WorldWideScience

Sample records for ratio standard deviation

  1. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  2. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  3. Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur

    2017-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…

  4. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  5. The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...

  6. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  7. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  8. Comparing Standard Deviation Effects across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Ben; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests scores as the dependent variable often report point estimates in student standard deviation units. We note that a standard deviation is not a standard unit of measurement since the distribution of test scores can vary across contexts. As such, researchers should be cautious when interpreting differences in the numerical size of…

  9. FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya

    2017-01-01

    Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.

  10. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  11. Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.

    1990-01-01

    In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)

  12. A robust standard deviation control chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse

  13. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  14. Hearing protector performance and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W; Dillon, H

    2005-01-01

    The attenuation performance of a hearing protector is used to estimate the protected exposure level of the user. The aim is to reduce the exposed level to an acceptable value. Users should expect the attenuation to fall within a reasonable range of values around a norm. However, an analysis of extensive test data indicates that there is a negative relationship between attenuation performance and the standard deviation. This result is deduced using a variation in the method of calculating a single number rating of attenuation that is more amenable to drawing statistical inferences. As performance is typically specified as a function of the mean attenuation minus one or two standard deviations from the mean to ensure that greater than 50% of the wearer population are well protected, the implication of increasing standard deviation with decreasing attenuation found in this study means that a significant number of users are, in fact, experiencing over-protection. These users may be disinclined to use their hearing protectors because of an increased feeling of acoustic isolation. This problem is exacerbated in areas with lower noise levels.

  15. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...

  16. A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

  17. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  18. SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION(s) CHART UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF MODERATENESS AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpesh S. Tailor

    2017-01-01

    Moderate distribution proposed by Naik V.D and Desai J.M., is a sound alternative of normal distribution, which has mean and mean deviation as pivotal parameters and which has properties similar to normal distribution. Mean deviation (δ) is a very good alternative of standard deviation (σ) as mean deviation is considered to be the most intuitively and rationally defined measure of dispersion. This fact can be very useful in the field of quality control to construct the control limits of the c...

  19. Statistics as Unbiased Estimators: Exploring the Teaching of Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Casey, Stephanie; Champion, Joe; Huey, Maryann

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents findings from a study about the knowledge for and planned teaching of standard deviation. We investigate how understanding variance as an unbiased (inferential) estimator--not just a descriptive statistic for the variation (spread) in data--is related to teachers' instruction regarding standard deviation, particularly…

  20. Standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; In, Junyong; Lee, Sangseok

    2015-06-01

    In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results.

  1. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of least-squares collocation error estimates using local GOCE Tzz signal standard deviations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2015-01-01

    outside the data area. On the other hand, a comparison of predicted quantities with observed values show that the error also varies depending on the local data standard deviation. This quantity may be (and has been) estimated using the GOCE second order vertical derivative, Tzz, in the area covered...... by the satellite. The ratio between the nearly constant standard deviations of a predicted quantity (e.g. in a 25° × 25° area) and the standard deviations of Tzz in smaller cells (e.g., 1° × 1°) have been used as a scale factor in order to obtain more realistic error estimates. This procedure has been applied...

  3. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  4. Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  5. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  6. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, de, R.; Zanten, van, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...

  7. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  8. [Roaming through methodology. XXXVIII. Common misconceptions involving standard deviation and standard error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, H.G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Standard deviation and standard error have a clear mutual relationship, but at the same time they differ strongly in the type of information they supply. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings. Standard deviation describes the variability in a sample of measures of a variable, for instance

  9. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  10. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  11. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  12. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-01-01

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

  13. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  14. New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).

  15. 7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates from...

  16. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...

  17. What to use to express the variability of data: Standard deviation or standard error of mean?

    OpenAIRE

    Barde, Mohini P.; Barde, Prajakt J.

    2012-01-01

    Statistics plays a vital role in biomedical research. It helps present data precisely and draws the meaningful conclusions. While presenting data, one should be aware of using adequate statistical measures. In biomedical journals, Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used interchangeably to express the variability; though they measure different parameters. SEM quantifies uncertainty in estimate of the mean whereas SD indicates dispersion of the data from mean. As reade...

  18. Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the

  19. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market Testing... test products designated as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to...

  20. What to use to express the variability of data: Standard deviation or standard error of mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Mohini P; Barde, Prajakt J

    2012-07-01

    Statistics plays a vital role in biomedical research. It helps present data precisely and draws the meaningful conclusions. While presenting data, one should be aware of using adequate statistical measures. In biomedical journals, Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used interchangeably to express the variability; though they measure different parameters. SEM quantifies uncertainty in estimate of the mean whereas SD indicates dispersion of the data from mean. As readers are generally interested in knowing the variability within sample, descriptive data should be precisely summarized with SD. Use of SEM should be limited to compute CI which measures the precision of population estimate. Journals can avoid such errors by requiring authors to adhere to their guidelines.

  1. The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs

  2. Precision analysis for standard deviation measurements of immobile single fluorescent molecule images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Michael C; DeCenzo, Shawn H; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M

    2010-03-29

    Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera.We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image which is a function of the total number of detected photons, the background photon noise, and the camera pixel size. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental, simulation, and numerical integration results. Using this expression, we show that single-molecule standard deviation measurements offer nanometer precision for a large range of experimental parameters.

  3. Variation in the standard deviation of the lure rating distribution: Implications for estimates of recollection probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin

    2017-10-01

    In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.

  4. Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2012-08-01

    Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of standard deviations of group velocity dispersion in optical fibre using parametric amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....

  6. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  8. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  9. A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.

  10. Use of Standard Deviations as Predictors in Models Using Large-Scale International Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce; French, Brian; Adesope, Olusola; Gotch, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Measures of variability are successfully used in predictive modeling in research areas outside of education. This study examined how standard deviations can be used to address research questions not easily addressed using traditional measures such as group means based on index variables. Student survey data were obtained from the Organisation for…

  11. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  12. Standard deviation index for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression with different homogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yang; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-10

    We present a new quantitative index of standard deviation to measure the homogeneity of spectral lines in a fiber amplifier system so as to find the relation between the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and the homogeneity of the corresponding spectral lines. A theoretical model is built and a simulation framework has been established to estimate the SBS threshold when input spectra with different homogeneities are set. In our experiment, by setting the phase modulation voltage to a constant value and the modulation frequency to different values, spectral lines with different homogeneities can be obtained. The experimental results show that the SBS threshold increases negatively with the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum, which is in good agreement with the theoretical results. When the phase modulation voltage is confined to 10 V and the modulation frequency is set to 80 MHz, the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum equals 0.0051, which is the lowest value in our experiment. Thus, at this time, the highest SBS threshold has been achieved. This standard deviation can be a good quantitative index in evaluating the power scaling potential in a fiber amplifier system, which is also a design guideline in suppressing the SBS to a better degree.

  13. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  14. Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate

  15. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  16. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... neutrals to provide the required electric service to a consumer, the RUS standard transformer secondary... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...

  17. Dynamics of the standard deviations of three wind velocity components from the data of acoustic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnenko, N. P.; Kapegesheva, O. F.; Shamanaeva, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of the standard deviations of three wind velocity components measured with a mini-sodar in the atmospheric boundary layer is analyzed. During the day on September 16 and at night on September 12 values of the standard deviation changed for the x- and y-components from 0.5 to 4 m/s, and for the z-component from 0.2 to 1.2 m/s. An analysis of the vertical profiles of the standard deviations of three wind velocity components for a 6-day measurement period has shown that the increase of σx and σy with altitude is well described by a power law dependence with exponent changing from 0.22 to 1.3 depending on the time of day, and σz depends linearly on the altitude. The approximation constants have been found and their errors have been estimated. The established physical regularities and the approximation constants allow the spatiotemporal dynamics of the standard deviation of three wind velocity components in the atmospheric boundary layer to be described and can be recommended for application in ABL models.

  18. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel -5: Quartiles and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-03-01

    The almost inevitable descriptive statistics exercise that is undergone once data collection is complete, prior to inferential statistics, requires the acquisition of basic descriptors which may include standard deviation and quartiles. This paper provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel™ and explains the relationship between the two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J; Lopes, Coeli M; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L; Locati, Emanuela H; Ackerman, Michael J; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Platonov, Pyotr G; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Michael Vincent, G; Wilde, Arthur A M; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-05-01

    Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital LQTS who carry the same mutation provides incremental prognostic information on the patient-specific QTc. The study population comprised 1206 patients with LQTS with 95 different mutations and ≥ 5 individuals who carry the same mutation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the effect of mutation-specific standard deviation of QTc (QTcSD) on the risk of cardiac events (comprising syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death) from birth through age 40 years in the total population and by genotype. Assessment of mutation-specific QTcSD showed large differences among carriers of the same mutations (median QTcSD 45 ms). Multivariate analysis showed that each 20 ms increment in QTcSD was associated with a significant 33% (P = .002) increase in the risk of cardiac events after adjustment for the patient-specific QTc duration and the family effect on QTc. The risk associated with QTcSD was pronounced among patients with long QT syndrome type 1 (hazard ratio 1.55 per 20 ms increment; P<.001), whereas among patients with long QT syndrome type 2, the risk associated with QTcSD was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.99; P = .95; P value for QTcSD-by-genotype interaction = .002). Our findings suggest that mutations with a wider variation in QTc duration are associated with increased risk of cardiac events. These findings appear to be genotype-specific, with a pronounced effect among patients with the long QT syndrome type 1 genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Moving standard deviation and moving sum of outliers as quality tools for monitoring analytical precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping

    2018-02-01

    An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.

  3. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: empirical results and theoretical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H Eugene; Grosse, I

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent beta approximately 0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation sigma(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of sigma(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent beta approximately -0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  4. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  5. Is standard deviation of daily PM2.5 concentration associated with respiratory mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Ma, Wenjun; Qiu, Hong; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei

    2016-09-01

    Studies on health effects of air pollution often use daily mean concentration to estimate exposure while ignoring daily variations. This study examined the health effects of daily variation of PM2.5. We calculated daily mean and standard deviations of PM2.5 in Hong Kong between 1998 and 2011. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the association between respiratory mortality and daily mean and variation of PM2.5, as well as their interaction. We controlled for potential confounders, including temporal trends, day of the week, meteorological factors, and gaseous air pollutants. Both daily mean and standard deviation of PM2.5 were significantly associated with mortalities from overall respiratory diseases and pneumonia. Each 10 μg/m(3) increment in daily mean concentration at lag 2 day was associated with a 0.61% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.03%) increase in overall respiratory mortality and a 0.67% (95% CI: 0.14%, 1.21%) increase in pneumonia mortality. And a 10 μg/m(3) increase in standard deviation at lag 1 day corresponded to a 1.40% (95% CI: 0.35%, 2.46%) increase in overall respiratory mortality, and a 1.80% (95% CI: 0.46%, 3.16%) increase in pneumonia mortality. We also observed a positive but non-significant synergistic interaction between daily mean and variation on respiratory mortality and pneumonia mortality. However, we did not find any significant association with mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Our study suggests that, besides mean concentration, the standard deviation of PM2.5 might be one potential predictor of respiratory mortality in Hong Kong, and should be considered when assessing the respiratory effects of PM2.5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. More recent robust methods for the estimation of mean and standard deviation of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Outliers in a data set result in biased values of mean and standard deviation. One way to improve the estimation of a mean is to apply tests to identify outliers and to exclude them from the calculations. Tests according to Grubbs or to Dixon, which are frequently used in practice, especially within laboratory intercomparisons, are not very efficient in identifying outliers. Since more than ten years now so-called robust methods are used more and more, which determine mean and standard deviation by iteration and down-weighting values far from the mean, thereby diminishing the impact of outliers. In 1989 the Analytical Methods Committee of the British Royal Chemical Society published such a robust method. Since 1993 the US Environmental Protection Agency published a more efficient and quite versatile method. Mean and standard deviation are calculated by iteration and application of a special weight function for down-weighting outlier candidates. In 2000, W. Cofino et al. published a very efficient robust method which works quite different from the others. It applies methods taken from the basics of quantum mechanics, such as ''wave functions'' associated with each laboratory mean value and matrix algebra (solving eigenvalue problems). In contrast to the other ones, this method includes the individual measurement uncertainties. (orig.)

  7. MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieta, Holger

    2010-02-01

    We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )

  8. Multiplicative surrogate standard deviation: a group metric for the glycemic variability of individual hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Susan S; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    Group metrics are described to quantify blood glucose (BG) variability of hospitalized patients. The "multiplicative surrogate standard deviation" (MSSD) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the standard deviations (SDs) of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. The "geometric group mean" (GGM) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the means of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. Before reverse transformation is performed, the mean of means and mean of SDs each has its own SD, which becomes a multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) after reverse transformation. Statistical predictions and comparisons of parametric or nonparametric tests remain valid after reverse transformation. A subset of a previously published BG data set of 20 critically ill patients from the first 72 h of treatment under the SPRINT protocol was transformed logarithmically. After rank ordering according to the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data of each patient, the cohort was divided into two equal groups, those having lower or higher variability. For the entire cohort, the GGM was 106 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, and MSSD was 1.24 (÷/× 1.07). For the subgroups having lower and higher variability, respectively, the GGM did not differ, 104 (÷/× 1.07) versus 109 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, but the MSSD differed, 1.17 (÷/× 1.03) versus 1.31 (÷/× 1.05), p = .00004. By using the MSSD with its MSD, groups can be characterized and compared according to glycemic variability of individual patient members. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Standard Deviation of Spatially-Averaged Surface Cross Section Data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.

  10. Study of Railway Track Irregularity Standard Deviation Time Series Based on Data Mining and Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Good track geometry state ensures the safe operation of the railway passenger service and freight service. Railway transportation plays an important role in the Chinese economic and social development. This paper studies track irregularity standard deviation time series data and focuses on the characteristics and trend changes of track state by applying clustering analysis. Linear recursive model and linear-ARMA model based on wavelet decomposition reconstruction are proposed, and all they offer supports for the safe management of railway transportation.

  11. Depth (Standard Deviation) Layer used to identify, delineate and classify moderate-depth benthic habitats around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard deviation of depth was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each cell using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Focal Statistics "STD" parameter. Standard...

  12. Differential standard deviation of log-scale intensity based optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weisong; Gao, Wanrong; Chen, Chaoliang; Yang, Victor X D

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a differential standard deviation of log-scale intensity (DSDLI) based optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented for calculating microvascular images of human skin. The DSDLI algorithm calculates the variance in difference images of two consecutive log-scale intensity based structural images from the same position along depth direction to contrast blood flow. The en face microvascular images were then generated by calculating the standard deviation of the differential log-scale intensities within the specific depth range, resulting in an improvement in spatial resolution and SNR in microvascular images compared to speckle variance OCT and power intensity differential method. The performance of DSDLI was testified by both phantom and in vivo experiments. In in vivo experiments, a self-adaptive sub-pixel image registration algorithm was performed to remove the bulk motion noise, where 2D Fourier transform was utilized to generate new images with spatial interval equal to half of the distance between two pixels in both fast-scanning and depth directions. The SNRs of signals of flowing particles are improved by 7.3 dB and 6.8 dB on average in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively, while the average spatial resolution of images of in vivo blood vessels is increased by 21%. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Age-independent anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores to estimate ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helden, Josef van; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility. Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders. Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay. While the decrease of both median and mean AMH values is strongly correlated with increasing age, calculated SDS values have been shown to be age independent with the differentiation between normal ovarian function measured as occurred ovulation with sufficient luteal activity compared with hyperandrogenemic cycle disorders or anovulation associated with high AMH values and reduced ovarian activity or insufficiency associated with low AMH, respectively. These results will be helpful for the treatment of patients and the ventilation of the different reproductive options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  15. Phase-I monitoring of standard deviations in multistage linear profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaei, Mahdiyeh; Soleimani, Paria; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Atashgar, Karim

    2018-03-01

    In most modern manufacturing systems, products are often the output of some multistage processes. In these processes, the stages are dependent on each other, where the output quality of each stage depends also on the output quality of the previous stages. This property is called the cascade property. Although there are many studies in multistage process monitoring, there are fewer works on profile monitoring in multistage processes, especially on the variability monitoring of a multistage profile in Phase-I for which no research is found in the literature. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to monitor the standard deviation involved in a simple linear profile designed in Phase I to monitor multistage processes with the cascade property. To this aim, an autoregressive correlation model between the stages is considered first. Then, the effect of the cascade property on the performances of three types of T 2 control charts in Phase I with shifts in standard deviation is investigated. As we show that this effect is significant, a U statistic is next used to remove the cascade effect, based on which the investigated control charts are modified. Simulation studies reveal good performances of the modified control charts.

  16. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  17. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  18. Text localization using standard deviation analysis of structure elements and support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagoris Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -derived food waste amounted to 2.21 ± 3.12% with a confidence interval of (−4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson’s correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste...... and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data......, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients....

  20. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  1. Refined multiscale fuzzy entropy based on standard deviation for biomedical signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Hamed; Fernández, Alberto; Escudero, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been a prevalent algorithm to quantify the complexity of biomedical time series. Recent developments in the field have tried to alleviate the problem of undefined MSE values for short signals. Moreover, there has been a recent interest in using other statistical moments than the mean, i.e., variance, in the coarse-graining step of the MSE. Building on these trends, here we introduce the so-called refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy based on the standard deviation (RCMFE σ ) and mean (RCMFE μ ) to quantify the dynamical properties of spread and mean, respectively, over multiple time scales. We demonstrate the dependency of the RCMFE σ and RCMFE μ , in comparison with other multiscale approaches, on several straightforward signal processing concepts using a set of synthetic signals. The results evidenced that the RCMFE σ and RCMFE μ values are more stable and reliable than the classical multiscale entropy ones. We also inspect the ability of using the standard deviation as well as the mean in the coarse-graining process using magnetoencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease and publicly available electroencephalograms recorded from focal and non-focal areas in epilepsy. Our results indicated that when the RCMFE μ cannot distinguish different types of dynamics of a particular time series at some scale factors, the RCMFE σ may do so, and vice versa. The results showed that RCMFE σ -based features lead to higher classification accuracies in comparison with the RCMFE μ -based ones. We also made freely available all the Matlab codes used in this study at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1477 .

  2. Muon’s (g-2): the obstinate deviation from the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    It’s been 50 years since a small group at CERN measured the muon (g-2) for the first time. Several other experiments have followed over the years. The latest measurement at Brookhaven (2004) gave a value that obstinately remains about 3 standard deviations away from the prediction of the Standard Model. Francis Farley, one of the fathers of the (g-2) experiments, argues that a statement such as “everything we observe is accounted for by the Standard Model” is not acceptable.   Francis J. M. Farley. Francis J. M. Farley, Fellow of the Royal Society since 1972 and the 1980 winner of the Hughes Medal "for his ultra-precise measurements of the muon magnetic moment, a severe test of quantum electrodynamics and of the nature of the muon", is among the scientists who still look at the (g-2) anomaly as one of the first proofs of the existence of new physics. “Although it seems to be generally believed that all experiments agree with the Stan...

  3. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  4. Utility of shear wave elastography to detect papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroid nodules: efficacy of the standard deviation elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, In Ho; Jin, So-Young; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin), maximum (EMax), and standard deviation (ESD) of SWE elasticity indices were measured. Among 105 nodules, 14 were PTC and 91 were benign. The EMean, EMin, and EMax values were significantly higher in PTCs than benign nodules (EMean 37.4 in PTC vs. 23.7 in benign nodules, p = 0.005; EMin 27.9 vs. 17.8, p = 0.034; EMax 46.7 vs. 31.5, p < 0.001). The EMean, EMin, and EMax were significantly associated with PTC with diagnostic odds ratios varying from 6.74 to 9.91, high specificities (86.4%, 86.4%, and 88.1%, respectively), and positive likelihood ratios (4.21, 3.69, and 4.82, respectively). The ESD values were significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (6.3 vs. 2.6, p < 0.001). ESD had the highest specificity (96.6%) when applied with a cut-off value of 6.5 kPa. It had a positive likelihood ratio of 14.75 and a diagnostic odds ratio of 28.50. The shear elasticity index of ESD, with higher likelihood ratios for PTC, will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for malignancy. It may help to identify and select malignant nodules, while reducing unnecessary fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsies of benign nodules.

  5. Autoregressive moving average fitting for real standard deviation in Monte Carlo power distribution calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro

    2010-01-01

    The noise propagation of tallies in the Monte Carlo power method can be represented by the autoregressive moving average process of orders p and p-1 (ARMA(p,p-1)], where p is an integer larger than or equal to two. The formula of the autocorrelation of ARMA(p,q), p≥q+1, indicates that ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to lumping the eigenmodes of fluctuation propagation in three modes such as the slow, intermediate and fast attenuation modes. Therefore, ARMA(3,2) fitting was applied to the real standard deviation estimation of fuel assemblies at particular heights. The numerical results show that straightforward ARMA(3,2) fitting is promising but a stability issue must be resolved toward the incorporation in the distributed version of production Monte Carlo codes. The same numerical results reveal that the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to that of the batch method in MCNP with a batch size larger than one hundred and smaller than two hundred cycles for a 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor. The bias correction of low lag autocovariances in MVP/GMVP is demonstrated to have the potential of improving the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting. (author)

  6. Standard deviation of local tallies in global Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro

    2010-01-01

    Time series methodology has been studied to assess the feasibility of statistical error estimation in the continuous space and energy Monte Carlo calculation of the three-dimensional whole reactor core. The noise propagation was examined and the fluctuation of track length tallies for local fission rate and power has been formally shown to be represented by the autoregressive moving average process of orders p and p-1 [ARMA(p,p-1)], where p is an integer larger than or equal to two. Therefore, ARMA(p,p-1) fitting was applied to the real standard deviation estimation of the power of fuel assemblies at particular heights. Numerical results indicate that straightforward ARMA(3,2) fitting is promising, but a stability issue must be resolved toward the incorporation in the distributed version of production Monte Carlo codes. The same numerical results reveal that the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to that of the batch method with a batch size larger than 100 and smaller than 200 cycles for a 1,100 MWe pressurized water reactor. (author)

  7. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  8. Quantification of intravoxel velocity standard deviation and turbulence intensity by generalizing phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Ebbers, Tino

    2006-10-01

    Turbulent flow, characterized by velocity fluctuations, is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. A clinical noninvasive tool for assessing turbulence is lacking, however. It is well known that the occurrence of multiple spin velocities within a voxel during the influence of a magnetic gradient moment causes signal loss in phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). In this paper a mathematical derivation of an expression for computing the standard deviation (SD) of the blood flow velocity distribution within a voxel is presented. The SD is obtained from the magnitude of PC-MRI signals acquired with different first gradient moments. By exploiting the relation between the SD and turbulence intensity (TI), this method allows for quantitative studies of turbulence. For validation, the TI in an in vitro flow phantom was quantified, and the results compared favorably with previously published laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) results. This method has the potential to become an important tool for the noninvasive assessment of turbulence in the arterial tree.

  9. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-11-01

    Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diurnal Dynamics of Standard Deviations of Three Wind Velocity Components in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanaeva, L. G.; Krasnenko, N. P.; Kapegesheva, O. F.

    2018-04-01

    Diurnal dynamics of the standard deviation (SD) of three wind velocity components measured with a minisodar in the atmospheric boundary layer is analyzed. Statistical analysis of measurement data demonstrates that the SDs for x- and y-components σx and σy lie in the range from 0.2 to 4 m/s, and σz = 0.1-1.2 m/s. The increase of σx and σy with the altitude is described sufficiently well by a power law with exponent changing from 0.22 to 1.3 depending on time of day, and σz increases by a linear law. Approximation constants are determined and errors of their application are estimated. It is found that the maximal diurnal spread of SD values is 56% for σx and σy and 94% for σz. The established physical laws and the obtained approximation constants allow the diurnal dynamics of the SDs for three wind velocity components in the atmospheric boundary layer to be determined and can be recommended for application in models of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  11. Delay and Standard Deviation Beamforming to Enhance Specular Reflections in Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; Sornes, Anders Rasmus; Hermans, Jeroen; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Although interventional devices, such as needles, guide wires, and catheters, are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast, and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor, which is a major obstacle toward ultrasound-guided interventions. The objective of this paper was therefore to enhance the appearance of interventional devices in ultrasound images. Thereto, a modified ultrasound beamforming process using conventional-focused transmit beams is proposed that exploits the properties of received signals containing specular reflections (as arising from these devices). This new beamforming approach referred to as delay and standard deviation beamforming (DASD) was quantitatively tested using simulated as well as experimental data using a linear array transducer. Furthermore, the influence of different imaging settings (i.e., transmit focus, imaging depth, and scan angle) on the obtained image contrast was evaluated. The study showed that the image contrast of specular regions improved by 5-30 dB using DASD beamforming compared with traditional delay and sum (DAS) beamforming. The highest gain in contrast was observed when the interventional device was tilted away from being orthogonal to the transmit beam, which is a major limitation in standard DAS imaging. As such, the proposed beamforming methodology can offer an improved visualization of interventional devices in the ultrasound image with potential implications for ultrasound-guided interventions.

  12. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-19

    In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in several directions. First, we show that the sample standard deviation estimation in Hozo et al.'s method (BMC Med Res Methodol 5:13, 2005) has some serious limitations and is always less satisfactory in practice. Inspired by this, we propose a new estimation method by incorporating the sample size. Second, we systematically study the sample mean and standard deviation estimation problem under several other interesting settings where the interquartile range is also available for the trials. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods through simulation studies for the three frequently encountered scenarios, respectively. For the first two scenarios, our method greatly improves existing methods and provides a nearly unbiased estimate of the true sample standard deviation for normal data and a slightly biased estimate for skewed data. For the third scenario, our method still performs very well for both normal data and skewed data. Furthermore, we compare the estimators of the sample mean and standard deviation under all three scenarios and present some suggestions on which scenario is preferred in real-world applications. In this paper, we discuss different approximation methods in the estimation of the sample mean and standard deviation and propose some new estimation methods to improve the existing literature. We conclude our work with a summary table (an Excel spread sheet including all formulas) that serves as a comprehensive guidance for performing meta-analysis in different

  13. YOUTH VANDALISM IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF MEGALOPOLIS: BORDERS OF STANDARD AND DEVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenkin

    2018-01-01

    people more or less regularly commit vandal actions, without perceiving them as a deviation from predefined standard pattern of behaviour; young people do not notice vandal behaviour of people around as well.The data obtained point to considerable flexibility and discrepancy of ideas of vandalism among the young population in megalopolises: vandalism is regarded as deviation and categorically condemned at the level of stereotypes with abstraction from the reality; in a daily occurrence, vandalism is treated as unrecognized norm in relation to specific situations. The tendency of the gradual erosion of taboo nature and deviance of vandalism in consciousness of youth is stated.Practical significance. The materials of the research could be applied to optimize the work on up-brining in educational institutions and to increase the effectiveness of prevention of vandalism among young people.

  14. Lack of sensitivity of staffing for 8-hour sessions to standard deviation in daily actual hours of operating room time used for surgeons with long queues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Dexter, Franklin

    2009-06-01

    At multiple facilities including some in the United Kingdom's National Health Service, the following are features of many surgical-anesthetic teams: i) there is sufficient workload for each operating room (OR) list to almost always be fully scheduled; ii) the workdays are organized such that a single surgeon is assigned to each block of time (usually 8 h); iii) one team is assigned per block; and iv) hardly ever would a team "split" to do cases in more than one OR simultaneously. We used Monte-Carlo simulation using normal and Weibull distributions to estimate the times to complete lists of cases scheduled into such 8 h sessions. For each combination of mean and standard deviation, inefficiencies of use of OR time were determined for 10 h versus 8 h of staffing. When the mean actual hours of OR time used averages standard deviation and relative cost of over-run to under-run. When mean > or = 8 h 50 min, 10 h staffing has higher OR efficiency. For 8 h 25 min standard deviation of 60 min and relative cost of over-run to under-run of 2.0 versus (b) 8 h 48 min for normal, standard deviation of 0 min and relative cost ratio of 1.50. Although the simplest decision rule would be to staff for 8 h if the mean workload is standard deviation 60 min, and relative cost ratio of 2.00, the inefficiency of use of OR time would be 34% larger if staffing were planned for 8 h instead of 10 h. For surgical teams with 8 h sessions, use the following decision rule for anesthesiology and OR nurse staffing. If actual hours of OR time used averages or = 8 h 50 min, plan 10 h staffing. For averages in between, perform the full analysis of McIntosh et al. (Anesth Analg 2006;103:1499-516).

  15. Clustering Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Tracks by the Standard Deviational Ellipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahinoor Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard deviational ellipse is useful to analyze the shape and the length of a tropical cyclone (TC track. Cyclone intensity at each six-hour position is used as the weight at that location. Only named cyclones in the Indian Ocean since 1981 are considered for this study. The K-means clustering algorithm is used to cluster Indian Ocean cyclones based on the five parameters: x-y coordinates of the mean center, variances along zonal and meridional directions, and covariance between zonal and meridional locations of the cyclone track. Four clusters are identified across the Indian Ocean; among them, only one cluster is in the North Indian Ocean (NIO and the rest of them are in the South Indian Ocean (SIO. Other characteristics associated with each cluster, such as wind speed, lifespan, track length, track orientation, seasonality, landfall, category during landfall, total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE, and cyclone trend, are analyzed and discussed. Cyclone frequency and energy of Cluster 4 (in the NIO have been following a linear increasing trend. Cluster 4 also has a higher number of landfall cyclones compared to other clusters. Cluster 2, located in the middle of the SIO, is characterized by the long track, high intensity, long lifespan, and high accumulated energy. Sea surface temperature (SST and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR associated with genesis of TCs are also examined in each cluster. Cyclone genesis is co-located with the negative OLR anomaly and the positive SST anomaly. Localized SST anomalies are associated with clusters in the SIO; however, TC geneses of Cluster 4 are associated with SSTA all over the Indian Ocean (IO.

  16. Caution regarding the choice of standard deviations to guide sample size calculations in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Henian; Zhang, Nanhua; Lu, Xiaosun; Chen, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    The method used to determine choice of standard deviation (SD) is inadequately reported in clinical trials. Underestimations of the population SD may result in underpowered clinical trials. This study demonstrates how using the wrong method to determine population SD can lead to inaccurate sample sizes and underpowered studies, and offers recommendations to maximize the likelihood of achieving adequate statistical power. We review the practice of reporting sample size and its effect on the power of trials published in major journals. Simulated clinical trials were used to compare the effects of different methods of determining SD on power and sample size calculations. Prior to 1996, sample size calculations were reported in just 1%-42% of clinical trials. This proportion increased from 38% to 54% after the initial Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) was published in 1996, and from 64% to 95% after the revised CONSORT was published in 2001. Nevertheless, underpowered clinical trials are still common. Our simulated data showed that all minimal and 25th-percentile SDs fell below 44 (the population SD), regardless of sample size (from 5 to 50). For sample sizes 5 and 50, the minimum sample SDs underestimated the population SD by 90.7% and 29.3%, respectively. If only one sample was available, there was less than 50% chance that the actual power equaled or exceeded the planned power of 80% for detecting a median effect size (Cohen's d = 0.5) when using the sample SD to calculate the sample size. The proportions of studies with actual power of at least 80% were about 95%, 90%, 85%, and 80% when we used the larger SD, 80% upper confidence limit (UCL) of SD, 70% UCL of SD, and 60% UCL of SD to calculate the sample size, respectively. When more than one sample was available, the weighted average SD resulted in about 50% of trials being underpowered; the proportion of trials with power of 80% increased from 90% to 100% when the 75th percentile and the

  17. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Background In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. Methods In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in ...

  18. Standard deviation of wind direction as a function of time; three hours to five hundred seventy-six hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culkowski, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The standard deviation of horizontal wind direction sigma/sub theta/ increases with time of averaging up to a maximum value of 104 0 . The average standard deviation of horizontal wind directions averaged over periods of 3, 5, 10, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, 144, 288, and 576 hours were calculated from wind data obtained from a 100 meter tower in the Oak Ridge area. For periods up to 100 hours, sigma/sub theta/ varies as t/sup .28/; after 100 hours sigma/sub theta/ varies as 6.5 ln t

  19. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from

  20. Simulation-based estimation of mean and standard deviation for meta-analysis via Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Reis, Isildinha M

    2015-08-12

    When conducting a meta-analysis of a continuous outcome, estimated means and standard deviations from the selected studies are required in order to obtain an overall estimate of the mean effect and its confidence interval. If these quantities are not directly reported in the publications, they must be estimated from other reported summary statistics, such as the median, the minimum, the maximum, and quartiles. We propose a simulation-based estimation approach using the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) technique for estimating mean and standard deviation based on various sets of summary statistics found in published studies. We conduct a simulation study to compare the proposed ABC method with the existing methods of Hozo et al. (2005), Bland (2015), and Wan et al. (2014). In the estimation of the standard deviation, our ABC method performs better than the other methods when data are generated from skewed or heavy-tailed distributions. The corresponding average relative error (ARE) approaches zero as sample size increases. In data generated from the normal distribution, our ABC performs well. However, the Wan et al. method is best for estimating standard deviation under normal distribution. In the estimation of the mean, our ABC method is best regardless of assumed distribution. ABC is a flexible method for estimating the study-specific mean and standard deviation for meta-analysis, especially with underlying skewed or heavy-tailed distributions. The ABC method can be applied using other reported summary statistics such as the posterior mean and 95 % credible interval when Bayesian analysis has been employed.

  1. Erratic tacrolimus exposure, assessed using the standard deviation of trough blood levels, predicts chronic lung allograft dysfunction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Harry M; Sarwar, Ghulam; Tse, Tracy; Sladden, Timothy M; Hii, Esmond; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Hopkins, Peter M; Chambers, Daniel C

    2015-11-01

    Erratic tacrolimus blood levels are associated with liver and kidney graft failure. We hypothesized that erratic tacrolimus exposure would similarly compromise lung transplant outcomes. This study assessed the effect of tacrolimus mean and standard deviation (SD) levels on the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and death after lung transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed 110 lung transplant recipients who received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to investigate the effect of tacrolimus mean and SD levels on survival and CLAD. At census, 48 patients (44%) had developed CLAD and 37 (34%) had died. Tacrolimus SD was highest for the first 6 post-transplant months (median, 4.01; interquartile range [IQR], 3.04-4.98 months) before stabilizing at 2.84 μg/liter (IQR, 2.16-4.13 μg/liter) between 6 and 12 months. The SD then remained the same (median, 2.85; IQR, 2.00-3.77 μg/liter) between 12 and 24 months. A high mean tacrolimus level 6 to 12 months post-transplant independently reduced the risk of CLAD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.86; p < 0.001) but not death (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.12; p = 0.65). In contrast, a high tacrolimus SD between 6 and 12 months independently increased the risk of CLAD (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.23-1.73; p < 0.001) and death (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51; p = 0.005). Erratic tacrolimus levels are a risk factor for poor lung transplant outcomes. Identifying and modifying factors that contribute to this variability may significantly improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mortality and morbidity risks vary with birth weight standard deviation score in growth restricted extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Takuji; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether the mortality and morbidity risks vary with birth weight standard deviation score (BWSDS) in growth restricted extremely preterm infants. This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study using the database of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan and including 9149 infants born between 2003 and 2010 at <28 weeks gestation. According to the BWSDSs, the infants were classified as: <-2.0, -2.0 to -1.5, -1.5 to -1.0, -1.0 to -0.5, and ≥-0.5. Infants with BWSDS≥-0.5 were defined as non-growth restricted group. After adjusting for covariates, the risks of mortality and some morbidities were different among the BWSDS groups. Compared with non-growth restricted group, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for mortality [aOR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.12] and chronic lung disease (CLD) (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.54) were higher among the infants with BWSDS -1.5 to <-1.0. The aOR for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71) and sepsis (aOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32-2.24) were higher among the infants with BWSDS -2.0 to <-1.5. The aOR for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.64-3.55) was increased at a BWSDS<-2.0. Being growth restricted extremely preterm infants confer additional risks for mortality and morbidities such as CLD, ROP, sepsis and NEC, and these risks may vary with BWSDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Standard deviation analysis of the mastoid fossa temperature differential reading: a potential model for objective chiropractic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John

    2011-03-01

    This study describes a model for statistically analyzing follow-up numeric-based chiropractic spinal assessments for an individual patient based on his or her own baseline. Ten mastoid fossa temperature differential readings (MFTD) obtained from a chiropractic patient were used in the study. The first eight readings served as baseline and were compared to post-adjustment readings. One of the two post-adjustment MFTD readings fell outside two standard deviations of the baseline mean and therefore theoretically represents improvement according to pattern analysis theory. This study showed how standard deviation analysis may be used to identify future outliers for an individual patient based on his or her own baseline data. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing of Software Routine to Determine Deviate and Cumulative Probability: ModStandardNormal Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.H. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document that the software routine ModStandardNomal Version 1.0 which is a Visual Fortran 5.0 module, provides correct results for a normal distribution up to five significant figures (three significant figures at the function tails) for a specified range of input parameters. The software routine may be used for quality affecting work. Two types of output are generated in ModStandardNomal: a deviate, x, given a cumulative probability, p, between 0 and 1; and a cumulative probability, p, given a deviate, x, between -8 and 8. This calculation supports Performance Assessment, under Technical Product Development Plan, TDP-EBS-MD-000006 (Attachment I, DIRS 3) and is written in accordance with the AP-3.12Q Calculations procedure (Attachment I, DIRS 4)

  5. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  6. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume IX. World-Wide Means and Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TITLE (..d SobtII,) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U. S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Volume IX World-wide Means and Standard Reference...Ives the best estimate of the population standard deviations. The means, , are com~nuted from: EX IIN I 90 80 70 60" 50’ 40, 30 20 10 0 1070 T- VErr ...or 10%, whichever is greater Since the mean ice limit approximates the minus two de l temperature isopleth, this analyzed lower limit was Wave Heights

  7. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in the indigent population: a deviation of standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, John S; Sandulache, Vlad C; Alapat, Philip M; Takashima, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) typically is managed best via a multidisciplinary approach, involving otolaryngologists, sleep psychologists/psychiatrists, pulmonologists, neurologists, oral surgeons, and sleep trained dentists. By utilizing these resources, one could fashion a treatment individualized to the patient, giving rise to the holistic phrase of "personalized medicine." Unfortunately, in situations and environments with limited resources, the treatment options in an otolaryngologist's armamentarium are restricted--typically to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus sleep surgery. However, a recent patient encounter highlighted here shows how a hospital's reimbursement policy effectively dictated a patient's medical management to sleep surgery. This occurred although the current gold standard for the initial treatment of OSA is CPAP. Changing the course of medical/surgical management by selectively restricting funding is a cause of concern, especially when it promotes patients to choose a treatment option that is not considered the current standard of care.

  8. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano

    2017-01-19

    This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform's peak variability is computed, which determines the system's capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.

  10. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alonso-Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform’s peak variability is computed, which determines the system’s capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1 and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS (GEROS-ISS scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.

  11. Detection of severe storm signatures in loblolly pine using seven-year periodic standardized averages and standard deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson Douglas; Thomas Hennessey; Thomas Lynch; Giulia Caterina; Rodolfo Mota; Robert Heineman; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson

    2016-01-01

    A loblolly pine plantation near Eagletown, Oklahoma was used to test standardized tree ring widths in detecting snow and ice storms. Widths of two rings immediately following suspected storms were standardized against widths of seven rings following the storm (Stan1 and Stan2). Values of Stan1 less than -0.900 predict a severe (usually ice) storm when Stan 2 is less...

  12. The two errors of using the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) as the standard error of a reliable change index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Gerard H

    2010-08-01

    In this Journal, Lewis and colleagues introduced a new Reliable Change Index (RCI(WSD)), which incorporated the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) of a repeated measurement design as the standard error. In this note, two opposite errors in using WSD this way are demonstrated. First, being the standard error of measurement of only a single assessment makes WSD too small when practice effects are absent. Then, too many individuals will be designated reliably changed. Second, WSD can grow unlimitedly to the extent that differential practice effects occur. This can even make RCI(WSD) unable to detect any reliable change.

  13. Multi-focus image fusion based on area-based standard deviation in dual tree contourlet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Dong, Chenghui; Guo, Miao; Wang, Zhe; Mu, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    Multiresolution-based methods, such as wavelet and Contourlet are usually used to image fusion. This work presents a new image fusion frame-work by utilizing area-based standard deviation in dual tree Contourlet trans-form domain. Firstly, the pre-registered source images are decomposed with dual tree Contourlet transform; low-pass and high-pass coefficients are obtained. Then, the low-pass bands are fused with weighted average based on area standard deviation rather than the simple "averaging" rule. While the high-pass bands are merged with the "max-absolute' fusion rule. Finally, the modified low-pass and high-pass coefficients are used to reconstruct the final fused image. The major advantage of the proposed fusion method over conventional fusion is the approximately shift invariance and multidirectional selectivity of dual tree Contourlet transform. The proposed method is compared with wavelet- , Contourletbased methods and other the state-of-the art methods on common used multi focus images. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed fusion framework is feasible and effective, and it performs better in both subjective and objective evaluation.

  14. Using the standard deviation of a region of interest in an image to estimate camera to emitter distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Angel E; Lazaro, José Luis; Infante, Arturo; Fernández, Pedro; Pompa-Chacón, Yamilet; Espinoza, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a camera to infrared diode (IRED) distance estimation problem was analyzed. The main objective was to define an alternative to measures depth only using the information extracted from pixel grey levels of the IRED image to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. In this paper, the standard deviation of the pixel grey level in the region of interest containing the IRED image is proposed as an empirical parameter to define a model for estimating camera to emitter distance. This model includes the camera exposure time, IRED radiant intensity and the distance between the camera and the IRED. An expression for the standard deviation model related to these magnitudes was also derived and calibrated using different images taken under different conditions. From this analysis, we determined the optimum parameters to ensure the best accuracy provided by this alternative. Once the model calibration had been carried out, a differential method to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED was defined and applied, considering that the camera was aligned with the IRED. The results indicate that this method represents a useful alternative for determining the depth information.

  15. Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.

  16. Using the Standard Deviation of a Region of Interest in an Image to Estimate Camera to Emitter Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Espinoza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a camera to infrared diode (IRED distance estimation problem was analyzed. The main objective was to define an alternative to measures depth only using the information extracted from pixel grey levels of the IRED image to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. In this paper, the standard deviation of the pixel grey level in the region of interest containing the IRED image is proposed as an empirical parameter to define a model for estimating camera to emitter distance. This model includes the camera exposure time, IRED radiant intensity and the distance between the camera and the IRED. An expression for the standard deviation model related to these magnitudes was also derived and calibrated using different images taken under different conditions. From this analysis, we determined the optimum parameters to ensure the best accuracy provided by this alternative. Once the model calibration had been carried out, a differential method to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED was defined and applied, considering that the camera was aligned with the IRED. The results indicate that this method represents a useful alternative for determining the depth information.

  17. Standard operation procedures for conducting the on-the-road driving test, and measurement of the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of the standardized on-the-road driving test and standard operation procedures to conduct the test and analyze the data. The on-the-road driving test has proven to be a sensitive and reliable method to examine driving ability after administration of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. The test is performed on a public highway in normal traffic. Subjects are instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. Its primary parameter, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), ie, an index of 'weaving', is a stable measure of driving performance with high test-retest reliability. SDLP differences from placebo are dose-dependent, and do not depend on the subject's baseline driving skills (placebo SDLP). It is important that standard operation procedures are applied to conduct the test and analyze the data in order to allow comparisons between studies from different sites.

  18. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  19. Volumetric segmentation of ADC maps and utility of standard deviation as measure of tumor heterogeneity in soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam D; Pattany, Pradip M; Fayad, Laura M; Tresley, Jonathan; Subhawong, Ty K

    2016-01-01

    Determine interobserver concordance of semiautomated three-dimensional volumetric and two-dimensional manual measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in soft tissue masses (STMs) and explore standard deviation (SD) as a measure of tumor ADC heterogeneity. Concordance correlation coefficients for mean ADC increased with more extensive sampling. Agreement on the SD of tumor ADC values was better for large regions of interest and multislice methods. Correlation between mean and SD ADC was low, suggesting that these parameters are relatively independent. Mean ADC of STMs can be determined by volumetric quantification with high interobserver agreement. STM heterogeneity merits further investigation as a potential imaging biomarker that complements other functional magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the probability that the sample mean is within a desired fraction of the standard deviation of the true mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A; Schillaci, Mario E

    2009-02-01

    The use of small sample sizes in human and primate evolutionary research is commonplace. Estimating how well small samples represent the underlying population, however, is not commonplace. Because the accuracy of determinations of taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolutionary process are dependant upon how well the study sample represents the population of interest, characterizing the uncertainty, or potential error, associated with analyses of small sample sizes is essential. We present a method for estimating the probability that the sample mean is within a desired fraction of the standard deviation of the true mean using small (nresearchers to determine post hoc the probability that their sample is a meaningful approximation of the population parameter. We tested the method using a large craniometric data set commonly used by researchers in the field. Given our results, we suggest that sample estimates of the population mean can be reasonable and meaningful even when based on small, and perhaps even very small, sample sizes.

  1. Assessing the stock market volatility for different sectors in Malaysia by using standard deviation and EWMA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the study on volatility concept especially in stock market has gained so much attention from a group of people engaged in financial and economic sectors. The applications of volatility concept in financial economics can be seen in valuation of option pricing, estimation of financial derivatives, hedging the investment risk and etc. There are various ways to measure the volatility value. However for this study, two methods are used; the simple standard deviation and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA). The focus of this study is to measure the volatility on three different sectors of business in Malaysia, called primary, secondary and tertiary by using both methods. The daily and annual volatilities of different business sector based on stock prices for the period of 1 January 2014 to December 2014 have been calculated in this study. Result shows that different patterns of the closing stock prices and return give different volatility values when calculating using simple method and EWMA method.

  2. A stochastic model for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for production and functional traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne-Marie; Groen, A F; Østergaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production...... was -0.94 €/day per cow-year. Standard deviations of economic values expressing variation in realised profit of a farm before and after a genetic change were computed using a linear Taylor series expansion. Expressed as coefficient of variation, standard deviations of economic values based on 1000...

  3. Minimizing the Standard Deviation of Spatially Averaged Surface Cross-Sectional Data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung

    2016-01-01

    For an airborne or spaceborne radar, the precipitation-induced path attenuation can be estimated from the measurements of the normalized surface cross section, sigma 0, in the presence and absence of precipitation. In one implementation, the mean rain-free estimate and its variability are found from a lookup table (LUT) derived from previously measured data. For the dual-frequency precipitation radar aboard the global precipitation measurement satellite, the nominal table consists of the statistics of the rain-free 0 over a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude grid using a three-month set of input data. However, a problem with the LUT is an insufficient number of samples in many cells. An alternative table is constructed by a stepwise procedure that begins with the statistics over a 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg grid. If the number of samples at a cell is too few, the area is expanded, cell by cell, choosing at each step that cell that minimizes the variance of the data. The question arises, however, as to whether the selected region corresponds to the smallest variance. To address this question, a second type of variable-averaging grid is constructed using all possible spatial configurations and computing the variance of the data within each region. Comparisons of the standard deviations for the fixed and variable-averaged grids are given as a function of incidence angle and surface type using a three-month set of data. The advantage of variable spatial averaging is that the average standard deviation can be reduced relative to the fixed grid while satisfying the minimum sample requirement.

  4. Some major deviations for biomass determination by indirect method and estimation based on alkali consumption. [Ratio of cell mass produced and alkali consumed; diesel fuel culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concone, B R.V.; Doin, P A; Pinto, A G

    1978-01-01

    Some factors like the variation of the liquid volume, the variation of cellular nitrogen content and the mass of cells taken with the samples during batch cultivation of microorganisms on diesel oil, were considered for the computation of the ratio between cell mass produced and the mass of alkali consumed to maintain constant the pH of the fermentation medium. The results obtained showed that if such ratios are computed with cell concentration instead of cell mass the deviations can be of the order of 27% caused by the variation of the liquid medium volume. Otherwise, the results showed also that those ratios are variable during batch cultivation on diesel oil probably because of the variations on the nitrogen content of microorganisms. The relative difference between the mass of cells measured and the mass of cells calculated from the alkali consumption curve can be of the order of 63%.

  5. Similar tests and the standardized log likelihood ratio statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    1986-01-01

    When testing an affine hypothesis in an exponential family the 'ideal' procedure is to calculate the exact similar test, or an approximation to this, based on the conditional distribution given the minimal sufficient statistic under the null hypothesis. By contrast to this there is a 'primitive......' approach in which the marginal distribution of a test statistic considered and any nuisance parameter appearing in the test statistic is replaced by an estimate. We show here that when using standardized likelihood ratio statistics the 'primitive' procedure is in fact an 'ideal' procedure to order O(n -3...

  6. Tuberculosis disease mapping in Kedah using standardized morbidity ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diah, Ijlal Mohd; Aziz, Nazrina; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of relative risk estimation that applied to TB data in Kedah using the most common approach, Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). Disease mapping has been recognized as one of the methods that can be used by government and public health in order to control diseases since it can give a clear picture of the risk areas. To get good disease mapping, relative risk estimation is an important issue that need to be considered. TB risk areas will be recognized through the map. From the result, Kulim shows the lowest risk areas of contracting TB while Kota Setar has the highest risk area.

  7. Correlation of pattern reversal visual evoked potential parameters with the pattern standard deviation in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defect particularly the pattern standard deviation (PSD of Humphrey visual field could be associated with visual evoked potential (VEP parameters of patients having primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS:Visual field by Humphrey perimetry and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. The stimulus configuration for VEP recordings consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board pattern was generated (full field and displayed on VEP monitor (colour 14” by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II.RESULTS:The results of our study indicate that there is a highly significant (P<0.001 negative correlation of P100 amplitude and a statistically significant (P<0.05 positive correlation of N70 latency, P100 latency and N155 latency with the PSD of Humphrey visual field in the subjects of POAG in various age groups as evaluated by Student’s t-test.CONCLUSION:Prolongation of VEP latencies were mirrored by a corresponding increase of PSD values. Conversely, as PSD increases the magnitude of VEP excursions were found to be diminished.

  8. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joustra, Sjoerd D; van der Plas, Evelyn M; Goede, Joery; Oostdijk, Wilma; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Hack, Wilfried W M; van Buuren, Stef; Wit, Jan M

    2015-06-01

    Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonography and Prader orchidometer of 769 healthy Dutch boys aged 6 months to 19 years. We also explored the association between testicular growth and pubic hair development, and data were compared to orchidometric testicular volumes from the 1997 Dutch nationwide growth study. The LMS-smoothed reference charts showed that no revision of the definition of normal onset of male puberty - from nine to 14 years of age - was warranted. In healthy boys, the pubic hair stage SD scores corresponded with testicular volume SD scores (r = 0.394). However, testes were relatively small for pubic hair stage in Klinefelter's syndrome and relatively large in immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 deficiency syndrome. The age-corrected SD scores for testicular volume will aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of abnormalities in the timing and progression of male puberty and in research evaluations. The SD scores can be compared with pubic hair SD scores to identify discrepancies between cell functions that result in relative microorchidism or macroorchidism. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Correlation of pattern reversal visual evoked potential parameters with the pattern standard deviation in primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ruchi; Bokariya, Pradeep; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Narang, Purvasha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defect particularly the pattern standard deviation (PSD) of Humphrey visual field could be associated with visual evoked potential (VEP) parameters of patients having primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Visual field by Humphrey perimetry and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. The stimulus configuration for VEP recordings consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board pattern was generated (full field) and displayed on VEP monitor (colour 14″) by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). The results of our study indicate that there is a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation of P100 amplitude and a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of N70 latency, P100 latency and N155 latency with the PSD of Humphrey visual field in the subjects of POAG in various age groups as evaluated by Student's t-test. Prolongation of VEP latencies were mirrored by a corresponding increase of PSD values. Conversely, as PSD increases the magnitude of VEP excursions were found to be diminished.

  10. Severe obesity is a limitation for the use of body mass index standard deviation scores in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Benestad, Beate; Lekhal, Samira; Danielsen, Yngvild; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran; Hertel, Jens K

    2018-02-01

    We analysed the distribution of the body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) in children and adolescents seeking treatment for severe obesity, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and the national Norwegian Bergen Growth Study (BGS) BMI reference charts and the percentage above the International Obesity Task Force 25 cut-off (IOTF-25). This was a cross-sectional study of 396 children aged four to 17 years, who attended a tertiary care obesity centre in Norway from 2009 to 2015. Their BMI was converted to SDS using the three growth references and expressed as the percentage above IOTF-25. The percentage of body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Regardless of which BMI reference chart was used, the BMI-SDS was significantly different between the age groups, with a wider range of higher values up to 10 years of age and a more narrow range of lower values thereafter. The distributions of the percentage above IOTF-25 and percentage of body fat were more consistent across age groups. Our findings suggest that it may be more appropriate to use the percentage above a particular BMI cut-off, such as the percentage above IOTF-25, than the IOTF, WHO and BGS BMI-SDS in paediatric patients with severe obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states.

  12. A WEB-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR VISUALIZING INDUSTRIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION USING STANDARD DEVIATIONAL ELLIPSE AND SHIFTING ROUTES OF GRAVITY CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  13. a Web-Based Framework for Visualizing Industrial Spatiotemporal Distribution Using Standard Deviational Ellipse and Shifting Routes of Gravity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  14. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  15. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  16. Inverse correlation between the standard deviation of R-R intervals in supine position and the simplified menopausal index in women with climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Seki, Meikan; Nakano, Masahiro; Hachisuga, Toru; Goto, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance of autonomic nervous activity has been thought to play a role in the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. This study was therefore designed to investigate the relationship between autonomic nervous activity and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal Japanese women. The autonomic nervous activity of 40 Japanese women with climacteric symptoms and 40 Japanese women without climacteric symptoms was measured by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability using a standard hexagonal radar chart. The scores for climacteric symptoms were determined using the simplified menopausal index. Sympathetic excitability and irritability, as well as the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position, were significantly (P standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position and the simplified menopausal index score. The lack of control for potential confounding variables was a limitation of this study. In climacteric women, the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position is negatively correlated with the simplified menopausal index score.

  17. Residual standard deviation: Validation of a new measure of dual-task cost in below-knee prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Abbas, James; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-01-01

    We developed and evaluated properties of a new measure of variability in stride length and cadence, termed residual standard deviation (RSD). To calculate RSD, stride length and cadence are regressed against velocity to derive the best fit line from which the variability (SD) of the distance between the actual and predicted data points is calculated. We examined construct, concurrent, and discriminative validity of RSD using dual-task paradigm in 14 below-knee prosthesis users and 13 age- and education-matched controls. Subjects walked first over an electronic walkway while performing separately a serial subtraction and backwards spelling task, and then at self-selected slow, normal, and fast speeds used to derive the best fit line for stride length and cadence against velocity. Construct validity was demonstrated by significantly greater increase in RSD during dual-task gait in prosthesis users than controls (group-by-condition interaction, stride length p=0.0006, cadence p=0.009). Concurrent validity was established against coefficient of variation (CV) by moderate-to-high correlations (r=0.50-0.87) between dual-task cost RSD and dual-task cost CV for both stride length and cadence in prosthesis users and controls. Discriminative validity was documented by the ability of dual-task cost calculated from RSD to effectively differentiate prosthesis users from controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, stride length 0.863, p=0.001, cadence 0.808, p=0.007), which was better than the ability of dual-task cost CV (0.692, 0.648, respectively, not significant). These results validate RSD as a new measure of variability in below-knee prosthesis users. Future studies should include larger cohorts and other populations to ascertain its generalizability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ARFI cut-off values and significance of standard deviation for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Sturm, Joerg; Pfeifer, Lukas; Wildner, Dane; Wachter, David L; Neurath, Markus F; Strobel, Deike

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry quantifies hepatic stiffness, and thus degree of fibrosis, non-invasively. Our aim was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI cut-off values, and the significance of a defined limit of standard deviation (SD) as a potential quality parameter for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). 153 patients with CLD (various aetiologies) undergoing liver biopsy, and an additional 25 patients with known liver cirrhosis, were investigated. ARFI measurements were performed in the right hepatic lobe, and correlated with the histopathological Ludwig fibrosis score (inclusion criteria: at least 6 portal tracts). The diagnostic accuracy of cut-off values was analysed with respect to an SD limit of 30% of the mean ARFI value. The mean ARFI elastometry showed 1.95 ± 0.87 m/s (range 0.79-4.40) in 178 patients (80 female, 98 male, mean age: 52 years). The cut-offs were 1.25 m/s for F ≥ 2, 1.72 m/s for F ≥ 3 and 1.75 m/s for F = 4, and the corresponding AUROC 80.7%, 86.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Exclusion of 31 patients (17.4%) with an SD higher than 30% of the mean ARFI improved the diagnostic accuracy: The AUROC for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 were 86.1%, 91.2% and 91.5%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI can be improved by applying a maximum SD of 30% of the mean ARFI as a quality parameter--which however leads to an exclusion of a relevant number of patients. ARFI results with a high SD should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Standard deviation of carotid young's modulus and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Zhang, Yanling; Qian, Ming; Xiao, Yang; Meng, Long; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    The stiffness of large arteries and the presence or absence of plaque are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Because arterial walls are biologically heterogeneous, the standard deviation of Young's modulus (YM-std) of the large arteries may better predict coronary atherosclerosis. However, the role of YM-std in the occurrence of coronary events has not been addressed so far. Therefore, this study investigated whether the carotid YM-std and the presence or absence of plaque improved CHD risk prediction. One hundred and three patients with CHD (age 66 ± 11 years) and 107 patients at high risk of atherosclerosis (age 61 ± 7 years) were recruited. Carotid YM was measured by the vessel texture matching method, and YM-std was calculated. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured by the MyLab 90 ultrasound Platform employed dedicated software RF-tracking technology. In logistic regression analysis, YM-std (OR = 1·010; 95% CI = 1·003-1·016), carotid plaque (OR = 16·759; 95% CI = 3·719-75·533) and YM-std plus plaque (OR = 0·989; 95% CI = 0·981-0·997) were independent predictors of CHD. The traditional risk factors (TRF) plus YM-std plus plaque model showed a significant improvement in area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), which increased from 0·717 (TRF only) to 0·777 (95% CI for the difference in adjusted AUC: 0·010-0·110). Carotid YM-std is a powerful independent predictor of CHD. Adding plaque and YM-std to TRF improves CHD risk prediction. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ON THE ELECTRON-TO-NEUTRAL NUMBER DENSITY RATIO IN THE COMA OF COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO: GUIDING EXPRESSION AND SOURCES FOR DEVIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigren, E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Odelstad, E. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Galand, M.; Schwartz, S. J., E-mail: erik.vigren@irfu.se [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-10

    We compute partial photoionization frequencies of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO, the major molecules in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, the target comet of the ongoing ESA Rosetta mission. Values are computed from Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energy and Dynamics/Solar EUV Experiment solar EUV spectra for 2014 August 1, 2015 March 1, and for perihelion (2015 August, as based on prediction). From the varying total photoionization frequency of H{sub 2}O, as computed from 2014 August 1 to 2015 May 20, we derive a simple analytical expression for the electron-to-neutral number density ratio as a function of cometocentric and heliocentric distance. The underlying model assumes radial movement of the coma constituents and does not account for chemical loss or the presence of electric fields. We discuss various effects/processes that can cause deviations between values from the analytical expression and actual electron-to-neutral number density ratios. The analytical expression is thus not strictly meant as predicting the actual electron-to-neutral number density ratio, but is useful in comparisons with observations as an indicator of processes at play in the cometary coma.

  1. Dealing with missing standard deviation and mean values in meta-analysis of continuous outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Christopher J; Butcher, Isabella; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie C; Murray, Gordon D; Langhorne, Peter; Brady, Marian C

    2018-03-07

    Rigorous, informative meta-analyses rely on availability of appropriate summary statistics or individual participant data. For continuous outcomes, especially those with naturally skewed distributions, summary information on the mean or variability often goes unreported. While full reporting of original trial data is the ideal, we sought to identify methods for handling unreported mean or variability summary statistics in meta-analysis. We undertook two systematic literature reviews to identify methodological approaches used to deal with missing mean or variability summary statistics. Five electronic databases were searched, in addition to the Cochrane Colloquium abstract books and the Cochrane Statistics Methods Group mailing list archive. We also conducted cited reference searching and emailed topic experts to identify recent methodological developments. Details recorded included the description of the method, the information required to implement the method, any underlying assumptions and whether the method could be readily applied in standard statistical software. We provided a summary description of the methods identified, illustrating selected methods in example meta-analysis scenarios. For missing standard deviations (SDs), following screening of 503 articles, fifteen methods were identified in addition to those reported in a previous review. These included Bayesian hierarchical modelling at the meta-analysis level; summary statistic level imputation based on observed SD values from other trials in the meta-analysis; a practical approximation based on the range; and algebraic estimation of the SD based on other summary statistics. Following screening of 1124 articles for methods estimating the mean, one approximate Bayesian computation approach and three papers based on alternative summary statistics were identified. Illustrative meta-analyses showed that when replacing a missing SD the approximation using the range minimised loss of precision and generally

  2. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  3. Standardized morbidity ratio for leptospirosis mapping in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Aznida Che; Samat, Nor Azah

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that affects human health in many parts of the world including Malaysia. Leptospirosis is a disease caused by the infection of pathogenic Leptospira genus called Spirochaetes. Leptospirosis can be transmitted directly or indirectly from rats to human. The human infection is usually caused by human contact with urine or tissues of infected animal. This disease can be spread through mucus membrane such as mouth, nose and eyes, ingestion of contaminated food and water and also exposed injured skin to contaminated water or soil. There is still no vaccine currently available for the prevention or treatment of leptospirosis disease but this disease can be treated if it is diagnosed early. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the relative risk for leptospirosis disease based initially on the most common statistic used in the study of disease mapping called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). We then apply SMR to leptospirosis data obtained in Malaysia. The results show that the states of Melaka have very high risk areas. The states of Kedah, Terengganu and Kelantan are identified as high risk areas. The states of Perak, Perlis, Sabah and Sarawak showed medium risk areas. This is followed by low risk by other states except Pahang, Johor and Labuan with very low risk areas. In conclusion, SMR method is the best method for mapping leptospirosis because by referring to the relative risk maps, the states that deserve closer look and disease prevention can be identified.

  4. Standardized Uptake Value Ratio-Independent Evaluation of Brain Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincarini, Andrea; Sensi, Francesco; Rei, Luca; Bossert, Irene; Morbelli, Silvia; Guerra, Ugo Paolo; Frisoni, Giovanni; Padovani, Alessandro; Nobili, Flavio

    2016-10-18

    The assessment of in vivo18F images targeting amyloid deposition is currently carried on by visual rating with an optional quantification based on standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) measurements. We target the difficulties of image reading and possible shortcomings of the SUVr methods by validating a new semi-quantitative approach named ELBA. ELBA involves a minimal image preprocessing and does not rely on small, specific regions of interest (ROIs). It evaluates the whole brain and delivers a geometrical/intensity score to be used for ranking and dichotomic assessment. The method was applied to adniimages 18F-florbetapir images from the ADNI database. Five expert readers provided visual assessment in blind and open sessions. The longitudinal trend and the comparison to SUVr measurements were also evaluated. ELBA performed with area under the roc curve (AUC) = 0.997 versus the visual assessment. The score was significantly correlated to the SUVr values (r = 0.86, p analysis estimated a test/retest error of ≃2.3%. Cohort and longitudinal analysis suggests that the ELBA method accurately ranks the brain amyloid burden. The expert readers confirmed its relevance in aiding the visual assessment in a significant number (85) of difficult cases. Despite the good performance, poor and uneven image quality constitutes the major limitation.

  5. Variations in the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratios in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR has been widely used because it allows for robust risk adjustment using administrative data and is important for improving the quality of patient care. Methods: All inpatients discharged from hospitals with more than 700 beds (66 hospitals in 2008 were eligible for inclusion. Using the claims data, 29 most responsible diagnosis (MRDx, accounting for 80% of all inpatient deaths among these hospitals, were identified, and inpatients with those MRDx were selected. The final study population included 703 571 inpatients including 27 718 (3.9% of all inpatients in-hospital deaths. Using logistic regression, risk-adjusted models for predicting in-hospital mortality were created for each MRDx. The HSMR of individual hospitals was calculated for each MRDx using the model coefficients. The models included age, gender, income level, urgency of admission, diagnosis codes, disease-specific risk factors, and comorbidities. The Elixhauser comorbidity index was used to adjust for comorbidities. Results: For 26 out of 29 MRDx, the c-statistics of these mortality prediction models were higher than 0.8 indicating excellent discriminative power. The HSMR greatly varied across hospitals and disease groups. The academic status of the hospital was the only factor significantly associated with the HSMR. Conclusions: We found a large variation in HSMR among hospitals; therefore, efforts to reduce these variations including continuous monitoring and regular disclosure of the HSMR are required.

  6. Combining Mean and Standard Deviation of Hounsfield Unit Measurements from Preoperative CT Allows More Accurate Prediction of Urinary Stone Composition Than Mean Hounsfield Units Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailly, Thomas; Larish, Yaniv; Nadeau, Brandon; Violette, Philippe; Glickman, Leonard; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Alenezi, Husain; Amann, Justin; Denstedt, John; Razvi, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of a urinary stone may influence its surgical and medical treatment. Previous attempts at identifying stone composition based on mean Hounsfield Units (HUm) have had varied success. We aimed to evaluate the additional use of standard deviation of HU (HUsd) to more accurately predict stone composition. We identified patients from two centers who had undergone urinary stone treatment between 2006 and 2013 and had mineral stone analysis and a computed tomography (CT) available. HUm and HUsd of the stones were compared with ANOVA. Receiver operative characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC), Youden index, and likelihood ratio calculations were performed. Data were available for 466 patients. The major components were calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid, hydroxyapatite, struvite, brushite, cystine, and CO dihydrate (COD) in 41.4%, 19.3%, 12.4%, 7.5%, 5.8%, 5.4%, and 4.7% of patients, respectively. The HUm of UA and Br was significantly lower and higher than the HUm of any other stone type, respectively. HUm and HUsd were most accurate in predicting uric acid with an AUC of 0.969 and 0.851, respectively. The combined use of HUm and HUsd resulted in increased positive predictive value and higher likelihood ratios for identifying a stone's mineral composition for all stone types but COM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CT data aiding in the prediction of brushite stone composition. Both HUm and HUsd can help predict stone composition and their combined use results in higher likelihood ratios influencing probability.

  7. Dependence of the Ratio between the Resonance Integral and Thermal Neutron Cross Section on the Deviation of the Epithermal Neutron Spectrum from the 1/E Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    In k 0 - Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -NAA), the conversion from the tabulated Q 0 (ratio of the resonance integral to thermal neutron cross-section)to Q 0 (α) (α is the shape factor of the epithermal neutron flux, indicating the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the ideal 1/E shape) are calculated using a FORTRAN program. The calculations are done for most elements that can be detected by neutron activation using different values of the parameter (α) ranging from -0.1≤α≤+0.1. The obtained data are used to study the dependence of the values (α) on the irradiation position factor in (k 0 -NAA)equation for some selected isotopes differ in their resonance energy and its Q 0 values. The results show that, the irradiation factor is affective mainly for low thermal tro epithermal flux ratio f especially for Q 0 value greater than 50. so consequently determining the irradiation parameters α value is not needed for irradiation positions that rich with thermal neutron. But for high f values the irradiation position factor should be taken into account. On the other hand the constructed FORTRAN program can be used to calculate the value Q 0 (α) directly for different value of α

  8. Reassessment of carotid intima-media thickness by standard deviation score in children and adolescents after Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Nobutaka; Kato, Masataka; Abe, Yuriko; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that used carotid ultrasound have been largely conflicting in regards to whether or not patients after Kawasaki disease (KD) have a greater carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than controls. To test the hypothesis that there are significant differences between the values of CIMT expressed as absolute values and standard deviation scores (SDS) in children and adolescents after KD and controls, we reviewed 12 published articles regarding CIMT on KD patients and controls. The mean ± SD of absolute CIMT (mm) in the KD patients and controls obtained from each article was transformed to SDS (CIMT-SDS) using age-specific reference values established by Jourdan et al. (J: n = 247) and our own data (N: n = 175), and the results among these 12 articles were compared between the two groups and the references for comparison of racial disparities. There were no significant differences in mean absolute CIMT and mean CIMT-SDS for J between KD patients and controls (0.46 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.44 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.133, and 1.80 ± 0.84 vs. 1.25 ± 0.12, p = 0.159, respectively). However, there were significant differences in mean CIMT-SDS for N between KD patients and controls (0.60 ± 0.71 vs. 0.01 ± 0.65, p = 0.042). When we assessed the nine articles on Asian subjects, the difference of CIMT-SDS between the two groups was invariably significant only for N (p = 0.015). Compared with the reference values, CIMT-SDS of controls was within the normal range at a rate of 41.6 % for J and 91.6 % for N. These results indicate that age- and race-specific reference values for CIMT are mandatory for performing accurate assessment of the vascular status in healthy children and adolescents, particularly in those after KD considered at increased long-term cardiovascular risk.

  9. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. METHODS: A

  10. A stochastic model for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for production and functional traits in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, H.M.; Groen, A.F.; Ostergaard, S.; Berg, P.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production

  11. ESRD QIP - Standardized Readmission Ratio - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance ratio, measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the SRR measure included in the PY...

  12. "Ratio via Machina": Three Standards of Mechanistic Explanation in Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Natalie B.; Reed, Isaac Ariail

    2017-01-01

    Recently, sociologists have expended much effort in attempts to define social mechanisms. We intervene in these debates by proposing that sociologists in fact have a choice to make between three standards of what constitutes a good mechanistic explanation: substantial, formal, and metaphorical mechanistic explanation. All three standards are…

  13. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  14. SU-E-I-59: Investigation of the Usefulness of a Standard Deviation and Mammary Gland Density as Indexes for Mammogram Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarabe, S; Yabuuchi, H; Morishita, J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high- density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region as features for classification of mammograms into four categories based on the ACR BI-RADS breast composition. We used 36 digital mediolateral oblique view mammograms (18 patients) approved by our IRB. These images were classified into the four categories of breast compositions by an experienced breast radiologist and the results of the classification were regarded as a gold standard. First, a whole mammary region in a breast was divided into two regions such as a high-density mammary glands region and a low/iso-density mammary glands region by using a threshold value that was obtained from the pixel values corresponding to a pectoral muscle region. Then the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was calculated. In addition, as a new method, the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region was calculated as an index based on the intermingling of mammary glands and fats. Finally, all mammograms were classified by using the combination of the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region and the standard deviation of each image. The agreement rates of the classification between our proposed method and gold standard was 86% (31/36). This result signified that our method has the potential to classify mammograms. The combination of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was available as features to classify mammograms based on the ACR BI- RADS breast composition. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. LB02.03: EVALUATION OF DAY-BY-DAY BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN CLINIC (DO WE STILL NEED STANDARD DEVIATION?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, M; Nakamoto, H; Hosoya, K; Komatsu, M; Hibino, Y

    2015-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability correlates with cardio-vascular disease as BP level itself. There is not known easy way to evaluate the BP variability in clinic.To evaluate the usefulness of maximum-minimum difference (MMD) of BP in a month compared to standard deviation (SD), as an index of BP variability. Study-1: Twelve patients (age 65.9 ± 12.1 y/o) were enrolled. Measurements of home systolic (S) BP were required in the morning. The 12 months consecutive data and at least 3 times measurements a month were required for including. (Mean 29.0 ± 4.5 times/month in the morning). We checked the correlation between MMD and SD. Study-2: Six hemodialized patients monitored with i-TECHO system (J of Hypertens 2007: 25: 2353-2358) for longer than one year were analyzed. As in study-1, we analyzed the correlation between SD and MMD of SBP. 17.4 ± 11.9 times per month. Study-3: The data from our previous study (FUJIYAM study Clin. Exp Hypertens 2014: 36:508-16) were extracted. 1524 patient-month morning BP data were calculated as in study-1. Picking up data measuring more than 24 times a month, 517 patient-month BP data were analyzed. We compared the ratio to 25 times measured data of SD and MMD, in the setting 5, 10, 15, 20 times measured data. Study-1: SBP, MMD was correlated very well to SD (p  2 times. If data were extracted (measurements>24 times), correlation was 0.927 (P < 0.0001). The equation of SBPSD = 1.520+ 0.201xMMD. The ratios of SD to 25 times were as follows; 0.956 in 5 times, 0.956 in 10, 0.979 in 15, 0.991 in 20 times. The ratios of MMD to 25 times were as follows; 0.558 in 5, 0.761 in 10, 0.874 in 15, 0.944 in 20. We can assume SD easily by measuring MMD as an index of day-by-day BP variability of a month. The equation formulas were very similar though the patients' groups were different. But we have to be careful how many times patients measure in a month.

  16. Standardization for oxygen isotope ratio measurement - still an unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornexl; Werner; Gehre

    1999-07-01

    Numerous organic and inorganic laboratory standards were gathered from nine European and North American laboratories and were analyzed for their delta(18)O values with a new on-line high temperature pyrolysis system that was calibrated using Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW) and standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) internationally distributed reference water samples. Especially for organic materials, discrepancies between reported and measured values were high, ranging up to 2 per thousand. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and the need for an exact and reliable calibration of existing reference materials, as well as for the establishment of additional organic and inorganic reference materials is stressed. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Development and validation of new spectrophotometric ratio H-point standard addition method and application to gastrointestinal acting drugs mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ali M.

    2013-05-01

    New, simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric technique utilizing ratio spectra is developed for simultaneous determination of two different binary mixtures. The developed ratio H-point standard addition method (RHPSAM) was managed successfully to resolve the spectral overlap in itopride hydrochloride (ITO) and pantoprazole sodium (PAN) binary mixture, as well as, mosapride citrate (MOS) and PAN binary mixture. The theoretical background and advantages of the newly proposed method are presented. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 5-60 μg/mL, 5-40 μg/mL and 4-24 μg/mL for ITO, MOS and PAN, respectively. Specificity of the method was investigated and relative standard deviations were less than 1.5. The accuracy, precision and repeatability were also investigated for the proposed method according to ICH guidelines.

  19. Deviation from the Standard of Care for Early Breast Cancer in the Elderly: What are the Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Susie X; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Leung, Anna M

    2015-08-01

    For elderly patients with early-stage breast cancer, the standards of care often are not strictly followed due to either clinician biases or patient preferences. The authors hypothesized that forgoing radiation and lymph node (LN) staging for elderly patients with early-stage breast cancer would have a negative impact on survival. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database, 53,619 women older than 55 years with stage 1 breast cancer who underwent breast conservation surgery were identified. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received the standards of care with LN sampling and radiation and those of patients who did not, with control used for confounders. To account for selection bias from covariate imbalance, propensity score matching was performed. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Older patients were less likely to receive radiation and LN sampling. These standards of care were associated with improved overall survival rates of 15.8 and 27.1 % after 10 years, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). This survival advantage persisted after propensity score matching, with a 7.4 % higher survival rate for patients who received radiation and a 16.8 % higher survival rate for those who underwent LN staging (p standard of care for stage 1 breast cancer. Even after controlling for other factors, the study showed that failure to adhere to the standards of LN sampling and radiation therapy may have a negative impact in survival.

  20. The standard deviation of extracellular water/intracellular water is associated with all-cause mortality and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ping; Wang, Hong; Du, Feng-He; Wang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The mortality rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is still high, and the predicting factors for PD patient mortality remain to be determined. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the standard deviation (SD) of extracellular water/intracellular water (E/I) and all-cause mortality and technique failure in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) patients. All 152 patients came from the PD Center between January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2007. Clinical data and at least five-visit E/I ratio defined by bioelectrical impedance analysis were collected. The patients were followed up till December 31st 2010. The primary outcomes were death from any cause and technique failure. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors for mortality and technique failure in CAPD patients. All patients were followed up for 59.6 ± 23.0 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to their SD of E/I values: lower SD of E/I group (≤0.126) and higher SD of E/I group (>0.126). The patients with higher SD of E/I showed a higher all-cause mortality (log-rank χ (2) = 10.719, P = 0.001) and technique failure (log-rank χ (2) = 9.724, P = 0.002) than those with lower SD of E/I. Cox regression analysis found that SD of E/I independently predicted all-cause mortality (HR  3.551, 95 % CI 1.442-8.746, P = 0.006) and technique failure (HR  2.487, 95 % CI 1.093-5.659, P = 0.030) in CAPD patients after adjustment for confounders except when sensitive C-reactive protein was added into the model. The SD of E/I was a strong independent predictor of all-cause mortality and technique failure in CAPD patients.

  1. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of central nervous system drugs on driving: speed variability versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The on-the-road driving test in normal traffic is used to examine the impact of drugs on driving performance. This paper compares the sensitivity of standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and SD speed in detecting driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to identify studies applying the on-the-road driving test, examining the effects of anxiolytics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and hypnotics. The proportion of comparisons (treatment versus placebo) where a significant impairment was detected with SDLP and SD speed was compared. About 40% of 53 relevant papers did not report data on SD speed and/or SDLP. After placebo administration, the correlation between SDLP and SD speed was significant but did not explain much variance (r = 0.253, p = 0.0001). A significant correlation was found between ΔSDLP and ΔSD speed (treatment-placebo), explaining 48% of variance. When using SDLP as outcome measure, 67 significant treatment-placebo comparisons were found. Only 17 (25.4%) were significant when SD speed was used as outcome measure. Alternatively, for five treatment-placebo comparisons, a significant difference was found for SD speed but not for SDLP. Standard deviation of lateral position is a more sensitive outcome measure to detect driving impairment than speed variability.

  3. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...

  4. Properties of pattern standard deviation in open-angle glaucoma patients with hemi-optic neuropathy and bi-optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Dong Won; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Sung Bok; Kim, Chang-Sik

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the properties of pattern standard deviation (PSD) according to localization of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. We enrolled 242 eyes of 242 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/25, and no media opacity. Patients were examined via dilated fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field examination, and divided into those with hemi-optic neuropathy (superior or inferior) and bi-optic neuropathy (both superior and inferior). We assessed the relationship between mean deviation (MD) and PSD. Using broken stick regression analysis, the tipping point was identified, i.e., the point at which MD became significantly associated with a paradoxical reversal of PSD. In 91 patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, PSD showed a strong correlation with MD (r = -0.973, β = -0.965, p < 0.001). The difference between MD and PSD ("-MD-PSD") was constant (mean, -0.32 dB; 95% confidence interval, -2.48~1.84 dB) regardless of visual field defect severity. However, in 151 patients with bi-optic neuropathy, a negative correlation was evident between "-MD-PSD" and MD (r2 = 0.907, p < 0.001). Overall, the MD tipping point was -14.0 dB, which was close to approximately 50% damage of the entire visual field (p < 0.001). Although a false decrease of PSD usually begins at approximately 50% visual field damage, in patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, the PSD shows no paradoxical decrease and shows a linear correlation with MD.

  5. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility.

  6. Improving image-quality of interference fringes of out-of-plane vibration using temporal speckle pattern interferometry and standard deviation for piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Ching Ma; Ching-Yuan Chang

    2013-07-01

    Interferometry provides a high degree of accuracy in the measurement of sub-micrometer deformations; however, the noise associated with experimental measurement undermines the integrity of interference fringes. This study proposes the use of standard deviation in the temporal domain to improve the image quality of patterns obtained from temporal speckle pattern interferometry. The proposed method combines the advantages of both mean and subtractive methods to remove background noise and ambient disturbance simultaneously, resulting in high-resolution images of excellent quality. The out-of-plane vibration of a thin piezoelectric plate is the main focus of this study, providing information useful to the development of energy harvesters. First, ten resonant states were measured using the proposed method, and both mode shape and resonant frequency were investigated. We then rebuilt the phase distribution of the first resonant mode based on the clear interference patterns obtained using the proposed method. This revealed instantaneous deformations in the dynamic characteristics of the resonant state. The proposed method also provides a frequency-sweeping function, facilitating its practical application in the precise measurement of resonant frequency. In addition, the mode shapes and resonant frequencies obtained using the proposed method were recorded and compared with results obtained using finite element method and laser Doppler vibrometery, which demonstrated close agreement.

  7. Improved differentiation between hepatic hemangioma and metastases on diffusion-weighted MRI by measurement of standard deviation of apparent diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Andrew D; Egbert, Robert E; Rissing, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MR) can be useful in the differentiation of hemangiomata from liver metastasis, but improved methods other than by mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC) are needed. A retrospective review identified 109 metastatic liver lesions and 86 hemangiomata in 128 patients who had undergone DW-MR. For each lesion, mADC and the standard deviation of the mean ADC (sdADC) were recorded and compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Mean mADC was higher in benign hemangiomata (1.52±0.12 mm(2)/s) than in liver metastases (1.33±0.18 mm(2)/s), but there was significant overlap in values. The mean sdADC was lower in hemangiomata (101±17 mm(2)/s) than metastases (245±25 mm(2)/s) and demonstrated no overlap in values, which was significantly different (P<.0001). Hemangiomata may be better able to be differentiated from liver metastases on the basis of sdADC than by mADC, although further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Progressive Decline in Height Standard Deviation Scores in the First 5 Years of Life Distinguished Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency from Familial Short Stature and Constitutional Delay of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Toschke, Christina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Familial short stature (FSS) and constitutional delay of growth (CDG) are the most frequent norm variants in children presenting with short stature. Knowing the growth patterns of these entities in the first years of life might be helpful to distinguish them from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or other chronic diseases. We studied the height in the first 5 years of life in 26 children with FSS, in 38 children with CDG and in 14 children with idiopathic GHD. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) did not change between birth and 6 months of life, while height SDS decreased significantly afterwards in GHD, FSS, and CDG. The loss of height SDS was higher in the first 2 years of life than between 2 and 5 years of life in children with CDG (-0.92 vs. -0.11; p = 0.003) or FSS (-0.79 vs. -0.01; p = 0.002). In idiopathic GHD, the loss of height SDS did not differ between the first 2 years of life and the next 3 years (-0.78 vs. -0.77; p = 0.821). Children with FSS and CDG showed a decline in height SDS mainly in the first 2 years of life, whereas the height SDS of children with idiopathic GHD decreased almost continuously over the first 5 years of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8- to 14-kg pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; van Milgen, Jaap; Sloth, Niels Morten

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose–response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets. I...

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  11. Lower levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score are associated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Mori, Kojiroh; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Imai, Shunsuke; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Tasuku; Seko, Yuya; Ishiba, Hiroshi; Okajima, Akira; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency may be associated with histological progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is mainly produced by hepatocytes and its secretion is stimulated by GH. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of IGF-1 in Japanese patients. Serum samples were obtained in 199 Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and in 2911 sex- and age-matched healthy people undergoing health checkups. The serum levels of IGF-1 were measured using a commercially available immunoradiometric assay. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of IGF-1 according to age and sex were also calculated in NAFLD patients. The serum IGF-1 levels in NAFLD patients were significantly lower (median, 112 ng/mL) compared with the control population (median, 121 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). IGF-1 SDS less than -2.0 SD from median were found in 11.6% of 199 patients. NASH patients exhibited significantly lower levels of IGF-1 SDS (n = 130; median, -0.7) compared with NAFL patients (n = 69; median, -0.3; P = 0.026). The IGF-1 SDS values decreased significantly with increasing lobular inflammation (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.001). In multiple regressions, the association between the IGF-1 SDS values and the severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age, sex and insulin resistance. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 may have a role in the development of advanced NAFLD, independent of insulin resistance. Supplementation with GH/IGF-1 may be a candidate for the treatment of NASH. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. Urinary growth hormone level and insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score (IGF-SDS) can discriminate adult patients with severe growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohata, Toshio; Saito, Nobuhito; Takano, Koji; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Yamada, Shoko M; Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Hoya, Katsumi; Murakami, Mineko; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Matsuno, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (AGHD) in Japan is diagnosed based on peak GH concentrations during GH provocative tests such as GHRP-2 stimulation test. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (sIGF-1) and urinary GH (uGH) at the time of awakening to diagnose AGHD. Fifty-nine patients with pituitary disease (32 men and 27 women; age 20-85 y (57.5 ± 15.5, mean ± SD) underwent GHRP-2 stimulation and sIGF-1 testing. Thirty-six and 23 patients were diagnosed with and without severe AGHD, respectively based on a peak GH response of standard deviation score (IGF-1 SDS) based on age and sex. We determined whether uGH levels in urine samples from 42 of the 59 patients at awakening were above or below the sensitivity limit. We evaluated IGF-1 SDS and uGH levels in a control group of 15 healthy volunteers. Values for IGF-1 SDS were significantly lower in patients with, than without (-2.07 ± 1.77 vs.-0.03 ± 0.92, mean ± SD; p -1.4. IGF-1 SDS discriminated AGHD more effectively in patients aged ≤60 years. The χ2 test revealed a statistical relationship between uGH and AGHD (test statistic: 7.0104 ≥ χ2 (1; 0.01) = 6.6349). When IGF-1 SDS is < -1.4 or uGH is below the sensitivity limit, AGHD can be detected with high sensitivity.

  13. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  14. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  15. Estimates and Standard Errors for Ratios of Normalizing Constants from Multiple Markov Chains via Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Hani; Tan, Aixin

    2014-09-01

    In the classical biased sampling problem, we have k densities π 1 (·), …, π k (·), each known up to a normalizing constant, i.e. for l = 1, …, k , π l (·) = ν l (·)/ m l , where ν l (·) is a known function and m l is an unknown constant. For each l , we have an iid sample from π l , · and the problem is to estimate the ratios m l /m s for all l and all s . This problem arises frequently in several situations in both frequentist and Bayesian inference. An estimate of the ratios was developed and studied by Vardi and his co-workers over two decades ago, and there has been much subsequent work on this problem from many different perspectives. In spite of this, there are no rigorous results in the literature on how to estimate the standard error of the estimate. We present a class of estimates of the ratios of normalizing constants that are appropriate for the case where the samples from the π l 's are not necessarily iid sequences, but are Markov chains. We also develop an approach based on regenerative simulation for obtaining standard errors for the estimates of ratios of normalizing constants. These standard error estimates are valid for both the iid case and the Markov chain case.

  16. Determination of the relations governing trends in the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution based on observations on the atmospheric turbulence spectrum and the possibility of laboratory simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Using TAYLOR's calculation, which takes account of the low-pass filter effect of the transfer time on the value for the standard deviation of particle dispersion, we have introduced a high-pass filter which translate the effect of the time of observation, by definition finite, onto the true atmospheric scale. It is then possible to identify those conditions under which the relations governing variation of the standard deviations of pollution distribution are dependent upon: the distance of transfer alone, the time of transfer alone. Thence, making certain simplifying assumptions, practical quantitive relationships are deduced for the variation of the horizontal standard deviation of pollution dispersion as a function of wind speed and time of transfer

  17. SU-E-T-625: Robustness Evaluation and Robust Optimization of IMPT Plans Based on Per-Voxel Standard Deviation of Dose Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Mohan, R

    2012-06-01

    Proton dose distributions, IMPT in particular, are highly sensitive to setup and range uncertainties. We report a novel method, based on per-voxel standard deviation (SD) of dose distributions, to evaluate the robustness of proton plans and to robustly optimize IMPT plans to render them less sensitive to uncertainties. For each optimization iteration, nine dose distributions are computed - the nominal one, and one each for ± setup uncertainties along x, y and z axes and for ± range uncertainty. SD of dose in each voxel is used to create SD-volume histogram (SVH) for each structure. SVH may be considered a quantitative representation of the robustness of the dose distribution. For optimization, the desired robustness may be specified in terms of an SD-volume (SV) constraint on the CTV and incorporated as a term in the objective function. Results of optimization with and without this constraint were compared in terms of plan optimality and robustness using the so called'worst case' dose distributions; which are obtained by assigning the lowest among the nine doses to each voxel in the clinical target volume (CTV) and the highest to normal tissue voxels outside the CTV. The SVH curve and the area under it for each structure were used as quantitative measures of robustness. Penalty parameter of SV constraint may be varied to control the tradeoff between robustness and plan optimality. We applied these methods to one case each of H&N and lung. In both cases, we found that imposing SV constraint improved plan robustness but at the cost of normal tissue sparing. SVH-based optimization and evaluation is an effective tool for robustness evaluation and robust optimization of IMPT plans. Studies need to be conducted to test the methods for larger cohorts of patients and for other sites. This research is supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant P01CA021239, the University Cancer Foundation via the Institutional Research Grant program at the University of Texas MD

  18. Myocardial infarct sizing by late gadolinium-enhanced MRI: Comparison of manual, full-width at half-maximum, and n-standard deviation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Huttin, Olivier; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Felblinger, Jacques; Beaumont, Marine; Chillou, Christian DE; Girerd, Nicolas; Mandry, Damien

    2016-11-01

    To compare three widely used methods for myocardial infarct (MI) sizing on late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance (MR) images: manual delineation and two semiautomated techniques (full-width at half-maximum [FWHM] and n-standard deviation [SD]). 3T phase-sensitive inversion-recovery (PSIR) LGE images of 114 patients after an acute MI (2-4 days and 6 months) were analyzed by two independent observers to determine both total and core infarct sizes (TIS/CIS). Manual delineation served as the reference for determination of optimal thresholds for semiautomated methods after thresholding at multiple values. Reproducibility and accuracy were expressed as overall bias ± 95% limits of agreement. Mean infarct sizes by manual methods were 39.0%/24.4% for the acute MI group (TIS/CIS) and 29.7%/17.3% for the chronic MI group. The optimal thresholds (ie, providing the closest mean value to the manual method) were FWHM30% and 3SD for the TIS measurement and FWHM45% and 6SD for the CIS measurement (paired t-test; all P > 0.05). The best reproducibility was obtained using FWHM. For TIS measurement in the acute MI group, intra-/interobserver agreements, from Bland-Altman analysis, with FWHM30%, 3SD, and manual were -0.02 ± 7.74%/-0.74 ± 5.52%, 0.31 ± 9.78%/2.96 ± 16.62% and -2.12 ± 8.86%/0.18 ± 16.12, respectively; in the chronic MI group, the corresponding values were 0.23 ± 3.5%/-2.28 ± 15.06, -0.29 ± 10.46%/3.12 ± 13.06% and 1.68 ± 6.52%/-2.88 ± 9.62%, respectively. A similar trend for reproducibility was obtained for CIS measurement. However, semiautomated methods produced inconsistent results (variabilities of 24-46%) compared to manual delineation. The FWHM technique was the most reproducible method for infarct sizing both in acute and chronic MI. However, both FWHM and n-SD methods showed limited accuracy compared to manual delineation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1206-1217. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Increased height standard deviation scores in response to growth hormone therapy to near-adult height in older children with delayed skeletal maturation: results from the ANSWER Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Judith L; Lee, Peter A; Gut, Robert; Germak, John

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy (GHT) in children is attaining normal adult height. In this study, children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (including isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency [IGHD] and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency [MPHD]), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and Turner syndrome (TS) were evaluated for near-adult height (NAH) and percent achieving NAH within the normal range after approximately 4 years of GHT. Data from the American Norditropin® Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER) Program were analyzed for NAH from age at treatment start (ATS) (i.e., referral age as defined by age at enrollment in the study) to last clinic visit using one of the following two criteria: 1) age ≥18 years, or 2) if male: ≥16 years and height velocity (HV) standard deviation score (HSDS) ≤ -2, and either GHD (n = 201), ISS (n = 19), or TS (n = 41). The main outcome measures included HSDS and corrected HSDS (HSDS-target HSDS) in response to GH treatment, and correlation of ATS with NAH HSDS. Mean (± SD) chronological and bone ages at baseline were 14.0 ± 2.1 years and 11.7 ± 2.0 years, respectively, and mean GHT duration was 4.0 ± 1.6 years. Mean HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.7 to -1.0; ISS: -2.8 to -1.4; TS: -3.0 to -1.8) and mean corrected HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.1 to -0.3; ISS: -2.1 to -0.6; TS: -1.8 to -0.6) increased across diagnostic indications. Percentages of patients reaching near-adult HSDS > -2 were GHD: 87.6%; ISS: 78.9%; TS: 65.8%. Significant negative correlations were found between ATS and NAH HSDS when analyzed by sex. Despite a relatively advanced childhood age, the majority of GH-treated patients attained mean near-adult HSDS within the normal range (HSDS > -2). Negative correlations of ATS with near-adult HSDS indicate that an earlier age at treatment start would likely have resulted in greater adult height achieved in both male and female patients.

  20. Impact of Changes in Accounting Standards in Debt Ratios of Firms: Evidence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aroldo Freitas de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research investigates the impact of changes in debt ratios of Brazilian firms due to the IFRS adoption. We make a comparison between the forecast of the time-series of debt ratios accounted until 2007 for the span from 2008 to the first quarter of 2015 with those effectively accounted from 2008 to the first quarter of 2015 derived from the new accounting standard. The research utilizes SARIMAX model and Chow’s (1960 structural break forecast test, controlling for changes originating from the macroeconomic environment as well. We find evidence of significant changes in the debt ratio towards both higher and lower debt with predominance of greater ratios. This result is consistent with past literature in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Nevertheless, we do not find evidence of a structural break in the Financial Dependency ratio. Moreover, there is no evidence of any distinct effects across different industries. The research provides new evidence confirming the informational effects of IFRS by utilizing a robust time-series model with macroeconomic controls in an innovative approach towards the accounting environment.

  1. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  2. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  3. Steroid isotopic standards for gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis of urinary steroids using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is a recognized test to detect illicit doping with synthetic testosterone. There are currently no universally used steroid isotopic standards (SIS). We adapted a protocol to prepare isotopically uniform steroids for use as a calibrant in GCC-IRMS that can be analyzed under the same conditions as used for steroids extracted from urine. Two separate SIS containing a mixture of steroids were created and coded CU/USADA 33-1 and CU/USADA 34-1, containing acetates and native steroids, respectively. CU/USADA 33-1 contains 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol acetate (5alpha-A-AC), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one acetate (androsterone acetate, A-AC), 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-11, 17-dione acetate (11-ketoetiocholanolone acetate, 11k-AC) and 5alpha-cholestane (Cne). CU/USADA 34-1 contains 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (etiocholanolone, E), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (androsterone, A), and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol (5betaP). Each mixture was prepared and dispensed into a set of about 100 ampoules using a protocol carefully designed to minimize isotopic fractionation and contamination. A natural gas reference material, NIST RM 8559, traceable to the international standard Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) was used to calibrate the SIS. Absolute delta(13)C(VPDB) and Deltadelta(13)C(VPDB) values from randomly selected ampoules from both SIS indicate uniformity of steroid isotopic composition within measurement reproducibility, SD(delta(13)C)<0.2 per thousand. This procedure for creation of isotopic steroid mixtures results in consistent standards with isotope ratios traceable to the relevant international reference material.

  4. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.

  5. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  6. Reproducibility Between Brain Uptake Ratio Using Anatomic Standardization and Patlak-Plot Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Tomoki; Tsuchihashi, Hiroko; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    The Patlak-plot and conventional methods of determining brain uptake ratio (BUR) have some problems with reproducibility. We formulated a method of determining BUR using anatomic standardization (BUR-AS) in a statistical parametric mapping algorithm to improve reproducibility. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of mean cerebral blood flow as determined using BUR-AS in comparison to the conventional-BUR (BUR-C) and Patlak-plot methods. The images of 30 patients who underwent brain perfusion SPECT were retrospectively used in this study. The images were reconstructed using ordered-subset expectation maximization and processed using an automatic quantitative analysis for cerebral blood flow of ECD tool. The mean SPECT count was calculated from axial basal ganglia slices of the normal side (slices 31-40) drawn using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template after anatomic standardization. The mean cerebral blood flow was calculated from the mean SPECT count. Reproducibility was evaluated using coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plotting. For both inter- and intraoperator reproducibility, the BUR-AS method had the lowest coefficient of variation and smallest error range about the Bland-Altman plot. Mean CBF obtained using the BUR-AS method had the highest reproducibility. Compared with the Patlak-plot and BUR-C methods, the BUR-AS method provides greater inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of cerebral blood flow measurement. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  8. Development of a standardized transfusion ratio as a metric for evaluating dialysis facility anemia management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannong; Li, Suying; Gilbertson, David T; Monda, Keri L; Bradbury, Brian D; Collins, Allan J

    2014-10-01

    Because transfusion avoidance has been the cornerstone of anemia treatment for patients with kidney disease, direct measurement of red blood cell transfusion use to assess dialysis facility anemia management performance is reasonable. We aimed to explore methods for estimating facility-level standardized transfusion ratios (STfRs) to assess provider anemia treatment practices. Retrospective cohort study. Point prevalent US hemodialysis patients on January 1, 2009, with Medicare as primary payer and dialysis duration of 90 days or longer were included (n = 223,901). All dialysis facilities with eligible patients were included (n = 5,345). Dialysis facility assignment. Receiving a red blood cell transfusion in the inpatient or outpatient setting. We evaluated 3 approaches for estimating STfR: ratio of observed to expected numbers of transfusions (STfR(obs)), a Bayesian approach (STfR(Bayes)), and a modified version of the Bayesian approach (STfR(modBayes)). The overall national transfusion rate in 2009 was 23.2 per 100 patient-years. Our model for predicting the expected number of transfusions performed well. For large facilities, all 3 STfRs worked well. However, for small facilities, while the STfR(modBayes) worked well, STfR(obs) values demonstrated instability and the STfR(Bayes) may produce more bias. Administration of transfusions to dialysis patients reflects medical practice both within and outside the dialysis unit. Some transfusions may be deemed unavoidable and transfusion practices are subject to considerable regional variation. Development of an STfR metric is feasible and reasonable for assessing anemia treatment at dialysis facilities. The STfR(obs) is simple to calculate and works well for larger dialysis facilities. The STfR(modBayes) is more analytically complex, but facilitates comparisons across all dialysis facilities, including small facilities. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21...

  10. Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratios: Sensitivity Analyses on the Impact of Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Jarman, Brian; Aylin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hospital standardized mortality ratios (HSMRs) are derived from administrative databases and cover 80 percent of in-hospital deaths with adjustment for available case mix variables. They have been criticized for being sensitive to issues such as clinical coding but on the basis of limited quantitative evidence. Methods In a set of sensitivity analyses, we compared regular HSMRs with HSMRs resulting from a variety of changes, such as a patient-based measure, not adjusting for comorbidity, not adjusting for palliative care, excluding unplanned zero-day stays ending in live discharge, and using more or fewer diagnoses. Results Overall, regular and variant HSMRs were highly correlated (ρ > 0.8), but differences of up to 10 points were common. Two hospitals were particularly affected when palliative care was excluded from the risk models. Excluding unplanned stays ending in same-day live discharge had the least impact despite their high frequency. The largest impacts were seen when capturing postdischarge deaths and using just five high-mortality diagnosis groups. Conclusions HSMRs in most hospitals changed by only small amounts from the various adjustment methods tried here, though small-to-medium changes were not uncommon. However, the position relative to funnel plot control limits could move in a significant minority even with modest changes in the HSMR. PMID:21790587

  11. Novel surgical performance evaluation approximates Standardized Incidence Ratio with high accuracy at simple means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Itay E; Gabbay, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Excess adverse events may be attributable to poor surgical performance but also to case-mix, which is controlled through the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR). SIR calculations can be complicated, resource consuming, and unfeasible in some settings. This article suggests a novel method for SIR approximation. In order to evaluate a potential SIR surrogate measure we predefined acceptance criteria. We developed a new measure - Approximate Risk Index (ARI). "Number Needed for Event" (NNE) is the theoretical number of patients needed "to produce" one adverse event. ARI is defined as the quotient of the group of patients needed for no observed events Ge by total patients treated Ga. Our evaluation compared 2500 surgical units and over 3 million heterogeneous risk surgical patients that were induced through a computerized simulation. Surgical unit's data were computed for SIR and ARI to evaluate compliance with the predefined criteria. Approximation was evaluated by correlation analysis and performance prediction capability by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. ARI strongly correlates with SIR (r(2) = 0.87, p 0.9) 87% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ARI provides good approximation of SIR and excellent prediction capability. ARI is simple and cost-effective as it requires thorough risk evaluation of only the adverse events patients. ARI can provide a crucial screening and performance evaluation quality control tool. The ARI method may suit other clinical and epidemiological settings where relatively small fraction of the entire population is affected. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward the rational use of standardized infection ratios to benchmark surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Morikane, Keita; Kuroki, Manabu; Taniguchi, Shinichiro; Shinzato, Takashi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Okada, Kunihiko; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Ieiri, Yuko; Hayashi, Kouji; Kawai, Shin

    2013-09-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network transitioned from surgical site infection (SSI) rates to the standardized infection ratio (SIR) calculated by statistical models that included perioperative factors (surgical approach and surgery duration). Rationally, however, only patient-related variables should be included in the SIR model. Logistic regression was performed to predict expected SSI rate in 2 models that included or excluded perioperative factors. Observed and expected SSI rates were used to calculate the SIR for each participating hospital. The difference of SIR in each model was then evaluated. Surveillance data were collected from a total of 1,530 colon surgery patients and 185 SSIs. C-index in the model with perioperative factors was statistically greater than that in the model including patient-related factors only (0.701 vs 0.621, respectively, P operative process or the competence of surgical teams, these factors should not be considered predictive variables. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of life expectancy derived from a standardized mortality ratio in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Væth, Michael; Støvring, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is a widely used measure. A recent methodological study provided an accurate approximate relationship between an SMR and difference in lifetime expectancies. This study examines the usefulness of the theoretical relationship, when comparing historic mortality data in four Scandinavian populations. For Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, data on mortality every fifth year in the period 1950 to 2010 were obtained. Using 1980 as the reference year, SMRs and difference in life expectancy were calculated. The assumptions behind the theoretical relationship were examined graphically. The theoretical relationship predicts a linear association with a slope, [Formula: see text], between log(SMR) and difference in life expectancies, and the theoretical prediction and calculated differences in lifetime expectancies were compared. We examined the linear association both for life expectancy at birth and at age 30. All analyses were done for females, males and the total population. The approximate relationship provided accurate predictions of actual differences in lifetime expectancies. The accuracy of the predictions was better when age was restricted to above 30, and improved if the changes in mortality rate were close to a proportional change. Slopes of the linear relationship were generally around 9 for females and 10 for males. The theoretically derived relationship between SMR and difference in life expectancies provides an accurate prediction for comparing populations with approximately proportional differences in mortality, and was relatively robust. The relationship may provide a useful prediction of differences in lifetime expectancies, which can be more readily communicated and understood.

  14. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...

  15. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  16. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang

    2017-01-01

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery

  17. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../or affiliate(s); (d) The bank's liquidity, capital, risk asset and other ratios compared to the... individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Establishment of Minimum Capital...

  18. Annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio of cerebrovascular accidents in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C C; Ho, L Y; To, C H

    2009-01-01

    To study the annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The annual incidence of CVA from 1999 to 2007 in a longitudinal cohort of SLE patients was calculated each year and compared with that of the regional population within the same study period. Age-specific SIRs and outcome of CVA in SLE patients were also studied. In 2007, there were 490 SLE patients in our cohort. The mean annual incidence of CVA between 1999 and 2007 was 6.45/1000 patients and no obvious trend over time was observed. Of the 20 CVAs in patients with SLE, 18 (90%) were ischaemic stroke whereas two (10%) were haemorrhagic stroke. The mean SIR of all types of CVA in SLE patients was 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-3.81; p = 0.002]. The SIR of ischaemic stroke decreased with age and the stroke incidence was no longer significantly higher than that of the population in patients aged >or= 60 years. Haemorrhagic stroke occurred mainly in younger SLE patients. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA was non-significantly higher in SLE than in non-SLE patients. The incidence of CVA in SLE remained constant over the 8 years between 1999 and 2007. Younger SLE patients are at substantially increased risk of CVA compared to age-matched population. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA are similar in SLE and non-SLE patients.

  19. Increased standardized incidence ratio of breast cancer in female electronics workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Ping

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1994, a hazardous waste site, polluted by the dumping of solvents from a former electronics factory, was discovered in Taoyuan, Taiwan. This subsequently emerged as a serious case of contamination through chlorinated hydrocarbons with suspected occupational cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if there was any increased risk of breast cancer among female workers in a 23-year follow-up period. Methods A total of 63,982 female workers were retrospectively recruited from the database of the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI covering the period 1973–1997; the data were then linked with data, up to 2001, from the National Cancer Registry at the Taiwanese Department of Health, from which standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for different types of cancer were calculated as compared to the general population. Results There were a total of 286 cases of breast cancer, and after adjustment for calendar year and age, the SIR was close to 1. When stratified by the year 1974 (the year in which the regulations on solvent use were promulgated, the SIR of the cohort of workers who were first employed prior to 1974 increased to 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.70. No such trend was discernible for workers employed after 1974. When 10 years of employment was considered, there was a further increase in the SIR for breast cancer, to 1.62. Those workers with breast cancer who were first employed prior to 1974 were employed at a younger age and for a longer period. Previous qualitative studies of interviews with the workers, corroborated by inspection records, showed a short-term high exposure to chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, particularly trichloroethylene before 1974. There were no similar findings on other types of cancer. Conclusion Female workers with exposure to trichloroethylene and/or mixture of solvents, first employed prior to 1974, may have an excess risk of breast cancer.

  20. Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

    2007-01-24

    Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement.

  1. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  2. Detecting deviating behaviors without models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level

  3. Antibiotic inclusion in the diet did not alter the standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio for growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with or without an antibiotic. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG, ADFI, G:F and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the opti...

  4. Determination of altitude-dependence of standard spectra and stripping ratios for the GR820 Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heincke, Bjoern H.; Watson, Robin J.; Moeller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NGUs Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer system is used both for geological mapping, and for monitoring radioactive materials in the event of nuclear emergencies. Traditional methods of processing spectrometer data use channel windows around the radionuclides of interest; more advanced methods make use of the full spectra information. Such advanced methods require prior knowledge of the dependence of standard spectra with height. Height-dependent measurements have been made using concrete calibration pads, and polythene sheets to simulate the effects of altitude. The height-dependent standard spectra were determined using singular value decomposition and a global inversion scheme. Using the first two eigenimages, together with suitable scaling factors, we were able to recreate the measured height-dependent standard spectra. The height dependence of standard Th, U and K stripping ratios were also calculated from these standard spectra.(Au)

  5. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.

  6. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  7. Ratio of thyroid radioiodine uptake calculated via the physic decay rate of the standard radioactive source: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yu; Zhou Luyi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the difference of the ratio of thyroid radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake calculated by actually measuring counts of the standard radioactive source(method 1) and by computing counts of the standard radioactive source via physic half life of 131 I (method 2). Methods: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with Graves' Disease were prospectively recruited. The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake was calculated by two methods at 4 h and 24 h after administration of 1.48 MBq 131 I, respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the two methods. Results: The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake at 4h was (32±16)% and ( 35±10)% (t=1.98, P=0.20), at 24h (72±19)% and (69±24)% ( t=1.49, P=0.23), respectively, by the two methods. Conclusion: To calculate the ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake via the physic half life of the standard radioactive resource is feasible, and can both reduce the risk of ionizing radiation to technical staff and act as verifying method for quality control of thyroid function equipment. (authors)

  8. Standardization of Fat:SNF ratio of milk and addition of sprouted wheat fada (semolina) for the manufacture of halvasan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Apurva H; Patel, H G; Prajapati, P S; Prajapati, J P

    2015-04-01

    Traditional Indian Dairy Products such as Halvasan are manufactured in India using an age old practice. For manufacture of such products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Halvasan is a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product but has not been studied scientifically. Fat and Solids-not-fat (SNF) plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Halvasan manufacture, different levels of Fat:SNF ratios i.e. 0.44, 0.55, 0.66 and 0.77 of milk were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to these ratios of Fat:SNF and the product was manufactured as per the method tentatively employed on the basis of characterization of market samples of the product in laboratory. Based on the sensory results obtained, a Fat:SNF ratio of 0.66 for the milk has been selected. In the similar way, for standardizing the rate of addition of fada (semolina); 30, 40, 50 and 60 g fada (semolina) per kg of milk were added and based on the sensory observations, the level of fada (semolina) addition @50 gm/kg of milk was adjudged the best for Halvasan manufacture and hence selected.

  9. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  10. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  11. A pooled analysis of on-the-road highway driving studies in actual traffic measuring standard deviation of lateral position (i.e., "weaving") while driving at a blood alcohol concentration of 0.5 g/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vermeeren, A; van der Sluiszen, N N J J M; Schumacher, M B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G

    2017-03-01

    The on-the-road highway driving test is generally regarded as a gold standard for assessing drug-induced driving impairment. The primary outcome measure is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of road tracking error or "weaving". The test has been calibrated for incremental doses of alcohol almost 30 years ago in order to define the impact of drug-induced impairment in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents. Drug-induced changes in SDLP exceeding 2.4 cm have been evaluated as clinically relevant ever since. The present analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the alcohol effect in a range of on-the-road driving studies which have been conducted since the initial alcohol calibration study. The present study pooled data of 182 participants from nine placebo-controlled crossover studies who performed the highway driving test, while their BAC was at or just below the legal limit for drivers (i.e., 0.5 g/L). Overall, mean SDLP increased with 2.5 cm (95% CI 2.0-2.9 cm). Equivalence testing showed that the clinical relevance criterion value of 2.4 cm fell well within the 95% CI in each individual study. Gender did not affect alcohol-induced changes in SDLP. These results demonstrate the robustness and validity of the clinical relevance criterion for SDLP as measured during on-the-road driving.

  12. Fixed ratio dosing of pramlintide with regular insulin before a standard meal in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M C; Yuen, K C J; de Bruin, T W; Herrmann, K; Xu, J; Öhman, P; Kolterman, O G

    2015-09-01

    Amylin is co-secreted with insulin and is therefore lacking in patients with type 1 diabetes. Replacement with fixed ratio co-administration of insulin and the amylin analogue pramlintide may be superior to separate dosing. This concept was evaluated in a ratio-finding study. Patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in a randomized, single-masked, standard breakfast crossover study using regular human insulin injected simultaneously with pramlintide 6, 9 or 12 mcg/unit insulin or placebo. Insulin dosage was reduced by 30% from patients' usual estimates. Plasma glucose, glucagon and pramlintide and adverse events were assessed. All ratios reduced 0-3-h glucose and glucagon increments by >50%. No hypoglycaemia occurred. Adverse events were infrequent and generally mild. All pramlintide/insulin ratios markedly and safely reduced glycaemic excursions and suppressed glucagon secretion in the immediate postprandial state. Further study using one of these ratios to explore the efficacy and safety of longer-term meal-time and basal hormone replacement is warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Large deviations and idempotent probability

    CERN Document Server

    Puhalskii, Anatolii

    2001-01-01

    In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...

  14. TL glow ratios at different temperature intervals of integration in thermoluminescence method. Comparison of Japanese standard (MHLW notified) method with CEN standard methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Saito, Kimie; Tsujimoto, Yuka

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the integration temperature intervals of TL intensities on the TL glow ratio was examined in comparison of the notified method of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW method) with EN1788. Two kinds of un-irradiated geological standard rock and three kinds of spices (black pepper, turmeric, and oregano) irradiated at 0.3 kGy or 1.0 kGy were subjected to TL analysis. Although the TL glow ratio exceeded 0.1 in the andesite according to the calculation of the MHLW notified method (integration interval; 70-490degC), the maximum of the first glow were observed at 300degC or more, attributed the influence of the natural radioactivity and distinguished from food irradiation. When the integration interval was set to 166-227degC according to EN1788, the TL glow ratios became remarkably smaller than 0.1, and the evaluation of the un-irradiated sample became more clear. For spices, the TL glow ratios by the MHLW notified method fell below 0.1 in un-irradiated samples and exceeded 0.1 in irradiated ones. Moreover, Glow1 maximum temperatures of the irradiated samples were observed at the range of 168-196degC, and those of un-irradiated samples were 258degC or more. Therefore, all samples were correctly judged by the criteria of the MHLW method. However, based on the temperature range of integration defined by EN1788, the TL glow ratio of un-irradiated samples remarkably became small compared with that of the MHLW method, and the discrimination of the irradiated sample from non-irradiation sample became clearer. (author)

  15. Image sensor pixel with on-chip high extinction ratio polarizer based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Shishido, Sanshiro; Ando, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-05-06

    In this study, we demonstrate a polarization sensitive pixel for a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology. Using such a deep-submicron CMOS technology, it is possible to design fine metal patterns smaller than the wavelengths of visible light by using a metal wire layer. We designed and fabricated a metal wire grid polarizer on a 20 × 20 μm(2) pixel for image sensor. An extinction ratio of 19.7 dB was observed at a wavelength 750 nm.

  16. Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1986-07-01

    By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)

  17. Body mass index standard deviation score and obesity in children with type 1 diabetes in the Nordic countries. HbA1c and other predictors of increasing BMISDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, N H; Kahlert, J; Bjarnason, R; Drivvoll, A K; Johansen, A; Konradsdottir, E; Pundziute-Lyckå, A; Samuelsson, U; Skrivarhaug, T; Svensson, J

    2018-05-21

    Intensified insulin therapy may increase body weight and cause obesity. This study compared body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) and obesity rate in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and uncovered predictors for increasing BMISDS. Data registered in the Nordic national childhood diabetes databases during the period 2008-2012 on children below 15 years with T1D for more than 3 months were compiled, including information on gender, age, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), insulin dose, severe hypoglycemia (SH), treatment modality, height and weight. The Swedish reference chart for BMI was used for calculating BMISDS. Totally, 11 025 children (48% females) (30 994 registrations) were included. Medians by the last recorded examination were: age, 13.5 years; diabetes duration, 4.3 years; HbA 1c , 7.9% (63 mmol/mol); insulin dose, 0.8 IU/kg/d and BMISDS, 0.70. Obesity rate was 18.5%. Adjusted mean BMISDS (BMISDS adj) was inversely related to HbA 1c and directly to diabetes duration. Higher BMISDS adj was found in those with an insulin dose above 0.6 IU/kg/d, and in girls above 10 years. Pump users had higher BMISDS adj than pen users, and patients with registered SH had higher BMISDS adj than patients without SH (both P < .001). Obesity rate in children with T1D in the Nordic countries is high, however, with country differences. Low HbA 1c , long diabetes duration, higher insulin dose, pump treatment and experiencing a SH predicted higher BMISDS. Diabetes caregivers should balance the risk of obesity and the benefit of a very low HbA 1c. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...

  19. Explorations in Statistics: Standard Deviations and Standard Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in "Advances in Physiology Education" provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle…

  20. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  1. Standard model false vacuum inflation: correlating the tensor-to-scalar ratio to the top quark and Higgs boson masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Isabella; Notari, Alessio

    2012-05-11

    For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops a false minimum at energies of about 10(16)  GeV, where primordial inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. A graceful exit to a radiation-dominated era is provided, e.g., by scalar-tensor gravity models. We pointed out that if inflation happened in this false minimum, the Higgs boson mass has to be in the range 126.0±3.5  GeV, where ATLAS and CMS subsequently reported excesses of events. Here we show that for these values of the Higgs boson mass, the inflationary gravitational wave background has be discovered with a tensor-to-scalar ratio at hand of future experiments. We suggest that combining cosmological observations with measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses represent a further test of the hypothesis that the standard model false minimum was the source of inflation in the universe.

  2. A base to standardize data processing of cadmium ratio RCd and thermal neutron flux measurements on reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaohuan

    1993-08-01

    The cadmium ratio R Cd and thermal neutron flux are usually measured in a reactor. But its data process is rather complex. The results from same measured data differ by different existing process methods. The purpose of this work is to standardize data processing in R Cd and thermal neutron flux measurements. A natural choice for this purpose is to derive a R Cd formula based on standard average thermal activation cross section and resonance integral and to define related parameters or factors that provide an unique base for comparison between different measurements in laboratories. The parameters or factors include E c , F m , F m ' and G th ' in thermal energy region due to upper truncated Maxwellian distribution and E Cd , F Cd , G r and S r in intermediate energy region. They are the function of multiple variables. The Au foil is used as an example to demonstrate their behaviors by chosen figures and tables which provide for practical data process by hand. The work also discusses limitation of R Cd measurement in terms of so called available and optimum region and notes that Co and Mn foils have a much wider available region among Au, In, Mn, W and Co, the commonly used detector foils

  3. Computer generation of random deviates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, John

    1991-01-01

    The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.4 contains tables of SMR for malignant lymphoma. (J.P.N.)

  5. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No. 1 contains tables of SMR for all malignant neoplasms. (J.P.N.)

  6. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.7 contains tables of SMR for malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. (J.P.N.)

  7. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.6 contains tables of SMR for multiple myeloma. (J.P.N.)

  8. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.2 contains tables of SMR for leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  9. Tables of standardized mortality ratio for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan (1973-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Murata, Motoi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Matsudaira, Hiromichi.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains tables of standardized mortality ratio(SMR) for cancer in cities, towns and villages in Japan. A survey is made only on several kinds of cancer which has (or possibly has) a relation to radiation, such as all malignant neoplasms, leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma(NHL), multiple myeloma, and malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid. It is conducted by sex and by time period not only on all age group but also on age group from 0 to 24 (except malignant neoplasms of the lung and the thyroid) because raise of leukemia onset rate of the younger generation in peripheral area of reprocessing facilities becomes a problem. The term of survey is from 1973 to 1987 and divided into the whole term and every five years on available statistical data of dynamic population. SMR is calculated on each term by sex and municipalities. The results are shown on the tables. This report consists of 7 volumes. The volume No.3 contains tables of SMR for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  10. Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S 1 /Z 2 , in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.

  11. Prognostic value of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    To determine whether the relative metabolic activity of pelvic or para-aortic LN compared with that of primary tumor measured by preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scan has prognostic value in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma who underwent preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic variables such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary endometrial carcinoma (SUV{sub Tumor}) and LN (SUV{sub LN}), and the LN-to-endometrial carcinoma SUV ratio (SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor}) were assessed. Clinico-pathological data, imaging data, and treatment results were reviewed for 107 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60), and 7 (6.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Regression analysis showed that SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} (P < 0.001), SUV{sub LN} (P = 0.003), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P = 0.006), and tumor grade (P = 0.011) were risk factors of recurrence. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FIGO stage (P = 0.034) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} showed significant correlation with FIGO stage (P < 0.001), LN metastasis (P < 0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (P < 0.001), recurrence (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P < 0.001), and deep myometrial invasion of tumor (P = 0.022). Patient groups categorized by SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} showed significant difference in progression-free survival (Log-rank test, P = 0.001). Preoperative SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and may become a novel prognostic factor in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. (orig.)

  12. An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, O.

    2005-01-01

    By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.

  13. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...

  14. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...

  15. Leptospirosis disease mapping with standardized morbidity ratio and Poisson-Gamma model: An analysis of Leptospirosis disease in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Awang, Aznida; Azah Samat, Nor

    2017-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a disease caused by the infection of pathogenic species from the genus of Leptospira. Human can be infected by the leptospirosis from direct or indirect exposure to the urine of infected animals. The excretion of urine from the animal host that carries pathogenic Leptospira causes the soil or water to be contaminated. Therefore, people can become infected when they are exposed to contaminated soil and water by cut on the skin as well as open wound. It also can enter the human body by mucous membrane such nose, eyes and mouth, for example by splashing contaminated water or urine into the eyes or swallowing contaminated water or food. Currently, there is no vaccine available for the prevention or treatment of leptospirosis disease but this disease can be treated if it is diagnosed early to avoid any complication. The disease risk mapping is important in a way to control and prevention of disease. Using a good choice of statistical model will produce a good disease risk map. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the relative risk for leptospirosis disease based initially on the most common statistic used in disease mapping called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) and Poisson-gamma model. This paper begins by providing a review of the SMR method and Poisson-gamma model, which we then applied to leptospirosis data of Kelantan, Malaysia. Both results are displayed and compared using graph, tables and maps. The result shows that the second method Poisson-gamma model produces better relative risk estimates compared to the SMR method. This is because the Poisson-gamma model can overcome the drawback of SMR where the relative risk will become zero when there is no observed leptospirosis case in certain regions. However, the Poisson-gamma model also faced problems where the covariate adjustment for this model is difficult and no possibility for allowing spatial correlation between risks in neighbouring areas. The problems of this model have

  16. Deviation from intention to treat analysis in randomised trials and treatment effect estimates: meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Iosief; Cherubini, Antonio; Cozzolino, Francesco; De Florio, Rita; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Folletti, Ilenia; Marchesi, Mauro; Germani, Antonella; Orso, Massimiliano; Eusebi, Paolo; Montedori, Alessandro

    2015-05-27

    To examine whether deviation from the standard intention to treat analysis has an influence on treatment effect estimates of randomised trials. Meta-epidemiological study. Medline, via PubMed, searched between 2006 and 2010; 43 systematic reviews of interventions and 310 randomised trials were included. From each year searched, random selection of 5% of intervention reviews with a meta-analysis that included at least one trial that deviated from the standard intention to treat approach. Basic characteristics of the systematic reviews and randomised trials were extracted. Information on the reporting of intention to treat analysis, outcome data, risk of bias items, post-randomisation exclusions, and funding were extracted from each trial. Trials were classified as: ITT (reporting the standard intention to treat approach), mITT (reporting a deviation from the standard approach), and no ITT (reporting no approach). Within each meta-analysis, treatment effects were compared between mITT and ITT trials, and between mITT and no ITT trials. The ratio of odds ratios was calculated (value deviated from the intention to treat analysis showed larger intervention effects than trials that reported the standard approach. Where an intention to treat analysis is impossible to perform, authors should clearly report who is included in the analysis and attempt to perform multiple imputations. © Abraha et al 2015.

  17. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  18. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  19. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...

  20. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...

  1. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...

  2. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...

  3. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...

  4. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...

  5. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...

  6. 48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...

  7. 48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Deviation Source for Fast Assembly Precision Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly precision optimization of complex product has a huge benefit in improving the quality of our products. Due to the impact of a variety of deviation source coupling phenomena, the goal of assembly precision optimization is difficult to be confirmed accurately. In order to achieve optimization of assembly precision accurately and rapidly, sensitivity analysis of deviation source is proposed. First, deviation source sensitivity is defined as the ratio of assembly dimension variation and deviation source dimension variation. Second, according to assembly constraint relations, assembly sequences and locating, deviation transmission paths are established by locating the joints between the adjacent parts, and establishing each part’s datum reference frame. Third, assembly multidimensional vector loops are created using deviation transmission paths, and the corresponding scalar equations of each dimension are established. Then, assembly deviation source sensitivity is calculated by using a first-order Taylor expansion and matrix transformation method. Finally, taking assembly precision optimization of wing flap rocker as an example, the effectiveness and efficiency of the deviation source sensitivity analysis method are verified.

  9. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  10. Guidelines for certification of International Normalized Ratio (INR) for vitamin K antagonists monitoring according to the EN ISO 22870 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brionne-François, Marie; Bauters, Anne; Mouton, Christine; Voisin, Sophie; Flaujac, Claire; Le Querrec, Agnès; Lasne, Dominique

    2018-06-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) must comply with regulatory requirements according to standard EN ISO 22870, which identify biologists as responsible for POCT. INR for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) monitoring is a test frequently performed in haemostasis laboratories. Bedside INR is useful in emergency room, in particular in case of VKAs overdosage but also for specific populations of patients like paediatrics or geriatrics. INR POCT devices are widely used at home by the patients for self-testing, but their use in the hospital by the clinical staff for bedside measurement is growing, with devices which now comply with standard for POCT accreditation for hospital use. The majority of point of care devices for INR monitoring has shown a good precision and accuracy with results similar to those obtained in laboratory. With the aim to help the multidisciplinary groups for POCT supervision, the medical departments and the biologists to be in accordance with the standard, we present the guidelines of the GFHT (Groupe français d'étude sur l'hémostase et la thrombose, subcommittee "CEC et biologie délocalisée") for the certification of POCT INR. These guidelines are based on the SFBC guidelines for the certification of POCT and on the analysis of the literature to ascertain the justification of clinical need and assess the analytical performance of main analysers used in France, as well as on a survey conducted with biologists.

  11. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  12. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  13. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  14. Hollow-cathode lamps as optical frequency standards: the influence of optical imaging on the line-strength ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Philipp; Tal-Or, Lev; Sarmiento, Luis Fernando; Reiners, Ansgar

    2016-07-01

    Hollow cathode discharge lamps (HCLs) have been successfully used in recent years as calibration sources of optical astronomical spectrographs. The numerous narrow metal lines have stable wavelengths, which makes them well suited for m/s calibration accuracy of high-resolution spectrographs, while the buffer-gas lines are less stable and less useful. Accordingly, an important property is the metal-to-gas line-strength ratio (Rmetal/gas). Processes inside the lamp cause the light to be emitted from different regions between the cathode and the anode leaing to the emission of different beams with different values of Rmetal/gas. We used commercially- available HCLs to measure and characterize these beams with respect to their spatial distribution, their angle of propagation relative to the optical axis, and their values of Rmetal/gas. We conclude that a good imaging of an HCL into a fiber-fed spectrograph would consist of an aperture close to its front window in order to filter out the parts of the beam with low Rmetal/gas, and of a lens to collimate the important central beam. We show that Rmetal/gas can be further improved with only minor adjustments of the imaging parameters, and that the imaging scheme that yields the highest Rmetal/gas does not necessarily provide the highest flux.

  15. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...

  16. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...

  17. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  18. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...

  19. 48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...

  20. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...

  1. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  2. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; O’Hara, Matthew J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Addleman, R. Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Abstract: We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other uranium compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within the chamber to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of uranium deposits that range between ~0.01 and 470±34 ng∙cm-2. The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogram∙cm-2 level. Additionally, the isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the uranium source materials. We demonstrate a layering technique whereby two uranium solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit of UF6 that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two uranium sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics.

  4. Determination Of Oxygen Isotope Ratio (18O-/16O) and Sulfur (34S-/32S) Value Of BaSO4 Din 5033 For Internal Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evarista Ristin, P.I.; Sidauruk, Paston; Wibagoyo; Djiono; Satrio

    2000-01-01

    It has been done an experiment to determine of oxygen( 18 O-/ 16 O) and Sulfur ( 34 S-/ 32 S) ) isotop value of BaSO 4 DIN 5033 (merck) for internal standard. The used technique for preparation of CO 2 gas to measure oxygen isotop ratio ratio (stated as deltaδ 18 O) is based on Rafter on Rafte method using graphite for reduction of BaSO 4 . Where the used technique for preparation of SO 2 gas to measure isotope sulphur ratio (started as δ 34 S) is based on Robinson - Kasakabe method using Cupro oxide to oxidize Ag 2 S. The result of this experiment is 11,48±0,41 0/00 and 5,00 plus minus ±0,33 o/oo for deltaδ 18 O and δ 34 S value respectively. Based on this experiment. BaSO 4 DIN 5033 can be used as internal standard because is values both oxygen and sulphur lie in the middle of range of its variation in nature. The result of interlab comparison shows that the value of this experiment is nearly similar to the value obtained from laboratorium of Pinstech-Pakistan. To acquire the result, it is necessary to carry out more interlab comparison

  5. Estimation of the standardized risk difference and ratio in a competing risks framework: application to injection drug use and progression to AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Eron, Joseph J; Brookhart, M Alan; Kitahata, Mari M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Mathews, William C; Mugavero, Michael J

    2015-02-15

    There are few published examples of absolute risk estimated from epidemiologic data subject to censoring and competing risks with adjustment for multiple confounders. We present an example estimating the effect of injection drug use on 6-year risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012 in an 8-site US cohort study with death before AIDS as a competing risk. We estimate the risk standardized to the total study sample by combining inverse probability weights with the cumulative incidence function; estimates of precision are obtained by bootstrap. In 7,182 patients (83% male, 33% African American, median age of 38 years), we observed 6-year standardized AIDS risks of 16.75% among 1,143 injection drug users and 12.08% among 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 8.08) and a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.72). Results may be sensitive to the assumptions of exposure-version irrelevance, no measurement bias, and no unmeasured confounding. These limitations suggest that results be replicated with refined measurements of injection drug use. Nevertheless, estimating the standardized risk difference and ratio is straightforward, and injection drug use appears to increase the risk of AIDS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. INDICATIVE MODEL OF DEVIATIONS IN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of constructing the project deviations indicator model. It based on a conceptual model of project deviations integrated management (PDIM. During the project different causes (such as risks, changes, problems, crises, conflicts, stress lead to deviations of integrated project indicators - time, cost, quality, and content. For a more detailed definition of where in the project deviations occur and how they are dangerous for the whole project, it needs to develop an indicative model of project deviations. It allows identifying the most dangerous deviations that require PDIM. As a basis for evaluation of project's success has been taken famous model IPMA Delta. During the evaluation, IPMA Delta estimated project management competence of organization in three modules: I-Module ("Individuals" - a self-assessment personnel, P-module ("Projects" - self-assessment of projects and/or programs, and O-module ("Organization" - used to conduct interviews with selected people during auditing company. In the process of building an indicative model of deviations in the project, the first step is the assessment of project management in the organization by IPMA Delta. In the future, built cognitive map and matrix of system interconnections of the project, which conducted simulations and built a scale of deviations for the selected project. They determined a size and place of deviations. To identify the detailed causes of deviations in the project management has been proposed to use the extended system of indicators, which is based on indicators of project management model Project Excellence. The proposed indicative model of deviations in projects allows to estimate the size of variation and more accurately identify the place of negative deviations in the project and provides the project manager information for operational decision making for the management of deviations in the implementation of the project

  7. Standard test method for the determination of uranium by ignition and the oxygen to uranium (O/U) atomic ratio of nuclear grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.2 This test method does not include provisions for preventing criticality accidents or requirements for health and safety. Observance of this test method does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all international, national, or federal, state and local regulations pertaining to possessing, shipping, processing, or using source or special nuclear material. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This test method also is applicable to UO3 and U3O8 powder.

  8. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  9. Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

  10. Deviation from Standard Inflationary Cosmology and the Problems in Ekpyrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Yao

    There are two competing models of our universe right now. One is Big Bang with inflation cosmology. The other is the cyclic model with ekpyrotic phase in each cycle. This paper is divided into two main parts according to these two models. In the first part, we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes ( alma*l'm') of the spherical-harmonic coefficients. We then provide a model and study the two-point correlation of a massless scalar (the inflaton) when the stress tensor contains the energy density from an infinitely long straight cosmic string in addition to a cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss if inflation can reconcile with the Liouville's theorem as far as the fine-tuning problem is concerned. In the second part, we find several problems in the cyclic/ekpyrotic cosmology. First of all, quantum to classical transition would not happen during an ekpyrotic phase even for superhorizon modes, and therefore the fluctuations cannot be interpreted as classical. This implies the prediction of scale-free power spectrum in ekpyrotic/cyclic universe model requires more inspection. Secondly, we find that the usual mechanism to solve fine-tuning problems is not compatible with eternal universe which contains infinitely many cycles in both direction of time. Therefore, all fine-tuning problems including the flatness problem still asks for an explanation in any generic cyclic models.

  11. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  12. Effect of density deviations of concrete on its attenuation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymendera, L.; Wincel, K.; Blociszewski, S.; Kordyasz, D.; Sobolewska, I.

    In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections--without additional shielding calculation--to the design thickness of the shield. It has been also found that in common cases of shield design, where any necessity of minimizing the shield thickness does not exist, the tendency to minimize the value of this deviation is hardly substantiable

  13. Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, K.T.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously

  14. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pengfei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 2,121 growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White were utilized in six experiments conducted to determine the effects of different ratios of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Exps. 1 (30 to 50 kg, 2 (52 to 70 kg and 3 (81 to 104 kg were conducted to find an optimum ME level and then this level was used in Exps. 4 (29 to 47 kg, 5 (54 to 76 kg and 6 (84 to 109 kg to test the response of pigs to different ratios of SID-Lys:ME. In Exps.1 to 3, four treatments were used consisting of diets with a formulated ME content of 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 or 3.4 in Exps. 1 and 2 while Exp. 3 used 3.05, 3.15, 3.25 or 3.35 Mcal/kg. A constant SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.6, 2.3 or 2.0 g/Mcal was used in Exps. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Weight gain was significantly increased with increasing energy level in Exp.1 while weight gain was unaltered in Exps. 2 and 3. For all three experiments, feed intake was decreased (P P P P P P

  15. 48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...

  16. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...

  17. 41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110 Deviations...

  18. 41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation. (a...

  19. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2220 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report required under...

  1. Ensemble standar deviation of wind speed and direction of the FDDA input to WRF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NetCDF file of the SREF standard deviation of wind speed and direction that was used to inject variability in the FDDA input. variable U_NDG_OLD contains standard...

  2. Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-07-01

    Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  3. Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Udaysinh T.

    2017-12-01

    The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.

  4. TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.

  5. Prognostic importance of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Using integrated PET/CT, we evaluated the prognostic value of [ 18 F]FDG uptake ratio between pelvic lymph node (LN) and primary tumor in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the uterine cervix. We retrospectively reviewed patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB to IIA cervical SCCA who underwent preoperative [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT scans. PET/CT parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary cervical cancer (SUV cervix ) and LN (SUV LN ), and the LN-to-cervical cancer SUV ratio (SUV LN /SUV cervix ) were assessed. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic and volumetric variables and clinicopathology parameters were analyzed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in regression analyses. Clinical data, treatment modalities, and results were reviewed for 103 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 29 months (range, 6-89), and 19 (18.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SUV LN / SUV cervix > 0.1747(P = 0.048) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. Patient group categorized by SUV LN /SUV cervix showed significant difference in PFS (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Preoperative SUV LN /SUV cervix measured by [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with cervical SCCA. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the branching ratios for the Standard Model Higgs decays into muon pairs and into Z boson pairs at a 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)701211; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Grefe, Christian; Kacarevic, Goran; Lukic, Strahinja; Pandurovic, Mila; Roloff, Philipp Gerhard; Smiljanic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the Higgs production cross-section times the branching ratios for its decays into μ+μ- and ZZ* pairs at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider is investigated in this paper. The Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass of 126 GeV is dominantly produced via WW fusion in e+e- collisions at 1.4 TeV centre-of-mass energy. Analyses for both decay channels are based on a full simulation of the CLIC_ILD detector. All relevant physics and beam-induced background processes are taken into account. An integrated luminosity of 1.5 ab 1 and unpolarised beams are assumed. For the H-->ZZ* decay, the purely hadronic final state (ZZ*--> qq ̄qq ̄) is considered as well as ZZ* decays into two jets and two leptons (ZZ*--> qq ̄l+l- ). It is shown that the branching ratio for the Higgs decay into a muon pair times the Higgs production cross-section can be measured with 38% statistical uncertainty. It is also shown that the statistical uncertainty of the Higgs branching fraction for decay into a Z boson pair times the Hi...

  7. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...

  8. The large deviations theorem and ergodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions

  9. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  10. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  11. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  12. Prognostic importance of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Using integrated PET/CT, we evaluated the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake ratio between pelvic lymph node (LN) and primary tumor in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the uterine cervix. We retrospectively reviewed patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB to IIA cervical SCCA who underwent preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans. PET/CT parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary cervical cancer (SUV{sub cervix}) and LN (SUV{sub LN}), and the LN-to-cervical cancer SUV ratio (SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix}) were assessed. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic and volumetric variables and clinicopathology parameters were analyzed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in regression analyses. Clinical data, treatment modalities, and results were reviewed for 103 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 29 months (range, 6-89), and 19 (18.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub cervix} > 0.1747(P = 0.048) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. Patient group categorized by SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix} showed significant difference in PFS (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Preoperative SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix} measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with cervical SCCA. (orig.)

  13. Relative equilibrium plot improves graphical analysis and allows bias correction of standardized uptake value ratio in quantitative 11C-PiB PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.

  14. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  15. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  16. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...

  17. PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Bakshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.

  18. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  19. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...

  20. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  1. 40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter that...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance... Model Rule-Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.3053 What must I include in the deviation report? In each...

  3. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2958 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...

  5. Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2013-12-01

    Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.

  6. Risk Estimation for Lung Cancer in Libya: Analysis Based on Standardized Morbidity Ratio, Poisson-Gamma Model, BYM Model and Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-03-01

    Cancer is the most rapidly spreading disease in the world, especially in developing countries, including Libya. Cancer represents a significant burden on patients, families, and their societies. This disease can be controlled if detected early. Therefore, disease mapping has recently become an important method in the fields of public health research and disease epidemiology. The correct choice of statistical model is a very important step to producing a good map of a disease. Libya was selected to perform this work and to examine its geographical variation in the incidence of lung cancer. The objective of this paper is to estimate the relative risk for lung cancer. Four statistical models to estimate the relative risk for lung cancer and population censuses of the study area for the time period 2006 to 2011 were used in this work. They are initially known as Standardized Morbidity Ratio, which is the most popular statistic, which used in the field of disease mapping, Poisson-gamma model, which is one of the earliest applications of Bayesian methodology, Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model and Mixture model. As an initial step, this study begins by providing a review of all proposed models, which we then apply to lung cancer data in Libya. Maps, tables and graph, goodness-of-fit (GOF) were used to compare and present the preliminary results. This GOF is common in statistical modelling to compare fitted models. The main general results presented in this study show that the Poisson-gamma model, BYM model, and Mixture model can overcome the problem of the first model (SMR) when there is no observed lung cancer case in certain districts. Results show that the Mixture model is most robust and provides better relative risk estimates across a range of models. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Hatch, Maureen; Brenner, Alina; Nadyrov, Eldar; Veyalkin, Ilya; Polyanskaya, Olga; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Polyakov, Semion; Levin, Leonid; Zablotska, Lydia; Rozhko, Alexander; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    Background While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. PMID:26851723

  8. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  9. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  10. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R; Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded (137)Cs and (241)Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPG...

  11. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Hatch, Maureen; Brenner, Alina; Nadyrov, Eldar; Veyalkin, Ilya; Polyanskaya, Olga; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Polyakov, Semion; Levin, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Background: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. - Highlights: • We monitor cancers in a Belarusian cohort of exposed as children due to Chernobyl. • No increase in solid cancer rates was found as compared to the national rates. • An elevation of leukemia rates was detected, although statistically insignificant. • Results are consistent with those in a cohort of exposed as children in Ukraine. • Further monitoring of cancer situation

  12. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia, E-mail: ostroumovae@iarc.fr [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Hatch, Maureen, E-mail: hatchm@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Brenner, Alina, E-mail: brennera@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Nadyrov, Eldar, E-mail: nadyrov2006@rambler.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Veyalkin, Ilya, E-mail: veyalkin@mail.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Polyanskaya, Olga, E-mail: polyanskaya@tut.by [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Yauseyenka, Vasilina, E-mail: yaus@mail.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Polyakov, Semion, E-mail: spolyakov@belcmt.by [State Institution “Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Technologies, Informatization, Administration and Management of Health”, 7-a Petrus Brovka Street, Minsk 220600 (Belarus); Levin, Leonid, E-mail: llevin@omr.med.by [Cancer Registry, State Establishment “N.N.Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus for Oncology and Medical Radiology”, P.O., Lesnoy 223040 (Belarus); and others

    2016-05-15

    Background: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. - Highlights: • We monitor cancers in a Belarusian cohort of exposed as children due to Chernobyl. • No increase in solid cancer rates was found as compared to the national rates. • An elevation of leukemia rates was detected, although statistically insignificant. • Results are consistent with those in a cohort of exposed as children in Ukraine. • Further monitoring of cancer situation

  13. Evaluation of precision in measurements of uranium isotope ratio by thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de; Rodrigues, C.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters which affect the precision and accuracy of uranium isotopic ratios measurements by thermionic mass spectrometry are discussed. A statistical designed program for the analysis of the internal and external variances are presented. It was done an application of this statistical methods, in order to get mass discrimination factor, and its standard mean deviation, by using some results already published for 235 U/ 238 U ratio in NBS uranium samples, and natural uranium [pt

  14. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of the O/M ratio in MOX pellets - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide pellets. The (U,Pu)O 2 x sample is submitted to controlled oxidation-reduction under thermodynamic conditions designed to change the O/M ratio to a value of 2,000. The initial stoichiometric deviation, X, is determined from the sample mass difference before and after heat treatment

  15. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  16. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  17. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  18. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  19. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  20. Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Hirukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.

  1. Surgical Success Rates for Horizontal Concomitant Deviations According to the Type and Degree of Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çaça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.

  2. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  3. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  4. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  5. Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...

  6. Further study of CP violation and branching ratios for B-bar0 → J/ψKs and B-bar0 → φKs in the standard model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Sheng Du; Mao-Zhi Yang

    1998-01-01

    In this work we study the CP violation for B-bar 0 → J/ψK s and B-bar 0 → φK s up to leading and next-to-leading order QCD corrections in the standard model, two-Higgs-doublet model and the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. We also study the effect of new physics on the branching ratios of these two decay modes. We find that within the parameter space constrained by the observation of the decay b→sγ, new physics does not affect the CP asymmetries greatly, and the prediction of new physics to the branching ratios of B-bar 0 → J/ψK s and B-bar 0 → φK s is the same as that of the standard model up to a minor discrepancy as far as the Yukama coupling constants are perturbative. (author)

  7. Quantitative analysis without standards using local peak-to-background ratios with the energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer EDR-184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, F.; Heckel, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method realized in program QMA-184 of the energy dispersive X-Ray-Microanalyzer EDR-184 for quantitative spectra analyzing of bulk materials by using local peak-to-background ratios is described in detail. The authors demonstrate efficiency and limitations of the used method by discussion of experimental results. (author)

  8. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  9. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  10. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in the decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... s = 7 TeV. No evidence is found for a significant deviation from Standard Model expectations anywhere in the ZZ mass range considered in this analysis. An upper limit at 95% CL is placed on the product of the cross-section and decay branching ratio for the Higgs boson decaying with Standard Model-like ...

  11. Use of standard spectra for the short life radionuclides and ratios for long life radionuclides in the wastes of EDF PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantes, B.; Bienvenu, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the type of declaration of radioactivity in the wastes of PWR type reactors park. Particularly, it insists on the justification of use of spectra for the declaration of short live radionuclides. It tackles the important developments of methods and measures of radiochemical analysis made by the Cea in order to determine the ratios to declare the long life radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  12. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Peder, E-mail: Peder.Kock@med.lu.s [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Finck, Robert R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.

  13. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R.; Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded 137 Cs and 241 Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.

  14. Isotopic ratio measurement using a double focusing magnetic sector mass analyser with an inductively coupled plasma as an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma source was coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors. An electrostatic filter located between the plasma source and the magnetic sector was used to create a double focusing system. Isotopic ratio measurements of uranium and lead standards revealed levels of internal and external precision comparable to those obtained using thermal inonization mass spectrometry. An external precision of 0.014% was obtained from the 235 U: 238 U measurement of six samples of a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) U-500, while an RSD of 0.022% was obtained from the 206 Pb: 204 Pb measurement of six samples of NBS SRM Pb-981. Measured isotopic ratios deviated from the NBS value by approximately 0.9% per atomic mass unit. This deviation approximates to a linear function of mass bias and can therefore be corrected for by the analysis of standards. The analysis of NBS SRM Sr-987 revealed superior levels of internal and external precision. The normalization of the 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratio to the 86 Sr: 88 Sr ratio reduced the RSD to approximately 0.008%. The measured ratio was within 0.01% of the NBS value and the day-to-day reproducibility was consistent within one standard deviation. (author)

  15. Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.

  16. Effects of filling ratio and condenser temperature on the thermal performance of a neon cryogenic oscillating heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Li, Yi; Wang, Qiuliang

    2018-01-01

    A cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (OHP) made of a bended copper capillary tube is manufactured. The lengths of the condenser section, adiabatic section and evaporator section are 100, 280 and 100 mm, respectively. Neon is used as the working fluid. Effects of liquid filling ratio and condenser temperature on the thermal performance of the OHP are studied. A correlation based on the available experimental data sets is proposed to predict the thermal performance of the neon cryogenic OHP with different filling ratios and condenser temperature. Compared with the experimental data, the average standard deviation of the correlation is about 15.0%, and approximately 92.4% of deviations are within ±30%.

  17. Exposure times and ratio of readings produced by irradiation of thermoluminescence dosemeters in PTB neutron standard fields between 0.1 MeV and 19 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahr, R.; Guldbakke, S.; Cosack, M.

    1979-06-01

    6 LiF and 7 LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) irradiated in a standard field of monoenergetic neutrons (Esub(n) = 0.1 MeV to 19 MeV), respond as well to the photon as to the neutron component of this radiation field. The ratio of the two TLD readings as well as the duration of irradiation required to obtain a preset TLD reading are calculated as a function of the neutron energy. (orig.) [de

  18. Odontometric evaluation of mandibular premolars with tooth shape deviation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Robert Anthony Clive

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the mean dimensions and morphologic characteristics of mandibular premolars that had mesiodistally elongated and faciolingually squeezed tooth shape deviations (MnP-TSD) and determine the population prevalence of this anomaly. Clinical photographs and study models were made for all new patients with MnP-TSD teeth who were seen over 20 years. The mesiodistal (MD) and faciolingual (FL) dimensions of the anomalous premolars were measured. MD/FL indices and MD × FL mm(2) occlusal crown areas were calculated and means and standard deviations were derived. Male and female means from the mandibular first and second anomalous premolars (MnP1/MnP2-TSD) were statistically compared against gender-specific means derived from published normative data using Student's t-tests and chi-square tests. Fifty-six individuals (33 male and 23 female) with MnP-TSD were identified, giving a male to female ratio of 1.4:1, while the prevalence rate in the indigenous British population was estimated to be 0.6%. The MD widths of the MnP1-TSD and MnP2-TSD teeth were approximately 1 mm wider than normal, while the FL diameters were about 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm narrower respectively, for the first and second premolar teeth. The MD/FL indices, instead of being under 90 as usual were above 100, while the mean MD/FL mm(2) crown surface areas were normal. This study supplies odontometric dimensional and morphologic data on MnP-TSD teeth that provide a reference source for future comparisons.

  19. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  20. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children

  1. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  2. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  3. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...

  4. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best interest of the Government; (3) If applicable, the name of the contractor and identification of... background information which will contribute to a full understanding of the desired deviation. (b)(1... authorized to grant deviations to the DOE-PMR. (d) Requests for deviations from the FPMR will be coordinated...

  5. Radial gradient and radial deviation radiomic features from pre-surgical CT scans are associated with survival among lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Ilke; Stringfield, Olya; Guvenis, Albert; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Lambin, Philippe; Gillies, Robert J; Schabath, Matthew B

    2017-11-10

    The goal of this study was to extract features from radial deviation and radial gradient maps which were derived from thoracic CT scans of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and assess whether these features are associated with overall survival. We used two independent cohorts from different institutions for training (n= 61) and test (n= 47) and focused our analyses on features that were non-redundant and highly reproducible. To reduce the number of features and covariates into a single parsimonious model, a backward elimination approach was applied. Out of 48 features that were extracted, 31 were eliminated because they were not reproducible or were redundant. We considered 17 features for statistical analysis and identified a final model containing the two most highly informative features that were associated with lung cancer survival. One of the two features, radial deviation outside-border separation standard deviation, was replicated in a test cohort exhibiting a statistically significant association with lung cancer survival (multivariable hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.97). Additionally, we explored the biological underpinnings of these features and found radial gradient and radial deviation image features were significantly associated with semantic radiological features.

  6. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  7. Evaluating deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Cravo; Peres, Ana; Pereira, Mónica; Coelho, Carina Marques; Monsanto, Fátima; Macedo, Ana; Lamas, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT in order to calculate appropriate margins to create the PTV. Defining inappropriate margins can lead to underdosing in target volumes and also overdosing in healthy tissues, increasing morbidity. 223 CBCT images used for alignment with the CT planning scan based on bony anatomy were analyzed in 12 patients treated with IMRT following prostatectomy. Shifts of CBCT images were recorded in three directions to calculate the required margin to create PTV. The mean and standard deviation (SD) values in millimetres were -0.05 ± 1.35 in the LR direction, -0.03 ± 0.65 in the SI direction and -0.02 ± 2.05 the AP direction. The systematic error measured in the LR, SI and AP direction were 1.35 mm, 0.65 mm, and 2.05 mm with a random error of 2.07 mm; 1.45 mm and 3.16 mm, resulting in a PTV margin of 4.82 mm; 2.64 mm, and 7.33 mm, respectively. With IGRT we suggest a margin of 5 mm, 3 mm and 8 mm in the LR, SI and AP direction, respectively, to PTV1 and PTV2. Therefore, this study supports an anisotropic margin expansion to the PTV being the largest expansion in the AP direction and lower in SI.

  8. Is the alpha-beta ratio of prostate cancer really low? A prospective, non-randomized trial comparing standard and hyperfractionated conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Italia, Corrado; Montanaro, Paolo; Lanceni, Angelo; Lattuada, Paola; Magnani, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Nahum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    regimen. Using the Nahum-Chapman TLCP model and prostate parameter set, which includes hypoxia, the TLCPs are approximately equal for the two regimens, whereas assuming α/β=1.5 and no hypoxia we obtain 73% for the STD group but only 36% for the HFX group. Conclusions: As expected from radiobiological considerations, HFX reduces GI and GU late toxicities. Concerning early bRFS, our clinical findings suggest that HFX is no less effective than STD when delivering an isoeffective (α/β=10) dose. Despite the relatively short follow-up, this result appears to be inconsistent with a low α/β ratio for prostate cancer

  9. 40 CFR 60.2215 - What else must I report if I have a deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test was conducted that deviated from any emission limitation. (b) The deviation report must be... deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations? 60.2215 Section 60.2215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  10. Russian Speech in Radio: Norm and Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Nefedov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National radio, like television, is called upon to bring to the masses not only relevant information, but also a high culture of language. There were always serious demands to oral public speech from the point of view of the correctness and uniformity of the pronunciation. However, today the analysis of the language practice of broadcasting often indicates a discrepancy between the use of linguistic resources in existing literary norms. The author of the article from the end of December 2016 to early April 2017 listened and analyzed from the point of view of language correctness the majority of programs on the radio Komsomolskaya Pravda (KP. In general, recognizing the good speech qualification of the workers of this radio, as well as their «guests» (political scientists, lawyers, historians, etc., one can not but note the presence of a significant number of errors in their speech. The material presented in the article allows us to conclude that at present, broadcasting is losing its position in the field of speech culture. Neglect of the rules of the Russian language on the radio «Komsomolskaya Pravda» negatively affects the image of the Russian language, which is formed in the minds of listeners. The language of radio should strive to become a standard of cleanliness and high culture for the population, since it has the enormous power of mass impact and supports the unity of the cultural and linguistic space.

  11. The ratio Φ→K+K-/K0 anti K0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramon, A.; Lucio, M.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The ratio Φ→K + K - /K 0 K 0 is discussed and its present experimental value is compared with theoretical expectations. A difference larger than two standard deviations is observed. It is critically examined a number of mechanisms that could account for this discrepancy, which remains unexplained. Measurements at DAΦNE at the level of the per mille accuracy can clarify whether there exist any anomaly

  12. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these reassessment...

  13. Large deviation estimates for a Non-Markovian Lévy generator of big order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Léandre, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    We give large deviation estimates for a non-markovian convolution semi-group with a non-local generator of Lévy type of big order and with the standard normalisation of semi-classical analysis. No stochastic process is associated to this semi-group. (paper)

  14. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Arnd

    2009-01-01

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  15. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-01-01

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  16. Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.

    1986-02-01

    Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)

  17. Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)

  18. Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...

  19. Large deviations for noninteracting infinite-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donsker, M.D.; Varadhan, S.R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A large deviation property is established for noninteracting infinite particle systems. Previous large deviation results obtained by the authors involved a single I-function because the cases treated always involved a unique invariant measure for the process. In the context of this paper there is an infinite family of invariant measures and a corresponding infinite family of I-functions governing the large deviations

  20. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  1. Methods for determining the effect of flatness deviations, eccentricity and pyramidal errors on angle measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available on face-to-face angle measurements. The results show that flatness and eccentricity deviations have less effect on angle measurements than do pyramidal errors. 1. Introduction Polygons and angle blocks are the most important transfer standards in the field... of angle metrology. Polygons are used by national metrology institutes (NMIs) as transfer standards to industry, where they are used in conjunction with autocollimators to calibrate index tables, rotary tables and other forms of angle- measuring equipment...

  2. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  3. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.

  4. Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...

  5. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate the...

  7. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, P.; van Doorn, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  8. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.

    2002-01-01

    he deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  9. Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tsallis, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e −Nr , r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e q −Nr q (∝1/N 1/(q−1) , q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  10. Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation

  11. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  12. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  13. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  14. [Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.

  15. Test of the nonexponential deviations from decay curve of 52V using continuous kinetic function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Vo Tuong Hanh; Do Nguyet Minh; Nguyen Ngoc Son

    1995-01-01

    Present work is aimed at a formulation of an experimental approach to search the proposed nonexponential deviations from decay curve and at description of an attempt to test them in case of 52 V. Some theoretical description of decay processes are formulated in clarified forms. A continuous kinetic function (CKF) method is described for analysis of experimental data and CKF for purely exponential case is considered as a standard for comparison between theoretical and experimental data. The degree of agreement is defined by the factor of goodness. Typical deviations of oscillation behaviour of 52 V decay were observed in a wide range of time. The proposed deviation related to interaction between decay products and environment is researched. A complex type of decay is discussed. (authors). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Vibrational investigation on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, IR intensity, Raman activity, peak resemblance, ideal estimation, standard deviation of computed frequencies analyses and electronic structure on 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene using HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, S; Jayaprakash, A; Mohan, S; Karabacak, M

    2011-11-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the calculations have been used to simulate IR and Raman spectra for the molecule that showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The potential energy distribution (PED) corresponding to each of the observed frequencies are calculated which confirms the reliability and precision of the assignment and analysis of the vibrational fundamentals modes. The oscillation of vibrational frequencies of butadiene due to the couple of methyl group is also discussed. A study on the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures reveal the correlations between standard heat capacities (C) standard entropies (S), and standard enthalpy changes (H). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the deviation from the sech2 superradiant emission law in a two-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The atomic superradiant emission is treated in the single particle mean field approximation. A single particle Hamiltonian, which represents a dressed two-level atom in a radiation field, can be obtained and it is verified that it describes the transient regime of the emission process. While the line shape emission for a bare atom follows the sech 2 law, for the dressed atom the line shape deviates appreciably from this law and it is verified that the deviation depends crucially on the ratio of the dynamic frequency shift to the transition frequency. This kind of deviation is observed in experimental results. (Author) [pt

  18. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  19. Large deviations in the presence of cooperativity and slow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We study simple models of intermittency, involving switching between two states, within the dynamical large-deviation formalism. Singularities appear in the formalism when switching is cooperative or when its basic time scale diverges. In the first case the unbiased trajectory distribution undergoes a symmetry breaking, leading to a change in shape of the large-deviation rate function for a particular dynamical observable. In the second case the symmetry of the unbiased trajectory distribution remains unbroken. Comparison of these models suggests that singularities of the dynamical large-deviation formalism can signal the dynamical equivalent of an equilibrium phase transition but do not necessarily do so.

  20. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  1. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M; Schneider, Andrea; Bickel, Erika; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Prescott, Christina; Hessl, David

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment.

  2. Management of Contract Waivers and Deviations for Defense Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This report is the fourth and final in a series of reports resulting from our audit of management of contract waivers and deviations for Defense systems and summarizes our overall evaluation. Report...

  3. Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  4. The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichi Hisa

    2008-01-01

    Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...

  5. A complex symbol signal-to-noise ratio estimator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of signals that contain data on a downconverted suppressed carrier or the first harmonic of a square-wave subcarrier. This algorithm can be used to determine the performance of the full-spectrum combiner for the Galileo S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) mission by measuring the input and output symbol SNR. A performance analysis of the algorithm shows that the estimator can estimate the complex symbol SNR using 10,000 symbols at a true symbol SNR of -5 dB with a mean of -4.9985 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2454 dB, and these analytical results are checked by simulations of 100 runs with a mean of -5.06 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2506 dB.

  6. Some clarifications about the Bohmian geodesic deviation equation and Raychaudhuri's equation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Faramarz; Golshani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    One of the important and famous topics in general theory of relativity and gravitation is the problem of geodesic deviation and its related singularity theorems. An interesting subject is the investigation of these concepts when quantum effects are considered. Since, the definition of trajectory is not possible in the framework of standard quantum mechanics (SQM), we investigate the problem of geodesic equation and its related topics in the framework of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which the ...

  7. Prevalence of postural deviations and associated factors in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira Batistão

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Postural deviations are frequent in childhood and may cause pain and functional impairment. Previously, only a few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in school children, and to determine, using multiple logistic regression analysis, whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, handedness and physical activity might explain these deviations. Methods: The posture of 288 students was assessed by observation. Subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, 59.4% (n = 171 of which were female. The mean age was 10.6 (± 2.4 years. Mean body weight was 38.6 (± 12.7 kg and mean height was 1.5 (± 0.1 m. A digital scale, a tapeline, a plumb line and standardized forms were used to collect data. The data were analyzed descriptively using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis (significance level of 5%. Results: We found the following deviations to be prevalent among schoolchildren: forward head posture, 53.5%, shoulder elevation, 74.3%, asymmetry of the iliac crests, 51.7%, valgus knees, 43.1%, thoracic hyperkyphosis, 30.2%, lumbar hyperlordosis, 37.2% and winged shoulder blades, 66.3%. The associated factors were age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of postural deviations and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors partially explain the postural deviations. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of how and why these deviations develop, and to the implementation of preventive and rehabilitation programs, given that some of the associated factors are modifiable.

  8. Approaching nanometre accuracy in measurement of the profile deviation of a large plane mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Andreas; Hofmann, Norbert; Manske, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The interferometric nanoprofilometer (INP), developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology at the Ilmenau University of Technology, is a precision device for measuring the profile deviations of plane mirrors with a profile length of up to 250 mm at the nanometre scale. As its expanded uncertainty of U(l) = 7.8 nm at a confidence level of p = 95% (k = 2) was mainly influenced by the uncertainty of the straightness standard (3.6 nm) and the uncertainty caused by the signal and demodulation errors of the interferometer signals (1.2 nm), these two sources of uncertainty have been the subject of recent analyses and modifications. To measure the profile deviation of the standard mirror we performed a classic three-flat test using the INP. The three-flat test consists of a combination of measurements between three different test flats. The shape deviations of the three flats can then be determined by applying a least-squares solution of the resulting equation system. The results of this three-flat test showed surprisingly good consistency, enabling us to correct this systematic error in profile deviation measurements and reducing the uncertainty component of the standard mirror to 0.4 nm. Another area of research is the signal and demodulation error arising during the interpretation of the interferometer signals. In the case of the interferometric nanoprofilometer, the special challenge is that the maximum path length differences are too small during the scan of the entire profile deviation over perfectly aligned 250 mm long mirrors for proper interpolation and correction since they do not yet cover even half of an interference fringe. By applying a simple method of weighting to the interferometer data the common ellipse fitting could be performed successfully and the demodulation error was greatly reduced. The remaining uncertainty component is less than 0.5 nm. In summary we were successful in greatly reducing two major systematic errors. The

  9. Reduction of deviation angle during occlusion therapy: in partially accommodative esotropia with moderate amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Bo Young; Kwon, Soon Jae; Chae, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Jung Yoon

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate changes in ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic children age ranged from 3 to 8 years during occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Angle measurements of twenty-two partially accommodative esotropic patients with moderate amblyopia were evaluated before and at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Mean deviation angle with glasses at the start of occlusion treatment was 19.45+/-5.97 PD and decreased to 12.14+/-12.96 PD at 2 years after occlusion therapy (pocclusion therapy, 9 (41%) cases were indications of surgery for residual deviation but if we had planned surgery before occlusion treatment, 18 (82%) of patients would have had surgery. There was a statistical relationship between increase of visual acuity ratio and decrease of deviation angle (r=-0.479, p=0.024). There was a significant reduction of deviation angle of partially accommodative esotropic patients at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Our results suggest that occlusion therapy has an influence on ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic patients with amblyopia.

  10. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case

  11. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.

  13. Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Valaitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.

  15. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  16. Deviation from Covered Interest Rate Parity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Lee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the factors which cause deviation from covered interest rate parity (CIRP in Korea, using regression and VAR models. The empirical evidence indicates that the difference between the swap rate and interest rate differential exists and is greatly affected by variables which represent the currency liquidity situation of foreign exchange banks. In other words, the deviation from CIRP can easily occur due to the lack of foreign exchange liquidity of banks in a thin market, despite few capital constraints, small transaction costs, and trivial default risk in Korea.

  17. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ryuji; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD) value and glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma. The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program). The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening) at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%), while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%). There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224) and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008) consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282). The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0.01). This retrospective study has shown that three or more consecutive deterioration of MD value might be a predictor to future significant MD slope worsening in OAG.

  18. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A. [Shenzhen College of International Education, 1st HuangGang Park St., Shenzhen, GuangDong (China); Luo, J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, 332 Bonner Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-1920 (United States); Wang, A. [Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Broadbent, C. [School of Engineering, Columbia University, 1130 Amsterdam Av., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhong, J. [Department of English, Dartmouth College, 6032 Sanborn House, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dilmanian, F.A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 743, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  19. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  20. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional 60 Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X . After that, the absorbed dose to water D w  standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w . The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  1. 48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...

  2. A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Dessen

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.

  3. Oscillations in deviating difference equations using an iterative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Chatzarakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper deals with the oscillation of the first-order linear difference equation with deviating argument and nonnegative coefficients. New sufficient oscillation conditions, involving limsup, are given, which essentially improve all known results, based on an iterative technique. We illustrate the results and the improvement over other known oscillation criteria by examples, numerically solved in Matlab.

  4. Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatalov, V R

    2003-01-01

    Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields

  5. Patterns of deviation in Niyi Osundare's poetry | Dick | Mgbakoigba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A critical stylistic study of the poetry of Niyi Osundare from Nigeria reveals that he has made an exemplary ... deviate from norms and conventions of language thereby creating aesthetics ...

  6. International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of

  7. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  8. Sample-path large deviations in credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekker, V.J.G.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Spreij, P.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a

  9. Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2018-02-01

    Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.

  10. Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...

  11. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  12. On asymptotically efficient simulation of large deviation probabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, A.B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often impractical, particularly if the

  13. The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...

  14. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2018-03-01

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  15. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T

    2018-03-28

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  16. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  17. 40 CFR 60.3052 - What else must I report if I have a deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control device was bypassed, or if a performance test was conducted that showed a deviation from any... deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations? 60.3052 Section 60.3052 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2957 - What else must I report if I have a deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or if a performance test was conducted that showed a deviation from any emission limitation. (b) The... deviation from the operating limits or the emission limitations? 60.2957 Section 60.2957 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2225 - What else must I report if I have a deviation from the requirement to have a qualified operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deviation from the requirement to have a qualified operator accessible? 60.2225 Section 60.2225 Protection... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste... report if I have a deviation from the requirement to have a qualified operator accessible? (a) If all...

  20. Axial stability of VVER-1000 reactor with control with minimum standard deviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.M.; Torlin, B.Z.

    1980-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the stability of a reactor which has, in addition to an automatic controller, a height distribution regulator (HDR) based on an auxiliary control rod (CR) or a special shortened absorption rod (SAR). The HDR was controlled by using either a special ionization chamber (IC), generating an imbalance signal which sets the CR in motion, or two ionization chambers whose difference signal causes a displacement of the SAR. Since data from numerous pickups can be used to control the height field of the VVER-1000, it is of interest to analyze how this would affect the stability of the reactor. The analysis was carried out with the improved IRINA programs. 11 refs

  1. Measurement of Standard Deviation for Threshold Voltage Using Parallel-Connected MOSFETs

    OpenAIRE

    寺田,和夫; 最上,徹

    1996-01-01

    大量の同一構造MOSFETを並列接続したテスト回路を用いて,しきい値電圧の標準偏差を簡単に測定する方法を提案している.このテスト回路を一つのMOSFETとみなし,そのドレーン電流とゲート電圧の関係からしきい値電圧を抽出すると,その値は同回路に含まれるすべてのMOSFETのしきい値電圧の平均値よりも標準偏差に関係した量だけ異なる値を示す.このことを利用すると,MOSFETのしきい値電圧標準偏差を簡単に測定することができる.本論文はその測定原理,単体MOSFETを用いたその実験的確認,そして精度に関する議論を述べている....

  2. Rating Slam Dunks to Visualize the Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick W.; Castle Bell, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Among the many difficulties beleaguering the communication research methods instructor is the problem of contextualizing abstract ideas. Comprehension of variable operationalization, the utility of the measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, and the visual distribution of data sets are difficult, since students have not handled data.…

  3. Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J.; Lopes, Coeli M.; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Locati, Emanuela H.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S.; Platonov, Pyotr G.; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Michael Vincent, G.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital

  4. An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A method has been presented for estimating the variability of a system's natural frequencies arising from the variability of the system's parameters. The only information required to obtain the estimates is the member variability, in the form of second-order properties, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the mean system. It has also been established for the systems studied by means of Monte Carlo estimates that the specification of second-order properties is an adequate description of member variability.

  5. Standard deviation of vertical two-point longitudinal velocity differences in the atmospheric boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical estimates of wind shear in the planetary boundary layer are important in the design of V/STOL aircraft, and for the design of the Space Shuttle. The data analyzed in this study consist of eleven sets of longitudinal turbulent velocity fluctuation time histories digitized at 0.2 sec intervals with approximately 18,000 data points per time history. The longitudinal velocity fluctuations were calculated with horizontal wind and direction data collected at the 18-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 150-m levels. The data obtained confirm the result that Eulerian time spectra transformed to wave-number spectra with Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis possess inertial-like behavior at wave-numbers well out of the inertial subrange.

  6. 78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... introduces or causes the introduction of one or more of the test products into interstate commerce, but not... permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products identified as ``no drain canned tuna... permit provides for the temporary marketing of a total 533,333 cases of 12 x 4 ounce cans (totaling 6.4...

  7. 75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-P-0517... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a... mass production problems, and assess commercial feasibility. DATES: This permit is effective for 15...

  8. Test of nonexponential deviations from decay curve of 52V using continuous kinetic function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Vo Tuong Hanh; Do Nguyet Minh; Nguyen Ngoc Son

    1993-01-01

    The present work is aimed at a formulation of an experimental approach to search the proposed description of an attempt to test them in case of 52 V. Some theoretical description of decay processes are formulated in clarified forms. The continuous kinetic function (CKF) method is used for analysis of experimental data and CKF for purely exponential case is considered as a standard for comparison between theoretical and experimental data. The degree of agreement is defined by the factor of goodness. Typical deviations of oscillation behavior of 52 V decay were observed in a wide range of time. The proposed deviation related to interaction between decay products and environment is research. A complex type of decay is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 5 figs

  9. Implementation of an Algorithm for Prosthetic Joint Infection: Deviations and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    The outcome of revision surgery in arthroplasty is based on a precise diagnosis. In addition, the treatment varies based on whether the prosthetic failure is caused by aseptic or septic loosening. Algorithms can help to identify periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and standardize diagnostic steps, however, algorithms tend to oversimplify the treatment of complex cases. We conducted a process analysis during the implementation of a PJI algorithm to determine problems and deviations associated with the implementation of this algorithm. Fifty patients who were treated after implementing a standardized algorithm were monitored retrospectively. Their treatment plans and diagnostic cascades were analyzed for deviations from the implemented algorithm. Each diagnostic procedure was recorded, compared with the algorithm, and evaluated statistically. We detected 52 deviations while treating 50 patients. In 25 cases, no discrepancy was observed. Synovial fluid aspiration was not performed in 31.8% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-45.6%), while white blood cell counts (WBCs) and neutrophil differentiation were assessed in 54.5% of patients (95% CI, 39.8%-69.3%). We also observed that the prolonged incubation of cultures was not requested in 13.6% of patients (95% CI, 3.5%-23.8%). In seven of 13 cases (63.6%; 95% CI, 35.2%-92.1%), arthroscopic biopsy was performed; 6 arthroscopies were performed in discordance with the algorithm (12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). Self-critical analysis of diagnostic processes and monitoring of deviations using algorithms are important and could increase the quality of treatment by revealing recurring faults.

  10. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  11. Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)], E-mail: jporitz@gmail.com

    2009-05-04

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  12. Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical Communication over Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Tan, Vincent Y. F.; Tomamichel, Marco

    2017-11-01

    We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altŭg and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdú. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.

  13. Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....

  14. Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric

    CERN Document Server

    Colistete, R J; Kerner, R

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).

  15. Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malaescu, I

    2000-01-01

    Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.

  16. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  17. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  18. Precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-09-01

    The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is important for quite different application fields (e.g. for isotope ratio measurements of stable isotopes in nature, especially for the investigation of isotope variation in nature or age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, quality assurance of fuel material, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control, for tracer experiments using stable isotopes or long-lived radionuclides in biological or medical studies). Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which used to be the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements, is being increasingly replaced for isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS due to its excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy. Instrumental progress in ICP-MS was achieved by the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate many disturbing argon-based molecular ions, thermalize the ions and neutralize the disturbing argon ions of plasma gas (Ar+). The application of the collision cell in ICP-QMS results in a higher ion transmission, improved sensitivity and better precision of isotope ratio measurements compared to quadrupole ICP-MS without the collision cell [e.g., for 235U/238U approximately 1 (10 microg x L(-1) uranium) 0.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs. 0.2% RSD in short-term measurements (n = 5)]. A significant instrumental improvement for ICP-MS is the multicollector device (MC-ICP-MS) in order to obtain a better precision of isotope ratio measurements (with a precision of up to 0.002%, RSD). CE- and HPLC-ICP-MS are used for the separation of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes by determination of spallation nuclide abundances in an irradiated tantalum target.

  19. Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Bo; Tronvoll, Bård; Höykinpuro, Ritva

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This article seeks to develop a new framework to outline factors that influence the resolution of unfavourable service experiences as a result of double deviation. The focus is on understanding and managing complex service recovery processes. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive, explorative and narrative approach was selected. Data were collected in the form of narratives from the field through interviews with actors at various levels in organisations as well as with custo...

  20. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  1. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  2. Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution

  3. [Deviation in psychosexual development in the pre-puberty children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liavshina, G Kh

    2002-01-01

    Psychosexual health of 308 children, aged 2-11 years, as well as that of their families, was studied. Deviations in psychosexual development were found in 34.6% of the children examined. The following types were detected: difficulties in formation of gender-determined behavior features--64.4%, precocious psychosexual development--13.7%, delayed psychosexual development--12.3%, obsessive masturbation--9.6%. Risk factors for deviant psychosexual development were found.

  4. Direct training of robots using a positional deviation sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, Fredrik

    1988-01-01

    A device and system for physically guiding a manipulator through its task is described. The device consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors, enabling the rcbot to track a motion marker. Factors limiting the tracking performance are the kinematics of the sensor device and the bartdwidth of the servo system. Means for improving it includes the use of optimal motion coordination and force and velocity feedback. This enables real-time manual training o...

  5. A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi

    2016-02-01

    's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in “The Eightieth Stag e” . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as “han, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...” are of this type of abnormality .   Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. ”Sowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (champion’’are Words that show Akhavan’s attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in “The Eightieth Stage” poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In general, Poet’s notice to the different deviations is one of his techniques and the key

  6. 49 CFR 192.913 - When may an operator deviate its program from certain requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.913 When may an operator deviate its program...

  7. Application of Mean of Absolute Deviation Method for the Selection of Best Nonlinear Component Based on Video Encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Amir; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation (MAD) method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, MAD is applied to advanced encryption standard (AES), affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J., Residue Prime, S8 AES, SKIPJACK, and Xyi substitution boxes.

  8. The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz

    2016-09-01

    When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...

  10. Some clarifications about the Bohmian geodesic deviation equation and Raychaudhuri’s equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Faramarz; Golshani, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    One of the important and famous topics in general theory of relativity and gravitation is the problem of geodesic deviation and its related singularity theorems. An interesting subject is the investigation of these concepts when quantum effects are considered. Since the definition of trajectory is not possible in the framework of standard quantum mechanics (SQM), we investigate the problem of geodesic equation and its related topics in the framework of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which the definition of trajectory is possible. We do this in a fixed background and we do not consider the backreaction effects of matter on the space-time metric.

  11. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  12. Optimization of Sex Ratio in a Selection Plan for Palas Prolificacy Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Popa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper work is to optimize the sex ratio in a selection plan, according to model developed by King (1961, which will be proposed to be applied for prolificacy improvement in Prolific Line Palas. The method used in this paper work is modeling, which exist in the most animal breeding scientifically papers. After the simulations, we observed that the most convenient variant was that which prefigure use of 13 rams on reproduction activity. This variant offer a genetic gain per generation by 0.47497 additive standard deviations.

  13. Signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel MRI with subtraction mapping and consecutive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ogura, Akio; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Kouzou; Kitou, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    When measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an image the used parallel magnetic resonance imaging, it was confirmed that there was a problem in the application of past SNR measurement. With the method of measuring the noise from the background signal, SNR with parallel imaging was higher than that without parallel imaging. In the subtraction method (NEMA standard), which sets a wide region of interest, the white noise was not evaluated correctly although SNR was close to the theoretical value. We proposed two techniques because SNR in parallel imaging was not uniform according to inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity distribution and geometry factor. Using the first method (subtraction mapping), two images were scanned with identical parameters. The SNR in each pixel divided the running mean (7 by 7 pixels in neighborhood) by standard deviation/√2 in the same region of interest. Using the second (consecutive) method, more than fifty consecutive scans of the uniform phantom were obtained with identical scan parameters. Then the SNR was calculated from the ratio of mean signal intensity to the standard deviation in each pixel on a series of images. Moreover, geometry factors were calculated from SNRs with and without parallel imaging. The SNR and geometry factor using parallel imaging in the subtraction mapping method agreed with those of the consecutive method. Both methods make it possible to obtain a more detailed determination of SNR in parallel imaging and to calculate the geometry factor. (author)

  14. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  15. Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    N ŕ’"(dt; dy) and the controls ’" : X [0; T ] ! [0;1) are predictable processes satisfying LT (’") Ma2 (") for some constantM . Here LT denotes...space. Although in the moderate deviations problem one has the stronger bound LT (’") Ma2 (") on the cost of controls, the mere tightness of ’" does not...suitable quadratic form. For " > 0 and M ə, consider the spaces SM+;" : = f’ : X [0; T ]! R+j LT (’) Ma2 (")g (2.5) SM" : = f : X [0; T ]! Rj

  16. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Santos, A Costa; E Sousa, J Alves; Forbes, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment

  17. Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.

    2018-05-01

    We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.

  18. Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series

  19. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  20. Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-03-01

    In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.

  1. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  2. Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio Measured by Quantitative Sacroiliac Joint Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Yiul; Park, Seon Yang; Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Cho, Bo Youn; Choe, Kang Won; Koh, Chang Soon

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness and significance of quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy in the assessment of sacroiliitis, we measured Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio (SIS Ratio) by region of interest (ROI) method using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The observed results were as follows:1) Using ROI method, the SIS ratios for the control group of 65 persons were 1.05±0.08 (left) and 1.06±0.07 (right) which were narrower in range than those of slice method (mean±S.D.) 2) The effects of age, gender and laterality on SIS ratio were not significant. 3) In left side, one of 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis had SIS ratio in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder had SIS ratios within normal limit. In right side, 3 patients had SIS ratios in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder, within normal limit. 4) In both sacroiliac joint, 2 of 3 patients having sacroiliitis clinically with Reiter's syndrome whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed normal had high SIS ratios (left/right; 1.31/1.69, 1.90/1.80), but SIS ratio of one patient who bad no evidence of sacroiliitis clinically was within normal limit. 5) In 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis in both sacroiliac joints, q whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed severe sclerotic change of sacroiliac pints had SIS ratio within normal limit or below that of normal control group, and SIS ratios of 2 patients whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed were increased. 6) 4 of 5 patients with low back pain of which cause could not be evaluated clinically and radiologically had SIS ratios in excess of that of normal control group. It would be concluded the quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy is useful and sensitive screening method in the diagnosis as well as in the assessment clinical activity of sacroiliitis.

  3. A morphological study of the masseter muscle using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with jaw deformities. Cases demonstrating mandibular deviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Katsuhiko; Goto, Tazuko K.; Kanda, Shigenobu; Shiratsuchi, Yuji; Nakashima, Akihiko; Horinouchi, Yasufumi

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies on the cross-sectional area of masticatory muscles, which are correlated to the facial shape, have been reported for normal subjects in previous articles. However to date, there have been no such studies on masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in patients with jaw deformities involving mandibular deviation. The MRI data sets of the masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in 14 female patients with mandibular deviation, who demonstrated a more than 3-mm deviation in the median line in the lower first incisors in comparison to the upper ones, were utilized. The cross-sectional areas from the origin to the insertion at jaw-closing and jaw-opening which were reconstructed perpendicular to the three-dimensional long axis of each masseter muscle, each maximum cross-sectional area (MCSA) and the ratio of the change in MCSA after jaw-opening were analyzed. As a result, a significant difference was observed between the MCSA at jaw-closing and jaw-opening on the same side. However, no difference in MCSA was seen between the deviated and non-deviated side of the mandible. The line chart patterns of the masseter muscles from the origin to the insertion could be classified into four types. Our results suggest that it is important to analyze cross-sectional areas of the masseter muscles in each subject while considering the three-dimensional axis of each muscle. (author)

  4. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  5. Stress-induced ST-segment deviation in relation to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with normal myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Manoushagian, Shant J; Patel, Taral; Shakoor, Aqsa; Kim, Robert J; Mirchandani, Sunil; Lin, Fay; Wong, Franklin J; Szulc, Massimiliano; Okin, Peter M; Kligfield, Paul D; Min, James K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the utility of stress electrocardiography (ECG) for identifying the presence and severity of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) defined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) among patients with normal nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The study population comprised 119 consecutive patients with normal MPI who also underwent CCTA (interval 3.5+/-3.8 months). Stress ECG was performed at the time of MPI. CCTA and MPI were interpreted using established scoring systems, and CCTA was used to define the presence and extent of CAD, which was quantified by a coronary artery jeopardy score. Within this population, 28 patients (24%) had obstructive CAD identified by CCTA. The most common CAD pattern was single-vessel CAD (61%), although proximal vessel involvement was present in 46% of patients. Patients with CAD were nearly three times more likely to have positive standard test responses (1 mm ST-segment deviation) than patients with patent coronary arteries (36 vs. 13%, P=0.007). In multivariate analysis, a positive ST-segment test response was an independent marker for CAD (odds ratio: 2.02, confidence interval: 1.09-3.78, P=0.03) even after adjustment for a composite of clinical cardiac risk factors (odds ratio: 1.85, confidence interval: 1.05-3.23, P=0.03). Despite uniformly normal MPI, mean coronary jeopardy score was three-fold higher among patients with positive compared to those with negative ST-segment response to exercise or dobutamine stress (1.9+/-2.7 vs. 0.5+/-1.4, P=0.03). Stress-induced ST-segment deviation is an independent marker for obstructive CAD among patients with normal MPI. A positive stress ECG identifies patients with a greater anatomic extent of CAD as quantified by coronary jeopardy score.

  6. Thermal neutron calibration of a tritium extraction facility using the 6Li(n,t)4He/197Au(n,γ)198Au cross section ratio for standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute tritium activities in a neutron-activated metallic lithium samples have been measured by liquid scintillation methods to provide data needed for the determination of capture-to-fission ratios in fast breeder reactor spectra and for recent measurements of the 7 Li(n,n't) 4 He cross section. The tritium extraction facility used for all these experiments has now been calibrated by measuring the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He/ 197 Au/n,γ) 198 Au activity ratio for thermal neutrons and comparing the result with the well-known cross sections. The calculated-to-measured activity ratio was found to be 1.033 +- 0.018. 2 figures, 20 tables

  7. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    regression model. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether the absolute log proportional error differed by the intended injection volume. Interindividual and intraindividual deviation from the intended injection volume was also characterized. As the intended injection volumes decreased, the absolute log proportional injection volume error increased (analysis of variance, P standard deviations of the log proportional errors for injection volumes between physicians and pediatric PACU nurses; however, the difference in absolute bias was significantly higher for nurses with a 2-sided significance of P = .03. Clinically significant dose variation occurs when injecting volumes ≤0.5 mL. Administering small volumes of medications may result in unintended medication administration errors.

  8. Determination of strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with single collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Miyuki; Ariyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Akira; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains was developed. The samples investigated in this study were rice, barley and wheat. The samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and heated in a heating block. Strontium and lead were separated from the matrix by adding an acid digested solution into a column packed with Sr resin, which has selectivity for the absorption of strontium and lead. Strontium and lead isotope ratios were determined using a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) with a single collector. The intraday relative standard deviations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) by HR-ICP-MS measurements were < 0.06% and around 0.1%, respectively. This method enabled us to determine strontium and lead isotope ratios in two days. (author)

  9. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  10. Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.

    1994-01-01

    Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of β-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The β-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of couplings of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. (orig.)

  11. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  12. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

  13. Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .

  14. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly; Apgar, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  15. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  16. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  17. Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.

  18. Correlation between central corneal thickness and visual field defects, cup to disc ratio and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Haroon; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim; Haq, Rana Intisar Ul

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) and Visual Field (VF) defect parameters like Mean Deviation (MD) and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Cup-to-Disc Ratio (CDR) and Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness (RNFL-T) in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG) patients. This cross sectional study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from September 2015 to September 2016. Sixty eyes of 30 patients with diagnosed POAG were analysed. Correlation of CCT with other variables was studied. Mean age of study population was 43.13±7.54 years. Out of 30 patients, 19 (63.33%) were males and 11 (36.67%) were females. Mean CCT, MD, PSD, CDR and RNFL-T of study population was 528.57±25.47µm, -9.11±3.07, 6.93±2.73, 0.63±0.13 and 77.79±10.44µm respectively. There was significant correlation of CCT with MD, PSD and CDR (r=-0.52, pfield parameters like mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, as well as with cup-to-disc ratio. However, central corneal thickness had no significant relationship with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.

  19. Role of mother’s perceptions on their child development on early detection of developmental deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Andayani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.

  20. The Range of Initial 10Be/9Be Ratios in the Early Solar System: A Re-Assessment Based on Analyses of New CAIs and Melilite Composition Glass Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Liu, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    We report a more accurate range of initial 10Be/9Be in CAIs including FUN CAI CMS-1 from Allende (CV3) and a new CAI from NWA 5508 (CV3) using melilite composition glass standards; we suggest 10Be is largely produced by irradiation in the nebula.

  1. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  2. Assessing factors that influence deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodny, Marek; Nolz, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a fundamental component of the hydrological cycle, but challenging to be quantified. Lysimeter facilities, for example, can be installed and operated to determine ET, but they are costly and represent only point measurements. Therefore, lysimeter data are traditionally used to develop, calibrate, and validate models that allow calculating reference evapotranspiration (ET0) based on meteorological data, which can be measured more easily. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation (ASCE-EWRI) is recommended as a standard procedure for estimating ET0 and subsequently plant water requirements. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions, the Penman-Monteith equation is generally known to deliver proper results. On the other hand, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated ET0 depending on environmental conditions. Potential reasons are, for example, differing or varying surface characteristics of the lysimeter and the location where the weather instruments are placed. Advection of sensible heat (transport of dry and hot air from surrounding areas) might be another reason for deviating ET-values. However, elaborating causal processes is complex and requires comprehensive data of high quality and specific analysis techniques. In order to assess influencing factors, we correlated differences between measured and calculated ET0 with pre-selected meteorological parameters and related system parameters. Basic data were hourly ET0-values from a weighing lysimeter (ET0_lys) with a surface area of 2.85 m2 (reference crop: frequently irrigated grass), weather data (air and soil temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind velocity, and solar radiation), and soil water content in different depths. ET0_ref was calculated in hourly time steps according to the standardized procedure after ASCE-EWRI (2005). Deviations between both datasets were calculated as ET0_lys-ET0_ref and

  3. Study on the simulation of acoustic logging measurements in horizontal and deviated wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Wang, Bing; Tao, Guo; Zhang, Kuo; Yue, Wen-Zheng

    2017-09-01

    on systematical simulations with different dipping angles and anisotropy in homogenous TI media, slowness estimation charts are established to quantitatively determine the slowness at any dipping angle and for any value of the anisotropic ratio. Synthetic examples with different acoustic logging tools and different elastic parameters demonstrate that the acoustic slowness estimation method can be conveniently applied to horizontal and deviated wells in TI formations with high accuracy.

  4. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs

  5. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.

  6. Phage display peptide libraries: deviations from randomness and correctives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Arie; Ashkenazy, Haim; Weiss-Ottolenghi, Yael; Piller, Chen; Pupko, Tal; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Peptide-expressing phage display libraries are widely used for the interrogation of antibodies. Affinity selected peptides are then analyzed to discover epitope mimetics, or are subjected to computational algorithms for epitope prediction. A critical assumption for these applications is the random representation of amino acids in the initial naïve peptide library. In a previous study, we implemented next generation sequencing to evaluate a naïve library and discovered severe deviations from randomness in UAG codon over-representation as well as in high G phosphoramidite abundance causing amino acid distribution biases. In this study, we demonstrate that the UAG over-representation can be attributed to the burden imposed on the phage upon the assembly of the recombinant Protein 8 subunits. This was corrected by constructing the libraries using supE44-containing bacteria which suppress the UAG driven abortive termination. We also demonstrate that the overabundance of G stems from variant synthesis-efficiency and can be corrected using compensating oligonucleotide-mixtures calibrated by mass spectroscopy. Construction of libraries implementing these correctives results in markedly improved libraries that display random distribution of amino acids, thus ensuring that enriched peptides obtained in biopanning represent a genuine selection event, a fundamental assumption for phage display applications. PMID:29420788

  7. Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion. Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions. Monoclonality is a major characteristic of most tumors, whereas normal tissue and reactive hyperplasia are polyclonal. Methods The clinicopathological features and clonality of MDA were investigated using laser microdissection and a clonality assay based on the polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR and X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues. Results The results demonstrated that the glands were positive for CEA, Ki-67, and p53 and negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV DNA. The index of proliferation for Ki-67 was more than 50%. However, the stromal cells were positive for ER, PR, vimentin, and SM-actin. The clonal assay showed that MDA was monoclonal. Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV. Conclusions Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.

  8. Channel Deviation-Based Power Control in Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Son Dinh; Cotton, Simon L; Smith, David B

    2018-05-01

    Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and ambient assisted living technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability. The proposed schemes are both flexible and relatively simple to implement on hardware platforms with constrained resources making them inherently suitable for BAN applications. We present the key algorithm parameters used to dynamically respond to the channel variation. This allows the algorithms to achieve a better energy efficiency and signal reliability in everyday usage scenarios such as those in which a person undertakes many different activities (e.g., sitting, walking, standing, etc.). We also profile their performance against traditional, optimal, and other existing schemes for which it is demonstrated that not only does the outage probability reduce significantly, but the proposed algorithms also save up to average transmit power compared to the competing schemes.

  9. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-01-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)

  10. Obtaining TEM images with a uniform deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, Alwyn

    2006-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopes made during the last quarter of a century, it has been impossible to take images in which the diffraction contrast conditions are uniform across the field of view. This is inconvenient when, for example, imaging dislocations at a relatively low magnification. The problem arises because modern microscopes use immersion lenses in which the sample sits in a high magnetic field. The resulting helical trajectories of the electrons at the sample plane mean that it is not possible to make a beam that is parallel at the sample. Results of a method to overcome this problem are presented. It is shown that a simple modification to the microscope (which, on a computer-controlled microscope, could be implemented in software) can be used to produce images in which the deviation parameter is essentially constant across many microns of image. By a happy accident, this method can be used, not only to correct for the helicity imparted by immersion lenses, but also to correct for buckling of the sample (up to a point)

  11. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions

  12. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-04-20

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

  13. Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.

    2018-03-01

    Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.

  14. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  15. Wind power limit calculation basedon frequency deviation using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Salgado Duarte, Yorlandis; MejutoFarray, Davis

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of the wind energy for the production of electricity it’s a technology that has promoted itself in the last years, like an alternative before the environmental deterioration and the scarcity of the fossil fuels. When the power generation of wind energy is integrated into the electrical power systems, maybe take place problems in the frequency stability due to, mainly, the stochastic characteristic of the wind and the impossibility of the wind power control on behalf of the dispatchers. In this work, is make an analysis of frequency deviation when the wind power generation rise in an isolated electrical power system. This analysis develops in a computerized frame with the construction of an algorithm using Matlab, which allowed to make several simulations in order to obtain the frequency behavior for different loads and wind power conditions. Besides, it was determined the wind power limit for minimum, medium and maximum load. The results show that the greatest values on wind power are obtained in maximum load condition. However, the minimum load condition limit the introduction of wind power into the system. (author)

  16. Deviations from excitation equilibrium in optically thick mercury arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Up to date mercury arcs at pressure greater than 1 atm have been investigated as plasma systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state. These studies have been motivated by the applications of mercury arcs, e.g., in the lighting industry. The LTE-assumption simplifies the use of spectroscopic diagnostics and the performance of species-concentration calculations. A high pressure mercury arc of about 1 atm had been considered in two possibilities: excitation and gas temperatures are the same, the electron temperature is higher and excitation and electron temperatures are the same, the gas temperature is lower. Recent measurements in mercury arcs reveal the existence of severe departures from thermal equilibrium and suggest the absence of excitation equilibrium in the axis and in the periphery in such an arc. The deviation from equilibrium leads to complicated distributions, such that the system cannot be described correctly by any single temperature. This becomes quite complicated when plasma inhomogeneity and strong reabsorption of the radiation are present

  17. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  18. Predicted and verified deviations from Zipf's law in ecology of competing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki

    2011-08-01

    Zipf's power-law distribution is a generic empirical statistical regularity found in many complex systems. However, rather than universality with a single power-law exponent (equal to 1 for Zipf's law), there are many reported deviations that remain unexplained. A recently developed theory finds that the interplay between (i) one of the most universal ingredients, namely stochastic proportional growth, and (ii) birth and death processes, leads to a generic power-law distribution with an exponent that depends on the characteristics of each ingredient. Here, we report the first complete empirical test of the theory and its application, based on the empirical analysis of the dynamics of market shares in the product market. We estimate directly the average growth rate of market shares and its standard deviation, the birth rates and the "death" (hazard) rate of products. We find that temporal variations and product differences of the observed power-law exponents can be fully captured by the theory with no adjustable parameters. Our results can be generalized to many systems for which the statistical properties revealed by power-law exponents are directly linked to the underlying generating mechanism.

  19. Deviations from tribimaximal mixing due to the vacuum expectation value misalignment in A4 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The addition of an A 4 family symmetry and extended Higgs sector to the standard model can generate the tribimaximal mixing pattern for leptons, assuming the correct vacuum expectation value alignment of the Higgs scalars. Deviating this alignment affects the predictions for the neutrino oscillation and neutrino mass observables. An attempt is made to classify the plethora of models in the literature, with respect to the chosen A 4 particle assignments. Of these models, two particularly popular examples have been analyzed for deviations from tribimaximal mixing by perturbing the vacuum expectation value alignments. The effect of perturbations on the mixing angle observables is studied. However, it is only investigation of the mass-related observables (the effective mass for neutrinoless double beta decay and the sum of masses from cosmology) that can lead to the exclusion of particular models by constraints from future data, which indicates the importance of neutrino mass in disentangling models. The models have also been tested for fine-tuning of the parameters. Furthermore, a well-known seesaw model is generalized to include additional scalars, which transform as representations of A 4 not included in the original model.

  20. Effect of H/C ratio on coal ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1988-09-01

    The Cahn balance technique was found to be suitable for estimating ignition temperature and its dependence on the H/C ratio of the coal. This temperature decreased with increasing H/C ratio of coals. For coals a linear correlation between H/C ratio and the temperature was established. Chars derived from the coals deviated from the linear correlation established on coals. 17 refs., 4 figs.