfer coefficient strongly depends on the ratio of pitch (P/sub f/) to the average particle diameter (d/sub p/), where P/sub f/ is the distance between the two corresponding points on consecutive threads or knurls. By the proper choice of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) ratio, the maximum total heat transfer coefficient for V-thread tubes (h/sub w/fb) can be increased by as much as 40 percent over the value for a smooth tube with the same outside diameter. However, for values of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) less than 0.95, the maximum heat transfer coefficient for the V-thread rough tubes is smaller than the smooth tube having the same outside diameter. The qualitative variation of the heat transfer coefficient for rough tubes with (P/sub f//d) is explained on the basis of the combined effect of contact geometry between the solid particles and the heat transfer surface, and the solids renewal rate at the surface. The present findings are critically compared with somewhat similar investigations from the literature on the heat transfer from horizontal or vertical rough tubes and tubes with small fins

  5. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  6. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  7. Radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.L.; Lappenbusch, W.L.

    1974-01-01

    Newts were collected locally and maintained unfed at 10 0 C both before and after irradiation. Whole-body exposures ranging up to 80 kR were given with 250 kVp x rays, 300 kVp x rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The mean survival time-exposure curve was sigmoid, following the typical appearance of such curves for mammalian species. A dose-independent region extending from roughly 700 to 5,000 R was evident. A variety of skin lesions and depigmentation effects were noted at exposures above 250 R, whose time of appearance decreased with increasing dose. A total of 832 newts were used in this phase of the study. Assuming that hematopoietic damage was primarily responsible for deaths below 700-800 R, additional studies of hematopoiesis were initiated. The effect of a 650 R-exposure on liver weight, spleen weight and concentration of circulating red blood cells for 1 1 / 2 months post-irradiation was assessed. The results indicate a progressive state of anemia. This was further substantiated by a study of 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells at intervals up to one month for five exposures ranging up to 1000 R. (U.S.)

  8. Estimation of fracture roughness from the acoustic borehole televiewer image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Soek; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2000-12-01

    Estimation of fracture roughness - as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'FRAFA' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification

  9. Estimating deep seafloor interface and volume roughness parameters using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    composite roughness model, including water-sediment interface roughness and sediment volume roughness parameters the data was modeled. The model effectively uses the near normal incidence angle backscatter to determine the seafloor interface roughness...

  10. Insights into characteristics, sources, and evolution of submicron aerosols during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Tang, L. L.; Wang, Z.; Yu, H. X.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, D.; Qin, W.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zhang, H. L.; Zhou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric submicron particulate matter (PM1) is one of the most significant pollution components in China. Despite its current popularity in the studies of aerosol chemistry, the characteristics, sources and evolution of atmospheric PM1 species are still poorly understood in China, particularly for the two harvest seasons, namely, the summer wheat harvest and autumn rice harvest. An Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for online monitoring of PM1 components during summer and autumn harvest seasons in urban Nanjing, in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) region of China. PM1 components were shown to be dominated by organic aerosol (OA, 39 and 41%) and nitrate (23 and 20%) during the harvest seasons (the summer and autumn harvest). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the ACSM OA mass spectra resolved four OA factors: hydrocarbon-like mixed with cooking-related OA (HOA + COA), fresh biomass-burning OA (BBOA), oxidized biomass-burning-influenced OA (OOA-BB), and highly oxidized OA (OOA); in particular the oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings. Both fresh and oxidized BBOA exhibited apparent diurnal cycles with peak concentration at night, when the high ambient relative humidity and low temperature facilitated the partitioning of semi-volatile organic species into the particle phase. The fresh BBOA concentrations for the harvests are estimated as BBOA = 15.1 × (m/z 60-0.26% × OA), where m/z (mass-to-charge ratio) 60 is a marker for levoglucosan-like species. The (BBOA + OOA-BB)/ΔCO, (ΔCO is the CO minus background CO), decreases as a function of f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA signal), which might indicate that BBOA was oxidized to less volatile OOA, e.g., more aged and low volatility OOA (LV-OOA) during the aging process. Analysis of air mass back trajectories indicates that the high BB pollutant concentrations are linked to the air masses from the western (summer harvest) and southern (autumn harvest) areas.

  11. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  12. Three Dimensional Plenoptic PIV Measurements of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Overlying a Hemispherical Roughness Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.

  13. A METHOD USING GNSS LH-REFLECTED SIGNALS FOR SOIL ROUGHNESS ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R is based on the concept of receiving GPS signals reflected by the ground using a passive receiver. The receiver can be on the ground or installed on a small aircraft or UAV and collects the electromagnetic field scattered from the surface of the Earth. The received signals are then analyzed to determine the characteristics of the surface. Many research has been reported showing the capability of the GNSS-R technique. However, the roughness of the surface impacts the phase and amplitude of the received signals, which is still a worthwhile study. This paper presented a method can be used by GNSS-R to estimate the surface roughness. First, the data was calculated in the specular reflection with the assumption of a flat surface with different permittivity. Since the power reflectivity can be evaluated as the ratio of left-hand (LH reflected signal to the direct right-hand (RH signal. Then a semi-empirical roughness model was applied to the data for testing. The results showed the method can distinguish the water and the soil surface. The sensitivity of the parameters was also analyzed. It indicates this method for soil roughness estimation can be used by GNSS-R LH reflected signals. In the next step, several experiments need to be done for improving the model and exploring the way of the estimation.

  14. a Method Using Gnss Lh-Reflected Signals for Soil Roughness Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Li, W.; Chen, Y.; Lv, H.; Pei, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is based on the concept of receiving GPS signals reflected by the ground using a passive receiver. The receiver can be on the ground or installed on a small aircraft or UAV and collects the electromagnetic field scattered from the surface of the Earth. The received signals are then analyzed to determine the characteristics of the surface. Many research has been reported showing the capability of the GNSS-R technique. However, the roughness of the surface impacts the phase and amplitude of the received signals, which is still a worthwhile study. This paper presented a method can be used by GNSS-R to estimate the surface roughness. First, the data was calculated in the specular reflection with the assumption of a flat surface with different permittivity. Since the power reflectivity can be evaluated as the ratio of left-hand (LH) reflected signal to the direct right-hand (RH) signal. Then a semi-empirical roughness model was applied to the data for testing. The results showed the method can distinguish the water and the soil surface. The sensitivity of the parameters was also analyzed. It indicates this method for soil roughness estimation can be used by GNSS-R LH reflected signals. In the next step, several experiments need to be done for improving the model and exploring the way of the estimation.

  15. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  16. Effect of fault roughness on aftershock distribution and post co-seismic strain accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, K.; Daub, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    We perform physics-based simulations of earthquake rupture propagation on geometrically complex strike-slip faults. We consider many different realization of the fault roughness and obtain heterogeneous stress fields by performing dynamic rupture simulation of large earthquakes. We calculate the Coulomb failure function (CFF) for all these realizations so that we can quantify zones of stress increase/shadows surrounding the main fault and compare our results to seismic catalogs. To do this comparison, we use relocated earthquake catalogs from Northern and Southern California. We specify the range of fault roughness parameters based on past observational studies. The Hurst exponent (H) varies in range from 0.5 to 1 and RMS height to wavelength ratio ( RMS deviation of a fault profile from planarity) has values between 10-2 to 10-3. For any realization of fault roughness, the Probability density function (PDF) values relative to the mean CFF change show a wider spread near the fault and this spread squeezes into a narrow band as we move away from fault. For lower value of RMS ratio ( 10-3), we see bigger zones of stress change near the hypocenter and for higher value of RMS ratio ( 10-2), we see alternate zones of stress increase/decrease surrounding the fault to have comparable lengths. We also couple short-term dynamic rupture simulation with long-term tectonic modelling. We do this by giving the stress output from one of the dynamic rupture simulation (of a single realization of fault roughness) to long term tectonic model (LTM) as initial condition and then run LTM over duration of seismic cycle. This short term and long term coupling enables us to understand how heterogeneous stresses due to fault geometry influence the dynamics of strain accumulation in the post-seismic and inter-seismic phase of seismic cycle.

  17. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  18. Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).

  19. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels with random roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelevic, N.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a microchannel has been investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The surface roughness has been generated by using Gaussian function. Gaussian function is an efficient and convenient method to create surface

  1. Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on wastewater quality parameters using numerical modeling. ... According to the obtained results, nitrate (NO3) has a decreasing trend when the Manning Roughness Coefficient (N) is higher than 0.04 along the channel, but is reduced when “N” is less than 0.04.

  2. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Kat, de R.

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  3. Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)

  4. A Meta-Analysis: Acoustic Measurement of Roughness and Breathiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    v. Latoszek, Ben Barsties; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last 5 decades, many acoustic measures have been created to measure roughness and breathiness. The aim of this study is to present a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients (r) between auditory-perceptual judgment of roughness and breathiness and various acoustic measures in both sustained vowels and continuous speech. Method:…

  5. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  6. Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 366-385 ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2015

  7. PhysarumSoft: An update based on rough set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew; Pancerz, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    PhysarumSoft is a software tool consisting of two modules developed for programming Physarum machines and simulating Physarum games, respectively. The paper briefly discusses what has been added since the last version released in 2015. New elements in both modules are based on rough set theory. Rough sets are used to model behaviour of Physarum machines and to describe strategy games.

  8. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  9. Roughness of grain boundaries in partly recrystallized aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    cold rolled aluminum samples. The results show that particle pinning is not the main reason accounting for recrystallization boundary roughness in the present samples. The roughness is however shown to relate to the deformation microstructure and possible effects of migration rate are discussed...

  10. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman

    2005-01-01

    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  11. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  12. An intermittency model for predicting roughness induced transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuan; Durbin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    An extended model for roughness-induced transition is proposed based on an intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling formulated in local variables. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used, which depend on the equivalent sand grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict the transition onset in agreement with a data correlation of transition location versus roughness height, Reynolds number, and inlet turbulence intensity. Experimental data for a turbine cascade are compared with the predicted results to validate the applicability of the proposed model. Supported by NSF Award Number 1228195.

  13. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  14. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: malinsky@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: hnatowicz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: mackova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  15. Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.

  16. Submicron beam X-ray diffraction of nanoheteroepitaxily grown GaN: Experimental challenges and calibration procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: PeterBonanno@gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Micro-Nano Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Universite de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martin, J. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Micro-Nano Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Universite de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Moudakir, T. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Micro-Nano Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Universite de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Materiaux, UMR CNRS 7078, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Ramdane, A.; Gratiet, L. Le [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2010-02-15

    Highly relaxed GaN nanodots and submicron ridges have been selectively grown in the NSAG regime using MOVPE on lattice mismatched 6H-SiC and AlN substrates. 2D real space and 3D reciprocal space mapping was performed with a CCD detector using 10.4 keV synchrotron X-ray radiation at the 2-ID-D micro-diffraction beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS). Calibration procedures have been developed to overcome the unique challenges of analyzing NSAG structures grown on highly mismatched substrates. We studied crystallographic planar bending on the submicron scale and found its correlation with strain relaxation in the NSAG ridges.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hollow α-Fe2O3 sub-micron spheres prepared by sol–gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Lizbet; Bustamante, Angel; Osorio, Ana; Olarte, G. S.; Santos Valladares, Luis De Los; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the preparation of magnetic hematite hollow sub-micron spheres (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) by colloidal suspensions of ferric nitrate nine-hydrate (Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O) particles in citric acid solution by following the sol–gel method. After the gel formation, the samples were annealed at different temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. Annealing at 180°C resulted in an amorphous phase, without iron oxide formation. Annealing at 250°C resulted in coexisting phases of hematite, maghemite and magnetite, whereas at 400°C, only hematite and maghemite were found. Pure hematite hollow sub-micron spheres with porous shells were formed after annealing at 600°C. The characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. A continuous flow micro filtration device for plasma/blood separation using submicron vertical pillar gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Goo; Ji, Hongmiao; Lim, Pei Yi; Chen, Yu; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates a continuous flow plasma/blood separator using a vertical submicron pillar gap structure. The working principle of the proposed separator is based on size exclusion of cells through cross-flow filtration, in which only plasma is allowed to pass through submicron vertical pillars located tangential to the main flow path of the blood sample. The maximum filtration efficiency of 99.9% was recorded with a plasma collection rate of 0.67 µl min −1 for an input blood flow rate of 12.5 µl min −1 . The hemolysis phenomenon was observed for an input blood flow rate above 30 µl min −1 . Based on the experimental results, we can conclude that the proposed device shows potential for the application of on-chip plasma/blood separation as a part of integrated point-of-care (POC) diagnostics systems. (technical note)

  19. Characterization of in-situ annealed sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Byoung-Soo; Sung, Shi-Joon; Hwang, Dae-Kue, E-mail: dkhwang@dgist.ac.kr

    2015-09-01

    Sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films were deposited on Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrates under various conditions by single-stage co-evaporation. Generally, the short circuit current (J{sub sc}) decreased with the decreasing thickness of the absorber layer. However, in this study, J{sub sc} was nearly unchanged with decreasing thickness, while the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and fill factor (FF) decreased by 31.9 and 31.1%, respectively. We believe that the remarkable change of V{sub oc} and FF can be attributed to the difference in the total amount of injected thermal energy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we confirmed that the surface morphology becomes smooth and the grain size increased after the annealing process. In the X-ray diffraction patterns, the CIGS thin film also showed an improved crystal quality. We observed that the electric properties were improved by the in-situ annealing of CIGS thin films. The reverse saturation current density of the annealed CIGS solar cell was 100 times smaller than that of reference solar cell. Thus, sub-micron CIGS thin films annealed under a constant Se rate showed a 64.7% improvement in efficiency. - Highlights: • The effects of in-situ annealing the sub-micron CIGS film have been investigated. • The surface morphology and the grain size were improved by in-situ annealing. • The V{sub oc} and FF of the films were increased by about 30% after in-situ annealing. • In-situ annealing of sub-micron thick CIGS films can be improved an efficiency.

  20. Effects of surface chemistry on coagulation of submicron iron oxide particles (α-Fe_2O_3) in water

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Liyuan

    1988-01-01

    Particles in the colloidal size range, i.e. smaller than 10^(-6) meter, are of interest in environmental science and many other fields of science and engineering. Since aqueous oxide particles have high specific surface areas they adsorb ions and molecules from water, and may remain stable in the aqueous phase with respect to coagulation. Submicron particles collide as a result of their thermal energy, and the effective collision rate is slowed by electric repulsion forces. A key to understan...

  1. Effects of neglecting carrier tunneling on electrostatic potential in calculating direct tunneling gate current in deep submicron MOSFETs

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, MMA; Haque, A

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption of neglecting carrier tunneling effects on self-consistent electrostatic potential in calculating direct tunneling gate current in deep submicron MOSFETs. Comparison between simulated and experimental results shows that for accurate modeling of direct tunneling current, tunneling effects on potential profile need to be considered. The relative error in gate current due to neglecting carrier tunneling is higher at higher gate voltages and increases...

  2. Submicron-bubble-enhanced focused ultrasound for blood-brain barrier disruption and improved CNS drug delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsiang Fan

    Full Text Available The use of focused ultrasound (FUS with microbubbles has been proven to induce transient blood-brain barrier opening (BBB-opening. However, FUS-induced inertial cavitation of microbubbles can also result in erythrocyte extravasations. Here we investigated whether induction of submicron bubbles to oscillate at their resonant frequency would reduce inertial cavitation during BBB-opening and thereby eliminate erythrocyte extravasations in a rat brain model. FUS was delivered with acoustic pressures of 0.1-4.5 MPa using either in-house manufactured submicron bubbles or standard SonoVue microbubbles. Wideband and subharmonic emissions from bubbles were used to quantify inertial and stable cavitation, respectively. Erythrocyte extravasations were evaluated by in vivo post-treatment magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging, and finally by histological confirmation. We found that excitation of submicron bubbles with resonant frequency-matched FUS (10 MHz can greatly limit inertial cavitation while enhancing stable cavitation. The BBB-opening was mainly caused by stable cavitation, whereas the erythrocyte extravasation was closely correlated with inertial cavitation. Our technique allows extensive reduction of inertial cavitation to induce safe BBB-opening. Furthermore, the safety issue of BBB-opening was not compromised by prolonging FUS exposure time, and the local drug concentrations in the brain tissues were significantly improved to 60 times (BCNU; 18.6 µg versus 0.3 µg by using chemotherapeutic agent-loaded submicron bubbles with FUS. This study provides important information towards the goal of successfully translating FUS brain drug delivery into clinical use.

  3. Homogeneous Free Cooling State in Binary Granular Fluids of Inelastic Rough Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrés

    2011-05-01

    In a recent paper [A. Santos, G. M. Kremer, and V. Garzó, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 184, 31-48 (2010)] the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational granular temperatures in a granular fluid mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres have been derived. In the present paper the energy production rates are explicitly decomposed into equipartition rates (tending to make all the temperatures equal) plus genuine cooling rates (reflecting the collisional dissipation of energy). Next the homogeneous free cooling state of a binary mixture is analyzed, with special emphasis on the quasi-smooth limit. A previously reported singular behavior (according to which a vanishingly small amount of roughness has a finite effect, with respect to the perfectly smooth case, on the asymptotic long-time translational/translational temperature ratio) is further elaborated. Moreover, the study of the time evolution of the temperature ratios shows that this dramatic influence of roughness already appears in the transient regime for times comparable to the relaxation time of perfectly smooth spheres.

  4. The role of the roughness spectral breadth in elastic contact of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A.; Anciaux, Guillaume; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    We study frictionless and non-adhesive contact between elastic half-spaces with self-affine surfaces. Using a recently suggested corrective technique, we ensure an unprecedented accuracy in computation of the true contact area evolution under increasing pressure. This accuracy enables us to draw conclusions on the role of the surface's spectrum breadth (Nayak parameter) in the contact area evolution. We show that for a given normalized pressure, the contact area decreases logarithmically with the Nayak parameter. By linking the Nayak parameter with the Hurst exponent (or fractal dimension), we show the effect of the latter on the true contact area. This effect, undetectable for surfaces with poor spectral content, is quite strong for surfaces with rich spectra. Numerical results are compared with analytical models and other available numerical results. A phenomenological equation for the contact area growth is suggested with coefficients depending on the Nayak parameter. Using this equation, the pressure-dependent friction coefficient is deduced based on the adhesive theory of friction. Some observations on Persson's model of rough contact, whose prediction does not depend on Nayak parameter, are reported. Overall, the paper provides a unifying picture of rough elastic contact and clarifies discrepancies between preceding results.

  5. Improvement of dissolution behavior of poorly water soluble drugs by biodegradable polymeric submicron carriers containing sparingly methylated β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhavi, Dilesh J; Khan, Shagufta; Yeole, Pramod G

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop submicron carriers of two drugs that are practically insoluble in water, i.e. meloxicam and aceclofenac, to improve their dissolution behavior. The phase solubility of the drugs was studied using different concentrations of sparingly methylated β-cyclodextrin, Kleptose(®) Crysmeβ (Crysmeb), in the presence and absence of 0.2 % w/v water-soluble chitosan. Drug-loaded submicron particles (SMPs) were prepared using chitosan chlorhydrate and Crysmeb by the ionotropic gelation method. The SMPs were characterized in terms of powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, size determination, process yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology and in vitro release. The drug loading in the SMPs was enhanced in the presence of Crysmeb. The in vitro drug release was found to be enhanced with SMPs prepared using higher concentrations of Crysmeb. These results indicate that SMPs formed from chitosan chlorhydrate and Crysmeb are promising submicron carriers for enhancing the dissolution of meloxicam and aceclofenac.

  6. The effects of surface-charged submicron polystyrene particles on the structure and performance of PSF forward osmosis membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-Ran; Fu, Jia-Bei; Cao, Gui-Ping; Hu, Nian; Lu, Hui; Liu, Hui-Qing; Chen, Peng-Peng; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Monodisperse surface-charged submicron polystyrene particles were designed, synthesized, and blended into polysulfone (PSF) support layer to prepare forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high performance. The membrane incorporated with particles were characterized with respect to morphology, porosity, and internal osmotic pressure (IOP). Results showed that the polymer particles not only increased the hydrophilicity and porosity of support layer, but also generated considerable IOP, which helped markedly decreasing the structure parameter from 1550 to 670 μm. The measured mass transfer parameters further confirmed the beneficial effects of the surface-charged submicron polymer particles on the performance of FO membrane. For instance, the water permeability coefficient (5.37 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and water flux (49.7 L m-2 h-1) of the FO membrane incorporated with 5 wt% particles were almost twice as much as that of FO membrane without incorporation. This study suggests that monodisperse surface-charged submicron polymer particles are potential modifiers for improving the performance of FO membranes.

  7. The effects of surface roughness on low haze ultrathin nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanniah, Vinod [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Tru Vue, Inc. 9400 West, 55th St, McCook, IL 60525 (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Druffel, Thad [Vision Dynamics LLC, 1950 Production Court, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Control of surface roughness in optical applications can have a large impact on haze. This work compares surface roughness and haze for self-assembled experimental surface structures as well as simulated surface structures for ultrathin nanocomposite films. Ultrathin nanocomposite films were synthesized from an acrylate monomer as the continuous phase with monodisperse or bidisperse mixtures of silica nanoparticles as the dispersed phase. An in-house spin coating deposition technique was used to make thin nanocomposite films on hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polycarbonate) substrates. Manipulating the size ratios of the silica nanoparticle mixtures generated multimodal height distributions, varied the average surface roughness (σ) and changed lateral height–height correlations (a). For the simulated surfaces, roughness was estimated from their morphologies, and haze was calculated using simplified Rayleigh scattering theory. Experimental data for haze and morphologies of nanocomposite films corresponded well to these properties for simulated tipped pyramid surfaces. A correlation based on simple Rayleigh scattering theory described our experimental data well, but the exponent on the parameter, σ/λ (λ is the wavelength of incident light), does not have the expected value of 2. A scalar scattering model and a prior Monte Carlo simulation estimated haze values similar to those of our experimental samples. - Highlights: • Bidisperse nanoparticle mixtures created structured surfaces on thin films. • Monodisperse discrete phases created unimodal structure distributions. • Bidisperse discrete phases created multimodal structure distributions. • Multimodal structures had maximum heights ≤ 1.5 D{sub large} over our variable range. • Simplified Rayleigh scattering theory linked roughness to haze and contact angle.

  8. Rupture preparation process controlled by surface roughness on meter-scale laboratory fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Takizawa, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of fault surface roughness on rupture preparation characteristics using meter-scale metagabbro specimens. We repeatedly conducted the experiments with the same pair of rock specimens to make the fault surface rough. We obtained three experimental results under the same experimental conditions (6.7 MPa of normal stress and 0.01 mm/s of loading rate) but at different roughness conditions (smooth, moderately roughened, and heavily roughened). During each experiment, we observed many stick-slip events preceded by precursory slow slip. We investigated when and where slow slip initiated by using the strain gauge data processed by the Kalman filter algorithm. The observed rupture preparation processes on the smooth fault (i.e. the first experiment among the three) showed high repeatability of the spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. Local stress measurements revealed that slow slip initiated around the region where the ratio of shear to normal stress (τ/σ) was the highest as expected from finite element method (FEM) modeling. However, the exact location of slow slip initiation was where τ/σ became locally minimum, probably due to the frictional heterogeneity. In the experiment on the moderately roughened fault, some irregular events were observed, though the basic characteristics of other regular events were similar to those on the smooth fault. Local stress data revealed that the spatiotemporal characteristics of slow slip initiation and the resulting τ/σ drop for irregular events were different from those for regular ones even under similar stress conditions. On the heavily roughened fault, the location of slow slip initiation was not consistent with τ/σ anymore because of the highly heterogeneous static friction on the fault, which also decreased the repeatability of spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. These results suggest that fault surface roughness strongly controls the rupture preparation process

  9. An In Vitro Evaluation of Alumina, Zirconia, and Lithium Disilicate Surface Roughness Caused by Two Scaling Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Buzzo, Ottavia; Buzzo, Maurizio; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2017-02-01

    Plaque control is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal disease. Hand scaling instruments have been shown to be efficient for the removal of plaque; however, routine periodontal prophylactic procedures may modify the surface profile of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the changes in roughness of alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate surfaces treated by two hand scaling instruments. Forty-eight alumina specimens, 48 zirconia specimens, and 48 lithium disilicate specimens, were selected. All specimens were divided into three groups of 16 each; one group for each material was considered the control group and no scaling procedures were performed; the second group of each material was exposed to scaling with steel curettes simulating standard clinical conditions; the third group of each material was exposed to scaling with titanium curettes. After scaling, the surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated with a profilometer. First, a statistical test was carried out to evaluate the difference in surface roughness before the scaling procedure of the three materials was effected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Subsequently, the effect of curette material (steel and titanium) on roughness difference and roughness ratio was analyzed throughout the entire sample and within each material group, and a nonparametric test for dependent values was conducted (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Finally, the roughness ratios of the three material groups were compared by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Upon completion of profilometric evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for SEM evaluation to evaluate the effects of the two scaling systems on the different surfaces qualitatively. After scaling procedure, the roughness profile value increased in all disks. Classifying the full sample according to curette used, the roughness of the disks treated with a steel curette reached a

  10. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-01

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  11. High energy density supercapacitors from lignin derived submicron activated carbon fibers in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao; Zhang, Sanliang; Pan, Ning; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous submicron activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were robustly generated from low sulfonated alkali lignin and fabricated into supercapacitors for capacitive energy storage. The hydrophilic and high specific surface ACFs exhibited large-size nanographites and good electrical conductivity to demonstrate outstanding electrochemical performance. ACFs from KOH activation, in particular, showed very high 344 F g-1 specific capacitance at low 1.8 mg cm-2 mass loading and 10 mV s-1 scan rate in aqueous electrolytes. Even at relatively high scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and mass loading of 10 mg cm-2, a decent specific capacitance of 196 F g-1 and a remarkable areal capacitance of 0.55 F cm-2 was obtained, leading to high energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 based on averaged electrodes mass. Furthermore, over 96% capacitance retention rates were achieved after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Such excellent performance demonstrated great potential of lignin derived carbons for electrical energy storage.

  12. Thermomagnetic writing on deep submicron-patterned TbFe films by nanosecond current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Long; Kato, Takeshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Iwata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the heating process for deep submicron-patterned TbFe films to be used in a thermally assisted perpendicular magnetic random access memory's writing scheme. The dependence of the heating power density with the current pulse width required for the successful writing was measured in the investigated range of 5-100 ns. In the case of long current pulse, the heat diffuses dominantly into substrate, which resulted in large variation of the required power/energy density with the patterned size. The power/energy densities required for writing increased as the junction area is reduced. While for the short current pulse width, the power/energy densities became rather independent on the size. The required power density for writing 0.38x0.28 μm 2 patterned films using the pulse width of 5 ns is experimentally estimated to be around P=4.7 mW/μm 2 , corresponding to the energy density of E=23 pJ/μm 2 , under an external field of 100 Oe

  13. Solubility of amphotericin B in water-lecithin-dispersions and lecithin-based submicron emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Claudia; Perez, Sebastian; Monteagudo, Ezequiel; Carlucci, Adriana; Bregni, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate water-lecithin-dispersions (WLDs) as carriers for amphotericin B (AmB) and to compare the drug solubility in WLDs and O/W lecithin-based submicron emulsions (SMEs) in order to evaluate the influence of lecithin content on the dosage form solubilization of the active compound. WLDs and different SMEs with either 1.2 or 2.4% of lecithin were prepared. WLD with 2.4% lecithin show a 10-fold increase in solubilization of AmB compared with 1.2% lecithin WLD. SMEs with 1.2% lecithin show an increase of over 400 times in solubilization compared with WLD containing the same concentration of lecithin, whereas SMEs with 2.4% lecithin show an increase of over 40 times compared with the corresponding WLD. Drug solubilization in SMEs with 2.4% lecithin is not significantly greater than in those containing 1.2% lecithin. The content of surfactant Brij 97 ® had a significant influence on drug solubilization in SMEs (P < 0.05). Results indicate that indicate that SMEs are proper systems to solubilize AmB. It can be assumed that solubilization is due to the formulation microstructure and not to the separate components themselves.

  14. A Study of Submicron Grain Boundary Precipitates in Ultralow Carbon 316LN Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, S.; Han, K.; Kalu, P. N.; Yang, K.; Du, Z. M.

    2010-04-01

    This article reports our efforts in characterization of an ultralow carbon 316LN-type stainless steel. The carbon content in the material is one-third that in a conventional 316LN, which further inhibits the formation of grain boundary carbides and therefore sensitizations. Our primary effort is focused on characterization of submicron size precipitates in the materials with the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique complemented by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thermodynamic calculations suggested that several precipitates, such as M23C6, Chi, Sigma, and Cr2N, can form in a low carbon 316LN. In the steels heat treated at 973 K (700 °C) for 100 hours, a combination of EBSD and AES conclusively identified the grain boundary precipitates (≥100 nm) as Cr2N, which has a hexagonal closed-packed crystallographic structure. Increases of the nitrogen content promote formation of large size Cr2N precipitates. Therefore, prolonged heat treatment at relatively high temperatures of ultralow carbon 316LN steels may result in a sensitization.

  15. Assessment of intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Mohammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor; Rafique, Umair; Ahmed, Umer Farooq

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a technique has been developed to estimate intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs, designed for high power microwave applications. In the developed technique, small signal parameters are extracted by involving drain-to-source current, Ids instead of Schottky barrier depletion layer expression. It has been demonstrated that in SiC MESFETs, the depletion layer gets modified due to intense transverse electric field and/or self-heating effects, which are conventionally not taken into account. Thus, assessment of AC small signal parameters by employing depletion layer expression loses its accuracy for devices meant for high power applications. A set of expressions for AC small signal elements has been developed using Ids and its dependence on device biasing has been discussed. The validity of the proposed technique has been demonstrated using experimental data. Dr. Ahmed research interests are in Microelectronics, Microwave and RF Engineering and he has supervised numerous MS and PhD research projects. He authored over 100 research papers in the field of microelectronics. Dr. Ahmed is a fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), UK.; a Chartered Engineer (CEng) from the UK Engineering Council and holds the title of European Engineer (Eur Ing) from the European Federation of National Engineering Association (FEANI), Brussels. He is a life member of PEC (Pak); EDS & MTTS (USA).

  16. Mechanically Robust, Stretchable Solar Absorbers with Submicron-Thick Multilayer Sheets for Wearable and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Jung, Dae-Han; Kil, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Ki-Suk; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Choi, Won Jun; Baik, Jeong Min

    2017-05-31

    A facile method to fabricate a mechanically robust, stretchable solar absorber for stretchable heat generation and an enhanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) is demonstrated. This strategy is very simple: it uses a multilayer film made of titanium and magnesium fluoride optimized by a two-dimensional finite element frequency-domain simulation, followed by the application of mechanical stresses such as bending and stretching to the film. This process produces many microsized sheets with submicron thickness (∼500 nm), showing great adhesion to any substrates such as fabrics and polydimethylsiloxane. It exhibits a quite high light absorption of approximately 85% over a wavelength range of 0.2-4.0 μm. Under 1 sun illumination, the solar absorber on various stretchable substrates increased the substrate temperature to approximately 60 °C, irrespective of various mechanical stresses such as bending, stretching, rubbing, and even washing. The TEG with the absorber on the top surface also showed an enhanced output power of 60%, compared with that without the absorber. With an incident solar radiation flux of 38.3 kW/m 2 , the output power significantly increased to 24 mW/cm 2 because of the increase in the surface temperature to 141 °C.

  17. Detection of MM.-radiation with high current density submicron niobium-niobium Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daalmans, G.M.; Graauw, T. de; Lidholm, S.; Vliet, F. v.

    1980-01-01

    The rf-induced step heights in submicron niobium-niobium Josephson junctions are in good agreement with Russer theory at 230 and 240 GHz. At 115 and 460 GHz the agreement is less but still reasonably good. The junction noise without rf-bias is within a factor of two equal to the theoretical limit. With rf-bias applied it can be equal to the theoretical limit within a factor of two. The maximum conversion efficiency measured at 230 GHz was 0.18 and the lowest single side band mixer noise temperature at the same frequency was 380 K. Saturation effects are limiting the performance of the mixer. Improvements in eta and Tsub(M) of a factor of two can be expected by eliminating these saturation effects. The mixer which has been studied most extensively starting at 12-3-80 is still alive at 5-6-80 after many cooling cycles, storage at room temperature and soldering in and out of the dewar. The reliability of this type of junction cannot be questionable anymore. (orig.)

  18. Photonic bandpass filter characteristics of multimode SOI waveguides integrated with submicron gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Parimal; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2018-03-20

    It has been shown that a fundamental mode adiabatically launched into a multimode SOI waveguide with submicron grating offers well-defined flat-top bandpass filter characteristics in transmission. The transmitted spectral bandwidth is controlled by adjusting both waveguide and grating design parameters. The bandwidth is further narrowed down by cascading two gratings with detuned parameters. A semi-analytical model is used to analyze the filter characteristics (1500  nm≤λ≤1650  nm) of the device operating in transverse-electric polarization. The proposed devices were fabricated with an optimized set of design parameters in a SOI substrate with a device layer thickness of 250 nm. The pass bandwidth of waveguide devices integrated with single-stage gratings are measured to be ∼24  nm, whereas the device with two cascaded gratings with slightly detuned periods (ΔΛ=2  nm) exhibits a pass bandwidth down to ∼10  nm.

  19. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO_2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate. - Highlights: • The double-layer coating has a great influence on both thermal and aesthetic aspects. • The double-layer coating performs better than the uniform one with single particles. • The volume fraction, particle diameter and substrate conditions are optimized.

  20. Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 μm2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10−20 moles Pu/μm2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its Lα X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

  1. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-15

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  2. A new circuit technique for reduced leakage current in Deep Submicron CMOS technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern CMOS processes in the Deep Submicron regime are restricted to supply voltages below 2 volts and further to account for the transistors' field strength limitations and to reduce the power per logic gate. To maintain the high switching performance, the threshold voltage must be scaled according with the supply voltage. However, this leads to an increased subthreshold current of the transistors in standby mode (VGS=0. Another source of leakage is gate current, which becomes significant for gate oxides of 3nm and below. We propose a Self-Biasing Virtual Rails (SBVR - CMOS technique which acts like an adaptive local supply voltage in case of standby mode. Most important sources of leakage currents are reduced by this technique. Moreover, SBVR-CMOS is capable of conserving stored information in sleep mode, which is vital for memory circuits. Memories are exposed to radiation causing soft errors. This well-known problem becomes even worse in standby mode of typical SRAMs, that have low driving performance to withstand alpha particle hits. In this paper, a 16-transistor SRAM cell is proposed, which combines the advantage of extremely low leakage currents with a very high soft error stability.

  3. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  4. Chemical compositions, sources and evolution processes of the submicron aerosols in Nanjing, China during wintertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; He, Y.; Ge, X.; Wang, J.; Yu, H.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric particulate matter pollution is one of the most significant environmental issues in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Thus it is important to unravel the characteristics, sources and evolution processes of the ambient aerosols in order to improve the air quality. In this study, we report the real-time monitoring results on submicron aerosol particles (PM1) in suburban Nanjing during wintertime of 2015, using an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). This instrument allows the fast measurement of refractory black carbon simultaneously with other aerosol components. Results show that organics was on average the most abundant species of PM1 (25.9%), but other inorganic species, such as nitrate (23.7%) and sulfate (23.3%) also comprised large mass fractions. As the sampling site is heavily influenced by various sources including industrial, traffic and other anthropogenic emissions, etc., six organic aerosol (OA) factors were identified from Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the SP-AMS OA mass spectra. These factors include three primary OA factors - a hydrocarbon-like OA, an industry-related OA (IOA) and a cooking OA (COA), and three secondary OA factors, i.e., a local OOA (LSOA), a semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA). Overall, the primary organic aerosol (POA) (HOA, IOA and COA) dominated the total OA mass. Behaviors and evolution processes of these OA factors will be discussed in combining with the other supporting data.

  5. Prediction of total dose effects on sub-micron process metal oxide semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masataka.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting leakage currents is described to predict the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift of sub-micron MOSFETs. A practical model for predicting the leakage current generated by irradiation is also given on the basis of experimental results on 0.8-μm process MOSFETs. The constants in the threshold voltage shift model are determined from the 'true' I-V characteristic of the MOSFET, which is obtained by correction of leakage currents due to characteristic change of a parasitic transistor. In this way, the threshold voltage shift of the n-channel MOSFET irradiated at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h was also calculated by using data from a high dose rate irradiation experiment (100 Gy(Si)/h, 5 h). The calculated result well represented the tendency of measured data on threshold voltage shift. The radiation-induced leakage current was considered to decay approximately in two exponential modes. The constants in this leakage current model were determined from the above high dose rate experiment. The response of leakage current predicted at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h approximately agreed with that measured during and after irradiation. (author)

  6. Modelling size and structure of nanoparticles formed from drying of submicron solution aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A.; Pawar, Amol A.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mehra, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Drying of submicron solution aerosols, under controlled conditions, has been explored to prepare nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. A computational model of solution drop evaporation is developed to study the evolution of solute gradients inside the drop and predict the size and shell thickness of precipitating nanoparticles. The model considers evaporation as a two-stage process involving droplet shrinkage and shell growth. It was corroborated that droplet evaporation rate controls the solute distribution within a droplet and the resulting particle structure (solid or shell type). At higher gas temperatures, rapid build-up of solute near drop surface from high evaporation rates results in early attainment of critical supersaturation solubility and a steeper solute gradient, which favours formation of larger, shell-type particles. At lower gas temperatures, formation of smaller, solid nanoparticles is indicated. The computed size and shell thickness are in good agreement with experimentally prepared lipid nanoparticles. This study indicates that solid or shell structure of precipitated nanoparticles is strongly affected by evaporation rate, while initial solute concentration in the precursor solution and atomized droplet size affect shell thickness. For the gas temperatures considered, evaporative cooling leads to droplet temperature below the melting point of the lipid solute. Thus, we conclude that control over nanoparticle size and structure, of thermolabile precursor materials suitable for drug delivery, can be achieved by controlling evaporation rates, through selection of aerosol processing conditions

  7. Modelling size and structure of nanoparticles formed from drying of submicron solution aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A.; Pawar, Amol A.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mehra, Anurag, E-mail: mehra@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2015-01-15

    Drying of submicron solution aerosols, under controlled conditions, has been explored to prepare nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. A computational model of solution drop evaporation is developed to study the evolution of solute gradients inside the drop and predict the size and shell thickness of precipitating nanoparticles. The model considers evaporation as a two-stage process involving droplet shrinkage and shell growth. It was corroborated that droplet evaporation rate controls the solute distribution within a droplet and the resulting particle structure (solid or shell type). At higher gas temperatures, rapid build-up of solute near drop surface from high evaporation rates results in early attainment of critical supersaturation solubility and a steeper solute gradient, which favours formation of larger, shell-type particles. At lower gas temperatures, formation of smaller, solid nanoparticles is indicated. The computed size and shell thickness are in good agreement with experimentally prepared lipid nanoparticles. This study indicates that solid or shell structure of precipitated nanoparticles is strongly affected by evaporation rate, while initial solute concentration in the precursor solution and atomized droplet size affect shell thickness. For the gas temperatures considered, evaporative cooling leads to droplet temperature below the melting point of the lipid solute. Thus, we conclude that control over nanoparticle size and structure, of thermolabile precursor materials suitable for drug delivery, can be achieved by controlling evaporation rates, through selection of aerosol processing conditions.

  8. Fractional-topological-charge-induced vortex birth and splitting of light fields on the submicron scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiqi; Lu, Qinghong; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The study of vortex dynamics is of fundamental importance in understanding the structured light's propagation behavior in the realm of singular optics. Here, combining with the large-angle holographic lithography in photoresist, a simple experiment to trace and visualize the vortex birth and splitting of light fields induced by various fractional topological charges is reported. For a topological charge M =1.76 , the recorded microstructures reveal that although it finally leads to the formation of a pair of fork gratings, these two vortices evolve asynchronously. More interestingly, it is observed on the submicron scale that high-order topological charges M =3.48 and 3.52, respectively, give rise to three and four characteristic forks embedded in the samples with one-wavelength resolution of about 450 nm. Numerical simulations based on orbital angular momentum eigenmode decomposition support well the experimental observations. Our method could be applied effectively to study other structured matter waves, such as the electron and neutron beams.

  9. Large area sub-micron chemical imaging of magnesium in sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Admir; Weaver, James C

    2015-03-01

    The heterogeneous and site-specific incorporation of inorganic ions can profoundly influence the local mechanical properties of damage tolerant biological composites. Using the sea urchin tooth as a research model, we describe a multi-technique approach to spatially map the distribution of magnesium in this complex multiphase system. Through the combined use of 16-bit backscattered scanning electron microscopy, multi-channel energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping, and diffraction-limited confocal Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate a new set of high throughput, multi-spectral, high resolution methods for the large scale characterization of mineralized biological materials. In addition, instrument hardware and data collection protocols can be modified such that several of these measurements can be performed on irregularly shaped samples with complex surface geometries and without the need for extensive sample preparation. Using these approaches, in conjunction with whole animal micro-computed tomography studies, we have been able to spatially resolve micron and sub-micron structural features across macroscopic length scales on entire urchin tooth cross-sections and correlate these complex morphological features with local variability in elemental composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative cellular uptake of double fluorescent core-shelled model submicronic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclerc, Lara, E-mail: leclerc@emse.fr [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, CIS-EMSE, LINA (France); Boudard, Delphine [LINA (France); Pourchez, Jeremie; Forest, Valerie [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, CIS-EMSE, LINA (France); Marmuse, Laurence; Louis, Cedric [NANO-H S.A.S (France); Bin, Valerie [LINA (France); Palle, Sabine [Universite Jean Monnet, Centre de Microscopie Confocale Multiphotonique (France); Grosseau, Philippe; Bernache-Assollant, Didier [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, CIS-EMSE, LINA (France); Cottier, Michele [LINA (France)

    2012-11-15

    The relationship between particles' physicochemical parameters, their uptake by cells and their degree of biological toxicity represent a crucial issue, especially for the development of new technologies such as fabrication of micro- and nanoparticles in the promising field of drug delivery systems. This work was aimed at developing a proof-of-concept for a novel model of double fluorescence submicronic particles that could be spotted inside phagolysosomes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) particles were synthesized and then conjugated with a fluorescent pHrodo Trade-Mark-Sign probe, red fluorescence of which increases in acidic conditions such as within lysosomes. After validation in acellular conditions by spectral analysis with confocal microscopy and dynamic light scattering, quantification of phagocytosis was conducted on a macrophage cell line in vitro. The biological impact of pHrodo functionalization (cytotoxicity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress) was also investigated. Results validate the proof-of-concept of double fluorescent particles (FITC + pHrodo), allowing detection of entirely engulfed pHrodo particles (green and red labeling). Moreover incorporation of pHrodo had no major effects on cytotoxicity compared to particles without pHrodo, making them a powerful tool for micro- and nanotechnologies.

  11. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  12. Ultrarapid Multimode Microwave Synthesis of Nano/Submicron β-SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, development and realization of a fast and novel process for the synthesis of 3C silicon carbide (β-SiC nanorods and submicron powder. Using SiO2 (or Si and activated carbon (AC, this process allows β-SiC to be synthesized with almost 100% purity in timeframes of seconds or minutes using multimode microwave rotary tube reactors under open-air conditions. The synthesis temperature used was 1460 ± 50 °C for Si + AC and 1660 ± 50 °C for SiO2 + AC. The shortest β-SiC synthesis time achieved was about 20 s for Si + AC and 100 s for SiO2 + AC. This novel synthesis method allows for scaled-up flow processes in the rapid industrial-scale production of β-SiC, having advantages of time/energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction over comparable modern processes.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LUNAR ROUGHNESS FROM MULTI - SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.

  14. Practical Considerations for Detection and Characterization of Sub-Micron Particles in Protein Solutions by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruia, Flaviu; Parupudi, Arun; Polozova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is an emerging analytical technique developed for detection, sizing, and counting of sub-micron particles in liquid media. Its feasibility for use in biopharmaceutical development was evaluated with particle standards and recombinant protein solutions. Measurements of aqueous suspensions of NIST-traceable polystyrene particle standards showed accurate particle concentration detection between 2 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(9) particles/mL. Sizing was accurate for particle standards up to 200 nm. Smaller than nominal value sizes were detected by NTA for the 300-900 nm particles. Measurements of protein solutions showed that NTA performance is solution-specific. Reduced sensitivity, especially in opalescent solutions, was observed. Measurements in such solutions may require sample dilution; however, common sample manipulations, such as dilution and filtration, may result in particle formation. Dilution and filtration case studies are presented to further illustrate such behavior. To benchmark general performance, NTA was compared against asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering (aF4-MALS) and dynamic light scattering, which are other techniques for sub-micron particles. Data shows that all three methods have limitations and may not work equally well under certain conditions. Nevertheless, the ability of NTA to directly detect and count sub-micron particles is a feature not matched by aF4-MALS or dynamic light scattering. Thorough characterization of particulate matter present in protein therapeutics is limited by the lack of analytical methods for particles in the sub-micron size range. Emerging techniques are being developed to bridge this analytical gap. In this study, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis is evaluated as a potential tool for biologics development. Our results indicate that method performance is molecule-specific and may not work as well under all solution conditions, especially when

  15. CNTs in situ attached to α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres for enhancing lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid α-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (α-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ∼37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ∼116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ∼220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ∼326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite.

  16. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  17. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  18. Effects of capillary condensation in adhesion between rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Qian, Jin; Gao, Huajian

    2009-10-06

    Experiments on the effects of humidity in adhesion between rough surfaces have shown that the adhesion energy remains constant below a critical relative humidity (RHcr) and then abruptly jumps to a higher value at RHcr before approaching its upper limit at 100% relative humidity. A model based on a hierarchical rough surface topography is proposed, which quantitatively explains the experimental observations and predicts two threshold RH values, RHcr and RHdry, which define three adhesion regimes: (1) RHRHcr, water menisci freely form and spread along the interface between the rough surfaces.

  19. On the computation of the turbulent flow near rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, S. K.; Jaychibekov, N. Zh.; Shalabayeva, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    One of the problems in constructing mathematical models of turbulence is a description of the flows near a rough surface. An experimental study of such flows is also difficult because of the impossibility of measuring "inside" the roughness. The theoretical calculation is difficult because of the lack of equations describing the flow in this zone. In this paper, a new turbulence model based on the differential equation of turbulent viscosity balance was used to describe a turbulent flow near a rough surface. The difference between the new turbulence model and the previously known consists in the choice of constants and functions that determine the generation, dissipation and diffusion of viscosity.

  20. Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying...... a smooth interface, the normalized spectrum of the received signals for a planar transducer exhibits an increasing number of nulls with increased angle of insonification, as predicted from numerical modeling while the dependence on insonification angle for the focused transducer was smaller and the null...... pattern was much less distinct. For the planar transducer and for the focused transducer with the interface located at the geometrical point of focus, the energy of the received signal as a function of incident angle was approximately Gaussian with maximum at 0°. For the smooth interface, the -3 dB width...

  1. Rough Mirror as a Quantum State Selector: Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Lamy, F.; Meyerovich, A. E.; Escobar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report analysis of rough mirrors used as the gravitational state selectors in neutron beam and similar experiments. The key to mirror properties is its roughness correlation function (CF) which is extracted from the precision optical scanning measurements of the surface profile. To identify CF in the presence of fluctuation-driven fat tails, we perform numerical experiments with computer-generated random surfaces with the known CF. These numerical experiments provide a reliable identification procedure which we apply to the actual rough mirror. The extracted CF allows us to make predictions for ongoing GRANIT experiments. We also propose a radically new design for rough mirrors based on Monte Carlo simulations for the 1D Ising model. The implementation of this design provides a controlled environment with predictable scattering properties

  2. Impact of nighttime paving operations on asphalt roughness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between nighttime construction scheduling and future road quality in terms of roughness was investigated. Research was three-phased: interviews with local leaders in paving, on-site observations, and historical data analyses. Intervi...

  3. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  4. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.; Pullin, D. I.; Cheng, W.

    2017-01-01

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows

  5. Study of the relationship between non-dimensional roughness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    4National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention,. Science and Technology .... trum S(f,θ) is commonly expressed as the product ..... rough flow must be satisfied according to Toba et al. (1990). ... development; J. Phys.

  6. Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In this study, minimization of surface roughness has been investigated by integrating design of experiment method, Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm ...

  7. The Simulation Realization of Pavement Roughness in the Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-10-01

    As the needs for the dynamic study on the vehicle-pavement system and the simulated vibration table test, how to simulate the pavement roughness actually is important guarantee for whether calculation and test can reflect the actual situation or not. Using the power spectral density function, the simulation of pavement roughness can be realized by Fourier inverse transform. The main idea of this method was that the spectrum amplitude and random phase were obtained separately according to the power spectrum, and then the simulation of pavement roughness was obtained in the time domain through the Fourier inverse transform (IFFT). In the process, the sampling interval (Δl) was 0.1m, and the sampling points(N) was 4096, which satisfied the accuracy requirements. Using this method, the simulate results of pavement roughness (A~H grades) were obtain in the time domain.

  8. Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ... as well as surface finish is one of the most critical quality measure in mechanical products. ... various cutting speed have been developed using regression analysis software.

  9. Scattering of Rossby and Poincare waves off rough lateral boundaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Prahalad, Y.S.; Sengupta, D.

    Unified treatment of wave scattering from a rough boundary, which was originally developed by Nakayama et al. is presented. The stationary nature of the boundary process is used to show that the wave field is also stationary, and therefore can...

  10. Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    one of the most critical quality measure in mechanical products. In the ... Keywords: cutting speed, centre lathe, empirical model, surface roughness, Mean absolute percentage deviation ... The factors considered were work piece properties.

  11. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  12. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper the focus is on quantification of the pavement roughness effects on the calculated structural pavement life and the effects of surfacing maintenance on the moving dynamic tyre loads generated by vehicles. A simplified method for calculating... the moving dynamic tyre load population is used together with standard pavement response analysis methods to quantify the effects of pavement surfacing maintenance on roughness and structural pavement life. This method can be used as a pavement management...

  13. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  14. Surface roughness influences on the behaviour of flow inside microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, M. H.; Castro, C. S.; Garcia, D. A.; Henrique, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work discusses influence of the surface roughness on the behavior of liquids flowing inside microchannels. By measuring the flow profile using the micro-PIV technique, the flow of water inside two rectangular microchannels of different wall roughness and in a circular smooth microchannel was studied. Comparisons were made among the experimental results, showing that a metrological approach concerning surface characteristics of microdevices is required to ensure reliability of the measurements for flow analyses in microfluidic processes.

  15. Submicron and nano formulations of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide stimulate unique cellular toxicological responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Cindy, E-mail: c.gunawan@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Sirimanoonphan, Aunchisa [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Teoh, Wey Yang [Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Marquis, Christopher P., E-mail: c.marquis@unsw.edu.au [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Amal, Rose [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Uptake of TiO{sub 2} solids by C. reinhardtii generates ROS as an early stress response. • Submicron and nanoTiO{sub 2} exhibit benign effect on cell proliferation. • Uptake of ZnO solids and leached zinc by C. reinhardtii inhibit the alga growth. • No cellular oxidative stress is detected with submicron and nano ZnO exposure. • The toxicity of particles is not necessarily mediated by cellular oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The work investigates the eco-cytoxicity of submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, arising from the unique interactions of freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to soluble and undissolved components of the metal oxides. In a freshwater medium, submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exist as suspended aggregates with no-observable leaching. Submicron and nano ZnO undergo comparable concentration-dependent fractional leaching, and exist as dissolved zinc and aggregates of undissolved ZnO. Cellular internalisation of solid TiO{sub 2} stimulates cellular ROS generation as an early stress response. The cellular redox imbalance was observed for both submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exposure, despite exhibiting benign effects on the alga proliferation (8-day EC50 > 100 mg TiO{sub 2}/L). Parallel exposure of C. reinhardtii to submicron and nano ZnO saw cellular uptake of both the leached zinc and solid ZnO and resulting in inhibition of the alga growth (8-day EC50 ≥ 0.01 mg ZnO/L). Despite the sensitivity, no zinc-induced cellular ROS generation was detected, even at 100 mg ZnO/L exposure. Taken together, the observations confront the generally accepted paradigm of cellular oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of particles. The knowledge of speciation of particles and the corresponding stimulation of unique cellular responses and cytotoxicity is vital for assessment of the environmental implications of these materials.

  16. Submicron and nano formulations of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide stimulate unique cellular toxicological responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Sirimanoonphan, Aunchisa; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P.; Amal, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uptake of TiO 2 solids by C. reinhardtii generates ROS as an early stress response. • Submicron and nanoTiO 2 exhibit benign effect on cell proliferation. • Uptake of ZnO solids and leached zinc by C. reinhardtii inhibit the alga growth. • No cellular oxidative stress is detected with submicron and nano ZnO exposure. • The toxicity of particles is not necessarily mediated by cellular oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The work investigates the eco-cytoxicity of submicron and nano TiO 2 and ZnO, arising from the unique interactions of freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to soluble and undissolved components of the metal oxides. In a freshwater medium, submicron and nano TiO 2 exist as suspended aggregates with no-observable leaching. Submicron and nano ZnO undergo comparable concentration-dependent fractional leaching, and exist as dissolved zinc and aggregates of undissolved ZnO. Cellular internalisation of solid TiO 2 stimulates cellular ROS generation as an early stress response. The cellular redox imbalance was observed for both submicron and nano TiO 2 exposure, despite exhibiting benign effects on the alga proliferation (8-day EC50 > 100 mg TiO 2 /L). Parallel exposure of C. reinhardtii to submicron and nano ZnO saw cellular uptake of both the leached zinc and solid ZnO and resulting in inhibition of the alga growth (8-day EC50 ≥ 0.01 mg ZnO/L). Despite the sensitivity, no zinc-induced cellular ROS generation was detected, even at 100 mg ZnO/L exposure. Taken together, the observations confront the generally accepted paradigm of cellular oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of particles. The knowledge of speciation of particles and the corresponding stimulation of unique cellular responses and cytotoxicity is vital for assessment of the environmental implications of these materials

  17. Mechanisms of submicron inclusion re-equilibration during host mineral deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Rhede, Dieter; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Both brittle and ductile deformation can facilitate re-equilibration of mineral inclusions. The presence of inclusions also influences stress and strain distribution in the host. The processes governing feedbacks between brittle deformation, ductile deformation, and inclusion re-equilibration have been studied using unique microstructures in Permian meta-pegmatite garnets from the Koralpe, Eastern Alps, Austria. Sampled almandine-spessartine garnets contain highly abundant submicron-sized inclusions, which originated during or subsequent to magmatic garnet growth. The Permian magmatic assemblages were affected by eclogite facies metamorphism during the Cretaceous tectono-metamorphic event. The meta-pegmatite garnet deformed crystal-plastically at this metamorphic stage (Bestmann et al. 2008) and the host-inclusion system was affected by partial recrystallization. Trails of coarser inclusions (1-10µm diameter) crosscut the magmatic submicron inclusion density zoning in the garnet, defining curviplanar geometrical surfaces in 3D. In 10-40µm broad 'bleaching zones' flanking inclusion trails, the original ≤1µm sized inclusions are not seen in the optical microscope or SEM, however inclusions <100nm are still abundant in TEM foils from these areas. From their microstructural characteristics it is inferred that the trails formed at sites of healed brittle cracks. FEG-microprobe data showed that inclusion-trails and associated bleaching zones can be formed isochemically, although some trails showed non-isochemical coarsening. In both cases no change in garnet major element composition was observed. EBSD mapping revealed two phenomena that were investigated by cutting targeted TEM foils. Firstly, bleaching zones are associated with systematic very low angle (ca. 0.5°) garnet lattice orientation changes along discrete boundaries. TEM foils transecting such a boundary show a lower concentration of dislocations than expected for the lattice rotation inferred from EBSD

  18. The influence of roughness and obstacle on wind power map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Mohd Fadhil Abas; Mohd Hafiz Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In the development of wind energy in Malaysia, the need for wind power map of Peninsular Malaysia has aroused. The map is needed to help in determining the potential areas where low wind speed wind turbines could operate optimally. In establishing the wind power map the effects of roughness and obstacles have been investigated. Wind data from 24 meteorological stations around the country have been utilized in conjunction with the respective local roughness and obstacles. Two sets of wind power maps have been developed i.e. the wind power maps with and without roughness and obstacles. These two sets of wind power maps exhibit great significant amount of difference in the wind power values especially in the inland areas where the wind power map without roughness and obstacles gives much lower values than those with roughness and obstacles. This paper outlines the process of establishing the two sets of wind power map as well as discussing the influence of roughness and obstacles based on the results obtained

  19. AN AUTOMATED ROAD ROUGHNESS DETECTION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  20. An Automated Road Roughness Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Angelats, E.

    2017-05-01

    Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  1. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Sloan J. [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Hobler, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hobler@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  2. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  3. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  4. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  5. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  6. Electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids: the influence of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alessio; Fajardo, Oscar Y; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Urbakh, Michael; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids can be modified by applying an external electrostatic potential, providing a route to control their performance in nanolubrication applications. Most computational studies to date have focused on the investigation of smooth surfaces. Real surfaces are generally inhomogeneous and feature roughness of different length scales. We report here a study of the possible effects that surface roughness may have on electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids, performed here by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In order to advance our understanding of the interplay of friction and substrate structure we investigate coarse grained models of ionic liquids confined in model surfaces with nanometer roughness. The friction is shown to depend on the roughness of the substrate and the direction of shear. For the investigated systems, the friction coefficient is found to increase with roughness. These results are in contrast with previous studies, where roughness induced reduction of friction was reported, and they highlight the strong sensitivity of the friction process to the structure of the surfaces. The friction force features a maximum at a specific surface charge density. This behaviour is reminiscent of the one reported in ionic liquids confined by flat surfaces, showing the generality of this physical effect in confined ionic liquids. We find that an increase of the substrate-liquid dispersion interactions shifts the maximum to lower surface charges. This effect opens a route to control electrotunable friction phenomena by tuning both the electrostatic potential and the composition of the confining surfaces.

  7. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubaraki Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  8. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Larson, Ronald G; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  9. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M., E-mail: m.zakeri@tabrizu.ac.ir; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M. [University of Tabriz, School of Engineering Emerging Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50–500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  10. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  11. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feidenhans’l, Nikolaj A; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, Morten H; Petersen, Jan C; Pilný, Lukáš; Bissacco, Giuliano; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler. For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal instruments, if the common bandwidth is applied. Likewise, a correlation is observed when determining the Aq value with the BRDF and the rBRDF instruments.Furthermore, we show that it is possible to determine the Rq value from the Aq value, by applying a simple transfer function derived from the instrument comparisons. The presented method is validated for surfaces with predominantly 1D roughness, i.e. consisting of parallel grooves of various periods, and a reflectance similar to stainless steel. The Rq values are predicted with an accuracy of 38% at the 95% confidence interval. (paper)

  12. A statistical analysis of North East Atlantic (submicron aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Atmospheric Watch research station at Mace Head (Ireland offers the possibility to sample some of the cleanest air masses being imported into Europe as well as some of the most polluted being exported out of Europe. We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of aerosol size distributions in air ranging from the cleanest to the most polluted for the year 2008. Data coverage achieved was 75% throughout the year. By applying the Hartigan-Wong k-Means method, 12 clusters were identified as systematically occurring. These 12 clusters could be further combined into 4 categories with similar characteristics, namely: coastal nucleation category (occurring 21.3 % of the time, open ocean nucleation category (occurring 32.6% of the time, background clean marine category (occurring 26.1% of the time and anthropogenic category (occurring 20% of the time aerosol size distributions. The coastal nucleation category is characterised by a clear and dominant nucleation mode at sizes less than 10 nm while the open ocean nucleation category is characterised by a dominant Aitken mode between 15 nm and 50 nm. The background clean marine aerosol exhibited a clear bimodality in the sub-micron size distribution, with although it should be noted that either the Aitken mode or the accumulation mode may dominate the number concentration. However, peculiar background clean marine size distributions with coarser accumulation modes are also observed during winter months. By contrast, the continentally-influenced size distributions are generally more monomodal (accumulation, albeit with traces of bimodality. The open ocean category occurs more often during May, June and July, corresponding with the North East (NE Atlantic high biological period. Combined with the relatively high percentage frequency of occurrence (32.6%, this suggests that the marine biota is an important source of new nano aerosol particles in NE Atlantic Air.

  13. Sub-micron opto-chemical probes for studying living neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, M.; Delgado, J.; Schweizer, F.; Lieberman, R.

    2017-02-01

    We have fabricated sub-micron opto-chemical probes for pH, oxygen and calcium monitoring and demonstrated their application in intracellular and extracellular monitoring of neurons (cortical neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices). Using these probes, we have measured extracellular pH in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus upon stimulation of presynaptic Schaffer collateral axons. Synaptic transmission was monitored using standard electrophysiological techniques. We find that the local pH transiently changes in response to synaptic stimulation. In addition, the geometry of the functionalized region on the probe combined with high sensitivity imaging enables simultaneous monitoring of spatially adjacent but distinct compartments. As proof of concept we impaled cultured neurons with the probe measured calcium and pH inside as well as directly outside of neurons as we changed the pH and calcium concentration in the physiological solution in the perfusion chamber. As such these probes can be used to study the impact of the environment on both cellular and extra-cellular space. Additionally as the chemical properties of the surrounding medium can be controlled and monitored with high precision, these probes enable differential measurement of the target parameter referenced to a stable bath. This approach eliminates the uncertainties associated with non-chemical fluctuations in the fluorescent emission and result in a self-calibrated opto-chemical probe. We have also demonstrated multifunctional probes that are capable of measuring up to three parameters in the extracellular space in brain slices.

  14. An examination of the shrinking-core model of sub-micron aluminum combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, John; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    We revisit the shrinking-core model of sub-micron aluminum combustion with particular attention to the mass flux balance at the reaction front which necessarily leads to a displacement velocity of the alumina shell surrounding the liquid aluminum. For the planar problem this displacement simply leads to an equal displacement of the entire alumina layer, and therefore a straightforward mathematical framework can be constructed. In this way we are able to construct a single curve which defines the burn time for arbitrary values of the diffusion coefficient of O atoms, the reaction rate, the characteristic length of the combustion field, and the O atom mass concentration within the alumina provided that it is much smaller than the aluminum density. This demonstrates a transition between a 'd 2-t' law for fast chemistry and a 'd-t' law for slow chemistry. For the spherical geometry, the one of physical interest, the outward displacement velocity creates not a simple displacement, but a stress field which, when examined within the framework of linear elasticity, strongly suggests the creation of internal cracking. We note that if the molten aluminum is pushed into these cracks by the high internal pressure characteristic of the stress field, its surface, where reaction occurs, could be fractal in nature and affect the fundamental nature of the burning law. Indeed, if this ingredient is added to the planar model, a single curve for the burn time can again be derived, and this describes a transition from a 'd 2-t' law to a 'd ν-t' law, where 0<ν<1.

  15. Stress transfer mechanisms at the submicron level for graphene/polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, George; Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Polyzos, Ioannis; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Galiotis, Costas

    2015-02-25

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼ 2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping.

  16. Micron-sized and submicron-sized aerosol deposition in a new ex vivo preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, Sophie; Leclerc, Lara; Prévôt, Nathalie; Deville, Agathe; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-07-07

    The knowledge of where particles deposit in the respiratory tract is crucial for understanding the health effects associated with inhaled drug particles. An ex vivo study was conducted to assess regional deposition patterns (thoracic vs. extrathoracic) of radioactive polydisperse aerosols with different size ranges [0.15 μm-0.5 μm], [0.25 μm-1 μm] and [1 μm-9 μm]. SPECT/CT analyses were performed complementary in order to assess more precisely the regional deposition of aerosols within the pulmonary tract. Experiments were set using an original respiratory tract model composed of a human plastinated head connected to an ex vivo porcine pulmonary tract. The model was ventilated by passive expansion, simulating pleural depressions. Aerosol was administered during nasal breathing. Planar scintigraphies allowed to calculate the deposited aerosol fractions for particles in the three size ranges from sub-micron to micron The deposited fractions obtained, for thoracic vs. extra-thoracic regions respectively, were 89 ± 4 % vs. 11 ± 4 % for [0.15 μm-0.5 μm], 78 ± 5 % vs. 22 ± 5 % for [0.25 μm-1 μm] and 35 ± 11 % vs.65 ± 11 % for [1 μm-9 μm]. Results obtained with this new ex vivo respiratory tract model are in good agreement with the in vivo data obtained in studies with baboons and humans.

  17. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.

  18. Dry deposition of submicron atmospheric aerosol over water surfaces in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevenick, Calec

    2013-01-01

    Whether by chronic or accidental releases, the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment mainly depends on atmospheric transfers; and as the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima show, affect the contamination of surfaces and impacts in the medium and long-term on the environment and the population. In this context, this work focuses on the characterization and modeling of dry deposition of submicron aerosols on liquid surfaces in motion such as rivers. Unlike wet deposition which is conditioned by washout and rainout (rain and clouds), dry deposition is a phenomenon that depends entirely on the characteristics of aerosols, receiving surfaces, and air flow. In practice, the evaluation of dry deposition is based on the estimation of flux modeling as the product of particle concentration and deposition velocity which can vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the receiving surfaces (forest, snow, urban, grassland...). This topic is motivated by the virtual non-existence of studies on the mechanisms of dry deposition on continental water systems such as rivers; and respect for submicron aerosols. They have the lowest deposition efficiencies and filtration and the longer residence time in the atmosphere. In addition, they are potentially the most dangerous to living beings because they can penetrate deeper into the airway. Due to the lack of data on the dry deposition of submicron aerosols on a liquid surface in motion, the approach was based on two axes: 1) the acquisition of experimental deposition velocities and 2) the analysis and interpretation of results through modeling. The experiments were performed with uranine aerosols released into the IOA wind tunnel (Interface Ocean Atmosphere) of the Institute for Research on Non Equilibrium Phenomena which is configured to study the coupling between the air flow and water. These experiments have given many dry deposition velocities for different configurations characterized according to wind

  19. Dry deposition of submicron atmospheric aerosol over water surfaces in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calec, Nevenick

    2013-01-01

    Whether by chronic or accidental releases, the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment mainly depends on atmospheric transfers; and as the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima show, affect the contamination of surfaces and impacts in the medium and long-term on the environment and the population. In this context, this work focuses on the characterization and modeling of dry deposition of submicron aerosols on liquid surfaces in motion such as rivers. Unlike wet deposition which is conditioned by washout and rainout (rain and clouds), dry deposition is a phenomenon that depends entirely on the characteristics of aerosols, receiving surfaces, and air flow. In practice, the evaluation of dry deposition is based on the estimation of flux modeling as the product of particle concentration and deposition velocity which can vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the receiving surfaces (forest, snow, urban, grassland..). This topic is motivated by the virtual non-existence of studies on the mechanisms of dry deposition on continental water systems such as rivers; and respect for submicron aerosols. They have the lowest deposition efficiencies and filtration and the longer residence time in the atmosphere. In addition, they are potentially the most dangerous to living beings because they can penetrate deeper into the airway. Due to the lack of data on the dry deposition of submicron aerosols on a liquid surface in motion, the approach was based on two axes: 1) the acquisition of experimental deposition velocities and 2) the analysis and interpretation of results through modeling. The experiments were performed with uranine aerosols released into the IOA wind tunnel (Interface Ocean Atmosphere) of the Institute for Research on Non Equilibrium Phenomena which is configured to study the coupling between the air flow and water. These experiments have given many dry deposition velocities for different configurations characterized according to wind

  20. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  1. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  2. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  3. Effect of surface roughness and surface modification of indium tin oxide electrode on its potential response to tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Md. Zaved Hossain; Nakanishi, Takuya; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Hoshi, Yoichi; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine factors affecting potential response of ITO electrode to tryptophan. → Surface roughness of ITO electrode affects the stability of its rest potential. → Surface modification is effective for ITO electrode with a certain roughness. → Optimum values of work function exist for potential response of ITO to tryptophan. - Abstract: The effect of surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode on its potential response to tryptophan was investigated for ITO substrates with different surface roughness. It was found that a small difference in surface roughness, between ∼1 and ∼2 nm of R a evaluated by atomic force microscopy, affects the rest potential of ITO electrode in the electrolyte. A slight difference in In:Sn ratio at the near surface of the ITO substrates, measured by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy is remarkable, and considered to relate with surface roughness. Interestingly, successive modification of the ITO surface with aminopropylsilane and disuccinimidyl suberate, of which essentiality to the potential response to indole compounds we previously reported, improved the stability of the rest potential and enabled the electrodes to respond to tryptophan in case of specimens with R a values ranging between ∼2 and ∼3 nm but not for those with R a of ∼1 nm. It was suggested that there are optimum values of effective work function of ITO for specific potential response to tryptophan, which can be obtained by the successive modification of ITO surface.

  4. Role of biofilm roughness and hydrodynamic conditions in Legionella pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun; Monroy, Guillermo L; Derlon, Nicolas; Janjaroen, Dao; Huang, Conghui; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2015-04-07

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could exacerbate the persistence and associated risks of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), thus raising human health concerns. However, mechanisms controlling adhesion and subsequent detachment of L. pneumophila associated with biofilms remain unclear. We determined the connection between L. pneumophila adhesion and subsequent detachment with biofilm physical structure characterization using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique. Analysis of the OCT images of multispecies biofilms grown under low nutrient condition up to 34 weeks revealed the lack of biofilm deformation even when these biofilms were exposed to flow velocity of 0.7 m/s, typical flow for DWDS. L. pneumophila adhesion on these biofilm under low flow velocity (0.007 m/s) positively correlated with biofilm roughness due to enlarged biofilm surface area and local flow conditions created by roughness asperities. The preadhered L. pneumophila on selected rough and smooth biofilms were found to detach when these biofilms were subjected to higher flow velocity. At the flow velocity of 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, the ratio of detached cell from the smooth biofilm surface was from 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than that from the rough biofilm surface, presumably because of the low shear stress zones near roughness asperities. This study determined that physical structure and local hydrodynamics control L. pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilm, thus it is the first step toward reducing the risk of L. pneumophila exposure and subsequent infections.

  5. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on the Surface Roughness of Solid State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state recycling through hot extrusion is a promising technique to recycle machining chips without remelting. Furthermore, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP technique coupled with the extruded recycled billet is introduced to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled samples. In this paper, the surface roughness of solid state recycled aluminum alloy 6061 turning chips was investigated. Aluminum chips were cold compacted and hot extruded under an extrusion ratio (ER of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature (ET of 425°C. In order to improve the properties of the extruded samples, they were subjected to ECAP up to three passes at room temperature using an ECAP die with a channel die angle (Φ of 90°. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz of the processed recycled billets machined by turning was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness of the machined specimens for four materials conditions, namely, extruded billet and postextrusion ECAP processed billets to one, two, and three passes. Quadratic models were developed to relate the machining parameters to surface roughness, and a multiobjective optimization scheme was conducted to maximize material removal rate while maintaining the roughness below a preset practical value.

  6. Optimization of Surface Roughness Parameters of Al-6351 Alloy in EDC Process: A Taguchi Coupled Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Sujoy; Dey, Vidyut; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the application of Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for multi objective optimization of roughness parameters in electro discharge coating process of Al-6351 alloy with powder metallurgical compacted SiC/Cu tool. A Taguchi L16 orthogonal array was employed to investigate the roughness parameters by varying tool parameters like composition and compaction load and electro discharge machining parameters like pulse-on time and peak current. Crucial roughness parameters like Centre line average roughness, Average maximum height of the profile and Mean spacing of local peaks of the profile were measured on the coated specimen. The signal to noise ratios were fuzzified to optimize the roughness parameters through a single comprehensive output measure (COM). Best COM obtained with lower values of compaction load, pulse-on time and current and 30:70 (SiC:Cu) composition of tool. Analysis of variance is carried out and a significant COM model is observed with peak current yielding highest contribution followed by pulse-on time, compaction load and composition. The deposited layer is characterised by X-Ray Diffraction analysis which confirmed the presence of tool materials on the work piece surface.

  7. A novel approach for quantifying the zero-plane displacement of rough-wall boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lopez, Eduardo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath; Aerodynamics; Flight Mechanics Team

    2017-11-01

    Indirect methods of wall shear stress (WSS) estimation are frequently used to characterise rough wall boundary-layer flows. The zero-plane displacement, hypothesised to be the vertical location where it acts, is often treated as a fitting parameter. However, it would be preferrable to measure both these quantities directly, especially for surfaces with large roughness elements where established scaling and similarity laws may not hold. In this talk we present a novel floating element balance that is able to measure not only the WSS but also the wall normal location at which it acts. While allowing compensation for mild static pressure gradients by means of a first-order analytical model. Its architecture is based on a parallel-shift linkage and it's fitted with custom built force transducers and a data acquisition system especially designed to achieve high Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR). The smooth-wall boundary-layer flow is used as benchmark to assess the accuracy of this balance. The values of skin friction coefficient show an agreement with hot-wire anemometry to within 2 % at a local Reynolds number Reθ = 4 ×103 up to 104. A rough surface of regularly distributed large elements is used to investigate the ability to infer the zero-plane displacement.

  8. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Crawford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities, producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities. Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  9. Direct observation of asperity deformation of specimens with random rough surfaces in upsetting and indentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2006-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....... The experiments are carried out without lubricant and with lubricant. Specimens used are commercially pure A1100 aluminum with a random rough surface. From these observations, the change in the fraction of real contact area is measured by an image processor. The real contact area ratios in upsetting experiments...

  10. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....... The experiments are carried out without lubricant and with lubricant. Specimens used are commercially pure A1100 Aluminum with a random rough surface. From this observation, the change in the fraction of real contact area is measured by an image processor. The real contact area ratios in upsetting experiment...

  11. Compressible gas flow through idealized cracks of large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Skinner, J.; Williams, M.E.

    1975-07-01

    Gas flow through large aspect ratio idealized cracks is considered, where isothermal conditions with choking at exit are assumed in the theoretical analysis. For smooth wall cracks, comparisons are made between experimentally determined flowrates and those predicted, and good agreement is shown. This is followed by consideration of flow through a notional crack to examine the influence of width and surface roughness. By considering flow as simply proportional to Wsup(n), the treatment shows 'n' to reduce with W increasing, but surface roughness increases 'n' over the value appropriate to smooth conditions. From these observations it is concluded that further work is required to determine:- (i) real crack geometry and its influence on any leak-before-break philosophy, and (ii) the influence of real surface roughness on flowrate. (author)

  12. Design and characterization of submicron formulation for a poorly soluble drug: the effect of Vitamin E TPGS and other solubilizers on skin permeability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2012-09-15

    In transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), it is a challenge to achieve stable and prolonged high permeation rates across the skin since the concentrations of the drug dissolved in the matrix have to be high in order to maintain zero order release kinetics. Several attempts have been reported to improve the permeability of poorly soluble drug compounds using supersaturated systems, however, due to thermodynamic challenges, there was a high tendency for the drug to nucleate immediately after formulating or even during storage. The present study focuses on the efficiency of drug crystals at the submicron/nano range in presence of different solubilizers to improve the permeation rate. Effect of several solubilizers, e.g. Pluronic F-127, Vitamin E TPGS, propylene glycol were studied on the submicron suspension systems of ibuprofen as a model drug. Various stabilizers such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were examined to evaluate their crystal inhibitory effects on particle growth of the drug compound at submicron range. The overall permeation enhancement process through the skin seems to be influenced by the presence of solubilizers and also the presence of submicron drug crystal. The most promising stable formulation was developed with Vitamin E TPGS+HPMC submicron suspension, which produced higher permeation rate compared to other vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of forest road surface roughness by Kinect depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is a dynamic property of the gravel road surface that affects safety, ride comfort as well as vehicle tyre life and maintenance costs. A rapid survey of gravel road condition is fundamental for an effective maintenance planning and definition of the intervention priorities.Different non-contact techniques such as laser scanning, ultrasonic sensors and photogrammetry have recently been proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional topography of road surface and allow extraction of roughness metrics. The application of Microsoft Kinect™ depth camera is proposed and discussed here for collection of 3D data sets from gravel roads, to be implemented in order to allow quantification of surface roughness.The objectives are to: i verify the applicability of the Kinect sensor for characterization of different forest roads, ii identify the appropriateness and potential of different roughness parameters and iii analyse the correlation with vibrations recoded by 3-axis accelerometers installed on different vehicles. The test took advantage of the implementation of the Kinect depth camera for surface roughness determination of 4 different forest gravel roads and one well-maintained asphalt road as reference. Different vehicles (mountain bike, off-road motorcycle, ATV vehicle, 4WD car and compact crossover were included in the experiment in order to verify the vibration intensity when travelling on different road surface conditions. Correlations between the extracted roughness parameters and vibration levels of the tested vehicles were then verified. Coefficients of determination of between 0.76 and 0.97 were detected between average surface roughness and standard deviation of relative accelerations, with higher values in the case of lighter vehicles.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  15. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; McCauley, John F.; Holm, Esther A.

    1971-01-01

    Terrain maps of the equatorial zone (long 70° E.-70° W. and lat 10° N-10° S.) were prepared at scales of 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000 to classify lunar terrain with respect to roughness and to provide a basis for selecting sites for Surveyor and Apollo landings as well as for Ranger and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The techniques that were developed as a result of this effort can be applied to future planetary exploration. By using the best available earth-based observational data and photographs 1:1,000,000-scale and U.S. Geological Survey lunar geologic maps and U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center LAC charts, lunar terrain was described by qualitative and quantitative methods and divided into four fundamental classes: maria, terrae, craters, and linear features. Some 35 subdivisions were defined and mapped throughout the equatorial zone, and, in addition, most of the map units were illustrated by photographs. The terrain types were analyzed quantitatively to characterize and order their relative-roughness characteristics. Approximately 150,000 east-west slope measurements made by a photometric technique (photoclinometry) in 51 sample areas indicate that algebraic slope-frequency distributions are Gaussian, and so arithmetic means and standard deviations accurately describe the distribution functions. The algebraic slope-component frequency distributions are particularly useful for rapidly determining relative roughness of terrain. The statistical parameters that best describe relative roughness are the absolute arithmetic mean, the algebraic standard deviation, and the percentage of slope reversal. Statistically derived relative-relief parameters are desirable supplementary measures of relative roughness in the terrae. Extrapolation of relative roughness for the maria was demonstrated using Ranger VII slope-component data and regional maria slope data, as well as the data reported here. It appears that, for some morphologically homogeneous

  16. Unbiased roughness measurements: the key to better etch performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris; Sirard, Stephen; Liang, Chen-wei; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Justin; Shamma, Nader; Wise, Rich; Yu, Jengyi; Hymes, Diane

    2018-03-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) has become an increasingly critical metric to enable Moore's Law scaling. Stochastic variations, as characterized for lines by line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER), are dominant factors in EPE and known to increase with the introduction of EUV lithography. However, despite recommendations from ITRS, NIST, and SEMI standards, the industry has not agreed upon a methodology to quantify these properties. Thus, differing methodologies applied to the same image often result in different roughness measurements and conclusions. To standardize LWR and LER measurements, Fractilia has developed an unbiased measurement that uses a raw unfiltered line scan to subtract out image noise and distortions. By using Fractilia's inverse linescan model (FILM) to guide development, we will highlight the key influences of roughness metrology on plasma-based resist smoothing processes. Test wafers were deposited to represent a 5 nm node EUV logic stack. The patterning stack consists of a core Si target layer with spin-on carbon (SOC) as the hardmask and spin-on glass (SOG) as the cap. Next, these wafers were exposed through an ASML NXE 3350B EUV scanner with an advanced chemically amplified resist (CAR). Afterwards, these wafers were etched through a variety of plasma-based resist smoothing techniques using a Lam Kiyo conductor etch system. Dense line and space patterns on the etched samples were imaged through advanced Hitachi CDSEMs and the LER and LWR were measured through both Fractilia and an industry standard roughness measurement software. By employing Fractilia to guide plasma-based etch development, we demonstrate that Fractilia produces accurate roughness measurements on resist in contrast to an industry standard measurement software. These results highlight the importance of subtracting out SEM image noise to obtain quicker developmental cycle times and lower target layer roughness.

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  19. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  20. Roughness generation during Si etching in Cl{sub 2} pulsed plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourey, Odile; Petit-Etienne, Camille; Cunge, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Darnon, Maxime; Despiau-Pujo, Emilie; Brichon, Paulin; Lattu-Romain, Eddy; Pons, Michel; Joubert, Olivier [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA-Leti Minatec, LTM, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2016-07-15

    Pulsed plasmas are promising candidates to go beyond limitations of continuous waves' plasma. However, their interaction with surfaces remains poorly understood. The authors investigated the silicon etching mechanism in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) Cl{sub 2} operated either in an ICP-pulsed mode or in a bias-pulsed mode (in which only the bias power is pulsed). The authors observed systematically the development of an important surface roughness at a low duty cycle. By using plasma diagnostics, they show that the roughness is correlated to an anomalously large (Cl atoms flux)/(energetic ion flux) ratio in the pulsed mode. The rational is that the Cl atom flux is not modulated on the timescale of the plasma pulses although the ion fluxes and energy are modulated. As a result, a very strong surface chlorination occurs during the OFF period when the surface is not exposed to energetic ions. Therefore, each energetic ion in the ON period will bombard a heavily chlorinated silicon surface, leading to anomalously high etching yield. In the ICP pulsed mode (in which the ion energy is high), the authors report yields as high as 40, which mean that each individual ion impacts will generate a “crater” of about 2 nm depth at the surface. Since the ion flux is very small in the pulsed ICP mode, this process is stochastic and is responsible for the roughness initiation. The roughness expansion can then be attributed partly to the ion channeling effect and is probably enhanced by the formation of a SiClx reactive layer with nonhomogeneous thickness over the topography of the surface. This phenomenon could be a serious limitation of pulsed plasma processes.