WorldWideScience

Sample records for rating physical impairment

  1. Development of the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Guideline for Rating Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, So-Yun; Sohn, Myong-Sei; Youm, Yoo-Sik; Lee, Yoon-Seong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lee, Mi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Systematic and effective welfare for the disabled is possible when there are scientific and objective criteria demonstrating either presence or severity of the impairment. We need our own scientific criteria suitable for our culture and society, since the impairment is influenced by them. In 2007, we established the Developing Committee of Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS) Guideline for Impairment Rating under KAMS supervision. We included all fixed and permanent physical impairments after a sufficient medical treatment. The impairment should be stable and medically measurable. If not, it should be reevaluated later. We benchmarked the American Medical Association Guides. The KAMS Guideline should be scientific, objective, valid, reasonable and practical. In particular, we tried to secure objectivity. We developed the KAMS Guideline for Impairment Rating. PMID:19503676

  2. A Novel Dynamic Physical Layer Impairment-Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PLI-RWA) Algorithm for Mixed Line Rate (MLR) Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sridhar

    2016-12-01

    The ever-increasing global Internet traffic will inevitably lead to a serious upgrade of the current optical networks' capacity. The legacy infrastructure can be enhanced not only by increasing the capacity but also by adopting advance modulation formats, having increased spectral efficiency at higher data rate. In a transparent mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network, different line rates, on different wavelengths, can coexist on the same fiber. Migration to data rates higher than 10 Gbps requires the implementation of phase modulation schemes. However, the co-existing on-off keying (OOK) channels cause critical physical layer impairments (PLIs) to the phase modulated channels, mainly due to cross-phase modulation (XPM), which in turn limits the network's performance. In order to mitigate this effect, a more sophisticated PLI-Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PLI-RWA) scheme needs to be adopted. In this paper, we investigate the critical impairment for each data rate and the way it affects the quality of transmission (QoT). In view of the aforementioned, we present a novel dynamic PLI-RWA algorithm for MLR optical networks. The proposed algorithm is compared through simulations with the shortest path and minimum hop routing schemes. The simulation results show that performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the existing schemes.

  3. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

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    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  4. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  5. Computational Medical Apportionment Determination for Impairment Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Jerry; Thompson, Marten; Alchemy, Md, John; Penn, Md, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Unique computational techniques are used to calculate apportionment percentages for Whole Person Impairment (WPI) Ratings for workers with job-related injuries/illnesses. This interdisciplinary project includes collaboration among physicists, engineers, and concerned medical professionals. Medical providers are often asked to medically determine multiple contributing factors to disease states (e.g. diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and prior injury) in the context of personal injury as it pertains to permanent impairment. The process of making this determination is referred to as ``apportionment''. The economic value of apportionment is far reaching and represents a significant impact to all stakeholders in the injury resolution and settlement arena. The process of apportionment is necessary to assign monetary value for the stakeholders when an injury occurs. The ultimate trier-of-fact is the judicial system. The medical provider's role in this capacity is to apply known medical scientific knowledge and present it in a format that is objective and reproducible for the stakeholders. In this presentation the traditional challenges of apportionment will be outlined, and a novel approach creating mathematical bounding and modeling of pathology-weighted data sets will be presented.

  6. Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Johansen, Nanna B.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA...... rate monitor worn for 7 days. PA energy expenditure, time spent in different activity intensities, bout duration and sedentary time were considered determinants of IGM together with age, sex and BMI. Decision tree analysis was applied to identify subgroup-specific dimensions of PA associated with IGM...

  7. Psychosocial Determinants of Parental Support Behaviours Enabling Sport Participation among Children with a Physical Impairment: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…

  8. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  9. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  10. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea MI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength.Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ≥2, physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12, both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results: Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8. Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion: Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual

  11. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates...... the impact of white matter changes on the transition of independent elderly subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated yearly during 3 years with a comprehensive clinical protocol and cognitive assessment with classification of cognitive impairment and dementia according to usual clinical criteria....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...

  12. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Do dopaminergic impairments underlie physical inactivity in people with obesity?

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    Alexxai V Kravitz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Here, we review two lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis: 1 chronic exposure to obesogenic diets has been linked to impairments in dopamine synthesis, release, and receptor function, particularly in the striatum, and 2 striatal dopamine is necessary for the proper control of movement. Identifying the biological determinants of physical inactivity may lead to more effective strategies for increasing physical activity in people with obesity, as well as improve out understanding of why it is difficult for people with obesity to alter their levels of physical activity.

  14. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

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    Tangchonlatip Kanchana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries.

  15. Quality of life of elderly people with impaired physical mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review, which aimed at identifying the available evidence about the knowledge on the quality of life of the elderly with impaired physical mobility between 2001 and 2011. Data collection happened in the LILACS, MEDLINE and COCHRANEdatabases. After analytical reading of works, we selected 16 articles for analysis in two thematic categories: quality of life and personal satisfaction, and quality of life and functional capacity. The mobilitylimitations, pain and emotional well-being in the elderly can be attributed to chronic conditions, negatively affecting the quality of life; and the elderly who report a decreased quality of life, are those with a higher degree of dependence, influencing social participation and well-being. We suggest the nurse’s performance in research on interventions that allow improving the quality of life of the elderly with impaired physical mobility.

  16. Medical Impairment and Computational Reduction to a Single Whole Person Impairment (WPI) Rating Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Jerry; Alchemy, John; Weilepp, Anne; Bongiovanni, Michael; Siddhartha, Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A medical, biophysics, engineering collaboration has produced a standardized cloud-based application for creating automated WPI ratings. The project assigns numerical values to injuries/illness in accordance with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, Fifth Edition, AMA Press handbook, 5th edition (with 63 medical contributors and 89 medical reviewers). The AMA Guide serves as the industry standard for assigning impairment values for 32 US states and 190 other countries. Clinical medical data is collected using a menu-driven user interface which is computationally combined into a single numeric value. A medical doctor performs a biometric analysis and enters the quantitative data into a mobile device. The data is analyzed using proprietary validation algorithms, and a WPI Impairment rating is created. The findings are imbedded into a formalized medicolegal report in a matter of minutes. This particular presentation will concentrate upon the WPI rating of the spine--cervical, thoracic, and lumbar. Both common rating techniques will be presented--i.e., Diagnosis Related Estimates (DRE) and Range of Motion (ROM).

  17. The Investigation of Some Physical, Physiological and Anthropometric Parameters of Visually Impaired and Non-Impaired a National Male Judoka

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    Mayda, Muhammet Hakan; Karakoc, Onder; Ozdal, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed to analyze some physical, physiological and anthropometric parameters of visually impaired and non-impaired A National male judoka in this study. A total of 14 volunteer A National male judoka, of which 8 were visually impaired (age: 25.12 ± 3.75, disability status: 20-200) and 6 were not visually impaired (age: 21.50 ± 1.51),…

  18. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

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    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  19. Physical Activity and Social Engagement Patterns during Physical Education of Youth with Visual Impairments

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    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Kozub, Francis M.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with visual impairments have a greater need to be physically fit because in comparison to sighted peers they have increased demands for energy to carry out everyday tasks (Lieberman & McHugh, 2001). Further, their level of vision influences many critical areas such as motor learning, ability to interact in games, and understanding of…

  20. Impaired post exercise heart rate recovery in anabolic steroid users.

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    dos Santos, M R; Dias, R G; Laterza, M C; Rondon, M U P B; Braga, A M F W; de Moraes Moreau, R L; Negrão, C E; Alves, M-J N N

    2013-10-01

    Previous study showed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was augmented in anabolic steroids users (AASU). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the heart rate (HR) responses after maximal exercise testing would be reduced in AASU. 10 male AASU and 10 AAS nonusers (AASNU) were studied. Cardiopulmonary exercise was performed to assess the functional capacity and heart rate recovery. MSNA was recorded directly from the peroneal nerve by microneurography technique. Peak oxygen consumption (VO₂) was lower in AASU compared to AASNU (43.66±2.24 vs. 52.70±1.68 ml/kg/min, P=0.005). HR recovery (HRR) at first and second minute was lower in AASU than AASNU (21±2 vs. 27±2 bpm, P=0.02 and 37±4 vs. 45±2 bpm, P=0.05, respectively). MSNA was higher in AASU than AASNU (29±3 vs. 20±1 bursts/min, P=0.01). Further analysis showed a correlation between HRR and MSNA (r=- 0.64, P=0.02), HRR at first minute and peak VO₂ (r=0.70, P=0.01) and HRR at second minute and peak VO₂ (r=0.62, P=0.02). The exacerbated sympathetic outflow associated with a lower parasympathetic activation after maximal exercise, which impairs heart rate recovery, strengthens the idea of autonomic imbalance in AASU. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

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    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  2. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…

  3. Physical activity and quality of life of people with visual impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Češarek, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has a big impact on the quality of life of people with visual impairment. Physical activity contributes to mobility of an individual, managing everyday living skills and general ability to function normally in everyday situations. Because people with visual impairment are a heterogeneous group, the teacher for the visually impaired has to know how to measure and encourage physical activity and take into account their interests and abilities. Once the person accepts the physi...

  4. Clinical variables associated with leprosy reactions and persistence of physical impairment

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    Daniela Teles de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leprosy is a chronic disease that affects skin and peripheral nerves. Disease complications include reactional episodes and physical impairment. One World Health Organization (WHO goal of leprosy programs is to decrease the number of grade 2 impairment diagnoses by 2015. This study aims to evaluate clinical factors associated with the occurrence of leprosy reactions and physical impairment in leprosy patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of data from medical records of patients followed in two important centers for the treatment of leprosy in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, from 2005 to 2011. We used the chi-square test to analyze associations between the following categorical variables: gender, age, operational classification, clinical forms, leprosy reactions, corticosteroid treatment, and physical impairment at the diagnosis and after cure. Clinical variables associated with multibacillary leprosy and/or reactional episodes and the presence of any grade of physical impairment after cure were evaluated using the logistic regression model. Results We found that men were more affected by multibacillary forms, reactional episodes, and grade 2 physical impairment at diagnosis. Leprosy reactions were detected in a total of 40% of patients and all were treated with corticosteroids. However, physical impairment was observed in 29.8% of the patients analyzed at the end of the treatment and our multivariate analysis associated a low dose and short period of corticosteroid treatment with persistence of physical impairments. Conclusions Physical impairment should receive an increased attention before and after treatment, and adequate treatment should be emphasized.

  5. The Investigation of Physical Performance Status of Visually and Hearing Impaired Applying Judo Training Program

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    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the physical performances of visually and hearing impaired doing judo training in this study. 32 male athletes, who were doing judo training, volunteer and, visually and hearing impaired, participated in this study. The investigation was applied to visually impaired (N = 12, mean ± SD; age: 25.75 ± 3.55 years, height:…

  6. Visual impairment is associated with physical and mental comorbidities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

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    Court, Helen; McLean, Gary; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-10-17

    Visual impairment is common in older people and the presence of additional health conditions can compromise health and rehabilitation outcomes. A small number of studies have suggested that comorbities are common in visual impairment; however, those studies have relied on self-report and have assessed a relatively limited number of comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset of 291,169 registered patients (65-years-old and over) within 314 primary care practices in Scotland, UK. Visual impairment was identified using Read Code ever recorded for blindness and/or low vision (within electronic medical records). Prevalence, odds ratios (from prevalence rates standardised by stratifying individuals by age groups (65 to 69 years; 70 to 74; 75 to 79; 80 to 84; and 85 and over), gender and deprivation quintiles) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 37 individual chronic physical/mental health conditions and total number of conditions were calculated and compared for those with visual impairment to those without. Twenty seven of the 29 physical health conditions and all eight mental health conditions were significantly more likely to be recorded for individuals with visual impairment compared to individuals without visual impairment, after standardising for age, gender and social deprivation. Individuals with visual impairment were also significantly more likely to have more comorbidities (for example, five or more conditions (odds ratio (OR) 2.05 95% CI 1.94 to 2.18)). Patients aged 65 years and older with visual impairment have a broad range of physical and mental health comorbidities compared to those of the same age without visual impairment, and are more likely to have multiple comorbidities. This has important implications for clinical practice and for the future design of integrated services to meet the complex needs of patients with visual impairment, for example, embedding depression and hearing screening within eye care services.

  7. Mindfulness, physical impairment and psychological well-being in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Pagnini, Francesco; Phillips, Deborah; Bosma, Colin M; Bosma, M Colin; Reece, Andrew; Langer, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is the process of actively making new distinctions, rather than relying on habitual or automatic categorisations from the past. Mindfulness has been positively associated with physical well-being, better recovery rates from disease or infections, pain reduction and overall quality of life (QOL). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare, progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease, clinically characterised by progressively increasing weakness leading to death, usually within five years. There is presently no cure for ALS, and it is considered one of the most genetically and biologically driven illnesses. Thus far, the aims of psychological studies on ALS have focused on understanding patient - and, to a lesser extent, caregiver - QOL and psychological well-being. No previous study has investigated the influence of psychological factors on ALS. A sample of 197 subjects with ALS were recruited and assessed online twice, with a duration of four months between the two assessments. Assessments included measurements of trait mindfulness, physical impairment, QOL, anxiety and depression. The influence of mindfulness as predictor of changes in physical impairments was evaluated with a mixed-effects model. Mindfulness positively influenced the change of physical symptoms. Subjects with higher mindfulness experienced a slower progression of the disease after four months. Moreover, mindfulness at first assessment predicted higher QOL and psychological well-being. The available data indicate that a psychological construct - mindfulness - can attenuate the progress of a disease that is believed to be almost solely biologically driven. The potential implications of these results extend well beyond ALS.

  8. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2009-01-01

    HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further in

  9. Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity for Their Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…

  10. The Effects of Physical Impairment on Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    experimental objectives and procedures, told how results would be used, and told what benefits the military can expect from this investigation. Any questions...within the armed services. Two of the 15 participants were left-handed, two reported being ambidextrous , and two expressed left-eye dominance. 3.3...as discussion with shooters also revealed that there may be a benefit to impairment. That is, shooting with simulated impairment followed by

  11. Gender, depression and physical impairment: an epidemiologic perspective from Aleppo, Syria

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    Rastam, Samer; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine the association of physical impairment with gender, depression, and socio-demographics in the community in Aleppo, Syria. Method We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in Aleppo on adults aged 18–65 (N = 2,038). We used a computerized interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Physical impairment was measured via an adapted 12-item World Health Organization, Health State Description Individual Questionnaire which includes both physical and emotional items. We used physical impairment items score to classify individuals into low, middle, and high physical impairment category. Self-report of physician-diagnosed depression and chronic diseases active in the past year and their current treatment status were obtained. Results Sample mean age (SD) was 35.3 (12.1) years, 55% were female, and 4.5% had depression. Female gender, low socioeconomic status (SES), and depression were associated with high physical impairment. Women had more impairment (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.15–5.21) with little change after controlling for depression and chronic diseases, but significantly decreased after controlling for socio-demographics (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.84–2.73). The association with low (vs. high) SES was prominent (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.32–4.67) after controlling for all variables. Depression’s association (OR = 4.85, 95% CI: 1.93–12.15) lost significance after controlling for chronic diseases (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 0.96–8.25), but further adjustment for socio-demographics had little effect. Conclusion Women and individuals of low SES appear more vulnerable to physical impairment in the community in Aleppo. Depression’s association with physical impairment may be mediated through co-existing chronic diseases. Public health planning regarding physical impairment in Syria should encompass these as putative risk factors. PMID:20195569

  12. A Theory-Based Physical Education Intervention for Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Poretta, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity participation can have a positive impact on overall health. However, school-aged individuals with visual impairments tend to be less physically active than their peers without disabilities (Haegele & Porretta, 2015). Fortunately, preliminary intervention research suggests that physical activity levels of those with…

  13. Training of Paraeducators for Physical Education for Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Conroy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Children with visual impairments are often behind their peers in physical and motor skills. It is often necessary for these children to work one to one with a paraeducator to gain the benefits of physical education, improve physical activity and motor skills, and attain the basic standards of the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC).…

  14. Impairment-constrained network design in mixed line rate and flexible-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weisheng

    Mixed line rate (MLR) and flexible-grid optical networks are two promising network paradigms for next generation optical networks. In MLR optical networks, different optical channels may operate at different line rates and use the same amount of spectrum. In flexible-grid optical networks, besides different line rates, different optical channels can use different amount of spectrum. In both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks, the physical layer impairments will impact the signal reachability and will require regenerator placement to restore the signal quality. Different line rates and modulation formats suffer from different levels of impairments, and thus have different reachabilities. In this dissertation, we study multiple network design problems with impairment constraints for both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks. We first study regenerator site (RS) selection problems in MLR optical networks. Given a network topology, set of requests, and different line rates' reachabilities, the problem is to select the minimum number of nodes in the network as RSs. We divide the topic into two separate research problems depending on whether routing is fixed or flexible. Energy efficiency is an important factor that will impact the operational expenditure of a telecom network. When designing the routing and wavelength assignment approach for a set of connection requests, the placement of regenerators needs to be considered in order to increase energy efficiency. In this work, we study how to place the minimum number of regenerators in MLR optical networks, while satisfying all the requests. Virtual optical network (VON) mapping plays a vital role in optical network virtualization. When mapping VONs, it is necessary to provision backup resources to guarantee survivability. Thus, we consider how to map VONs that can survive single link failures in flexible-grid optical networks. The objective is to minimize network equipment cost, including regenerators. We also

  15. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  16. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  17. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. Analysing the physics learning environment of visually impaired students in high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenders, Frank G. C.; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Sanders, Wendy T. M.; den Brok, Perry

    2017-07-01

    Although visually impaired students attend regular high school, their enrolment in advanced science classes is dramatically low. In our research we evaluated the physics learning environment of a blind high school student in a regular Dutch high school. For visually impaired students to grasp physics concepts, time and additional materials to support the learning process are key. Time for teachers to develop teaching methods for such students is scarce. Suggestions for changes to the learning environment and of materials used are given.

  19. Neuromyelitis optica relapses: Race and rate, immunosuppression and impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackley, George; O'Brien, Fanny; Rocha, João; Woodhall, Mark; Waters, Patrick; Chandratre, Saleel; Halfpenny, Christopher; Hemingway, Cheryl; Wassmer, Evangeline; Wasiewski, Warren; Leite, Maria Isabel; Palace, Jacqueline

    2016-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare antibody-mediated CNS disease characterised by disabling relapses leading to high morbidity and mortality. Understanding relapse activity and severity is important for treatment decisions and clinical trial design. We assessed (1) whether clinical and demographic factors associate with different relapse rates and (2) the relative impact of immunosuppressive treatments on relapse rates and on attack-related residual disability. Clinical, demographic and treatment data were prospectively collected from 79 consecutive aquaporin 4 antibody positive patients seen in the nationally commissioned Oxford NMO service. The influence of clinical features on annualised relapse rates (using multiple regression) and the effect of immunosuppression on relapse-associated residual disability for transverse myelitis and optic neuritis attacks (using a mixed effect model) were analysed. The mean annualised relapse rate was 0.93. Relapse rates were significantly higher in Afro-Caribbeans, children and in those of shorter disease duration. Relapse rates reduced on treatment (from 0.87 to 0.42). Delay to first treatment did not influence eventual on-treatment relapse rate. Immunosuppressive treatment significantly reduced the residual disability from ON (p<0.01), and TM (p=0.029) attacks. Relapse rates in NMO are influenced by multiple factors, including age, ethnicity and disease duration. Current immunosuppressive treatments reduce but do not abolish relapses, however, they appear to additionally lessen the chronic disabling effect of a relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving physics teaching materials on sound for visually impaired students in high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenders, Frank G. C.; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Sanders, Wendy T. M.; den Brok, Perry

    2017-09-01

    When visually impaired students attend regular high school, additional materials are necessary to help them understand physics concepts. The time for teachers to develop teaching materials for such students is scarce. Visually impaired students in regular high school physics classes often use a braille version of the physics textbook. Previously, we evaluated the physics learning environment of a blind high school student in a regular Dutch high school. In this research we evaluate the use of a revised braille textbook, relief drawings and 3D models. The research focussed on the topic of sound in grade 10.

  1. Physical Education Lessons and Activity Status of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk, Funda; Kaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated participation in physical education and sports lessons of visually impaired adolescents and their sighted peers and compared their physical activity levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 22 visually impaired children of mean age 13.59±1.14 years and 31 sighted children aged 13.61±0.50 years participated in the study. A questionnaire prepared for this study was used to investigate participation of visually impaired adolescents and their sighted peers in physical education and sports lessons at school and the problems they encounter while doing sports. The Turkish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short-form (IPAQ-SF) was used to evaluate the physical activity level of the subjects. RESULTS The results of our study suggest that physical activity levels of visually impaired children and their sighted children were similar (p>0.05). Totally blind children had lower IPAQ scores than those with low vision (pvisually impaired children, need to be more motivated and more encouraged to take part in various sports or physical activities.

  2. Objectively measured physical activity in Brazilians with visual impairment: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Rafael; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2017-05-19

    Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day). Sixty percent of the individuals practiced at least 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Individuals who were blind were less active, spent more time in sedentary activities and spent less time in moderate and vigorous activities than those with low vision. Individuals who walked mainly without any assistance were more active, spent less time in sedentary activities and spent more time in light and moderate activities than those who walked with a long cane or sighted guide. Our data highlight factors associated with lower levels of physical activity in people with visual impairment. These factors, such as being blind and walking without assistance should be tackled in interventions to increase physical activity levels among visual impairment individuals. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical inactivity worldwide is a serious health issue in people with visual impairments and specialized institutions and public policies must work to increase physical activity level of this population. Those with lower visual acuity and walking with any aid are at a higher risk of having low levels of physical activity. The association between visual response profile, living for less than 11 years with visual impairment and PA levels deserves further investigations Findings of the present study provide reliable data to support rehabilitation programs, observing the need of taking special attention to

  3. SOLICITING BCI USER EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK FROM PEOPLE WITH SEVERE SPEECH AND PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Betts; Mooney, Aimee; Oken, Barry; Fried-Oken, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) researchers have shown increasing interest in soliciting user experience (UX) feedback, but the severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) of potential users create barriers to effective implementation with existing feedback instruments. This article describes augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)-based techniques for obtaining feedback from this population, and presents results from administration of a modified questionnaire to 12 individuals with SSPI after trials with a BCI spelling system. The proposed techniques facilitated successful questionnaire completion and provision of narrative feedback for all participants. Questionnaire administration required less than five minutes and minimal effort from participants. Results indicated that individual users may have very different reactions to the same system, and that ratings of workload and comfort provide important information not available through objective performance measures. People with SSPI are critical stakeholders in the future development of BCI, and appropriate adaptation of feedback questionnaires and administration techniques allows them to participate in shaping this assistive technology.

  4. Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

  5. Parent and Teacher Ratings of Communication among Children with Severe Disabilities and Visual Impairment/Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Paul W.; Trief, Ellen; Bruce, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Three trends emerged from independent parent and teacher ratings of receptive communication and expressive forms and functions among students with severe disabilities and visual impairment/blindness. Parents had higher ratings than teachers, receptive communication was rated the highest, and no skills occurred often. Implications are discussed for…

  6. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  7. Test-retest reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness items for children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual impai

  8. Lowering physical activity impairs glycemic control in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Libla, Jessica L; Taylor, Angelina M; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P

    2012-02-01

    Postprandial glucose (PPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and death, regardless of diabetes status. Whereas changes in physical activity produce changes in insulin sensitivity, it is not clear whether changes in daily physical activity directly affect PPG in healthy free-living persons. We used continuous glucose monitors to measure PPG and PPG excursions (ΔPPG, postmeal - premeal blood glucose) at 30-min increments after meals in healthy habitually active volunteers (n = 12, age = 29 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.9 kg·m(-2), VO2max = 53.6 ± 3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) during 3 d of habitual (≥10,000 steps per day) and reduced (physical activity. Diets were standardized across monitoring periods, and fasting-state oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on the fourth day of each monitoring period. During 3 d of reduced physical activity (12,956 ± 769 to 4319 ± 256 steps per day), PPG increased at 30 and 60 min after a meal (6.31 ± 0.19 to 6.68 ± 0.23 mmol·L(-1) and 5.75 ± 0.16 to 6.26 ± 0.28 mmol·L(-1), P active time point), and ΔPPG increased by 42%, 97%, and 33% at 30, 60, and 90 min after a meal, respectively (P activity (P physical activity in otherwise healthy free-living individuals. These data indicate that daily physical activity is an important mediator of glycemic control, even among healthy individuals, and reinforce the utility of physical activity in preventing pathologies associated with elevated PPG.

  9. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P<0.05. 260 subjects were scored equal to or greater than 2. The abnormal rate was 16.9%. All the participants were stratified into 9 groups by age; the prevalence of dementia was highly correlated with age (P<0.01. Conclusion. AD8 scale is a convenient and effective tool for cognitive screening in routine physical examination population.

  10. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  11. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  12. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  13. Independent Swimming for Children with Severe Physical Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.; McGill, Christine D.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are described for teaching severely physically disabled persons to swim. Approaches begin with a discussion of water adjustment progression and proceed through achieving breath control, mobility, developing movement in a supine position, and developing recovery. The conclusion addresses such final steps toward independence as pool entry…

  14. Early Rehabilitation in the Intensive Care Unit: Preventing Physical and Mental Health Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Ann; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Needham, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of critical illness often experience new or worsening impairments in physical, cognitive and/or mental health, referred to as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Such impairments can be long-lasting and negatively impact survivors’ quality of life. Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU), while patients remain on life-support therapies, may reduce the complications associated with PICS. This article addresses evidence-based rehabilitation interventions to reduce the p...

  15. Early Rehabilitation in the Intensive Care Unit: Preventing Physical and Mental Health Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Ann; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Needham, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of critical illness often experience new or worsening impairments in physical, cognitive and/or mental health, referred to as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Such impairments can be long-lasting and negatively impact survivors’ quality of life. Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU), while patients remain on life-support therapies, may reduce the complications associated with PICS. This article addresses evidence-based rehabilitation interventions to reduce the p...

  16. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  17. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  18. Assessing Heart Rate in Physical Education. Assessment Series: K-12 Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Marilyn M.

    This guide discusses the assessment of heart rate and, in particular, the assessment of heart rate using a heart monitor. Part 1, "Foundation for the Use of Heart Rate," reviews literature about heart rate assessment and heart rate monitors, offering an overview of national guidelines for physical activity. It focuses on the importance…

  19. Effect of Visual Impairment on Physical and Cognitive Function in Old Age: Findings of a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Eisele, Marion; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Koppara, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-11-01

    To examine how visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. A longitudinal population-based prospective cohort study. General practitioner offices at six study centers in Germany. They were observed every 1.5 years over four waves. Individuals aged 77-101 at follow-up Wave 2 (N = 2,394). Physical and cognitive function were assessed using an adapted scale that had been previously developed, and visual impairment was rated on a Likert scale (none, mild, severe or profound). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity, linear fixed-effects regression showed that the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with a decline in physical function score in the total sample (β = -0.15, P = .01) and in women (β = -.15, P = .03). Moreover, the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with decline in cognitive function score in the total sample (β = -0.38, P Visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. Interventional strategies to postpone visual impairment may contribute to maintaining physical and cognitive function. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Students' Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Maria T.

    1987-01-01

    A study found that the physical attractiveness of a dental school teacher affected the student's opinion of teaching effectiveness, regardless of the student's sex, with effectiveness ratings correlating with pleasing appearance. (MSE)

  1. Terrestrial gamma dose rates and physical-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial gamma dose rates and physical-chemical properties of farm soils ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... left a legacy derelict landscapes and impoverished agricultural farm lands in the Jos, Plateau Nigeria.

  2. Living with severe physical impairment, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Pia S; Steffensen, Birgit F; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2010-08-02

    To study life-experiences of people living with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and physical impairment. Since the introduction of invasive HMV in the late 1980s people with DMD in Denmark live longer and have the experience of adulthood and a high degree of physical dependency. Nineteen patients with DMD and invasive HMV were interviewed in 2007. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a method inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. HMV not only extended the participants lifespan, it also gave them the capacity to live an active life. They were totally dependent in everyday living, but in spite of this, they did not see themselves as physically impaired. They realised that there were activities that were physically impossible, but they considered themselves to be just the same person they had always been. This dependency was described as "independent dependency". The lived-experience of physical impairment is found to be "independent dependency" in an active life. To solve problems with loneliness, society needs to work with prejudice and misunderstanding and for better physical accessibility to enable full participation.

  3. Selected indicators of physical activities and inactivities of persons with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Bláha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For persons with visual impairments it is more difficult in many ways to carry out physical activities. They usually have a lower level of locomotive faculties and the negative trends of contemporary lifestyle related to the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure may affect them in larger measure. AIM: The objective of this research was to find out the volume of everyday physical activities compared to the passive relaxation. METHODS: Using the questionnaire IPAQ-short, we investigated the indicators characterizing the applied physical activity and inactivity during the week of citizens with visual impairment in the Usti Region (n = 152. The acquired data was converted to values MET and MET- min. . week-1. RESULTS: We recorded low values in intense physical activities and moderate activities. In the total volume of reported activities during the week (2967 METmin. . week-1 there is an increased share of walking (2222 MET-min. . week-1. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small part of the persons with visual impairments meets more of the health recommended criteria. Their lifestyle may suffer from an excess of sedentary activities that may have an unfavorable influence on health. These manifestations appear most in the persons with the highest degree of impairment. We recommend supporting their activity by the presence of tracers, improvements in navigation and preparation of specific programs. We see the possible measures also in the municipal politics.

  4. Integration of Students with Physical Impairment in Canadian University Rehabilitation Sciences Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Paulette; Duguay, Elise; Theriault, France-Andree; Sirois, Nathalie Julie; Lajoie, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, it sought to determine if Canadian rehabilitation science programs are equipped to admit students with physical impairments and, second, to document the experience of these students. A survey (questionnaire) conducted among all Canadian university rehabilitation science programs (n = 34) and…

  5. Total Physical Response: An Instructional Strategy for Second-Language Learners Who Are Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Describes Total Physical Response, a teaching technique that teachers of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) use to instruct students who are in the process of learning a second language and modifications that can be made to the program to teach students with visual impairments. (CR)

  6. Preverbal Communicative Competence: An Essential Step in the Lives of Infants with Severe Physical Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhartsen, Debbie B.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of components of preverbal communicative competence in typically developing infants is related to development of children with severe physical impairment (SPI). Specifically, eye gaze, attention, and gesture are described as they relate to reciprocity, consistency, and predictability of infant-caregiver interactions. Intervention…

  7. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; Van Paasschen, J; Deijen, JB; Van der Knokke, S; Orlebeke, JFK; Burgers, [No Value; Devriese, PP; Swaab, DF; Sergeant, JA

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  8. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Paasschen, J. van; Deijen, J.-B.; Knokke, S. van der; Orlebeke, J.F.K.; Burgers, I.; DeVriesse, P.-P.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  9. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  10. RF impairments in high-rate wireless systems - understanding the impact of TX/RX-asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, T.C.W.; Fledderus, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dealing with radio frequency (RF) front-end impairments will be one of the major design challenges for next-generation wireless communication systems due to conflicting requirements, such as high data rate, low cost and low power consumption. The use of digital compensation of the imperfections appe

  11. Heart-Rate Recovery Index Is Impaired in Behçet's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ergun Baris; Yorgun, Hikmet; Akdogan, Ali; Ates, Ahmet Hakan; Canpolat,Ugur; Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Kabakci, Giray; Calguneri, Meral; Ozkutlu, Hilmi; Oto, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Behçet's disease, a multisystemic inflammatory disorder, has been associated with a number of cardiovascular dysfunctions, including ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Heart-rate recovery after exercise can provide both an estimate of impaired parasympathetic tone and a prognosis in regard to all-cause and cardiovascular death. The aim of our study was to evaluate heart-rate recovery in Behçet's disease

  12. Impaired popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation caused by reduced daily physical activity is prevented by increased shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André L; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C

    2017-07-01

    We recently showed that 5 days of reduced daily physical activity impair popliteal artery, but not brachial artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the mechanisms by which physical inactivity causes leg vascular dysfunction are unclear. We reason that a reduction in leg blood flow-induced shear stress is a primary underlying mechanism by which reduced daily physical activity impairs popliteal artery FMD. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine whether increased leg blood flow and shear stress during inactivity prevent the reduction in popliteal artery FMD. Bilateral popliteal artery FMD measures were performed at baseline and after 5 days of a transition from high (>10,000 steps/day) to low levels (physical activity in 13 healthy and physically active men [20 ± 2 (SD) yr]. During the inactive period, one foot was submerged in ~42°C water (i.e., heated leg) three times a day for 30 min each period, to increase blood flow and thus shear stress, whereas the contralateral leg remained dry and served as internal control (i.e., nonheated leg). During heating, popliteal artery mean shear rate was increased in the heated leg (change of 119.3 ± 26.4%, P physical activity in the control nonheated leg (P results support the hypothesis that reduced leg blood flow-induced shear stress during physical inactivity is a key underlying mechanism mediating leg vascular dysfunction.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that the impairment in popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation caused by physical inactivity can be prevented by increased shear stress. These findings indicate that reduced leg blood flow-induced shear stress during physical inactivity may be a key underlying mechanism mediating the detrimental leg vascular effects of physical inactivity. Heating the foot area may be used as a nonpharmacological therapy to combat inactivity-induced leg vascular dysfunction, especially in people who are unable or unwilling to be active. Copyright © 2017 the American

  13. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  14. Does physical and mental activity prevent cognitive impairment? Evidence from animal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Begega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitive and brain reserve. This paper reviews several studies on aged rodents showing the positive effects of environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise on brain and cognitive function of these animals. The implications of this research for human aging is discussed.

  15. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and

  16. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  18. Clinical applicability of nursing outcomes in the evolution of orthopedic patients with Impaired Physical Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barragan da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: to evaluate the clinical applicability of outcomes, according to the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC in the evolution of orthopedic patients with Impaired Physical MobilityMETHOD: longitudinal study conducted in 2012 in a university hospital, with 21 patients undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty, evaluated daily by pairs of trained data collectors. Data were collected using an instrument containing five Nursing Outcomes, 16 clinical indicators and a five point Likert scale, and statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The outcomes Body Positioning: self-initiated, Mobility, Knowledge: prescribed activity, and Fall Prevention Behavior presented significant increases in mean scores when comparing the first and final evaluations (p<0.001 and (p=0.035.CONCLUSION: the use of the NOC outcomes makes it possible to demonstrate the clinical progression of orthopedic patients with Impaired Physical Mobility, as well as its applicability in this context.

  19. Interventions incorporating physical and cognitive elements to reduce falls risk in cognitively impaired older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Vicky; Hood, Victoria; Kearney, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for falls. Older adults with cognitive impairment (such as dementia) have an increased risk of falling compared with age-matched individuals without a cognitive impairment. To reduce falls in this population, interventions could theoretically target and train both physical and cognitive abilities. Combining and addressing cognitive components in falls rehabilitation is a novel and emerging area of healthcare. The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of combined cognitive and physical interventions on the risk of falls in cognitively impaired older adults. Older persons who were 65 years or older and identified as having a cognitive impairment either through diagnosis or assessment of global cognition. Multifactorial or multiple interventions where physical and cognitive elements were combined was compared against standard care or a single element intervention. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials and experimental studies in which randomization was used. Outcomes related to falls, including falls rate, specific falls risk measures (i.e. Physiological Profile Assessment) or related clinical outcome measures (i.e. Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti and gait speed). A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review, including search of electronic databases: CENTRAL, JBISRIR, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and PsychINFO. Initial keywords used were dementia, cognitive impairment, memory loss, exercise, rehabilitation and accidental falls. Grey literature (Google Scholar) and trials registers (Current Controlled Trials) searches were also completed. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) software. Data was extracted from articles included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed where

  20. Higgs diphoton rate enhancement from supersymmetric physics beyond the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Marcus; Ghilencea, D.M.; Petersson, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    We show that supersymmetric "new physics" beyond the MSSM can naturally accommodate a Higgs mass near 126 GeV and enhance the signal rate in the Higgs to diphoton channel, while the signal rates in all the other Higgs decay channels coincide with Standard Model expectations, except possibly the Higgs to Z-photon channel. The "new physics" that corrects the relevant Higgs couplings can be captured by two supersymmetric effective operators. We provide a simple example of an underlying model in which these operators are simultaneously generated. The scale of "new physics" that generates these operators can be around 5 TeV or larger, and outside the reach of the LHC.

  1. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Zimmer; Baumann, Freerk T; Max Oberste; Peter Wright; Alexander Garthe; Alexander Schenk; Thomas Elter; Galvao, Daniel A.; Wilhelm Bloch; Sven T. Hübner; Florian Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results f...

  2. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  3. Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion have been shown to be a valid method of monitoring physical activity intensity for both adults and children. As such, this subjective method may serve as an alternative to objective measurements for assessing students' performance on national standards 2 and 4. The OMNI-Child perceived exertion scales were…

  4. Locomotion Characteristics and Match-Induced Impairments in Physical Performance in Male Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Peter; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players......: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full...

  5. Ratings of perceived exertion in adults with chronically physical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satonaka, A; Suzuki, N; Kawamura, M

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate: the relationship between ratings perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) during submaximal exercise; the influence of daily physical activities on RPE; and the influence of aerobic fitness on RPE. The participants were thirty-eight adults with chronically physical challenges. Submaximal exercise testing was conducted to estimate VO2max. The participants themselves declared their perceived exertion just before the end of the exercise testing by indicating the Borg's 6-20 RPE scale. Measurement of continuous heart rates was employed for measurement of the intensity of daily physical activities. The relationship between %VO2max and RPE was analyzed. There was a significant correlation between %VO2max and RPE only in the active men who did daily aerobic physical activities with intensity of 30%HRR and more (N.=9, r=0.74, P=0.02). In the good fitness groups of both women and men, the actual %VO2max in 11 out of 12 participants was lower than the reference value of %VO2max of the RPE while the opposite trend was found in poor aerobic fitness group. Our results recommend that RPE should be used together with objective physiological variables such as HR for assessment of exercise intensity in people with chronically physical challenges, especially who are low in aerobic fitness or who are inactive.

  6. Comorbid mental disorders account for the role impairment of commonly occurring chronic physical disorders: results from the National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Ormel, Johan; Demler, Olga; Stang, Paul E

    2003-12-01

    Most health and work productivity studies have focused on individual conditions without considering comorbidity. We illustrate the implication of this neglect by examining the effects of comorbid mental disorders on role impairment (number of sickness absence and work cut-back days in the past month) among people with chronic physical disorders. A nationally representative household survey of 5877 respondents assessed current mental and physical disorders and role impairments. Four physical disorders were sufficiently common to be studied: hypertension, arthritis, asthma, and ulcers. All 4 physical disorders were associated with significant role impairments in bivariate analyses. However, further analysis showed that these impairments were almost entirely confined to cases with comorbid mental disorders. Effectiveness trials in workplace samples are needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating comorbid mental disorders among workers with chronic physical disorders.

  7. Association between muscle power impairment and WHODAS 2.0 in older adults with physical disability in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Liao, Hua-Fang; Yen, Chia-Fan; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between muscle power impairment and each World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule second edition (WHODAS 2.0) domain score among subjects with physical disability. Subjects (≥ 60 years) with physical disability related to neurological diseases, including 730 subjects with brain disease (BD) and 126 subjects with non-BD, were enrolled from a data bank of persons with disabilities from 1 July 2011 to 29 February 2012. Standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores ranging from 0 (least difficulty) to 100 (greatest difficulty) points were calculated for each domain. More than 50% of subjects with physical disability had the greatest difficulty in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment (adjusted odds ratios range among domains, 2.75-376.42, p Muscle power impairment, age and speech impairment were important factors associated with difficulties in subjects with BD-related physical disability. Older adults with physical disability often experience difficulties in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment is associated with difficulties in daily life in subjects with physical disability related to brain disease. Those subjects with brain disease who had older age, a greater degree of muscle power impairment, and the presence of speech impairment were at higher risk of experiencing difficulties in most daily activities.

  8. Barcroft's bold assertion: All dwellers at high altitudes are persons of impaired physical and mental powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-03-01

    Barcroft's bold assertion that everyone at high altitude has physical and mental impairment compared with sea level was very provocative. It was a result of the expedition that he led to Cerro de Pasco in Peru, altitude 4300 m. Although it is clear that newcomers to high altitude have reduced physical powers, some people believe that this does not apply to permanent residents who have been at high altitude for generations. The best evidence supports Barcroft's contention, although permanent residents often perform better than acclimatized lowlanders. Turning to neuropsychological function, newcomers to high altitude certainly have some impairment, and there is evidence that the same applies to highlanders. However the notion that permanent residents are impaired is anathema to many people. For example the eminent Peruvian physician Carlos Monge took great exception to Barcroft's remark and even attributed it to the fact that Barcroft was suffering from acute mountain sickness when he made it! Monge referred to 'climatic aggression', by which he meant the negative consequences of the inevitable hypoxia of high altitude. Recent technological advances such as oxygen enrichment of room air can overcome this 'aggression'. This might be useful in some settings at high altitude such as a nursery where newborn babies are cared for, and possibly operating rooms where the surgeon's dexterity may be enhanced. Other situations might be dormitories, conference rooms, and perhaps some school rooms. These constitute possible ways by which the effects of Barcroft's assertion might be countered.

  9. Reducing the failure rate in introductory physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jeff; Coulombe, Patrick; Lindell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Calculus-based introductory physics courses are often among the most difficult at many colleges and universities. With the national movement to increase STEM majors, the introductory calculus-based courses need to be less of a weed-out course and more of a course that propels students forward into successful majors. This talk discusses two approaches to reduce DFW rates and improve student retention: studio courses and parachute courses. Studio courses integrate lecture/laboratory into one course where the primary mode of instruction is small group activities. Typically, any students enrolled in the college or university can enroll in a studio version of the course. Parachute courses on the other hand, focus on the poor performing students. Designed so that students not doing well in an introductory physics course can switch into the parachute class mid-semester without harm to their GPA. In addition, the parachute course focuses on helping students build the knowledge and skills necessary for success when retaking the calculus-based Physics course. The studio course format has been found to reduce DFW rates at several universities by 40-60% compared with separate lecture and laboratory format versions of the same courses, while parachutes courses were less successful. At one university, the parachute course succeeded in helping 80% of students maintain their GPA, but only helped 20% successfully pass the calculus-based physics course.

  10. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone, and insulin in the intervention groups compared......BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...... is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers...

  11. Physical characteristics of the Selectron high dose rate intracavitary afterloader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenery, S.G.A.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1985-08-01

    The physics measurements on a Selectron high dose-rate afterloading cobalt-60 unit are reported. The installation was found to be acceptable from the standpoint of radiation safety and cost effectiveness; hospital bed space was saved as treatment could be on an outpatient basis. A source calibration 4% higher than the value stated by the manufacturer was obtained. Measurement of the ratio of exposure rate in water to that in air confirmed the calibration and the applicability of correction factors for routine clinical dosimetry recommended in the literature.

  12. Poststroke hemiparesis impairs the rate but not magnitude of adaptation of spatial and temporal locomotor features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Douglas N; Tseng, Shih-Chiao; Whitall, Jill; Morton, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    Persons with stroke and hemiparesis walk with a characteristic pattern of spatial and temporal asymmetry that is resistant to most traditional interventions. It was recently shown in nondisabled persons that the degree of walking symmetry can be readily altered via locomotor adaptation. However, it is unclear whether stroke-related brain damage affects the ability to adapt spatial or temporal gait symmetry. Determine whether locomotor adaptation to a novel swing phase perturbation is impaired in persons with chronic stroke and hemiparesis. Participants with ischemic stroke (14) and nondisabled controls (12) walked on a treadmill before, during, and after adaptation to a unilateral perturbing weight that resisted forward leg movement. Leg kinematics were measured bilaterally, including step length and single-limb support (SLS) time symmetry, limb angle center of oscillation, and interlimb phasing, and magnitude of "initial" and "late" locomotor adaptation rates were determined. All participants had similar magnitudes of adaptation and similar initial adaptation rates both spatially and temporally. All 14 participants with stroke and baseline asymmetry temporarily walked with improved SLS time symmetry after adaptation. However, late adaptation rates poststroke were decreased (took more strides to achieve adaptation) compared with controls. Mild to moderate hemiparesis does not interfere with the initial acquisition of novel symmetrical gait patterns in both the spatial and temporal domains, though it does disrupt the rate at which "late" adaptive changes are produced. Impairment of the late, slow phase of learning may be an important rehabilitation consideration in this patient population.

  13. Impaired Heart Rate Response to Exercise in Diabetes and Its Long-term Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydó, Nóra; Sydó, Tibor; Merkely, Béla; Carta, Karina Gonzales; Murphy, Joseph G; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Allison, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus on exercise heart rate and the role of impaired heart rate in excess mortality in diabetes. Patients without cardiovascular disease who underwent exercise testing from September 1, 1993, through December 31, 2010, were included. Mortality was determined from Mayo Clinic records and the Minnesota Death Index. Multivariate linear regression was used to compare heart rate responses in patients with vs without diabetes. Cox regression was used to determine the effect of abnormal heart rate recovery and abnormal chronotropic index on survival. A total of 21,396 patients (65.4% men) with a mean ± SD age of 51±11 years, including 1200 patients with diabetes (5.4%), were included. Patients with diabetes had a higher resting heart rate (81±14 vs 77±13 beats/min), lower peak heart rate (154±20 vs 165±19 beats/min), heart rate reserve (73±19 vs 88±19 beats/min), chronotropic index (0.86±0.22 vs 0.99±0.20), and heart rate recovery (15±8 vs 19±9 beats/min) vs patients without diabetes. There were 1362 deaths (6.4%) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 11.9±4.9 years. Adjusting for age, sex, and heart rate-lowering drug use, a chronotropic index less than 0.8 contributed significantly to risk in patients with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.00; Pheart rate recovery (patients with diabetes: HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.60-5.05; Pheart rate responses to exercise, which are independently predictive of reduced long-term survival in patients with diabetes as in patients without diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical initialization using SSM/I rain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Ingles, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Following our recent study on physical initialization for tropical prediction using rain rates based on outgoing long-wave radiation, the present study demonstrates a major improvement from the use of microwave radiance-based rain rates. A rain rate algorithm is used on the data from a special sensor microwave instrument (SSM/I). The initialization, as before, uses a reverse surface similarity theory, a reverse cumulus parameterization algorithm, and a bisection method to minimize the difference between satellite-based and the model-based outgoing long-wave radiation. These are invoked within a preforecast Newtonian relaxation phase of the initialization. These tests are carried out with a high-resolution global spectral model. The impact of the initialization on forecast is tested for a complex triple typhoon scenario over the Western Pacific Ocean during September 1987. A major impact from the inclusion of the SSM/I is demonstrated. Also addressed are the spin-up issues related to the typhoon structure and the improved water budget from the physical initialization.

  15. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P occupational voice demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P Occupational voice demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of Two Task Rating Scales of Physical Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Research Report 3/86 0 r=CG RISON OF TwO TASK RATING SCALES CF PHYSICAL CEMAND by Major Robert S. Collyer Commonwealth of Autralia ! August 19g86 This...analysis system . because the wording of the anchor points for the PSE scale made reference to specific weights and heights, it was judged to be an...Air Force Occupational ’,easurement Center. Lindquist, E. F. (1953). Design and analysis of experiments in psychology and education . Boston, l,1A

  17. Teaching mindfulness meditation to adults with severe speech and physical impairments: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Elena; Wahbeh, Helané; Mooney, Aimee; Miller, Meghan; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    People with severe speech and physical impairments may benefit from mindfulness meditation training because it has the potential to enhance their ability to cope with anxiety, depression and pain and improve their attentional capacity to use brain-computer interface systems. Seven adults with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) - defined as speech that is understood less than 25% of the time and/or severely reduced hand function for writing/typing - participated in this exploratory, uncontrolled intervention study. The objectives were to describe the development and implementation of a six-week mindfulness meditation intervention and to identify feasible outcome measures in this population. The weekly intervention was delivered by an instructor in the participant's home, and participants were encouraged to practise daily using audio recordings. The objective adherence to home practice was 10.2 minutes per day. Exploratory outcome measures were an n-back working memory task, the Attention Process Training-II Attention Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a qualitative feedback survey. There were no statistically significant pre-post results in this small sample, yet administration of the measures proved feasible, and qualitative reports were overall positive. Obstacles to teaching mindfulness meditation to persons with SSPI are reported, and solutions are proposed.

  18. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

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    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  20. Accretion Rate and the Physical Nature of Unobscured Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Kelly, Brandon C; Civano, Francesca; Gabor, Jared M; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Merloni, Andrea; Urry, C Megan; Hao, Heng; Jahnke, Knud; Nagao, Tohru; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Liu, Charles; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z

    2011-01-01

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of a sample of unobscured broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rate by using accurate accretion luminosities (L_int) from well-sampled multiwavelength SEDs from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L_int/L_Edd > 0.01), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (L_int/L_Edd 0.01 broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from L_int/L_Edd < 0.01 AGNs, although there may be ...

  1. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (pphysical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans.

  2. Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Christine; Erickson, Kirk I; Toro, Pablo; Schröder, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive effects of subjective measures of physical activity (PA) and objective measures of physical fitness (PF) on dementia risk, Participants of the prospective population-based ILSE-study (*1930-1932; 12-year follow-up) were examined at three examination waves (t1 : 1993/94; t2 : 1997/98; t3 : 2005/07). 381 subjects of the original cohort (n = 500) were re-examined at t3. 29% of the subjects who were cognitively healthy at baseline received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 7% of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects were screened for physical and mental health using medical interviews, physical, and neuropsychological examinations. Participants completed a questionnaire on their current and past PA at t1. Subjects were classified as physically active if they reported a regular sport activity for at least 2 hours per week in the past year. Muscular strength (handgrip) and motor coordination (balance) served as objective indicators of PF. Subjects who passed the balance-test at t1 had a reduced risk of developing MCI/AD at t3 (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p < 0.01) and performed significantly better on various neuropsychological measures. Muscular strength or subjective reports of PA did not predict MCI/AD development. Our results confirm the hypothesis that PF acts as a protective factor for the development of cognitive disorders. In our study, context, motor coordination served as a better predictor than muscular strength or self-rated PA. Since subjects with cognitive disorders due to cerebral and/or systemic disorders were excluded from the analyses, our findings suggest that the effect of skill-related PF extends beyond the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Macarena M; Vergara, Felipe A; Velásquez, Erikson J A; Marina, Raquel; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment. A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys) participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June). Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects), physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength), weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day). In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (β=0.272-0.153) and mean academic attainment (β=0.192-0.156) grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day). Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment.METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects, physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day.RESULTS: In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (ß = 0.272-0.153 and mean academic attainment (ß = 0.192-0.156 grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day.CONCLUSIONS: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  5. Self-reported visual impairment, physical activity and all-cause mortality: The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunes, Audun; Flanders, W Dana; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations of self-reported visual impairment and physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality. This prospective cohort study included 65,236 Norwegians aged ⩾20 years who had participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997). Of these participants, 11,074 (17.0%) had self-reported visual impairment (SRVI). The participants' data were linked to Norway's Cause of Death Registry and followed throughout 2012. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using Cox regression analyses with age as the time-scale. The Cox models were fitted for restricted age groups (visual impairment, the multivariable hazard ratios among adults with SRVI were 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.13) in those aged <60 years, 1.22 (95% CI 1.13-1.33) in those aged 60-84 years and 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15) in those aged ⩾85 years. The strength of the associations remained similar or stronger after additionally controlling for PA. When examining the joint associations, the all-cause mortality risk of SRVI was higher for those who reported no PA than for those who reported weekly hours of PA. We found a large, positive departure from additivity in adults aged <60 years, whereas the departure from additivity was small for the other age groups. Adults with SRVI reporting no PA were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. The associations attenuated with age.

  6. Performance in physical education and health impairment 30 years later--a community based cohort study.

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    Simon Timpka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A main purpose of physical education (PE in school is to promote future health. However, there is very limited evidence of the effects of PE on the adult health. We hypothesized that a low performance in PE was associated with an increased risk of health impairment by middle age. METHODS: We performed a cohort study in a community-based setting in Sweden spanning over three decades. We followed up on 1712 of 2225 students (76.9% who in 1974-1976 graduated with a grade in PE after 9 years of education (mean subject age 16 years. The grade in PE (compulsory subject was retrieved from municipal archives. We defined three proxies for health impairment: total number of visits to primary care physicians in 2003-2007, having been hospitalized 2003-2007, and total number of days with sick leave in 2004-2007. Using binomial regression models, we adjusted the risk estimates for level of education and occupation. Subjects with an average grade in PE served as reference category. RESULTS: In both the crude and adjusted model, women with a low grade in PE had more physician visits (adjusted IRR 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.60 and an increased number of days with sick leave (adjusted IRR 1.44, 1.05-1.95. An increased, although not significant, risk was also observed for having received in-patient care (adjusted RR 1.26; 0.88-1.80. No significant results or similar pattern were observed in men. CONCLUSION: Women with a low grade in PE in adolescence seem to have an increased risk of health impairment by middle age, raising the question of early primary prevention towards these students in particular.

  7. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Hiraoka, Regina; McCanne, Thomas R; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael F; Krauss, Alison; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2015-12-10

    The present study examined heart rate and heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) in a sample of 48 general population parents (41.7% fathers), who were either at high risk (n = 24) or low risk (n = 24) for child physical abuse. During baseline assessments of heart rate and RSA, parents sat quietly for 3 min. Afterward, parents were presented with a series of anagrams (either easy or difficult) and were instructed to solve as many anagrams as possible in 3 min. As expected, high-risk (compared with low-risk) parents evinced significantly higher resting heart rate and significantly lower resting RSA. During the anagram task, high-risk parents did not evince significant changes in heart rate or RSA relative to baseline levels. In contrast, low-risk parents evinced significant increases in heart rate and significant decreases in RSA during the anagram task. Contrary to expectations, the anagram task difficulty did not moderate the study findings. Collectively, this pattern of results is consistent with the notion that high-risk parents have chronically higher levels of physiological arousal relative to low-risk parents and exhibit less physiological flexibility in response to environmental demands. High-risk parents may benefit from interventions that include components that reduce physiological arousal and increase the capacity to regulate arousal effectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Waist Circumference, Physical Activity, and Functional Impairments in Older U.S. Adults: Results from the NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves function in older obese adults. However, body mass index is an unreliable adiposity indicator better reflected by waist circumference (WC). The impact of PA on physical impairment and mobility with high WC is unclear. We performed a secondary data analysis of 4,976 adults ≥ 60 years of age using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. Physical limitations (PL), activities of daily living (ADL) impairments, and PA (low = 1 day/week) were self-reported. WC was dichotomized (females: 88 cm; males: 102 cm). Mean age was 70.1 years and 55.1% were female. Prevalence of PL and ADL impairment in the high WC group were 57.7% and 18.8%, respectively, and high PA was present in 53.9%. Among those with high WC, high PA vs. low PA participants were at lower risk of PL (OR 0.58 [0.48-0.70]) and ADL impairment (OR 0.46 [0.32-0.65]). Those with high WC had higher odds of PL irrespective of PA (high PA: OR 1.57 [1.30-1.88]; low PA: OR 1.52 [1.29-1.79]) and ADL impairment (high PA: OR 1.27 [1.02-1.57] and low PA: OR 1.24 [0.99-1.54]). High PA in viscerally obese individuals is associated with impairments.

  9. Impairment of heart rate recovery after peak exercise predicts poor outcome after pediatric heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Alessandro; Fenton, Matthew; Derrick, Graham; Burch, Michael

    2013-09-10

    A blunted heart rate recovery (HRR) from peak exercise is associated with adverse outcome in adults with ischemic heart disease. We assessed HRR after pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) and its prognostic use. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 360 maximal exercise tests (median, 2 tests/patient; range, 1-7) in 128 children (66 men; age at test, 14 ± 3 years) who received HTx (age, 8.5 ± 5.1 years) because of cardiomyopathy (66%) or congenital heart defects (34%). The change in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute of recovery was measured as HRR and was expressed as Z score calculated from reference data obtained in 160 healthy children. HRR was impaired soon after HTx (average in first 2 years Z=-1.9 ± 3.5) but improved afterward (Z=+0.52/y), such that HRR Z score normalized in most patients by 6 years after HTx (average, 0.6 ± 1.8). A subsequent decline in HRR Z score was noted from 6 years after HTx (rate of Z=-0.11/y). After 27 ± 15 months from the most recent exercise test, 19 patients died or were re-heart transplantation. For the follow-up after 6 years, HRR Z score was the only predictor of death/re-heart transplantation (P=0.003). Patients in the lowest quartile of HRR Z score had a much higher 5-year event rate (event-free rate, 29% versus 84%; hazard ratio, 7.0; P=0.0013). HRR is blunted soon after HTx but normalizes at ≈ 6 years, potentially as a result of parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft, but then declines. This late decline in HRR Z score is associated with worse outcome.

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  11. Parent-Youth Rating Concordance for Hair Pulling Variables, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety Scale Scores in Trichotillomania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Piacentini, John A.; Khanna, Muniya; Moore, Phoebe; Cashin, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-informant rating concordance is critical for the assessment of child and adolescent problems in clinical and research settings. We explored parent-youth rating concordance for hair pulling variables, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of child and adolescent hair pullers (n = 133) satisfying conservative…

  12. The Assessment of the Quality of Life in Visually Impaired People with Different Level of Physical Activity

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    Kamelska Anna Malwina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed.

  13. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  14. Heart Rate Variability Correlates to Functional Aerobic Impairment in Hemodialysis Patients

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    Maria Angela Magalhães de Queiroz Carreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD patients and has been implicated in their increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: To correlate heart rate variability (HRV during exercise treadmill test (ETT with the values obtained when measuring functional aerobic impairment (FAI in HD patients and controls. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving HD patients and a control group. Clinical examination, blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter, and ETT were performed. A symptom-limited ramp treadmill protocol with active recovery was employed. Heart rate variability was evaluated in time domain at exercise and recovery periods. Results: Forty-one HD patients and 41 controls concluded the study. HD patients had higher FAI and lower HRV than controls (p<0.001 for both. A correlation was found between exercise HRV (SDNN and FAI in both groups. This association was independent of age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and clonidine or beta-blocker use, but not of hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: No association was found between FAI and HRV on 24-hour Holter or at the recovery period of ETT. Of note, exercise HRV was inversely correlated with FAI in HD patients and controls. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0

  15. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

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    Mazzuco A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mazzuco,1 Wladimir Musetti Medeiros,2 Milena Pelosi Rizk Sperling,1 Aline Soares de Souza,2 Maria Clara Noman Alencar,2 Flávio Ferlin Arbex,2 José Alberto Neder,2,3 Ross Arena,4 Audrey Borghi-Silva1 1Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, 2Pulmonary Function and Clinical Exercise Physiology Unit, Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Clinical Exercise Physiology, Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 4Department of Physical Therapy and Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV; however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO were measured. The RR interval (RRi was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA. Delta changes (Δsupine-standing and Δsupine-M-RSA of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu] and high frequency (HF [nu], SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn indices were calculated. Results: HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory

  16. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. However, some individuals tolerate high brain amyloid-β loads without developing symptoms, while others progressively decline, suggesting that events in the brain downstream from amyloid-β deposition, such as regional brain atrophy rates, play an important role. The main purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between the regional distributions of increased amyloid-β and the regional distribution of increased brain atrophy rates in patients with mild cognitive impairment. To simultaneously capture the spatial distributions of amyloid-β and brain atrophy rates, we employed the statistical concept of parallel independent component analysis, an effective method for joint analysis of multimodal imaging data. Parallel independent component analysis identified significant relationships between two patterns of amyloid-β deposition and atrophy rates: (i) increased amyloid-β burden in the left precuneus/cuneus and medial-temporal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the left medial-temporal and parietal regions; and (ii) in contrast, increased amyloid-β burden in bilateral precuneus/cuneus and parietal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the right medial temporal regions. The spatial distribution of increased amyloid-β and the associated spatial distribution of increased brain atrophy rates embrace a characteristic pattern of brain structures known for a high vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease pathology, encouraging for the use of (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures as early indicators of

  17. Spreadsheet software to assess locomotor disability to quantify permanent physical impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderraj Ellur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Assessment of physical disability is an important duty of a plastic surgeon especially for those of us who are in an institutional practice. Aim: The Gazette of India notification gives a guideline regarding the assessment of the disability. However, the calculations as per the guidelines are time consuming. In this article, a spreadsheet program which is based on the notification is presented. The aim of this article is to design a spreadsheet program which is simple, reproducible, user friendly, less time consuming and accurate. Materials and Methods: This spreadsheet program was designed using the Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet program was designed on the basis of the guidelines in the Gazette of India Notification regarding the assessment of Locomotor Disability to Quantify Permanent Physical Impairment. Two representative examples are presented to help understand the application of this program. Results: Two spreadsheet programs, one for upper limb and another for the lower limb are presented. The representative examples show the accuracy of the program to match the results of the traditional method of calculation. Conclusion: A simple spreadsheet program can be designed to assess disability as per the Gazette of India Notification. This program is easy to use and is accurate.

  18. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Portela

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. Objective: To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. Methods: The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®, forearm blood flow (Hokanson®, and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®. Results: At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96, heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18, forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16, and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21, respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86, heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86, and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25, respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03. Conclusion: Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise.

  19. Assessment of physical impairments in leprosy patients: a comparison between the world health organization (who disability grade and the Eye-Hand-Foot Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Túlio Raposo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the grade of physical impairments in 61 individuals with leprosy receiving multidrug therapy (MDT under the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, and residing in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. Impairments were assessed using the disability grade (DG standardized by the WHO, and the EHF score (Eye-Hand-Foot sum of impairment scores. Impairments were detected in 25 (41% of the subjects. A total of 14 (23% patients scored DG 1, while 11 (18% were assigned DG 2. The EHF score ranged from 1 to 10 points in the group of patients with physical impairments, with a mean score of 3.6 points. The majority of individuals with impairments were affected in at least two sites. We conclude that the EHF score showed overlapping impairments in the segments examined and may be more appropriate than the DG classification system for describing the degree of physical impairment of leprosy patients.

  20. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  1. Improved resonance reaction rate calculation for lattice physics subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, D.R.

    1974-02-08

    The resonance capture calculations of the HAMMER System and HAMBUR System are derived from a consistent statement of the integral slowing down equation and definitions of the resonance integral. The assumptions made in these treatments are explicitly stated, and and an attempt is made to estimate the possible error in the resonance integral arising from these assumptions. This analysis is made to pin-point those parts of the calculation that can be improved and updated. Based on the analysis of existing calculations a method of calculation is derived which avoids most of the problems encountered in HAMMER and HAMBUR. The chief improvements that result are as follows: Careful attention is paid to calculation of the resonance flux as most errors in existing calculations result from consistently overpredicting fluxes in all regions of a lattice cell. The calculation can be modified to produce as crude or detailed a resonance calculation, at the expense of computer time, as required by the user. Resonances that overlap group boundaries contribute the correct contribution to each group's reaction rates. Overlap between resonances of different isotopes is correctly accounted for. Up-to-date resonance formalisms are used including the Adler-Adler multi-level formulations. Provision is made to easily add new formalisms when required. Streaming effects from neutron leaking into a cell may optionally be included in the calculation of resonance reaction rates. A complete description of the physics contained in this new computational module is provided along with additional information on the numerical techniques employed in the module.

  2. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD.

  3. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed HIV Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Immune Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuxiang; Jiang, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a delayed HIV infection model with general incidence rate and immune impairment. We derive two threshold parameters, the basic reproduction number R 0 and the immune response reproduction number R 1. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the infection-free equilibrium and the infected equilibrium without immunity. Furthermore, the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the infected equilibrium with CTL response is also studied. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the effect of the immune impairment rate on the stability of the infected equilibrium with CTL response has been studied. PMID:26413141

  4. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed HIV Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Immune Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamical behavior of a delayed HIV infection model with general incidence rate and immune impairment. We derive two threshold parameters, the basic reproduction number R0 and the immune response reproduction number R1. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the infection-free equilibrium and the infected equilibrium without immunity. Furthermore, the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the infected equilibrium with CTL response is also studied. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the effect of the immune impairment rate on the stability of the infected equilibrium with CTL response has been studied.

  5. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed HIV Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Immune Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuxiang; Ma, Wanbiao; Jiang, Zhichao; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a delayed HIV infection model with general incidence rate and immune impairment. We derive two threshold parameters, the basic reproduction number R 0 and the immune response reproduction number R 1. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the infection-free equilibrium and the infected equilibrium without immunity. Furthermore, the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the infected equilibrium with CTL response is also studied. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the effect of the immune impairment rate on the stability of the infected equilibrium with CTL response has been studied.

  6. Passing rates on physical fitness. Effects of age, gender, physical activity, overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monteiro de Vilhena e Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of gender, age, physicalactivity (PA and overweight/obesity on health-related physical fitness (HRPF passing rates. Asample of 581 boys and 529 girls, aged 6 to 10 years and enrolled in first cycle primary schoolsin Albergaria-a-Velha, Portugal, was studied. Weight and height were measured and BMI wascalculated. The FITNESSGRAM test battery was applied. The cut-off values of Cole et al.(2000 for overweight and obesity were used. PA levels were estimated using the questionnaireof Godin and Shephard. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. No positiveassociation was observed between PA and HRPF. Age does not seem to have an impact onHRPF passing rates.

  7. Correction of the static-dynamic posture's violation of junior schoolchildren with impaired vision during the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko A.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of special scientific and methodological literature about the importance of researching the static-dynamic posture of junior schoolchildren with impaired vision is present. The study involved 23 children with impaired vision 7-10 years old and 60 healthy peers. Conducting ascertaining pedagogical experiment allowed determine the features of static-dynamic posture's violations of visually impaired junior schoolchildren, as an important component of the individual features of the motor skills development. The results were compared with results of healthy peers. Identified the indicators for which results of junior schoolchildren with impaired vision were significantly lower than those of healthy peers. It was developed practical recommendations for correcting and preventing specific drawbacks. It was shown the effectiveness of training with the proposed complex of physical exercises at 25-30% higher than common program for children 7-10 years old.

  8. Relationship of serum vitamin D level on geriatric syndromes and physical performance impairment in elderly hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xing-Kun; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chu, Jiao-Jiao; He, Ting; Cheng, Lei; Chen,Xu-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship among serum vitamin D levels, physical performance impairment, and geriatric syndromes in elders with hypertension. Methods According to the concentration of vitamin D levels, a total of 143 elderly patients with hypertension were classified into vitamin D deficient group (vitamin D ≤ 20 ng/mL, n = 94) and vitamin D appropriate group (vitamin D > 20 ng/mL, n = 49). Geriatric syndromes and physical performance were assessed by using comprehensive geria...

  9. Communicative interactions between visually impaired mothers and their sighted children: analysis of gaze, facial expressions, voice and physical contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S; Galati, D; Schmidt, S

    2015-11-01

    Social and emotional development of infants and young children is largely based on the communicative interaction with their mother, or principal caretaker (Trevarthen ). The main modalities implied in this early communication are voice, facial expressions and gaze (Stern ). This study aims at analysing early mother-child interactions in the case of visually impaired mothers who do not have access to their children's gaze and facial expressions. Spontaneous play interactions between seven visually impaired mothers and their sighted children aged between 6 months and 3 years were filmed. These dyads were compared with a control group of sighted mothers and children analysing four modalities of communication and interaction regulation: gaze, physical contacts, verbal productions and facial expressions. The visually impaired mothers' facial expressions differed from the ones of sighted mothers mainly with respect to forehead movements, leading to an impoverishment of conveyed meaning. Regarding the other communicative modalities, results suggest that visually impaired mothers and their children use compensatory strategies to guaranty harmonic interaction despite the mother's impairment: whereas gaze results the main factor of interaction regulation in sighted dyads, physical contacts and verbal productions assume a prevalent role in dyads with visually impaired mothers. Moreover, visually impaired mother's children seem to be able to differentiate between their mother and sighted interaction partners, adapting differential modes of communication. The results of this study show that, in spite of the obvious differences in the modes of communication, visual impairment does not prevent a harmonious interaction with the child. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Is the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale appropriate to detect Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Belaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have tried to assess the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS capability to detect incipient dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but the results are not clear. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MDRS, and to localize the optimal cutoff score for MCI. Methodology. A neuropsychological battery that included the MDRS was administered to 60 older adults of both genders (Mean age=68.38, SD=6.80 in Cór- doba, Argentina, who were then classified as “Control” (34 cases or “MCI” (26 cases according to performance in the neuropsychological evaluation, excluding the MDRS. The criteria used were those stated by the Sociedad Española de Neurología. We performed mean comparisons in order to evaluate if the MDRS was able to detect the group differences. Then, a logistic regression with the MDRS total score as the predictor variable and the group as the criterion variable was performed to determine the cutoff score. Results. Even though the mean comparisons showed a significant difference in the MDRS (p=.004, the diagnostic accuracy was only 63% with a 133 points cutoff score. The sensitivity was 42% and the specificity was 79%. Conclusions. The MDRS does not seem to be a useful tool to detect MCI since it generates numerous misclassified cases. The development of more accurate tools becomes fundamental in order to detect MCI.

  11. Variables associated with hippocampal atrophy rate in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheny, Rachel L; Insel, Philip S; Truran, Diana; Schuff, Norbert; Jack, Clifford R; Aisen, Paul S; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors contributing to hippocampal atrophy rate (HAR) in clinically normal older adults (NC) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Longitudinal HAR was measured on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the contribution of age, gender, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status, intracranial volume, white matter lesions, and β-amyloid (Aβ) levels to HAR was determined using linear regression. Age-related effects of HAR were compared in Aβ positive (Aβ+) and Aβ negative (Aβ-) participants. Age and Aβ levels had independent effects on HAR in NC, whereas gender, ApoE ε4 status, and Aβ levels were associated with HAR in MCI. In multivariable models, Aβ levels were associated with HAR in NC; ApoE ε4 and Aβ levels were associated with HAR in MCI. In MCI, age was a stronger predictor of HAR in Aβ- versus Aβ+ participants. HAR was higher in Aβ+ participants, but most of the HAR was because of factors other than Aβ status. Age-related effects on HAR did not differ between NC versus MCI participants with the same Aβ status. Therefore, we conclude that even when accounting for other covariates, Aβ status, and not age, is a significant predictor of HAR; and that most of the HAR is not accounted for by Aβ status in either NC or MCI.

  12. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie; And Others

    The curriculum on sexual abuse is intended for professionals working with hearing impaired, physically disabled, blind, and mentally retarded students. Introductory material addresses the vulnerability of disabled adolescents to sexual abuse; presents background information on such topics as victims, offenders, reporting abuse, and Minnesota laws…

  13. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  14. Physical Exercise for Late-Life Depression: Effects on Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Giulio; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Piepoli, Massimo; Zanetidou, Stamatula; Cabassi, Aderville; Squatrito, Salvatore; Bagnoli, Luigi; Piras, Alessandro; Mussi, Chiara; Senaldi, Roberto; Menchetti, Marco; Zocchi, Donato; Ermini, Giuliano; Ceresini, Graziano; Tripi, Ferdinando; Rucci, Paola; Alexopoulos, George S; Amore, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Late-life major depression is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired autonomic control of the heart, as evident from reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Moreover, antidepressant drug therapy also might be associated with further reductions of HRV. In the SEEDS study, we investigated whether sertraline associated with physical exercise protocols led to improvements of HRV, compared with antidepressant drug therapy alone. Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric consultation-liaison program for primary care. Patients aged 65-85 years with major depression, recruited from primary care. Sertraline plus structured, tailored group physical exercise (S + EX) versus sertraline alone (S) for 24 weeks. HRV indices (RR, percentage of NN intervals greater than 50 msec [pNN50], square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], standard deviation of heart rate [SDHR], standard deviation of the NN interval [SDNN], high-frequency band [HF], low-frequency band [LF], and their ratio [LF/HF]) were measured at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Psychiatric and medical assessments. Participants displayed significant improvements of most HRV indices over time, irrespective of the group assignment (pNN50, RMSSD, SDHR, SDNN, HF, LF, and LF/HF). Moreover, patients in the S + EX group displayed greater increases of different HRV indices(RR, pNN50, RMSSD, SDHR, SDNN, HF, and LF) compared with those in the S group. The combination of structured physical exercise and sertraline might exert positive effects on the autonomic control of the heart among older patients with major depression. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction detected by both heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in prediabetic patients with isolated impaired fasting glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Balc?o?lu, Akif Serhat; Ak?nc?, Sinan; ?i?ek, Davran; Oner, Ali; Bal, U?ur Abbas; M?derriso?lu, ?brahim Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction (CAND), a severe complication of diabetes, has also been shown to affect prediabetic patients. The role of isolated impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG), a subtype of prediabetes, is not clear in the pathogenesis of CAND. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between isolated IFG and cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) indices derived from 24-h Holter?electrocardiogram r...

  16. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) and Impaired Physical Function: The Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Wendy B; Huang, Mei-Hua; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kado, Deborah M

    2017-07-01

    Investigate associations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) with self-reported and measured physical function in older adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected in 1992-96 from a longitudinal cohort. Research clinic within a community. Community-dwelling men (n = 630) and women (n = 961), mean age 71.5 years (SD = 10.8), from the Rancho Bernardo Study. DISH assessed from lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs; self-reported difficulty bending over to the floor, walking 2-3 level blocks, or climbing 1 flight of stairs; performance-based measures of grip strength and chair-stand testing (ability to stand up and sit down in a chair 5 times without using chair arms). DISH was present in 25.6% of men and 5.5% of women. In age and sex-adjusted models, those with DISH had 1.72-fold increased odds (95% CI: 1.13, 2.62) of self-reported difficulty bending; this remained significant after further adjustment for Cobb angle, weight, stroke, arthritis, and exercise, OR = 1.69, (95% CI: 1.07, 2.66). In fully adjusted multivariate models, those with DISH had worse grip strength, -1.08 kg, P = .01, but did not differ from those without DISH on walking or climbing stairs. In sex-stratified, fully adjusted models, among men only, those with DISH were 2.17-times (95% CI: 1.04, 4.52) more likely to be unable to complete 5 chair stands without using their arms. DISH was less prevalent in women but affected almost one-quarter of older white men. People with DISH are more likely to experience physical functional impairment, suggesting that DISH has clinical correlations and is not an incidental radiographic finding. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  18. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida;

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods:...

  19. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P < .05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r = 0.15-0.46, P < .05). Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all Pphysical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses of chemical erosion rates to transient perturbations in physical erosion rates, and implications for relationships between chemical and physical erosion rates in regolith-mantled hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; West, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between chemical erosion rates (W) and physical erosion rates (E) is of wide interest due to their roles in driving landscape evolution, supplying nutrients to soils and streams, and modulating the global carbon cycle. Measured relationships between W and E vary around the globe, with some regions exhibiting positive correlations between W and E, some negative correlations, and others no correlation within uncertainty. Here we use a numerical model for mineral weathering in well-mixed ridgetop regolith to explore how complex W- E relationships can be generated by simple transient perturbations in E. We show that a Gaussian perturbation in E can produce positive or negative responses in W, and can result in a variety of hysteresis loops - clockwise, counterclockwise, or figure-eight - in plots of W against E. The nature of the transient response depends on the shape of the steady-state W- E relationship, which is set by regolith mineralogy, and the ratio of E to the maximum possible regolith production rate. The response time of W is controlled by the response time of soluble mineral concentrations at low E, where soluble mineral concentrations are low, and by the response time of regolith thickness at high E, where regolith thickness is low. These complex W- E relationships arise in the absence of variations in climate and lithology, which suggests that transients may account for some of the observed differences in W- E relationships among field sites, even among sites that share the same climate and lithology.

  2. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64......An approach for capturing and modeling individual entertainment (“fun”) preferences is applied to users of the innovative Playware playground, an interactive physical playground inspired by computer games, in this study. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from...

  3. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  4. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  5. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-07-01

    To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.

  6. Is heart rate variability related to gait impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease? A pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.B.; Synhaeve, N.E.; Mirelman, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hausdorff, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impairments in gait and autonomic function are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These are likely independent symptoms, based on different etiologic mechanisms. However, a few recent reports have observed an association between motor function, in particular ga

  7. Effectiveness of postoperative physical therapy for upper-limb impairments after breast cancer treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, An; Van Kampen, Marijke; Dieltjens, Evi; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Neven, Patrick; Geraerts, Inge; Devoogdt, Nele

    2015-06-01

    To systematically review the effectiveness of various postoperative physical therapy modalities and timing of physical therapy after treatment of breast cancer on pain and impaired range of motion (ROM) of the upper limb. We searched the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Cochrane. Articles published until October 2012 were included. Only (pseudo) randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized experimental trials investigating the effectiveness of passive mobilization, manual stretching, myofascial therapy, and/or exercise therapy and timing of physical therapy after treatment for breast cancer are reviewed. Primary outcomes are pain of the upper limb and/or ROM of the shoulder. Secondary outcomes are decreased shoulder strength, arm lymphedema, limitations in activities of daily living, decreased quality of life, and wound drainage volume. Physical therapy modalities had to be started in the first 6 weeks after surgery. Articles were selected by 2 independent researchers in 3 phases and compared for consensus. First the titles were analyzed, and then the selected abstracts and finally the full texts were reviewed. Eighteen randomized controlled trials were included in the review. Three studies investigated the effect of multifactorial therapy: 2 studies confirmed that the combination of general exercises and stretching is effective for the treatment of impaired ROM another study showed that passive mobilization combined with massage had no beneficial effects on pain and impaired ROM. Fifteen studies investigated the effectiveness of a single physical therapy modality. One study of poor quality found evidence supporting the beneficial effects of passive mobilization. The only study investigating the effect of stretching did not find any beneficial effects. No studies were found about the effectiveness of myofascial therapy in the postoperative phase. Five

  8. Do patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes have impaired physical fitness, and energy expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucok, K; Yalcinkaya, H; Acay, A; Coban, N F; Aslanalp, S; Akkan, G; Aydin, S; Celikagi, C; Ahsen, A

    2015-07-01

    The disease-related components such as physical fitness and daily energy expenditure may change in each progressive period of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), muscle strength, trunk flexibility, total energy expenditure, daily physical activity, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and body fat distribution in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with those of healthy controls. Eighty patients (40 male, 40 female) with type 2 diabetes and 80 (40 male, 40 female) controls were included in this study. All participants completed the measurements. It was determined that the VO2 max, muscle strength, daily number of steps, and total energy expenditure were lower, and the body fat percentage, and central obesity were higher in male and female type 2 diabetic patients, when compared with the controls. In addition, the lean body mass was decreased in male diabetic patients, compared with the controls. The fasting plasma glucose showed negative correlations with the maximal aerobic capacity, daily number of steps, and muscle strength in the patients in both genders. RMR and trunk flexibility values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls in either gender. We suggest that using exercise intervention especially comprised of strength training and aerobic activities, including not only daily slow activities but also moderate to vigorous activities, as a lifestyle modification in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients might be helpful for the development of earlier and more successful illness management strategies.

  9. Lipotoxic Palmitate Impairs the Rate of β-Oxidation and Citric Acid Cycle Flux in Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffar, Taha; Akoumi, Ali; Bousette, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic hearts exhibit intracellular lipid accumulation. This suggests that the degree of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in these hearts is insufficient to handle the elevated lipid uptake. We previously showed that palmitate impaired the rate of FAO in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Here we were interested in characterizing the site of FAO impairment induced by palmitate since it may shed light on the metabolic dysfunction that leads to lipid accumulation in diabetic hearts. We measured fatty acid oxidation, acetyl-CoA oxidation, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (Cpt1b) activity. We measured both forward and reverse aconitase activity, as well as NAD+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. We also measured reactive oxygen species using the 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate (DCFDA) assay. Finally we used thin layer chromatography to assess diacylglycerol (DAG) levels. We found that palmitate significantly impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation as well as citric acid cycle flux, but not Cpt1b activity. Palmitate negatively affected net aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. The impaired enzyme activities were not due to oxidative stress but may be due to DAG mediated PKC activation. This work demonstrates that palmitate, a highly abundant fatty acid in human diets, causes impaired β-oxidation and citric acid cycle flux in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. This metabolic defect occurs prior to cell death suggesting that it is a cause, rather than a consequence of palmitate mediated lipotoxicity. This impaired mitochondrial metabolism can have important implications for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Lipotoxic Palmitate Impairs the Rate of β-Oxidation and Citric Acid Cycle Flux in Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Haffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetic hearts exhibit intracellular lipid accumulation. This suggests that the degree of fatty acid oxidation (FAO in these hearts is insufficient to handle the elevated lipid uptake. We previously showed that palmitate impaired the rate of FAO in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Here we were interested in characterizing the site of FAO impairment induced by palmitate since it may shed light on the metabolic dysfunction that leads to lipid accumulation in diabetic hearts. Methods: We measured fatty acid oxidation, acetyl-CoA oxidation, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (Cpt1b activity. We measured both forward and reverse aconitase activity, as well as NAD+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. We also measured reactive oxygen species using the 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate (DCFDA assay. Finally we used thin layer chromatography to assess diacylglycerol (DAG levels. Results: We found that palmitate significantly impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation as well as citric acid cycle flux, but not Cpt1b activity. Palmitate negatively affected net aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. The impaired enzyme activities were not due to oxidative stress but may be due to DAG mediated PKC activation. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that palmitate, a highly abundant fatty acid in human diets, causes impaired β-oxidation and citric acid cycle flux in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. This metabolic defect occurs prior to cell death suggesting that it is a cause, rather than a consequence of palmitate mediated lipotoxicity. This impaired mitochondrial metabolism can have important implications for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

  11. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Natália; Amaral, Josária Ferraz; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-07-10

    A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years) and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years) a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®), forearm blood flow (Hokanson®), and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®). At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96), heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18), forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16), and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21), respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86), heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86), and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25), respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03). Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. O histórico familiar para hipertensão arterial está relacionado a anormalidades vasculares e autonômicas, bem como disfunções no comportamento neuro-hemodinâmico durante o exerc

  12. Association of Co-Existing Impairments in Cognition and Self-Rated Vision and Hearing With Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L. Liu MD, MBA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of disability (activities of daily living [ADL] and instrumental ADL [IADL], self-rated health (SRH, and 6-year mortality with co-existing impairments in vision (self-rated, hearing (self-rated, and/or cognition (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire in older adults. Method: The study sample comprised of 3,871 participants from the North Carolina Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly study (NC EPESE. Results: Persons with all three impairments had increased odds of ADL/IADL disability and low SRH. Participants with combined visual and cognitive impairments had increased odds of mortality. Whereas sensory impairments were associated with poor SRH, cognitive impairment was not unless both sensory impairments were present. Conclusion: Co-existent sensory and cognitive impairments were associated with higher risk of impaired functional status. Self-rated auditory impairment alone was not associated with higher odds of death, but mortality was linked to visual and, particularly, cognitive impairment, alone or combined.

  13. Association of Co-Existing Impairments in Cognition and Self-Rated Vision and Hearing With Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L. Liu MD, MBA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of disability (activities of daily living [ADL] and instrumental ADL [IADL], self-rated health (SRH, and 6-year mortality with co-existing impairments in vision (self-rated, hearing (self-rated, and/or cognition (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire in older adults. Method: The study sample comprised of 3,871 participants from the North Carolina Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly study (NC EPESE. Results: Persons with all three impairments had increased odds of ADL/IADL disability and low SRH. Participants with combined visual and cognitive impairments had increased odds of mortality. Whereas sensory impairments were associated with poor SRH, cognitive impairment was not unless both sensory impairments were present. Conclusion: Co-existent sensory and cognitive impairments were associated with higher risk of impaired functional status. Self-rated auditory impairment alone was not associated with higher odds of death, but mortality was linked to visual and, particularly, cognitive impairment, alone or combined.

  14. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  15. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  16. Mastery Motivational Climate: Influence on Physical Play and Heart Rate in African American Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Loraine E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; St. Onge, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a planned mastery motivational physical play session on physical activity (i.e., heart rate [HR] and physical play intensity [PAHR greater than 50]) in toddlers (N = 21), as compared to a nonplanned free play session. Participants wore a monitor to measure HR over two, 30 min play…

  17. Childhood physical neglect promotes development of mild cognitive impairment in old age - A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age.

  18. Preliminary testing by adults of a haptics-assisted robot platform designed for children with physical impairments to access play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Isao; Adams, Kim; Medina, Maria Fernanda Gomez; Cruz, Javier Leonardo Castellanos; Jafari, Nooshin; Tavakoli, Mahdi; Janz, Heidi

    2017-07-11

    Development of children's cognitive and perceptual skills depends heavily on object exploration and experience in their physical world. For children who have severe physical impairments, one of the biggest concerns is the loss of opportunities for meaningful play with objects, including physical contact and manipulation. Assistive robots can enable children to perform object manipulation through the control of simple interfaces. Touch sensations conveyed through haptic interfaces in the form of force reflection or force assistance can help a child to sense the environment and to control a robot. A robotic system with forbidden region virtual fixtures (VFs) was tested in an object sorting task. Three sorting tasks-by color, by shape, and by both color and shape-were performed by 10 adults without disability and one adult with cerebral palsy. Tasks performed with VFs were accomplished faster than tasks performed without VFs, and deviations of the motion area were smaller with VFs than without VFs. For the participant with physical impairments, two out of three tasks were slower with the VFs. This implies that forbidden region VFs are not always able to improve user task performance. Alignment with an individual's unique motion characteristics can improve VF assistance.

  19. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  20. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  1. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. METHOD: Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish...... in a maximal cycle exercise test. RESULTS: A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self...... municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output...

  2. How Students with Visual Impairments Can Learn Components of the Expanded Core Curriculum through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Haegele, Justin A.; Columna, Luis; Conroy, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that children with visual impairments demonstrate delays in fundamental motor skills, including locomotor, object control, and balance skills (Haibach, Lieberman, & Pritchett, 2011; Houwen, Hartman, & Visscher, 2010; Wagner, Haibach, & Lieberman, 2013). All of these skills are prerequisites to living an independent…

  3. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M;

    1984-01-01

    served as controls. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique) and urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion). The study was performed twice within 2 weeks, with the subjects receiving an intravenous injection of either clonidine (225...... arterial blood pressure in all three groups (16-18 mmHg). While glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion rate remained unchanged in both control groups after clonidine injection, glomerular filtration rate diminished from 78 to 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (p les than 0.01), and urinary albumin...... excretion declined from 1707 to 938 micrograms/min (p less than 0.01) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that an intrinsic vascular (arteriolar) mechanism underlying the normal autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate, i.e. the relative constancy of glomerular filtration rate...

  4. Disparities in Obesity, Physical Activity Rates, and Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M E; Magwood, G; Brown, E T; Cannady, K; Gregoski, M; Knight, K D; Peterson, L L; Kramer, R; Evans-Knowell, A; Turner, D P

    2017-01-01

    The significantly higher breast cancer (BCa) mortality rates of African-American (AA) women compared to non-Hispanic (NHW) white women constitute a major US health disparity. Investigations have primarily focused on biological differences in tumors to explain more aggressive forms of BCa in AA women. The biology of tumors cannot be modified, yet lifestyle changes can mitigate their progression and recurrence. AA communities have higher percentages of obesity than NHWs and exhibit inefficient access to care, low socioeconomic status, and reduced education levels. Such factors are associated with limited healthy food options and sedentary activity. AA women have the highest prevalence of obesity than any other racial/ethnic/gender group in the United States. The social ecological model (SEM) is a conceptual framework on which interventions could be developed to reduce obesity. The SEM includes intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, organizational relationships, and community/institutional policies that are more effective in behavior modification than isolation from the participants' environmental context. Implementation of SEM-based interventions in AA communities could positively modify lifestyle behaviors, which could also serve as a powerful tool in reducing risk of BCa, BCa progression, and BCa recurrence in populations of AA women. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

    1994-05-01

    Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed.

  6. Relationship of serum vitamin D level on geriatric syndromes and physical performance impairment in elderly hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing-Kun; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chu, Jiao-Jiao; He, Ting; Cheng, Lei; Chen, Xu-Jiao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum vitamin D levels, physical performance impairment, and geriatric syndromes in elders with hypertension. According to the concentration of vitamin D levels, a total of 143 elderly patients with hypertension were classified into vitamin D deficient group (vitamin D ≤ 20 ng/mL, n = 94) and vitamin D appropriate group (vitamin D > 20 ng/mL, n = 49). Geriatric syndromes and physical performance were assessed by using comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Correlation among vitamin D levels, geriatric syndromes and physical performance was analyzed. No statistical differences were found in various aspects of geriatric syndromes between the two groups (P > 0.05). While correlation analysis indicated that vitamin D levels had a positive association with ADL score (r = 0.235, P score (r = -0.238, P Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti POMA) [26 (22, 27)] and Balance subscale of the Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (B-POMA) score [14 (12, 16)], compared with appropriate vitamin D level [(13.275 ± 3.692); 5.810 (4.728, 7.325)]; (31.989 ± 10.217); [26.5 (25, 28)]; [15 (14, 16), respectively, all P Tinetti POMA (OR = 3.7, 95% CI:1.284-10.830, P < 0.05) and B-POMA (OR = 0.8, 95% CI:0.643-0.973, P < 0.05). In elderly hypertensive patients, serum vitamin D deficient level is associated with physical performance impairment. However, no statistical significance was found between vitamin D and geriatric syndromes. Further study is required to investigate possible mechanisms for the association between vitamin D and physical performance.

  7. Relationship of serum vitamin D level on geriatric syndromes and physical performance impairment in elderly hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing-Kun; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chu, Jiao-Jiao; He, Ting; Cheng, Lei; Chen, Xu-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship among serum vitamin D levels, physical performance impairment, and geriatric syndromes in elders with hypertension. Methods According to the concentration of vitamin D levels, a total of 143 elderly patients with hypertension were classified into vitamin D deficient group (vitamin D ≤ 20 ng/mL, n = 94) and vitamin D appropriate group (vitamin D > 20 ng/mL, n = 49). Geriatric syndromes and physical performance were assessed by using comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Correlation among vitamin D levels, geriatric syndromes and physical performance was analyzed. Results No statistical differences were found in various aspects of geriatric syndromes between the two groups (P > 0.05). While correlation analysis indicated that vitamin D levels had a positive association with ADL score (r = 0.235, P Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti POMA) [26 (22, 27)] and Balance subscale of the Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (B-POMA) score [14 (12, 16)], compared with appropriate vitamin D level [(13.275 ± 3.692); 5.810 (4.728, 7.325)]; (31.989 ± 10.217); [26.5 (25, 28)]; [15 (14, 16), respectively, all P Tinetti POMA (OR = 3.7, 95% CI:1.284–10.830, P < 0.05) and B-POMA (OR = 0.8, 95% CI:0.643–0.973, P < 0.05). Conclusions In elderly hypertensive patients, serum vitamin D deficient level is associated with physical performance impairment. However, no statistical significance was found between vitamin D and geriatric syndromes. Further study is required to investigate possible mechanisms for the association between vitamin D and physical performance. PMID:27582772

  8. Association of glomerular filtration rate with slow coronary flow in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Fatih; Celik, Omer; Ayça, Burak; Yalçin, Ahmet Arif; Altun, Ibrahim; Köse, Nuri

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and slow coronary flow (SCF) in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function; 211 patients with angiographically proven SCF and 219 controls were studied. Patients were categorized based on the angiographic findings as with or without SCF. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to calculate eGFR. The frequency of mildly decreased eGFR, serum uric acid levels, and eGFR was higher in the SCF group. Patients with mildly impaired renal function had higher thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in 3 major coronary arteries. In logistic regression analysis, uric acid (odds ratio [OR] = 1.323, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.109-1.572, P = .002) and eGFR (OR = 0.972, 95% CI = 0.957-0.987, P < .001) were independent correlates of SCF. In conclusion, eGFR was significantly correlated with SCF in patients with normal to mildly impaired renal function.

  9. Neutrino energy loss rates and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co for presupernova and supernova physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.055802

    2011-01-01

    Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for calculation of stellar weak interaction rates of $fp$-shell nuclide with success. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a pivotal role to decide if these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. The product of abundance and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co is substantial and as such can play a role in fine tuning of input parameters of simulation codes specially in the presupernova evolution. Recently we introduced our calculation of capture rates on $^{55}$Co, in a luxurious model space of $7 \\hbar \\omega$, employing the pn-QRPA theory with a separable interaction. Simulators, however, may require these rates on a fine scale. Here we present for the first time an expanded calculation of the neutrino energy loss rates and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co on an extensive temperature-density scale. These type of scale is appropriate for interpolation purposes and of greate...

  10. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  11. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  12. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  13. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  14. Effects of Music on Physical Activity Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    Music is a pervasive presence in society and is routinely used to influence human behavior in a variety of settings and for a variety of purposes including exercise behaviors and physical education (PE) classes. However, little evidence exists to support what effect, if any, music has on learner outcomes in PE. The effects that playing music…

  15. Effects of Music on Physical Activity Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    Music is a pervasive presence in society and is routinely used to influence human behavior in a variety of settings and for a variety of purposes including exercise behaviors and physical education (PE) classes. However, little evidence exists to support what effect, if any, music has on learner outcomes in PE. The effects that playing music…

  16. Effects of Music on Physical Activity Rates of Junior High School Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Lindsey; Barney, David C.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Music is an everyday occurrence in a person's life. Music is heard in the workplace, in homes, and in the mall. Music can also be heard as a person exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on junior high students (n = 305) step counts and time in activity in junior high school physical education classes.…

  17. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  18. Physical Education and Recreation for Impaired, Disabled and Handicapped Individuals... Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Dolores M.; Burnette, Wanda L.

    The report serves as a systematic collection, analysis, and synthesis of research data, empirical evidence, program information, and various resource materials in the fields of recreation/therapeutic recreation and physical education/adapted physical education for disabled individuals. The report consists of over 20 state of the art reports, each…

  19. Interleukin-6 impairs chronotropic responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation and decreases heart rate variability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiasgharzadeh, Khalil; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Mani, Ali R

    2011-12-30

    Heart rate variability is reduced in several clinical settings associated with systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism of decreased heart rate variability during systemic inflammation is unknown. It appears that the inflammatory cytokines might play a role, since epidemiologic studies has shown that circulating levels of interleukine-6 (IL-6) correlate significantly with indexes of depressed heart rate variability in various clinical conditions. The present investigation was carried out to study the peripheral and central effects of IL-6 on heart rate dynamic in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were used in the study. RT-PCR was performed to study the expression of IL-6 receptor in mouse atrial and the results showed that gp130 mRNA was detectable in the atrium. The effect of IL-6 was also studies on chronotropic responsiveness of isolated atria to adrenergic and cholinergic stimulations. Incubation of isolated atria with 10 ng/ml of IL-6 was associated with a significant hypo-responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation (log IC₅₀ of carbacholine changed from -6.26±0.10 in controls to -5.59±0.19 following incubation with IL-6, Pheart rate variability parameters (SDNN, SD1, and SD2). While intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 (50 ng/mouse) had no significant effect on heart rate variability parameters. These data are in line with a peripheral role for IL-6 in the genesis of decreased heart rate variability during systemic inflammation.

  20. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  1. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  2. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  3. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  4. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  5. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  6. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  7. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  8. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  9. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  10. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  11. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test. A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1). Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health. © 2013.

  12. Elevated variance in heart rate during slow-wave sleep after late-night physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulckaert, Arnoud; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Haex, Bart; De Valck, Elke; Verbraecken, Johan; Berckmans, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of mild physical activity before bedtime on the sleep pattern and heart rate during the night. Nine healthy subjects underwent a habituation night, a reference night, and a physical induction night. The physical induction night did not alter the sleep pattern. Physical activity before bedtime resulted in higher heart rate variance during slow-wave sleep. The low-frequency/high-frequency component (LF/HF) ratio during slow-wave sleep in the physical induction night was significantly higher than during the reference night. Increased mean heart rate and higher LF/HF ratio are related to decreased parasympathetic dominance. Exercise up to 1 h before bedtime thus seems to modify the quality of sleep.

  13. Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release rate after fatiguing stimulation in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Sjøgaard, G; Madsen, Klavs

    2000-01-01

    to 66% that persisted for 1 h, followed by a gradual recovery to 87% of prefatigue release rate at 3 h recovery. Tetanic force and rate of force development (+dF/dt) and relaxation (-dF/dt) were depressed by approximately 80% after stimulation. Recovery occurred in two phases: an initial phase, in which......The purpose of the study was to characterize the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and contractile properties before and during recovery from fatigue in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. Fatiguing contractions (60 Hz, 150 ms/s for 4 min) induced a reduction of the SR Ca(2+) release rate...... during the first 0.5-1 h the metabolic state recovered to resting levels, and a slow phase from 1-3 h characterized by a rather slow recovery of the mechanical properties. The recovery of SR Ca(2+) release rate was closely correlated to +dF/dt during the slow phase of recovery (r(2) = 0.51; P

  14. Impaired autoregulation of the glomerular filtration rate in patients with nondiabetic nephropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P K; Hommel, E E; Clausen, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of the kidney to maintain constancy of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over a wide range of renal perfusion pressures is termed autoregulation. Defective autoregulation of GFR has been demonstrated in diabetic nephropathy. Whether this is also the case in patients...

  15. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees.

  16. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  17. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of acute lowering of arterial blood pressure upon kidney function in nephropathy was studied in 13 patients with long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Ten normal subjects (six normotensive and four hypertensive) and five short-term Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy...... micrograms) or saline (0.154 mmol/l). The arterial blood pressure was similar in the diabetic patients with nephropathy (mean 136 +/- 11 divided by 88 +/- mmHg) and in the non-diabetic control subjects (mean 140 +/- 25 divided by 92 +/- 15 mmHg). The clonidine injection induced similar reductions in mean...... excretion declined from 1707 to 938 micrograms/min (p less than 0.01) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that an intrinsic vascular (arteriolar) mechanism underlying the normal autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate, i.e. the relative constancy of glomerular filtration rate...

  18. Psychological wellbeing of Turkish university students with physical impairments: an evaluation within the stress-vulnerability paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gulay; Aydemir, Deniz

    2011-04-01

    Generally, universities in developing countries offer little in the way of provisions and support (material, emotional, etc.) for disabled students. Therefore, disabled students experience considerable burdens and barriers in their educational life. This study investigated the psychological wellbeing of disabled Turkish university students by examining influences on stress-related growth and psychological distress. Disability is defined within the framework of a social model. According to this view, impairment refers to the functional limitation(s) that affect(s) a person's body, whereas disability refers to the loss or limitation of opportunities owing to social, physical or psychological obstacles. Seventy disabled university students with physical impairments were administered a questionnaire package, including a sociodemographic information sheet, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Stress-Related Growth Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Social Support, Life Events Inventory, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Snowball sampling was used and voluntary participation was essential. The results showed that disability burden, daily hassles, and helplessness coping were significant predictors of psychological symptoms. For stress-related growth the only variable that appeared significant was problem-solving coping. The results pointed out that there may be different pathways to distress and growth. In order to decrease psychological distress and enhance growth in disabled university students, disability awareness programs, changes in the barriers in the academic and physical environments of the university campuses, and coping skills training to increase problem-focused coping and to combat helplessness may prove to be effective. Reducing daily hassles for the disabled students is likely to contribute to their wellbeing by decreasing their burdens. Also, a more disability-friendly environment is likely to be empowering for disabled university students.

  19. Incidence Rate and Patterns of Physical Restraint Use Among Adult Patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-11-16

    Incidence rate and patterns of physical restraint use were examined based on a cross-sectional study in 22 wards of a large teaching hospital in Malaysia. Results indicated that the highest rate of physical restraint (19.7%) was reported from neurology-neurosurgery wards. "Un-cooperative for electroconvulsive therapy" and "trying to pull out catheters" were the most commonly reported reasons to use restraint in psychiatric and non-psychiatric wards, respectively. There were some relationships between patterns of physical restraint in this study. Exploring the incidence rate and patterns of physical restraint is important so that effective strategies can be formulated to minimize using restraint in hospitals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity, f

  1. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...

  2. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity,

  3. Heart Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students during the Dancing Classrooms Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…

  4. Heart Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students during the Dancing Classrooms Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…

  5. Self-rated social skills predict visual perception: impairments in object discrimination requiring transient attention associated with high autistic tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Robin; Cross, Alana Jade; Dalle Nogare, Felicity; Crewther, Sheila Gillard

    2014-02-01

    Autism is usually defined by impairments in the social domain but has also been linked to deficient dorsal visual stream processing. However, inconsistent findings make the nature of this relationship unclear and thus, we examined the role of stimulus-driven transient attention, presumably activated by the dorsal stream in autistic tendency. Contrast thresholds for object discrimination were compared between groups with high and low self-rated autistic tendency utilizing the socially based Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Visual stimuli were presented with either abrupt or with ramped contrast onsets/offsets in order to manipulate the demands of transient attention. Larger impairments in performance of abrupt compared with ramped object presentation were established in the high AQ group. Furthermore, self-reported social skills predicted abrupt task performance, suggesting an important visual perception deficiency in autism-related traits. Autism spectrum disorder may be associated with reduced utilization of the dorsal stream to rapidly activate attention prior to ventral stream processing when stimuli are transient. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Incidence rate of injuries during sport activity and physical exercise in a rural Swedish municipality: incidence rates in 17 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loës, M; Goldie, I

    1988-12-01

    A prospective study of acute injuries from sports and physical exercise was carried out during 1 year in a total population of a municipality with 31,620 inhabitants. Data on exposure were collected: the number of participants in each sport, the hours of participation, and number of weeks in the season per year. The number of injuries was used as numerator and the exposure data as denominator in a formula modified from Chambers for the calculation of population at risk in sports. A total of 571 injuries occurred in 28 different sports: 65% of the injured were males. The majority of the injuries were from soccer: 50% of the males and 27% of the females. Incidence rates in 17 sports are presented. The ranking order differs, when calculating not only the number, but also the exposure. Ice hockey and handball were then found to have the highest risk followed by soccer. Team and contact sports on the whole had the highest rates in both genders. As a group, intercompany players had the highest rate, especially in soccer. The lowest rates were found in individual sports such as downhill skiing, horseback riding, racket sports, and running. Gymnastics, except in school physical education, had no injuries at all. Sprains and strains were diagnosed in nearly half of the cases and the foot and ankle were the most frequent sites. Preventive measures are proposed.

  7. The effect of visual cues on difficulty ratings for segregation of musical streams in listeners with impaired hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Innes-Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enjoyment of music is an important part of life that may be degraded for people with hearing impairments, especially those using cochlear implants. The ability to follow separate lines of melody is an important factor in music appreciation. This ability relies on effective auditory streaming, which is much reduced in people with hearing impairment, contributing to difficulties in music appreciation. The aim of this study was to assess whether visual cues could reduce the subjective difficulty of segregating a melody from interleaved background notes in normally hearing listeners, those using hearing aids, and those using cochlear implants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Normally hearing listeners (N = 20, hearing aid users (N = 10, and cochlear implant users (N = 11 were asked to rate the difficulty of segregating a repeating four-note melody from random interleaved distracter notes. The pitch of the background notes was gradually increased or decreased throughout blocks, providing a range of difficulty from easy (with a large pitch separation between melody and distracter to impossible (with the melody and distracter completely overlapping. Visual cues were provided on half the blocks, and difficulty ratings for blocks with and without visual cues were compared between groups. Visual cues reduced the subjective difficulty of extracting the melody from the distracter notes for normally hearing listeners and cochlear implant users, but not hearing aid users. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Simple visual cues may improve the ability of cochlear implant users to segregate lines of music, thus potentially increasing their enjoyment of music. More research is needed to determine what type of acoustic cues to encode visually in order to optimise the benefits they may provide.

  8. Are the High Hip Fracture Rates Among Norwegian Women Explained by Impaired Bone Material Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Vilaplana, Laila; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Wang-Fagerland, Morten; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; F Eriksen, Erik

    2015-10-01

    Hip fracture rates in Norway rank among the highest in the world, more than double that of Spanish women. Previous studies were unable to demonstrate significant differences between the two populations with respect to bone mass or calcium metabolism. In order to test whether the difference in fracture propensity between both populations could be explained by differences in bone material quality we assessed bone material strength using microindentation in 42 Norwegian and 46 Spanish women with normal BMD values, without clinical or morphometric vertebral fractures, no clinical or laboratory signs of secondary osteoporosis, and without use of drugs with known influence on bone metabolism. Bone material properties were assessed by microindentation of the thick cortex of the mid tibia following local anesthesia of the area using the Osteoprobe device (Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). Indentation distance was standardized against a calibration phantom of methylmethacrylate and results, as percentage of this reference value, expressed as bone material strength index units (BMSi). We found that the bone material properties reflected in the BMSi value of Norwegian women was significantly inferior when compared to Spanish women (77 ± 7.1 versus 80.7 ± 7.8, p hip BMD was significantly higher in Norwegian women (1.218 g/cm(2) versus 0.938 g/cm(2) , p fracture after such falls. These ethnic differences in bone material properties may partly explain the higher propensity for fracture in Norwegian women. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. User experiences of mobile controlled games for activation, rehabilitation and recreation of elderly and physically impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Leinonen, Markus; Leino, Mirka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study how aged people experience mobile controlled game as a method of rehabilitation and recreation. The target group contained persons 70+ years of age living in assisted living conditions (N=34). The average age of the participants was 85.9 years. Women (n=17) and men (n=17) were equally presented in the sample group. Only 12 % (n=4) of participants were involved in an active weekly-based rehabilitation, light physical sitting exercises 38% (n=13). Three (n=3) of the participants (9%) used computers (net banking), and 20 (59%) used mobile phones on daily basis. Social activities and physical activation seem to be rather inadequate and traditional in assisted living organizations. The overall experiences of mobile controlled game described in this paper appeared to be a successful experiment also proving that the elderly are not as reluctant to use technical devices or playing virtual games as often thought. The game was reckoned very motivating, interesting, and entertaining both by the aged and the staff. Activation, rehabilitation and recreation in the elderly homes or assisted living organizations could benefit from utilization of new technology providing new ways and solutions that motivate the users and offer also possibilities for measuring and follow-up of the physical impacts. The future goals to improve the game were set according to the feedback given in this survey: a) wider variety of controlling modes for the game, b) developing various difficulty levels, c) developing the game to support different kinds of body movements, d) easily modified according to the individual user's exercising or rehabilitation needs as well as e) emphasizing the social aspects of the game by producing multiplayer versions.

  10. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring may improve precision of physical activity measurement. Considerable variation exists in the relationships between physical activity intensity (PAI) and HR and accelerometry, which may be reduced by individual calibration. However, individual......, submaximal step and walk tests with and without calorimetry, and nonexercise calibration using sleeping HR and gender. Reference accelerometry and HR models explained >95% of the between-individual variance in PAI (P

  11. Orthopaedic manual physical therapy for shoulder pain and impaired movement in a patient with glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael S; Tragord, Bradley S

    2015-06-01

    Case report. Comprehensive treatment strategies are needed for individuals with glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis (OA), especially when they are young and active. Prior dislocation, with or without subsequent shoulder stabilization surgery, complicates the clinical presentation and increases the risk of OA progression. The purpose of this case report was to describe an orthopaedic manual physical therapy approach used in a patient with glenohumeral joint OA who presented with shoulder pain and impaired movement. CASE DESCRIPTION A 38-year-old male military officer presented with left-shoulder pain of 2 months in duration that was unrelieved with a subacromial injection. He reported a history of anterior-inferior dislocation with subsequent stabilization surgery 15 years prior and arthroscopic subacromial decompression 2 years prior. Physical examination demonstrated painful limitations in shoulder elevation and internal/external rotation movements, stiffness with testing using accessory glides, and rotator cuff and scapular musculature weakness associated with pain. Treatment consisted of 5 sessions provided over 4 weeks. The plan of care included manual physical therapy, exercises, and progressive functional activities specifically tailored to the patient's clinical presentation. Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores decreased from 43% to 17%, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score improved from 3.0 to 7.3 out of 10. After 4 additional weeks of a home exercise program, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 4% and Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score was 9.0. Improvements in self-reported function were maintained at 6 months. Four "booster" treatment sessions were administered at 9 months, contributing to sustained outcomes through 1 year. In a young, active patient with glenohumeral joint OA, clinically meaningful short-term improvements in self-reported function and pain, maintained at 1 year, were observed with manual

  12. Impaired self-awareness after acquired brain injury: clinicians' ratings on its assessment and importance for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Ieke; Van Heugten, Caroline M; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Boosman, Hileen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired self-awareness is a potential obstacle to successful rehabilitation. To obtain clinicians' ratings of the importance of self-awareness for brain injury rehabilitation and use of instruments to assess self-awareness. One hundred sixty-three members of 3 major Dutch organizations for neuropsychology or rehabilitation. Online survey addressing: (1) factors participants consider important for the course and success of rehabilitation, (2) whether they assess patients' levels of self-awareness, and (3) the instruments they use to do so. Of the 163 respondents, 116 (71.2%) considered self-awareness to be important for the course of rehabilitation; 113 (69.3%) considered it to be important for the success of rehabilitation. One hundred fifty-six clinicians (95.7%) reported assessing patients' levels of self-awareness, but only 12 (7.4%) reported using standardized instruments specifically designed for this purpose. The instruments most frequently reported to be used were the Awareness Questionnaire and Patient Competency Rating Scale. It is difficult to capture different aspects of self-awareness in a standardized manner. There is a need for instruments that are valid and reliable and that have good clinical utility.

  13. A Study of Rate of Speech and Intelligibility of Speech in Hearing impaired Pupils of Baghcheban School of Zahedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahla SAEDI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss results in disruption of coordination in muscles and structures engaged in speech timing tasks and consequently acquisition of speech sounds is affected. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the speed and intelligibility of speech in hearing impaired and normal hearing Persian speaking elementary school boys and girls. 33 hearing impaired students are randomly selected from three hearing impaired groups (profound, severe and moderately-severe and compared with 60 normal hearing students. The speed of speech was measured according to reading Words Per Minute (WPM, and speech intelligibility was tested by a 5-rank scale method. As expected, the normal hearing had more speed and intelligibility of speech in contrast to the hearing impaired group. Also hearing impaired boys had a better speed and intelligibility of speech compared to hearing impaired girls but in normal hearing group, girls had better speed. The amount of P-value for moderately-severe and sever hearing impaired was 0.006 and this amount for profound and moderately-severe hearing impaired was 0.002, so p-value is <0.05 and significantly important. Profound hearing impaired group read the text more slowly and had lower speech intelligibility than other two hearing impaired groups.

  14. [Interventions based on exercise and physical environment for preventing falls in cognitively impaired older people living in long-term care facilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Loreto; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Urrútia-Cuchí, Gerard; Garrido-Pedrosa, Jèssica

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aims to report the effectiveness of interventions based on exercise and/or physical environment for reducing falls in cognitively impaired older adults living in long-term care facilities. In July 2014, a literature search was conducted using main databases and specialised sources. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions, which used exercise or physical environment among elderly people with cognitive impairment living in long-term care facilities, were selected. Two independent reviewers checked the eligibility of the studies, and evaluated their methodological quality. If it was adequate, data were gathered. Fourteen studies with 3,539 participants using exercise and/or physical environment by a single or combined approach were included. The data gathered from studies that used both interventions showed a significant reduction in fall rate. Further research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of those interventions for preventing falls in the elderly with cognitive impairment living in long-term care establishments. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Written on the Face: Self- and Expert-Rated Impairments in Personality Functioning Are Differently Related to the Expression of Disgust Toward an Interviewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Zimmermann, Johannes; Peham, Doris; Bock, Astrid; Mitte, Kristin; Benecke, Cord

    2016-06-01

    Although current theories suggest that impairments in personality functioning are at the core of personality pathology, there is a lack of research on how these impairments play out behaviorally. The aim of the present study was to investigate disgust expressions as indicators of personality dysfunction. Facial expressions were investigated in a sample of 78 female participants during an in-depth clinical interview and coded with the Facial Action Coding System. Personality dysfunction was assessed with self- and expert ratings. By applying a joint regression analysis, the authors found that disgust expressions toward the interviewer were positively associated with expert ratings but negatively associated with self-ratings. In other words, disgust expressions were indicative of an underestimation of personality dysfunction by participants as compared with experts. This suggests that interactional expressions of disgust might be a behavioral marker of personality dysfunction when individuals are unaware of or deny impairments.

  16. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  17. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, van der J.E.; Vente, de W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  18. Evaluation of Physical Composition and Municipal Solid Waste Generation Rate of Hamadan (June 1999 May 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Samadi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Although municipal solid waste (MSW is generated every day , but with comparison to other municipal Environmental aspects such as Air pollution and Sewage, is not well considered. MSW management includes refuse production, storage, collection, transportation and disposal. Without adequate and reliable in formation and data about MSW generation rate and it’s physical components, optimun planning and management is not obtainable. In this research the physical composition of Hamadan MSW was studied . Samples were takan by Truck–Load sampling and portional random method from June 1999 untile May 2000 and analyzed for physical components and moisture percent age. The results showed that the average generation rate, density of wastes and its moisture percent were 252.33 Tons and 204.83 kg/m3 and 22.46% respectively. Average percents of physical componets were 77.72% , 5.75% , 5.42% , 3.15%, 2.11% , 1.04% and 4.92% for Biodegriable materials (garbage, papers, plastics, textiles, metals, glass and other materials respectively. Also maximum generation rate was 328 tons in March and minimum generation rate was 196 tons in December. In general, with planning of enforceable reuse and recycling programmes, could be avoid of 183, 14, 13 and 5 tons of biodegriable materials , paper, plastics and metals burial respectively everyday.

  19. Heart rates of elementary physical education students during the dancing classrooms program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-06-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4 bpm), in which 47% of class time was spent above a 60% maximal heart rate threshold. The swing dance in particular (M = 143.4 bpm) stimulated a much higher heart rate level than all other dances in the program, with a mean heart rate change of 52.6 bpm. Girls (127.3 bpm) achieved marginally higher heart rates (p = .059) than boys (121.1 bpm).

  20. Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.

  1. The Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support on the Relationship between Physical Functional Impairment and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Nursing Home Elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y. C. L. Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the stress-buffering model, this study aimed to examine the moderating role of perceived social support (including institutional peer support and family support on the relationship between physical functional impairment, as a source of stress, and depressive symptoms among Chinese nursing home elderly in Hong Kong. The study used a cross-sectional survey method and convenience sampling. The subjects were recruited from two private nursing homes. A total of 187 elderly (54 males and 133 females participated in the survey. Interviews were conducted by experienced research assistants. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms of each participant. Pearson correlational analyses showed that females reported more depressive symptoms than their male counterparts, and a positive relationship was found between education level and depressive symptoms. Perceived institutional peer support was negatively correlated, while physical functional impairment was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. However, there was no significant correlation between perceived family support and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical functional impairment and perceived institutional peer support were significant predictors of elderly depressive symptoms, while perceived family support was not a significant predictor, after statistically controlling for the influence of gender and education level. Perceived institutional peer support, but not perceived family support, was found to moderate the negative impact of physical functional impairment on elderly depressive symptoms. The theoretical and practical implications of this study were then discussed.

  2. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  3. Adolescents' ratings of features of parks that encourage park visitation and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Parker, Kate; Bangay, Shaun; Deforche, Benedicte; Timperio, Anna

    2016-07-04

    The neighbourhood environment such as the availability of parks are a key, but under-researched, influence on adolescents' physical activity. In addition to overall physical activity levels, park-based physical activity and park visitation is low in this age group. Thus, it is critical to identify park features that may encourage or discourage adolescents from visiting parks. This study used a novel methodology to identify key physical characteristics of parks that are perceived to be important for park visitation and park-based physical activity among adolescents. Four secondary schools located in low, mid and high socio-economic status areas of Victoria, Australia were recruited. Using a purpose-built computer application, students in years 8-10 were presented with 44 original photographic images of park features. Participants rated each image (range 1-10) on how likely the feature would be to encourage them to visit a park and to engage in park-based physical activity, and placed symbols ('thumbs up'/'thumbs down') on aspects of the image that had a positive or negative influence on their ratings. Participants (n = 99) had a mean age of 13.3 years (SD = 0.87) and 53% were female. Overall, the top three rated images prompting park visitation by adolescents were: a long steep slide, a flying fox and a table tennis table. These first two features were also reported as being likely to promote physical activity in the park. Differences in ratings were observed for boys and girls. The images that received the greatest number of "thumbs-up" symbols included large swings and slides, table tennis tables, no-smoking signs, flying foxes and BMX tracks. The images that received the greatest number of "thumbs-down" symbols included signage about rules, graffiti, toilets, concrete steps, and skate bowls. Physically challenging play equipment is likely to encourage adolescents to visit and be active in parks. Rules, graffiti, toilets and skate bowls may discourage

  4. Physical exercise performance in temperate and warm environments is decreased by an impaired arterial baroreflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Pires

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether running performance in different environments is dependent on intact arterial baroreceptor reflexes. We also assessed the exercise-induced cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses in animals lacking arterial baroafferent signals. To accomplish these goals, male Wistar rats were subjected to sinoaortic denervation (SAD or sham surgery (SHAM and had a catheter implanted into the ascending aorta to record arterial pressure and a telemetry sensor implanted in the abdominal cavity to record core temperature. After recovering from these surgeries, the animals were subjected to constant- or incremental-speed exercises performed until the voluntary interruption of effort under temperate (25° C and warm (35° C conditions. During the constant-speed exercises, the running time until the rats were fatigued was shorter in SAD rats in both environments. Although the core temperature was not significantly different between the groups, tail skin temperature was higher in SAD rats under temperate conditions. The denervated rats also displayed exaggerated increases in blood pressure and double product compared with the SHAM rats; in particular, in the warm environment, these exaggerated cardiovascular responses in the SAD rats persisted until they were fatigued. These SAD-mediated changes occurred in parallel with increased variability in the very low and low components of the systolic arterial pressure power spectrum. The running performance was also affected by SAD during the incremental-speed exercises, with the maximal speed attained being decreased by approximately 20% in both environments. Furthermore, at the maximal power output tolerated during the incremental exercises, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate and double product were exaggerated in the SAD relative to SHAM rats. In conclusion, the chronic absence of the arterial baroafferents accelerates exercise fatigue in temperate and warm

  5. Physical Exercise Performance in Temperate and Warm Environments Is Decreased by an Impaired Arterial Baroreflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Washington; Wanner, Samuel P.; Lima, Milene R. M.; Fonseca, Ivana A. T.; Fumega, Ubirajara; Haibara, Andrea S.; Coimbra, Cândido C.; Lima, Nilo R. V.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether running performance in different environments is dependent on intact arterial baroreceptor reflexes. We also assessed the exercise-induced cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses in animals lacking arterial baroafferent signals. To accomplish these goals, male Wistar rats were subjected to sinoaortic denervation (SAD) or sham surgery (SHAM) and had a catheter implanted into the ascending aorta to record arterial pressure and a telemetry sensor implanted in the abdominal cavity to record core temperature. After recovering from these surgeries, the animals were subjected to constant- or incremental-speed exercises performed until the voluntary interruption of effort under temperate (25° C) and warm (35° C) conditions. During the constant-speed exercises, the running time until the rats were fatigued was shorter in SAD rats in both environments. Although the core temperature was not significantly different between the groups, tail skin temperature was higher in SAD rats under temperate conditions. The denervated rats also displayed exaggerated increases in blood pressure and double product compared with the SHAM rats; in particular, in the warm environment, these exaggerated cardiovascular responses in the SAD rats persisted until they were fatigued. These SAD-mediated changes occurred in parallel with increased variability in the very low and low components of the systolic arterial pressure power spectrum. The running performance was also affected by SAD during the incremental-speed exercises, with the maximal speed attained being decreased by approximately 20% in both environments. Furthermore, at the maximal power output tolerated during the incremental exercises, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate and double product were exaggerated in the SAD relative to SHAM rats. In conclusion, the chronic absence of the arterial baroafferents accelerates exercise fatigue in temperate and warm environments. Our findings

  6. Association of glomerular filtration rate with arterial stiffness in Chinese women with normal to mildly impaired renal function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yan Bian; Hong-Yang Guo; Ping Ye; Lei-Ming Luo; Hong-Mei Wu; Wen-Kai Xiao; Li-Ping Qi; He-Peng Yu; Liu-Fa Duan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Both decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and arterial stiffness were considered as risk factors for atherosclerosis. Previous studies have suggested the association between central arterial stiffness and the degree of GFR loss. Whether decreased GFR contributes to peripheral artery stiffness remains controversial. Moreover, data analyzed from a cohort of Chinese women are rare. Our aim was to explore the relationship between GFR and regional arterial stiffness in Chinese women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we randomly recruited 1131 adult women residents with GFR ≥ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated by the Chinese Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation from three large communities. Central and peripheral arterial stiffness were estimated simultaneously by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and carotid-radial PWV (PWVcr) using a validated automatic device. Augmentation Index at heart rate 75 beats/minutes (AIx-75) was measured by pulse wave analysis as a composite parameter reflecting both large and distal arterial properties. Results The mean estimated GFR (eGFR) of the study group was 100.05 ± 23.26 mL/minute per 1.73 m2. Subjects were grouped by tertiles of eGFR level. PWVcf and AIx-75 increased ongoing from the top to the bottom eGFR tertile, while the values of PWVcr were comparable. Both univariate Pearson correlations and multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that eGFR significantly correlated to PWVcf, but not to PWVcr and AIx-75. Conclusions In Chinese women with normal to mildly impaired renal function, decreased eGFR affected carotid-to-femoral rather than carotid-to-radial stiffening. This provides rational to conduct future prospective studies to investigate predictors of atherosclerosis in this population.

  7. Unobtrusive heart rate estimation during physical exercise using photoplethysmographic and acceleration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Patrick; Kanzler, Christoph M; Lorch, Benedikt; Schroeder, Lea; Winkler, Ludwig; Laich, Larissa; Riedel, Frederik; Richer, Robert; Luckner, Christoph; Leutheuser, Heike; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Pasluosta, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive, inexpensive and unobtrusive method to achieve heart rate monitoring during physical exercises. Motion artifacts during exercise challenge the heart rate estimation from wrist-type PPG signals. This paper presents a methodology to overcome these limitation by incorporating acceleration information. The proposed algorithm consisted of four stages: (1) A wavelet based denoising, (2) an acceleration based denoising, (3) a frequency based approach to estimate the heart rate followed by (4) a postprocessing step. Experiments with different movement types such as running and rehabilitation exercises were used for algorithm design and development. Evaluation of our heart rate estimation showed that a mean absolute error 1.96 bpm (beats per minute) with standard deviation of 2.86 bpm and a correlation of 0.98 was achieved with our method. These findings suggest that the proposed methodology is robust to motion artifacts and is therefore applicable for heart rate monitoring during sports and rehabilitation.

  8. Entropy rates of low-significance bits sampled from chaotic physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corron, Ned J.; Cooper, Roy M.; Blakely, Jonathan N.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the entropy of low-significance bits in analog-to-digital measurements of chaotic dynamical systems. We find the partition of measurement space corresponding to low-significance bits has a corrugated structure. Using simulated measurements of a map and experimental data from a circuit, we identify two consequences of this corrugated partition. First, entropy rates for sequences of low-significance bits more closely approach the metric entropy of the chaotic system, because the corrugated partition better approximates a generating partition. Second, accurate estimation of the entropy rate using low-significance bits requires long block lengths as the corrugated partition introduces more long-term correlation, and using only short block lengths overestimates the entropy rate. This second phenomenon may explain recent reports of experimental systems producing binary sequences that pass statistical tests of randomness at rates that may be significantly beyond the metric entropy rate of the physical source.

  9. Effects of Impaired Glucose Metabolism on Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pessure Variability in Essential Hpertensive Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) on cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in essential hypertensive (EH) patients by comparing heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in EH patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Simultaneous 24-h recordings of ambulatory ECG and blood pressure monitoring were performed in 36 male old patients with simple EH and 33 male old patients with EH combined with T2DM. HRV analysis included time domain parameters such as SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD and pNN50, and total spectral power (TP) of HRV, which mainly consists of VLF, LF and HF component along with LF/HF ratio, was also obtained. The value of ambulatory blood pressure was represented as the mean blood pressure (mean systolic/mSBP, diastolic/mDBP and pulse pressure/mPP)during different periods (24 h/24 h, day time/d and night time/n). Standard deviation (SD) as well as coefficient of variance (CV) of blood pressure during each above-mentioned period were obtained to reflect the long-term BPV. Our result showed that SDNN, SDNNi, SDANN, rMSSD, PNN50, TP and HF of HRV in cases of EH with T2DM were all significantly lower than those in simple EH subjects (P<0.05). No significant differences in VLF or LF was found between the two groups (P>0.05), while LF/HF ratio was significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.01).Moreover, dmSBP, 24 h-mPP and dmPP were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while nmSBP, 24 h-mSBP, 24 h-mDBP, dmDBP, nmDBP or nmPP showed no significant difference between this two groups of patients (P>0.05). And dSBPSD,dSBPCV and 24 h-SBPSD were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while the other BPV indexes showed no significant difference between this two groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that the cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in EH patients

  10. [Influence of physical workload patterns and breaks on heart rate recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Manabu; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Makoto; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to try to achieve quick recovery from work strain by setting adequate breaks and shortening continuous working hours to prevent the accumulation of fatigue. However, there has been no research investigating the influence of the timing and lengths of breaks on individual aerobic capacities in recovery from work strain. In this study, we set three load patterns based on the length and timing of breaks: "no breaks", "one break" and "regular small breaks". We examined the differences of the heart rate variation in the recovery time after working considering the individual aerobic capacities (VO(2)max) of ten male subjects (mean age 22.3 +/- 1.7 yr) in the case of 50 W or 100 W workloads on a bicycle ergometer. When individual aerobic capacity was not considered, the "regular small breaks" condition led to the quickest recovery to the level of the resting heart rate at 50 W workload. Not all conditions showed heart rate recovery within 30 min at 100 W workload. On the other hand, when individual aerobic capacity was considered, the "regular small breaks" condition showed the quickest recovery to the level of the resting heart rate at 50 W workload in the low aerobic capacity group (VO(2)max mean 42.2 +/- 3.7 ml/kg/min). However, in the high aerobic capacity group (VO(2)max mean 54.5 +/- 4.1 ml/kg/min), the "regular small breaks" condition resulted in the quickest recovery of the level to the resting heart rate at 100W workload. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed for the recovery time with respect to the rate of increase from resting heart rate to examine the influence on heart rate recovery of physical activity loads, workload patterns and individual fitness. Physical activity loads were strongly related to the increase from resting heart rate in recovery time, and workload patterns showed that the regular small breaks condition was related to the heart rate recovery in the high fitness subjects in the case of the exercise intensity of 100 W

  11. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2014-12-22

    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  12. The Impact of a Modified Repeated-Reading Strategy Paired with Optical Character Recognition on the Reading Rates of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, Suzan Trefry; Heller, Kathryn Wolf; Smith, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    The repeated-reading strategy and optical character recognition were paired to demonstrate a functional relationship between the combined strategies and two factors: the reading rates of students with visual impairments and the students' self-perceptions, or attitudes, toward reading. The results indicated that all five students increased their…

  13. Effects of rehabilitative interventions on pain, function and physical impairments in people with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with pain, reduced grip strength, loss of range of motion and joint stiffness leading to impaired hand function and difficulty with daily activities. The effectiveness of different rehabilitation interventions on specific treatment goals has not yet been fully explored. The objective of this systematic review is to provide evidence based knowledge on the treatment effects of different rehabilitation interventions for specific treatment goals for hand OA. Methods A computerized literature search of Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), ISI Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and SCOPUS was performed. Studies that had an evidence level of 2b or higher and that compared a rehabilitation intervention with a control group and assessed at least one of the following outcome measures - pain, physical hand function or other measures of hand impairment - were included. The eligibility and methodological quality of trials were systematically assessed by two independent reviewers using the PEDro scale. Treatment effects were calculated using standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals. Results Ten studies, of which six were of higher quality (PEDro score >6), were included. The rehabilitation techniques reviewed included three studies on exercise, two studies each on laser and heat, and one study each on splints, massage and acupuncture. One higher quality trial showed a large positive effect of 12-month use of a night splint on hand pain, function, strength and range of motion. Exercise had no effect on hand pain or function although it may be able to improve hand strength. Low level laser therapy may be useful for improving range of motion. No rehabilitation interventions were found to improve stiffness. Conclusions There is emerging high quality evidence to support that rehabilitation interventions can offer significant benefits to individuals

  14. Comparison and application of three visual rating scales for white matter lesions in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马万欣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical value of three visual rating scales (VRS) for white matter lesions (WML) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) .Methods Totally 184 subjects,including 107 AD patients,47 MCI patients and 30 normal controls,were recruited.All subjects underwent comprehensive neuropsychological tests and were examined with a standard protocol of MR imaging.WML burden was rated with the Age-Related White Matter Changes (AR-

  15. DISCREPANCIES IN THE REGRESSION MODELLING OF RECRYSTALLIZATION RATE AS USING THE DATA FROM PHYSICAL SIMULATION TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.P. Karjalainen; M.C. Somani; S.F. Medina

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of numerous experimental equations published in the literature reveals a wide scatter in the predictions for the static recrystallization kinetics of steels. The powers of the deformation variables, strain and strain rate, similarly as the power of the grain size vary in these equations. These differences are highlighted and the typical values are compared between torsion and compression tests. Potential errors in physical simulation testing are discussed.

  16. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin,, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  17. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-A Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural. The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  19. Influence of polarization state, baud rate and PMD on non-linear impairments in WDM systems with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz; Forzati, Marco; Mårtensson, Jonas; Rafique, Danish

    2012-03-26

    In this paper we numerically investigate nonlinear impairments in a WDM system with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels. First we analyze the dependence of XPM and XPolM on SOP and baud rate in absence of PMD. In this case we find that the nonlinear impairments are highly dependent on relative SOP between the PM (D)QPSK and neighbouring OOK channels. The dependence on relative SOP is more pronounced in differential detection than in coherent detection. However, with increasing values of PMD this dependence decreases, and non-linear tolerance improves.

  20. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  1. Heart Rate and Cardiovascular Responses to Commercial Flights: Relationships with Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Leicht, Anthony S.; Moraes, Milton R.; Simões, Herbert G.; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Córdova, Cláudio; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of physical fitness on cardiac autonomic control in passengers prior to, during and following commercial flights. Twenty-two, physically active men (36.4 ± 6.4 years) undertook assessments of physical fitness followed by recordings of 24-h heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) on a Control (no flight) and Experimental (flight) day. Recordings were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with relationships between variables examined via Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Compared to the Control day, 24-h HR was significantly greater (>7%) and HRV measures (5–39%) significantly lower on the Experimental day. During the 1-h flight, HR (24%), and BP (6%) were increased while measures of HRV (26–45%) were reduced. Absolute values of HRV during the Experimental day and relative changes in HRV measures (Control-Experimental) were significantly correlated with measures of aerobic fitness (r = 0.43 to 0.51; −0.53 to −0.52) and body composition (r = −0.63 to −0.43; 0.48–0.61). The current results demonstrated that short-term commercial flying significantly altered cardiovascular function including the reduction of parasympathetic modulations. Further, greater physical fitness and lower body fat composition were associated with greater cardiac autonomic control for passengers during flights. Enhanced physical fitness and leaner body composition may enable passengers to cope better with the cardiovascular stress and high allostatic load associated with air travel for enhanced passenger well-being. PMID:28082914

  2. Physical Exercise Improves Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafaina, Santos; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-09-23

    The aim of the present systematic review is to provide an up-to-date analysis of the research on the effects of exercise programs on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An electronic search of the literature (PubMed, PEDro and Web of Science) was performed. "HRV", "heart rate variability", "exercise", "physical" and "diabetes" were the terms used for article retrieval. Lastly, 15 articles were selected. PRISMA methodology was employed and data were extracted according to the PICOS approach. Although HRV is not routinely measured in the management of T2DM, it is an important measure due to its relation with mortality and diabetic neuropathy. Physical exercise has become a therapy for T2DM, because it improves physical fitness and functional capacity, enhances metabolic control and insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammatory markers and neuropathy symptoms and can increase the regenerative capacity of cutaneous axons, slowing or preventing neuropathy progression. However, it is not clear to what extent physical exercise can improve HRV in this population. Participation in the 15 selected studies was similar in men and women (48.01% men and 51.99% women). All the intervention programs included aerobic training, and it was complemented by strength training in four studies. Duration of physical exercise sessions ranged between 30 and 75 min, the frequency being between 2 and 7 days/week. Statistically significant improvements in groups with diabetes, relative to baseline, were observed in nine studies. More than 3 days per week of aerobic training, complemented by strength training, during at least 3 months seems to improve HRV in T2DM. Weekly frequency might be the most important factor to improve HRV. These aspects could help to design better programs based in scientific evidence, incorporating HRV as an important variable associated with diabetic neuropathy and mortality.

  3. Long-acting neuroleptics used in wildlife management do not impair thermoregulation or physical activity in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Linda; Mitchell, Duncan; Fuller, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    Long-acting neuroleptics commonly are used in wildlife management to decrease stress-related mortality in wild animals, but with possible effects on thermoregulation, which may contribute to residual morbidity and mortality. We investigated the effects of haloperidol (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1), n=4), zuclopenthixol (0.1, 1, 10 mg kg(-1), n=4) and perphenazine (0.1, 1, 10 mg kg(-1), n=8), as well as control injections of sunflower oil, on body temperature and physical activity of laboratory goats under hot, cold and thermoneutral ambient temperatures. Implanted data loggers continuously recorded abdominal temperature, and data loggers attached externally on the foreleg recorded movement of unrestrained goats, in a climatic chamber at 35 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Cycling ambient temperature between 35 degrees C in daytime and 10 degrees C at night time caused a significant increase in amplitude of the circadian rhythm of body temperature in goats given sunflower oil (P=0.0012, unpaired t-test, n=8), but the administration of zuclopenthixol or perphenazine did not affect this change in amplitude (P>0.05, two-way ANOVA, n=4). Mean daily body temperature after administration of zuclopenthixol or perphenazine, and mean daily activity after zuclopenthixol administration, were not significantly different to those after control injections, at any ambient temperature, for the expected duration of drug activity (all P>0.05, two-way ANOVA, n=4). Thermal response indices, and mean activity, during heat, cold or thermoneutral exposure, of goats for 7 h after haloperidol injection, were not significantly different, at any dose or any ambient temperature, to those following control injections (all P>0.05, repeated measures ANOVA, n=4). Long-acting neuroleptics did not impair activity or thermoregulation of goats subjected to inescapable thermal challenges.

  4. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A David Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6 and B(12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187 volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d, vitamin B(12 (0.5 mg/d and vitamin B(6 (20 mg/d, the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans. RESULTS: A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P =  0.001. The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P =  0.001. A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment

  5. Physical activity and optimal self-rated health of adults with and without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity can improve people's overall health and contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases and conditions including diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of physical activity and optimal self-rated health (SRH of U.S. adults with and without diabetes in all 50 states and territories of the Unites States. Methods We estimated the prevalence of optimal SRH by diabetes status of 430,912 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2007 state-based survey of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Prevalence ratios were produced with multivariate Cox regression models using levels of physical activity as a predictor and status of optimal SRH as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral health risk factors. Results The prevalence of reporting optimal SRH was 53.3%, 52.2%, and 86.2% for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively. Also in the aforementioned order, adults who reported being active had an increased likelihood of 81%, 32%, and 18% for reporting optimal SRH, when compared with adults who reported being inactive. Conclusions Regular physical activity of adults, particularly adults with diabetes, is associated with optimal SRH. The findings of this study underscore the importance of advising and motivating adults with diabetes so that physical activity can be integrated into their lifestyle for diabetes care. Additionally, a population-based effort to promote physical activity in communities may benefit adults in general by improving their overall health and well-being.

  6. Benefits of achieving vigorous as well as moderate physical activity recommendations: evidence from heart rate complexity and cardiac vagal modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Sandercock, Gavin; Vale, Susana; Silva, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in traditional heart rate variability measurements and heart rate complexity (sample entropy) in young adults grouped by objectively measured achievement of either moderate or both moderate and vigorous physical activity recommendations. Of 168 young adults tested (86 females, 82 males; age 20.5 ± 1.2 years), 119 achieved only recommendations for moderate physical activity (moderate group) and 49 achieved recommendations for both moderate and vigorous physical activity (vigorous group). Analysis of covariance controlling for sex, weekly minutes of moderate physical activity, and percentage of body fat was used to assess between-group differences in heart rate variability and heart rate complexity. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the group characteristics that best predicted high heart rate complexity and vagal indices of heart rate variability. The majority of the autonomic measures were higher (P heart rate complexity and higher heart rate variability. Young adults engaged in regular vigorous physical activity were more than twice as likely to have high heart rate complexity than those involved in predominantly moderate exercise. These findings suggest that vigorous physical activity is more closely associated with high heart rate complexity than moderate physical activity in young adults.

  7. Ovarian cancer patients' psychological distress: the role of physical impairment, perceived unsupportive family and friend behaviors, perceived control, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Tina R; Manne, Sharon L; Rubin, Stephen; Hernandez, Enrique; Carlson, John; Bergman, Cynthia; Rosenblum, Norman

    2005-03-01

    Although research has indicated that illness-related and interpersonal stress are associated with greater psychological distress among cancer patients, little empirical attention has been given to mechanisms that account for these relationships. In the present study, 2 mechanisms for the association between illness-related stress (physical impairment) and interpersonal stress (family and friend unsupportive responses) and psychological distress of 143 ovarian cancer patients were examined cross-sectionally. Separate structural equation models tested whether physical impairment impacted patients' distress via decrements in perceived control over their illness and whether unsupportive behaviors impacted patients' distress via decrements in patients' self-esteem. Results supported the proposed models and suggest that perceived control and self-esteem are 2 mechanisms for explaining how illness-related and interpersonal stress may be associated with psychological distress among women with ovarian cancer.

  8. Coherence of heart rate variability and local physical fields in monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological advances have led to a substantial modification of the physical fields of the environment, which could affect the status of living organisms under their constant exposure. In this study, the activity of human cardiovascular system under the influence of a complex natural physical environmental factors investigated. The study was conducted on a representative homogeneous sample (44 persons aged 19 to 22 years) by simultaneous monitoring of electrocardiograms and natural physical fields in Tomsk (geomagnetic field, meteorological parameters - temperature, pressure and humidity, surface wind speed, the parameters of the Schumann resonance - amplitude, frequency and quality factor of the first four modes in the range of 6 to 32 Hz, the power spectral density infrasonic background in the range of from 0,5 to 32 Hz). It was shown that among the set of parameters of physical fields present field that can resonate in the functioning of the human organism. The greatest coherence with heart rate variability detect variations eastern component of the geomagnetic field.

  9. Impaired systolic blood pressure recovery and heart rate recovery after graded exercise in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Yildiz, Bekir S; Kilic, I Dogu; Uludag, Burcu; Demirci, Emre E; Zungur, Mustafa; Evrengul, Harun; Kaftan, Asuman H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare systolic blood pressure recovery and heart rate recovery (HRR) values obtained at various time intervals after maximal graded exercise treadmill testing between patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and the controls without MS. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating systolic blood pressure recovery (SBPR) impairment and its relations to HRR and other variables in this group of patients. The study population included 110 patients with MS (67 men, 43 women; mean age: 46 ± 9 years) and 110 control subjects who did not meet the criteria for MS (58 men, 52 women; mean age: 44 ± 10 years). All patients were selected from nonobese, apparently healthy sedentary individuals who had the ability to perform maximum exercise testing. SBPR was assessed by calculating the ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) obtained in the third minute of the recovery period to either the peak-exercise SBP or the SBP in the first minute of the recovery period after graded exercise testing. HRR values were calculated by subtracting the HR at the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth minutes of the recovery period from the HR reached at peak exercise. There was no significant difference found between the 2 groups with respect to age and sex distribution. As expected, patients with MS had higher waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control subjects. All HRR values calculated in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth minutes were significantly detected lower in the MS group compared with the control group (HRR 1st: 32 ± 10 vs 36 ± 11; P = 0.009; HRR 2nd: 47 ± 10 vs 51 ± 11; P = 0.02; HRR 3rd: 53 ± 11 vs 58 ± 12; P = 0.001; HRR 4th: 57 ± 11 vs 64 ± 12; P 1 in patients with MS (1.01 ± 0.2 vs 0.91 ± 0.1 and 1.01 ± 0.1 vs 0.94 ± 0.1) and these were statistically significant compared with the control group (P exercise

  10. Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with impaired mobility, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, N.M. de; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Hobbelen, J.S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Staal, J.B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis focusing on elderly patients with mobility problems, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life. A broad systematic lit

  11. Sensitivity of mineral dissolution rates to physical weathering : A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolot, Emmanuel; Finke, Peter

    2015-04-01

    There is continued interest on accurate estimation of natural weathering rates owing to their importance in soil formation, nutrient cycling, estimation of acidification in soils, rivers and lakes, and in understanding the role of silicate weathering in carbon sequestration. At the same time a challenge does exist to reconcile discrepancies between laboratory-determined weathering rates and natural weathering rates. Studies have consistently reported laboratory rates to be in orders of magnitude faster than the natural weathering rates (White, 2009). These discrepancies have mainly been attributed to (i) changes in fluid composition (ii) changes in primary mineral surfaces (reactive sites) and (iii) the formation of secondary phases; that could slow natural weathering rates. It is indeed difficult to measure the interactive effect of the intrinsic factors (e.g. mineral composition, surface area) and extrinsic factors (e.g. solution composition, climate, bioturbation) occurring at the natural setting, in the laboratory experiments. A modeling approach could be useful in this case. A number of geochemical models (e.g. PHREEQC, EQ3/EQ6) already exist and are capable of estimating mineral dissolution / precipitation rates as a function of time and mineral mass. However most of these approaches assume a constant surface area in a given volume of water (White, 2009). This assumption may become invalid especially at long time scales. One of the widely used weathering models is the PROFILE model (Sverdrup and Warfvinge, 1993). The PROFILE model takes into account the mineral composition, solution composition and surface area in determining dissolution / precipitation rates. However there is less coupling with other processes (e.g. physical weathering, clay migration, bioturbation) which could directly or indirectly influence dissolution / precipitation rates. We propose in this study a coupling between chemical weathering mechanism (defined as a function of reactive area

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE BACTERIAL CELL MEMBRANE UPON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENNEMAN, D H; UMBREIT, W W

    1964-06-01

    Henneman, Dorothy H. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), and W. W. Umbreit. Influence of the physical state of the bacterial cell membrane upon the rate of respiration. J. Bacteriol. 87:1274-1280. 1964.-NaCl and KCl in concentrations of the order of 0.2 to 0.5 m inhibit the respiration of Escherichia coli B and other gram-negative organisms. Cell-free enzymes concerned in respiration and prepared from the same organisms are not inhibited by these salts, whereas these same enzymes tested in intact cells are. The physical state of the cell membrane appears to be a factor controlling its respiratory activity.

  13. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  14. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  15. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  16. A macro-physics model of depreciation rate in economic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmont Lobo, Rui F.; de Sousa, Miguel Rocha

    2014-02-01

    This article aims at a new approach for a known fundamental result: barter or trade increases economic value. It successfully bridges the gap between the theory of value and the exchange process attached to the transition from endowments to the equilibrium in the core and contract curve. First, we summarise the theory of value; in Section 2, we present the Edgeworth (1881) box and an axiomatic approach and in Section 3, we apply our pure exchange model. Finally (in Section 4), using our open econo-physics pure barter (EPB) model, we derive an improvement in value, which means that pure barter leads to a decline in depreciation rate.

  17. Adults With Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed at Youth Experience Similar Physical Activity and Fracture Rate as Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarbakerli, Elias; Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Gerdhem, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe physical activity level and fracture rates in adults with idiopathic scoliosis, diagnosed before maturity, and to compare with a control group. A previous study found a lower level of sporting activities in adults treated for idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. Other studies have shown a lower bone mass in adults with idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. One thousand two hundred seventy-eight adults (aged 18-71 yr) with idiopathic scoliosis and 214 controls (aged 18-70 yr) were included and answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and questions about previous fractures. The three scoliosis treatment groups (untreated n = 360, brace n = 460, and surgically treated n = 458) were compared. Furthermore, a comparison based on onset (juvenile n = 169 or adolescent n = 976) was performed. Achieved weekly moderate activity level and metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes/week were assessed for patients and controls. Statistical comparisons were made with analysis of covariance with adjustments for age, body mass index, and sex. The proportion achieving weekly moderate activity level was 962 out of 1278 for individuals with idiopathic scoliosis (75%) and 157 out of 214 (73%) for controls (P = 0.40). The scoliosis patients reported 2016 MET-minutes/week (median value) and the controls 2456 (P = 0.06). Fracture rates did not differ (P = 0.72). Fewer surgically treated individuals achieved moderate activity level (P = 0.046) compared with the untreated and the previously braced individuals. No difference was seen regarding MET-minutes/week (P = 0.86). No differences were seen between individuals with a juvenile onset compared with individuals with an adolescent onset (all P ≥ 0.05). Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have similar physical activity level and do not sustain more fractures compared with controls. Adults with surgically treated

  18. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Šrámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexually dimorphic features, which exist across cultures and time periods with little variation. To measure a person’s level of satisfaction with his/her physical appearance, psychologists regularly employ figure rating scales. The primary goal of our work was to develop and verify an updated visual body rating scale called the Basic Olomouc Body Rating (BOBR, making sure that it is widely usable, valid and reliable. The scale was created using the method of document analysis of academic papers according body-rating scales and a method of interview with potential probands. In the pilot data gathering phase, a group of respondents was presented with the 3 scales commonly used in the European context, i.e. FDS (Stunkard, Sorensen & Schulsinger, 1983, CDRS (Thompson & Gray, 1995 and BIAS-BD (Gardner, Jappe & Gardner, 2009. The purpose of this was to get feedback on these scales and find out if people are able to use these scales to rate themselves. New schematic figure rating scale for both men and women which would do away with the limitations of the scales used so far was developed. Results: The result is creation of a body-rating scale widely usable in further research and practical consulting. The paper briefly summarizes results of an additional study – the goal definition phase was followed by online research on the subject of body image and the self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Altogether, 5,616 respondents from the Czech Republic

  19. Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Aida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group, using tested erosive wear system (VEDE. Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth. Results Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%; dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%. One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047. More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p Conclusion The study showed that a high proportion of physically active young adults have erosive lesions and indicate that hard exercise and decreased stimulated salivary flow rate may be associated with such

  20. Low heart rate response of children with autism spectrum disorders in comparison to controls during physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marion; Bricout, Véronique-Aurélie

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate how the heart rate adjusts during different physical tests. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do indeed have a lower cardiac response to specific tests. Twenty children including 10 subjects with ASD diagnosis and 10 control subjects were evaluated using the Eurofit Physical Fitness Test Battery. During the evaluation, the heart rate was monitored continuously. In parallel, their parents were completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Both groups show the same trend of heart rate increase (during exercise and also during the maximum effort). However, children with ASD presented a significant lower heart rate compared to the control population (pheart rate decrease of the ASD group during physical test could be due to an alteration of the cardiac response. In addition, the scores obtained by children with ASD on physical tests confirmed the lack of motor abilities such as balance and executive functions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Half-empty or half-full glass: The impact of sociodemographic variables and type of disability on optimism of persons with physical and sensory impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojević Nada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hope has a special importance for persons with disabilities, who are often overwhelmed with negative emotions of sadness, anxiety and fear of the future. The concept of hope can be determined as inner strength which helps in overcoming the effects of negative life circumstances. The aim of the study was to determine the overall level of hope in three groups of persons with disability, and to establish its relationship with sociodemographic variables. The sample (N=929 consisted of persons with physical disabilities (N=351, hearing impairments (N=337 and visual impairments (N=241. The following scales were applied: Herth Hope Index (HHI and Sociodemographic questionnaire. The results indicate that younger participants expressed higher level of hope compared to older participants, women compared to the men, more educated participants had more hope than participants with lower educational level, employed participants and students had more hope than unemployed and retired participants, married and unmarried participants had more hope than divorced and widowed participants, participants who live with a partner, with a partner and children or with parents had more hope than participants who live only with children, and participants with higher income had more hope than participants with lower income. Persons with sensory impairments expressed higher optimism regarding future goals, higher optimism for overcoming problems, and higher optimism for receiving outside support compared to persons with physical disabilities.

  2. Positioning Australia's Contemporary Health and Physical Education Curriculum to Address Poor Physical Activity Participation Rates by Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Edwards, Allan; Cudmore, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the wealth of research identifying how schools are in a strong position to promote physical activity (PA) among children, it would be reasonable to suggest that initial experiences of physical education and school sport are critical factors influencing whether a student will develop a healthy relationship to PA. However, research…

  3. Risk factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea are prevalent in people with psychosis and correlate with impaired social functioning and poor physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA in the general community is associated with obesity, smoking, alcohol and sedative medication use; and contributes to depressed mood, daytime sedation, and sudden cardiovascular deaths. Poor cardiovascular health, impaired social functioning, negative and cognitive symptoms are also among the common clinical features of psychotic disorders. People with psychosis have higher rates of sleep disturbance, however, OSA has not been extensively investigated in this population. Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OSA and general sleep disruption symptoms in a representative Australian sample of people with psychosis. We investigated the prevalence of potential risk factors for OSA including obesity, psychotropic medications, and substance abuse in this population. Finally, we evaluated associations between symptoms of OSA, symptoms of general sleep disruption, and various clinical features in people with psychosis. Methods: Participants took part in the Second National Australian Survey of Psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians with a psychotic disorder aged 18-64 years. Symptoms associated with OSA (snoring and breathing pauses during sleep in the past year were assessed using questions from the University of Maryland Medical Centre Questionnaire, and symptoms associated with general sleep disruption in the past week using the Assessment of Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQoL. Data collected included psychiatric diagnosis and symptoms, education, employment, medications, smoking status, physical activity, drug and alcohol use, and cognitive function. Physical health measures included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids.Results: Snoring was reported by 41.9%; 7% stating they frequently stopped breathing (pauses during sleep. Univariate logistic regressions show OSA symptoms (pauses and snoring were associated with older age

  4. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155 were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI 25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6% and recovery heart rate (5 bpm. Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

  5. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI 25 kg/m(2); 58.3 ± 8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

  6. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and initial development of physic nut without micronutrient fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Ferreira dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in Brazil have addressed the need for micronutrients of physic nut focusing on physiological responses, especially in terms of photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of omission of boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn on Jatropha curcas L.. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments were complete solution (control and solution without B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. We evaluated the chlorophyll content (SPAD units, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and accumulation of micronutrients in plants, resulting from different treatments. The first signs of deficiency were observed for Fe and B, followed by Mn and Zn, while no symptoms were observed for Cu deficiency. The micronutrient omission reduced the dry matter yield, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the plants differently for each omitted nutrient. It was, however, the omission of Fe that most affected the development of this species in all parameters evaluated. The treatments negatively affected the chlorophyll content, evaluated in SPAD units, and the photosynthetic rate, except for the omission of B. However this result was probably due to the concentration effect, since there was a significant reduction in the dry matter production of B-deficient plants.

  7. Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

    2004-09-01

    Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds.

  8. Financial strain and impaired fasting glucose: the moderating role of physical activity in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy; Matthews, Karen A; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity and financial strain are independent, and opposite, predictors of disease. This study examines whether physical activity modifies the concurrent and prospective relation between financial strain and impaired fasting glucose. Participants were part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, a prospective study examining the development of disease. Participants were recruited in 1985 to 1986 and followed up for 20 years. The outcome measures were fasting glucose (FG) levels at Years 7 and 20. FG was available at Years 7 and 20 from 3991 and 3500 participants, respectively. The effects of financial strain on elevated glucose levels differed by physical activity levels as indicated by the significant interaction terms for the analyses of covariance at Year 7 (p = .02) and Year 20 (p = .04). Planned contrast comparisons demonstrated that FG levels in financially strained participants who were physically inactive were significantly different from financially strained participants who were active, and all participants with low financial strain. Specifically, in less active participants, the adjusted mean FG levels were higher in financially strained participants (2.27 mg/dL at Year 7 and 5.86 mg/dL at Year 20). In active participants, these differences were -1.78 mg/dL at Year 7 and negligible at Year 20. In adults burdened by financial strain, physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing impaired FG up to 13 years later. This adds to a growing literature showing the potential of physical activity to moderate stress-related disease processes.

  9. Comorbid mental disorders account for the role impairment of commonly occurring chronic physical disorders: Results from the national comorbidity survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, R.C.; Ormel, J.; Demler, O.; Stang, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Most health and work productivity studies have focused on individual conditions without considering comorbidity. We illustrate the implication of this neglect by examining the effects of comorbid mental disorders on role impairment (number of sickness absence and work cut-back days in the past month

  10. Comorbid mental disorders account for the role impairment of commonly occurring chronic physical disorders : Results from the national comorbidity survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, RC; Ormel, J; Demler, O; Stang, PE

    2003-01-01

    Most health and work productivity studies have focused on individual conditions without considering comorbidity. We illustrate the implication of this neglect by examining the effects of comorbid mental disorders on role impairment (number of sickness absence and work cut-back days in the past month

  11. The Road to Marginalisation Is Paved with Good Intentions: In Pursuit of the Re-Humanisation of Physically Impaired Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honisch, Stefan Sunandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the intersection of Western art music and disability in relation to musical performance. Building on Joseph Straus's essay titled "Normalizing the abnormal: disability in music and music theory", this paper explores three main topics: the theoretical distinction in Disability Studies between impairment and disability; the…

  12. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  13. Effect of E-printing on Citation Rates in Astronomy and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Thompson, Donna; Murray, Stephen S.

    2006-08-01

    In this report we examine the change in citation behavior since the introduction of the arXiv e-print repository (Ginsparg, 2001). It has been observed that papers that initially appear as arXiv e-prints get cited more than papers that do not (Lawrence, 2001; Brody et al., 2004; Schwarz & Kennicutt, 2004; Kurtz et al., 2005a, Metcalfe, 2005). Using the citation statistics from the NASA-Smithsonian Astrophysics Data System (ADS; Kurtz et al., 1993, 2000), we confirm the findings from other studies, we examine the average citation rate to e-printed papers in the Astrophysical Journal, and we show that for a number of major astronomy and physics journals the most important papers are submitted to the arXiv e-print repository first.

  14. Elevated resting heart rate in rheumatoid arthritis: possible role of physical deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, S J; Voipio-Pulkki, L M

    1993-03-01

    Thirty-four patients with RA, 76 diabetic subjects (DM) and 67 healthy controls (CR) were studied in order to study cardiovascular autonomic function in RA. Valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing test and active orthostatic test were used. Resting heart rate (resting HR) was markedly elevated in the RA and DM groups. Therefore, the groups were compared using analysis of variance with age and resting HR as covariates. The analyses showed no differences in cardiovascular responses between the RA group and CR group but cardiovascular responses were significantly diminished in the DM group compared with both the CR group and RA group. Our data indicate that the parasympathetic efferent pathway mediating cardiovascular reflexes via the nervus vagus is intact in RA. Thus elevated resting HR in RA does not seem to be due to peripheral parasympathetic damage. Physical deconditioning may explain the elevation of resting HR in patients with RA.

  15. Heart Rate Tracking using Wrist-Type Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Signals during Physical Exercise with Simultaneous Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloursaz Mashhadi, Mahdi; Asadi, Ehsan; Eskandari, Mohsen; Kiani, Shahrzad; Marvasti, Farokh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the problem of casual heart rate tracking during intensive physical exercise using simultaneous 2 channel photoplethysmographic (PPG) and 3 dimensional (3D) acceleration signals recorded from wrist. This is a challenging problem because the PPG signals recorded from wrist during exercise are contaminated by strong Motion Artifacts (MAs). In this work, a novel algorithm is proposed which consists of two main steps of MA Cancellation and Spectral Analysis. The MA cancellation step cleanses the MA-contaminated PPG signals utilizing the acceleration data and the spectral analysis step estimates a higher resolution spectrum of the signal and selects the spectral peaks corresponding to HR. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/hour showed that the proposed algorithm achieves an average absolute error of 1.25 beat per minute (BPM). These experimental results also confirm that the proposed algorithm keeps high estimation accuracies even in strong MA conditions.

  16. Analysis of Experiments Exhibiting Time-Varying Nuclear Decay Rates: Systematic Effects or New Physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jere H; Sturrock, Peter A; Mundy, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1930s, and with very few exceptions, it has been assumed that the process of radioactive decay is a random process, unaffected by the environment in which the decaying nucleus resides. There have been instances within the past few decades, however, where changes in the chemical environment or physical environment brought about small changes in the decay rates. But even in light of these instances, decaying nuclei that were undisturbed or un-"pressured" were thought to behave in the expected random way, subject to the normal decay probabilities which are specific to each nuclide. Moreover, any "non-random" behavior was assumed automatically to be the fault of the detection systems, the environment surrounding the detectors, or changes in the background radiation to which the detector was exposed. Recently, however, evidence has emerged from a variety of sources, including measurements taken by independent groups at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, and Purdue Univ...

  17. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OESTRUS MUCUS AND CONCEPTION RATES IN REPEAT BREEDER BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Samad. S.M. Iqbal Shah. Nazir Ahmad and Nafees Akhtar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study some physical characteristics of oestrus mucus and conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes after different treatments. For this purpose 60 adult buffaloes with history of repeat breeding were used. Mucus samples from these animals were collected during heat and studied for colour, consistence, pH and fern pattern. Experimental buffaloes were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. In buffa1oes of group A, GnRH was given immediately after insemination. In group B antibiotic infusion was given 24 hr after insemination. In animals of group C, insemination was done in the uterine horn ipsilateral to ovary bearing mature graafian follicle. Animals of group D were inseminated in the uterine body and served as control. The results indicated that oestrus mucus was transparent in 55.0%, translucent in 38.33% and whitish in 6.67% buffaloes. The consistency of mucus was viscous in 38.33%, thin in 50.0% and thick in, 11.67% repeat breeder buffaloes. Mean pH of oestrus mucus was 7.49 ± 0.35. Fren pattern was very characteristic in 6.67% characteristic in 48.33% and less characteristic in 45.0% buffaloes. The conception rates in animals of group B were significantly higher ( P<0.05 than those of group A, C or D; the differences in conception rates among buffaloes of the latter three groups were non significant. It was concluded that post-insemination antibiotic infusion may be used to improve conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes.

  18. The influence of physical exertion on basic hematological parameters values and heart rate in trotters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slijepčević Dajana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of very important prerequisites for achieving good results in races, in addition to genetic predisposition, quality training and good health, are optimal values for number of erythrocytes, concentration of haemoglobin and hematocrit, of which depends efficient oxygen supply of muscles during great efforts. The stated values, along with data on heart rate, are useful indicators of the degree of horse fitness and readiness for horse race. The influence of physical exertion on the values of basic hematological parameters as well as on heart rate, was investigated on 6 trotters, in training at the Belgrade racetrack (one head of Italian trotter, male, 3 years old; 3 heads of American trotter, male, 3,4 and 6 years old and two heads of Serbian trotter, female, 4 and 5 years old. The blood samples for hematological tests were taken by punction of jugular vein in resting phase - immediately before the commencement of work, after light trot warming for 3000 m and fast trot for 1000 m, with 30 minutes rest between the two runnings. The heart rate was monitored continuously by radio telemetry cardiometer, from the moment they were taken from their boxes and harnessing to the completion of work. The obtained results confirm the relationship between the rise of heart rate and hematocrit values: maximal hematocrit values were determined after the first running (0.49±0.05, in regard to 0.42±0.03 in resting phase, but 30 minutes after the second running there was a slight drop of hematocrit values (0.46±0.04. The blood samples in both cases were taken after fast trot during which there were recorded maximal pulse values, so in the moment of sampling the pulse lowered close to the values in resting - after the first running from 192.23±19.66, and after the second from 180.33±17.22 to 40.67±5.76.

  19. High-rate wireless data communications: An underwater acoustic communications framework at the physical layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessios Anthony G.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of signal processing functions are performed by Underwater Acoustic Systems. These include: 1 detection to determine presence or absence of information signals in the presence of noise, or an attempt to describe which of a predetermined finite set of possible messages { m i , i , ... , M } the signal represents; 2 estimation of some parameter θ ˆ associated with the received signal (i.e. range, depth, bearing angle, etc.; 3 classification and source identification; 4 dynamics tracking; 5 navigation (collision avoidance and terminal guidance; 6 countermeasures; and 7 communications. The focus of this paper is acoustic communications. There is a global current need to develop reliable wireless digital communications for the underwater environment, with sufficient performance and efficiency to substitute for costly wired systems. One possible goal is a wireless system implementation that insures underwater terminal mobility. There is also a vital need to improve the performance of the existing systems in terms of data-rate, noise immunity, operational range, and power consumption, since, in practice, portable high-speed, long range, compact, low-power systems are desired. We concede the difficulties associated with acoustic systems and concentrate on the development of robust data transmission methods anticipating the eventual need for real time or near real time video transmission. An overview of the various detection techniques and the general statistical digital communication problem is given based on a statistical decision theory framework. The theoretical formulation of the underwater acoustic data communications problem includes modeling of the stochastic channel to incorporate a variety of impairments and environmental uncertainties, and proposal of new compensation strategies for an efficient and robust receiver design.

  20. Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Miyake, Hiroji; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Shimada, Mieko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Kim, Angela S.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA) with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA’s role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research. PMID:28230730

  1. Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Gallaway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA’s role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research.

  2. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

  3. Differences in physical chemistry and dissolution rate of solid particle aerosols from solution pressurised inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, Francesca; Miozzi, Michele; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Royall, Paul G; Brambilla, Gaetano; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Forbes, Ben

    2014-04-25

    Solution composition alters the dynamics of beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) particle formation from droplets emitted by pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The hypothesis that differences in inhaler solutions result in different solid particle physical chemistry was tested using a suite of complementary calorimetric techniques. The atomisation of BDP-ethanol solutions from commercial HFA-pMDI produced aerodynamically-equivalent solid particle aerosols. However, differences in particle physico-chemistry (morphology and solvate/clathrate formation) were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and supported by hot stage microscopy (HSM). Increasing the ethanol content of the formulation from 8 to 12% (w/w), which retards the evaporation of propellant and slows the increase in droplet surface viscosity, enhanced the likelihood of particles drying with a smooth surface. The dissolution rate of BDP from the 12% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (63% dissolved over 120 min) was reduced compared to the 8% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (86% dissolved over 120 min). The addition of 0.01% (w/w) formoterol fumarate or 1.3% (w/w) glycerol to the inhaler solution modified the particles and reduced the BDP dissolution rate further to 34% and 16% dissolved in 120 min, respectively. These data provide evidence that therapeutic aerosols from apparently similar inhaler products, including those with similar aerodynamic performance, may behave non-equivalently after deposition in the lungs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A physics investigation of deadtime losses in neutron counting at low rates with Cf252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [CANBERRA INDUSTRIES, INC.

    2009-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission sources are used for the characterization of neutron counters and the determination of calibration parameters; including both neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and neutron multiplicity deadtime (DT) parameters. Even at low event rates, temporally-correlated neutron counting using {sup 252}Cf suffers a deadtime effect. Meaning that in contrast to counting a random neutron source (e.g. AmLi to a close approximation), DT losses do not vanish in the low rate limit. This is because neutrons are emitted from spontaneous fission events in time-correlated 'bursts', and are detected over a short period commensurate with their lifetime in the detector (characterized by the system die-away time, {tau}). Thus, even when detected neutron events from different spontaneous fissions are unlikely to overlap in time, neutron events within the detected 'burst' are subject to intrinsic DT losses. Intrinsic DT losses for dilute Pu will be lower since the multiplicity distribution is softer, but real items also experience self-multiplication which can increase the 'size' of the bursts. Traditional NCC DT correction methods do not include the intrinsic (within burst) losses. We have proposed new forms of the traditional NCC Singles and Doubles DT correction factors. In this work, we apply Monte Carlo neutron pulse train analysis to investigate the functional form of the deadtime correction factors for an updating deadtime. Modeling is based on a high efficiency {sup 3}He neutron counter with short die-away time, representing an ideal {sup 3}He based detection system. The physics of dead time losses at low rates is explored and presented. It is observed that new forms are applicable and offer more accurate correction than the traditional forms.

  5. The Comparative Motor and Affective Benefits of Three Physical Education Programming Techniques Used with Emotionally Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul A.; And Others

    The effectiveness of three methods of physical education programing for improving the physical performance and reducing undesirable behavior of 96 emotionally disturbed boys (ages 8 to 14 years) was studied in an 8-week summer camp setting. Subjects were initially diagnosed and grouped by psychiatrists as aggressive, hyperactive, or withdrawn.…

  6. Unimpaired Perception of Social and Physical Causality, but Impaired Perception of Animacy in High Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Sara; Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We investigated perception of social and physical causality and animacy in simple motion events, for high-functioning children with autism (CA = 13, VMA = 9.6). Children matched 14 different animations to pictures showing physical, social or non-causality. In contrast to previous work, children with autism performed at a high level similar to…

  7. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  8. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  9. Reduced capacity of heart rate regulation in response to mild hypoglycemia induced by glibenclamide and physical exercise in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Nedim; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Fischer, Britta; Wagenlehner, Florian; Pilatz, Adrian; Linn, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with enhanced mortality due to abnormal cardiac rhythm. While hypoglycemic events are increasingly common in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, HRV is part of the counter-regulation against low blood glucose levels. We hypothesized that HRV was impaired in mild hypoglycemia in diabetic individuals. Hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps were performed in twelve type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease and in non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex, and weight. In an additional study, hypoglycemic events, induced by either a single morning dose of glibenclamide or physical exercise, were recorded for the subsequent 24h. Blood glucose concentrations and electrocardiograms were continuously monitored. Serum hormone levels, hypoglycemic symptoms, and forearm blood flow were measured at defined time points. Occurrence of a symptomatic hypoglycemic episode (mean blood glucose 3.1±0.4 mmol/l) attenuated most of the time and frequency domain measurements in both healthy and diabetic individuals. The magnitude of reduction of HRV parameters was significantly lower in diabetic compared to healthy subjects. Glibenclamide taken in the morning enhanced the daily number of mild hypoglycemic events compared with placebo or moderate exercise. Concordantly, 24-h mean HRV measurements were decreased. HRV response to hypoglycemia is impaired in type 2 diabetic subjects resulting in a higher than expected risk for sudden arrhythmia following mild hypoglycemic episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Principles of developing a well-rounded program of physical rehabilitation for female students in the special medical group with consideration of physical activity impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golod N. R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gymnastics; kinesitherapy (using yoga fitness, functional training; aerobic exercise (swimming, Nordic Walking, jogging, aerobics wellness; massage. First presented a unified approach to working with students of special medical groups - selection based on load capacity motor disorders according to the results of tests of functional movement screen. The complexity of the impact of the program involves the impact on the physical, social and mental health components. Conclusions : the author's program of physical rehabilitation of students of special medical group is complex.

  11. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Ptime on the TUG was associated with lower executive function performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with

  12. Principles of developing a well-rounded program of physical rehabilitation for female students in the special medical group with consideration of physical activity impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Golod N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gym...

  13. Motor unit rate coding is severely impaired during forceful and fast muscular contractions in individuals post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Palmer, Jacqueline A; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Knight, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    Information regarding how motor units are controlled to produce forces in individuals with stroke and the mechanisms behind muscle weakness and movement slowness can potentially inform rehabilitation strategies. The purpose of this study was to describe the rate coding mechanism in individuals poststroke during both constant (n = 8) and rapid (n = 4) force production tasks. Isometric ankle dorsiflexion force, motor unit action potentials, and surface electromyography were recorded from the paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior. In the paretic limb, strength was 38% less and the rate of force development was 63% slower. Linear regression was used to describe and compare the relationships between motor unit and electromyogram (EMG) measures and force. During constant force contractions up to 80% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate coding was compressed and discharge rates were lower in the paretic limb. During rapid muscle contractions up to 90% MVC, the first interspike interval was prolonged and the rate of EMG rise was less in the paretic limb. Future rehabilitation strategies for individuals with stroke could focus on regaining these specific aspects of motor unit rate coding and neuromuscular activation.

  14. Effects of a rater training on rating accuracy in a physical examination skills assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitz, Gunther

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The accuracy and reproducibility of medical skills assessment is generally low. Rater training has little or no effect. Our knowledge in this field, however, relies on studies involving video ratings of overall clinical performances. We hypothesised that a rater training focussing on the frame of reference could improve accuracy in grading the curricular assessment of a highly standardised physical head-to-toe examination.Methods: Twenty-one raters assessed the performance of 242 third-year medical students. Eleven raters had been randomly assigned to undergo a brief frame-of-reference training a few days before the assessment. 218 encounters were successfully recorded on video and re-assessed independently by three additional observers. Accuracy was defined as the concordance between the raters' grade and the median of the observers' grade. After the assessment, both students and raters filled in a questionnaire about their views on the assessment.Results: Rater training did not have a measurable influence on accuracy. However, trained raters rated significantly more stringently than untrained raters, and their overall stringency was closer to the stringency of the observers. The questionnaire indicated a higher awareness of the halo effect in the trained raters group. Although the self-assessment of the students mirrored the assessment of the raters in both groups, the students assessed by trained raters felt more discontent with their grade.Conclusions: While training had some marginal effects, it failed to have an impact on the individual accuracy. These results in real-life encounters are consistent with previous studies on rater training using video assessments of clinical performances. The high degree of standardisation in this study was not suitable to harmonize the trained raters’ grading. The data support the notion that the process of appraising medical performance is highly individual. A frame

  15. Integrated Wearable System for Monitoring Heart Rate and Step during Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Adi Prasetyo Joko Prawiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates a heart rate (HR monitoring system with step counter for use during physical activities. Novel step counter algorithm has been developed to enable the highly accurate detection of step. The proposed system comprises a wireless wearable device, a smartphone, and a remote server. Data transmission between a wearable device and a smartphone is conducted via Bluetooth low energy (BLE. An indirect contact measurement method has also been devised to eliminate the need for direct contact electrodes and likelihood of skin irritation. The proposed system is compact, lightweight, and comfortable to wear. A smartphone application provides the interface for the display of data related to HR, step count (SC, exercise intensity, speed, distance, and calories burned, as well as waveforms related to ECG and step cycle. ECG peak detection algorithm achieved accuracy of 99.7% using the MIT-BIH ST Change Database. Accuracy of 98.89% was achieved for HR and 98.96% for SC at treadmill speeds of 1.8 to 9.0 km/h.

  16. Stress-associated cardiovascular reaction masks heart rate dependence on physical load in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, A A; Popova, A S; Borovik, A S; Dolgov, O N; Tsvirkun, D V; Custaud, M; Vinogradova, O L

    2014-06-10

    When tested on the treadmill mice do not display a graded increase of heart rate (HR), but rather a sharp shift of cardiovascular indices to high levels at the onset of locomotion. We hypothesized that under test conditions cardiovascular reaction to physical load in mice is masked with stress-associated HR increase. To test this hypothesis we monitored mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to stressful stimuli, during spontaneous locomotion in the open-field test, treadmill running or running in a wheel installed in the home cage. Mice were treated with β1-adrenoblocker atenolol (2mg/kg ip, A), cholinolytic ipratropium bromide (2mg/kg ip, I), combination of blockers (A+I), anxiolytic diazepam (5mg/kg ip, D) or saline (control trials, SAL). MAP and HR in mice increased sharply after handling, despite 3weeks of habituation to the procedure. Under stressful conditions of open field test cardiovascular parameters in mice were elevated and did not depend on movement speed. HR values did not differ in I and SAL groups and were reduced with A or A+I. HR was lower at rest in D pretreated mice. In the treadmill test HR increase over speeds of 6, 12 and 18m/min was roughly 1/7-1/10 of HR increase observed after placing the mice on the treadmill. HR could not be increased with cholinolytic (I), but was reduced after sympatholytic (A) or A+I treatment. Anxiolytic (D) reduced heart rate at lower speeds of movement and its overall effect was to unmask the dependency of HR on running speed. During voluntary running in non-stressful conditions of the home cage HR in mice linearly increased with increasing running speeds. We conclude that in test situations cardiovascular reactions in mice are governed predominantly by stress-associated sympathetic activation, rendering efforts to evaluate HR and MAP reactions to workload unreliable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a pretest strategy for physical therapist assistant programs to predict success rate on the national physical therapy exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, Stacey B; Keith, Becky; Whitehead, Malcolm T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a pretest strategy that identified physical therapist assistant (PTA) students who were at risk of failure on the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE). Program assessment data from five cohorts of PTA students (2005-2009) were used to develop a stepwise multiple regression formula that predicted first-time NPTE licensure scores. Data used included the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, grades from eight core courses, grade point average upon admission to the program, and scores from three mock NPTE exams given during the program. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the 15 variables and NPTE scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using data collected at the ends of the first, second, and third (final) semesters of the program. Data from the class of 2010 were then used to validate the formula. The end-of-program formula accounted for the greatest variance (57%) in predicted scores. Those students scoring below a predicted scaled score of 620 were identified to be at risk of failure of the licensure exam. These students were counseled, and a remedial plan was developed based on regression predictions prior to them sitting for the licensure exam.

  18. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G.; Kakebeeke, Tanja H.; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S.; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H.; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J.; Schmutz, Einat A.; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E.; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2–6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14–18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  19. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Schmutz, Einat A; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2-6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14-18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  20. The association between common physical impairments and dementia in low and middle income countries, and, among people with dementia, their association with cognitive function and disability. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Liu, Zhaorui; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic physical comorbidity is common in dementia. However, there is an absence of evidence to support good practice guidelines for attention to these problems. We aimed to study the extent of this comorbidity and its impact on cognitive function and disability in population-based studies in low and middle income countries, where chronic diseases and impairments are likely to be both common and undertreated. A multicentre cross-sectional survey of all over 65 year old residents (n = 15 022) in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru. We estimated the prevalence of pain, incontinence, hearing and visual impairments, mobility impairment and undernutrition according to the presence of dementia and its severity, and, among those with dementia, the independent contribution of these impairments to cognitive function and disability, adjusting for age, gender, education and dementia severity. Incontinence, hearing impairment, mobility impairment and undernutrition were consistently linearly associated with the presence of dementia and its severity across regions. Among people with dementia, incontinence, hearing impairment and mobility impairment were independently associated with disability in all regions while the contributions of pain, visual impairment and undernutrition were inconsistent. Only hearing impairment made a notable independent contribution to cognitive impairment. There is an urgent need for clinical trials of the feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of regular physical health checks and remediation of identified pathologies, given the considerable comorbidity identified in our population based studies, and the strong evidence for independent impact upon functioning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Physical activity, exercise and self-rated health: a population-based study from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Södergren, Marita; Sundquist, Jan; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to screen for the most inactive individuals in the population and target health-related interventions where they are most needed it is important to assess different forms of physical activity in population-based studies. The aims were (1) to identify the most inactive individuals in the population by assessing two dimensions of physical activity, (2) to investigate the correlation between exercise and total physical activity and (3) to investigate the association between e...

  2. Physical activity, exercise and self-rated health: a population-based study from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson Sven-Erik; Sundquist Jan; Södergren Marita; Sundquist Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to screen for the most inactive individuals in the population and target health-related interventions where they are most needed it is important to assess different forms of physical activity in population-based studies. The aims were (1) to identify the most inactive individuals in the population by assessing two dimensions of physical activity, (2) to investigate the correlation between exercise and total physical activity and (3) to investigate the association ...

  3. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, pwellbeing (men, pwellbeing total score (men, pwellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (pwellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.

  4. The period between beta-blocker use and physical activity changes training heart rate behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane Ferraz Bandeira Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC proposes that hypertensive subjects who use beta-blockers and practice physical exercises must have their training heart rate (HR corrected due to the negative chronotropic effect of this drug. Nevertheless, if the physical activity is performed outside of plasmatic half-life, correction may not be necessary. This study investigated the exercise chronotropic response both inside and outside the beta-blocker plasmatic half-life. Nine subjects in use of atenolol or propranolol, and six controls, carried out three walking sessions in three days according to different schedules: EX2 (two hours after drug administration, at the plasmatic peak; EX11 (eleven hours after drug administration, at the end of plasmatic half-life; and EX23 (twenty-three hours after drug administration, outside the plasmatic half-life. The walking sessions were performed on an ergometric treadmill and HR was monitored by a heart rate monitor. During the exercises, mean HRs were 97.2, 108.4 and 109 for EX2, EX11 and EX23, respectively, with the value for EX2 statistically lower than the others (p0.05. The study concludes that the attenuation of the positive chronotropic response which occurs during exercise in subjects using beta-blockers, is less evident when the exercise is performed outside the plasmatic half-life of the drug.A Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC propõe que os hipertensos que utilizam beta-bloqueadores e praticam exercícios físicos devem ter sua frequência cardíaca de treinamento (HR corrigida devido ao efeito cronotrópico negativo desse fármaco. Contudo, se a atividade física é realizada fora da meia-vida plasmática do fármaco, a correção pode não ser necessária. Este estudo investigou a resposta cronotrópica ao exercício dentro e fora da meia-vida plasmática do beta-bloqueador. Nove indivíduos que usavam atenolol ou propranolol e seis controles, efetuaram três sessões de caminhada em tr

  5. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment, A Cochrane Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H.J.J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, L.E.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005381. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub2. Background: Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is

  6. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment, A Cochrane Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.J. Verhaar; Geert Aufdemkampe; A. Aleman; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees

    2008-01-01

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005381. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub2. Background: Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is

  7. A Path Analytic Explanation of the Lower Participation Rates of Women in College Physical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Lorelei R.

    Two studies used a structural equation model to examine the relationship between gender and participation in college mathematics, physics, and chemistry courses. The intervening variables under scrutiny were ability scores, attitudes toward mathematics and mathematicians, and expectations of future performance in physical science courses. The…

  8. Perceptions of Heart Rate Monitor Use in High School Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Julie A.; King, Kristi McClary; Bian, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating technology into the physical education curriculum is becoming a popular strategy in which teachers can assess, motivate, and provide feedback to students regarding their physical activity participation during class. The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain a greater understanding of high school students' perceptions of using…

  9. Perceptions of Heart Rate Monitor Use in High School Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Julie A.; King, Kristi McClary; Bian, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating technology into the physical education curriculum is becoming a popular strategy in which teachers can assess, motivate, and provide feedback to students regarding their physical activity participation during class. The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain a greater understanding of high school students' perceptions of using…

  10. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to Identify Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Survivors At Risk for Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Adrienne; Balsamo, Lyn; Neglia, Joseph P; Brouwers, Pim; Ma, Xiaomei; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2017-04-01

    Neurocognitive problems, including executive dysfunction, are potential late effects of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Surveillance for neurocognitive impairment in a timely and efficient manner is imperative to ongoing clinical care. We sought to determine if the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form identified leukemia survivors with cognitive impairment. In this 28-site cross-sectional study, parents of 256 children, a mean of 8.9±2.2 years after treatment for standard-risk precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and in first remission, completed the BRIEF. We used a multivariate logistic regression to calculate the association between elevated scores on 3 composite BRIEF indices (Behavioral Regulation Index, Metacognition Index, Global Executive Composite [GEC]) and special education and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) outcomes. All BRIEF index scores were significantly associated with receipt of special education services or ADHD. The BRI was most strongly associated with ADHD (odds ratios=4.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-10.9). The GEC was most strongly associated with ADHD (odds ratios=4.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-11.22). Elevated scores on the BRIEF GEC were associated with low sensitivity (24.1 to 39.1) for detecting the outcomes but better specificity (range, 87.7 to 89.3). These results suggest that the parent-completed BRIEF is associated with clinical outcomes but is not a sensitive tool to identify leukemia survivors that require a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.

  11. A novel 'splice site' HCN4 Gene mutation, c.1737+1 G>T, causes familial bradycardia, reduced heart rate response, impaired chronotropic competence and increased short-term heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Lidia; Csányi, Beáta; Ördög, Balázs; Kákonyi, Kornél; Tringer, Annamária; Kiss, Orsolya; Orosz, Andrea; Sághy, László; Nagy, István; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Rudas, László; Széll, Márta; Varró, András; Forster, Tamás; Sepp, Róbert

    2017-08-15

    The most important molecular determinant of heart rate regulation in sino-atrial pacemaker cells includes hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, the major isoform of which is encoded by the HCN4 gene. Mutations affecting the HCN4 gene are associated primarily with sick sinus syndrome. A novel c.1737+1 G>T 'splice-site' HCN4 mutation was identified in a large family with familial bradycardia which co-segregated with the disease providing a two-point LOD score of 4.87. Twelve out of the 22 investigated family members [4 males, 8 females average age 36 (SD 6) years] were considered as clinically affected (heart rateheart rates [62 (SD 8) vs. 73 (SD 8) bpm, p=0.0168) were significantly lower in carriers on 24-hour Holter recordings. Under maximum exercise test carriers achieved significantly lower heart rates than non-carrier family members, and percent heart rate reserve and percent corrected heart rate reserve were significantly lower in carriers. Applying rigorous criteria for chronotropic incompetence a higher number of carriers exhibited chronotropic incompetence. Parameters, characterizing short-term variability of heart rate (i.e. rMSSD and pNN50%) were increased in carrier family members, even after normalization for heart rate, in the 24-hour ECG recordings with the same relative increase in 5-minute recordings. The identified novel 'splice site' HCN4 gene mutation, c.1737+1 G>T, causes familial bradycardia and leads to reduced heart rate response, impaired chronotropic competence and increased short-term heart rate variability in the mutation carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between the degree of physical impairment from leprosy and dependence in activities of daily living among the elderly in a health unit in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson da Costa Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In addition to the common alterations and diseases inherent in the aging process, elderly persons with a history of leprosy are particularly vulnerable to dependence because of disease-related impairments. Objective determine whether physical impairment from leprosy is associated with dependence among the elderly. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with a history of leprosy and no signs of cognitive impairment was conducted using a database from a former leprosy colony-hospital. The patients were evaluated for dependence in the basic activities of daily living (BADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, respectively and subjected to standard leprosy physical disability grading. Subsequently, descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted, the latter using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results A total of 186 elderly persons were included in the study. Of these individuals, 53.8% were women, 49.5% were older than 75 years of age, 93% had four or less years of formal education, 24.2% lived in an institution for the long-term care of the elderly (ILTC, and 18.3% had lower limb amputations. Among those evaluated, 79.8% had visible physical impairments from leprosy (grade 2, 83.3% were independent in BADL, and 10.2% were independent in IADL. There was a higher impairment grade among those patients who were IADL dependent (p=0.038. Conclusion s: The leprosy physical impairment grade is associated with dependence for IADL, creating the need for greater social support and systematic monitoring by a multidisciplinary team. The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy to prevent physical impairment and dependence in later years.

  13. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  14. Acute Effects of a Therapeutic Mobility Device on Physical Activity and Heart Rate in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Janet L.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this feasibility study was to provide an opportunity to increase physical activity (PA) and heart rate (HR) for children with Down syndrome (DS) during unstructured group exercise utilizing a riding device called the Power Pumper®. Method: Twenty-four children aged 5 to 7 years old participated in this case-control study,…

  15. Are Intensified Physical Education Sessions Able to Elicit Heart Rate at a Sufficient Level To Promote Aerobic Fitness in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; Berthoin, Serge; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    Determined the effects of intensified physical education sessions on adolescents divided into two groups: high intensity running group (HIRG) and high intensity jumping group (HIJG). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during sessions. There was no significant difference between mean HR for HIRG and HIJG. Mean HR was significantly lower for the control…

  16. Heart rate response and fitness effects of various types of physical education for 8- to 9-year-old schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Williams, Craig A; Hornstrup, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the heart rate (HR) response to various types of physical education (PE) activities for 8- to 9-year-olds (five school classes, n = 93) and the fitness effects of a short-term PE training programme (three of the five classes, n = 59) with high compared to low...

  17. High-normal serum uric acid is associated with albuminuria and impaired glomerular filtration rate in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-ling; HAN Xue-yao; JI Li-nong

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently,some studies had shown that elevated serum uric acid (SUA) itself may increase the risk for development of renal disease in patients with diabetes.This study aimed to explore whether SUA was a predictor of microalbuminuria and impaired renal function in type 2 diabetes in Chinese patients.Methods This cross-sectional study included 2108 type 2 diabetic patients.Kidney function was estimated using the simplified modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation to obtain estimated glomerular filtration rate.The urine samples were obtained for measuring the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR).Results According to the ACR level,these patients were divided into two groups,normal ACR (NA) and non-normal ACR (non-NA).Both SUA and creatinine were significantly higher in the non-NA group than those in the NA group ((318.89+107.52) vs.(283.44±88.64) μmol/L,and (95.08±53.24) vs.(79.63±18.20) μmol/L,respectively).Logistic regression analysis showed that diabetic duration,systolic blood pressure,creatinine and SUA were the independent predictors of albuminuria.Furthermore,to identify the factors associated with renal function,these patients were divided into two groups according to the MDRD level (MDRD<90 or MDRD>90).Both SUA and creatinine were significantly higher in the lower MDRD group than those in the higher MDRD group ((301.90±96.46) vs.(264.07+84.74) μmol/L,and (89.10±31.00) vs.(66.37±11.15) μ mol/L,respectively).Logistic regression analysis showed that only age and SUA were the independent predictors of MDRD.Conclusion High-normal SUA was associated with albuminuria and impaired glomerular filtration rate in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ...

  19. Associations Between Physical Performance and Executive Function in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Gait Speed and the Timed “Up & Go” Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie E.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Engel, Joyce M.; Teri, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed “Up & Go” Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Methods Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Results Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=−0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=−0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed “Up & Go” Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Ptime on the TUG was associated with lower executive function performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Conclusions Physical performance speed was associated with executive function

  20. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, M(age) = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  2. 南阳市宛城区居民DM、IGT患病率与相关因素分析%ANALYSIS ON DIABETES MELLITUS AND PREVALENCE RATE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND THE RELATED FACTORS IN WANCHENG DISTRICT OF NANYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志浩; 陈庚军

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and cluster sampling method were used in 645 residents aged from 15 to 74 years old in Wancheng district in Nanyang to investigate the status of diabetes mcllitus( DM ) and impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) and the correlated factors in Nanyang in 2012. The rude detection rates were 12.56% for DM and 10.39% for IGT. The analyses show that age,smoking, body mass index, physical exercise and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of DM ( P 〈 0.05 ) ; age, smoking, body mass index and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of IGT (P 〈 0.05 ). New detection rate of DM is 51.85, medication rate is 66.67% , blood sugar control rate is 29.73%. The prevalence rates of DM and IGT are considerably high and the medication rate is relatively low in the current state. Some DM patients arc missed for there is no oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in routine physical examination. Measures should be taken to prevent and reduce sugar metabolism disorders popular.%采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,横断面调查宛城区15~74岁常住居民645人。了解南阳市宛城区糖尿病(DM)和糖耐量减低(IGT)的患病现状与相关因素。DM和IGT的总患病率分别为12.56%和10.39%。分析表明DM的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数、体育锻炼和血压;IGT的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数和血压。DM的新检出率51.85%,服药率66.67%,血糖控制率19.23%。该地区的DM及IGT患病率均较高,药物控制率低,常规体检无口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)项目导致部分DM患者漏检。应采取积极措施,预防和降低该地区的糖代谢异常流行。

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Functional impairment in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 can be assessed by an ataxia rating scale (SARA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaolo, Giovanni; Jimenez-Moreno, Cecilia; Nikolenko, Nikoletta; Atalaia, Antonio; Monckton, Darren G; Guglieri, Michela; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2017-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is not characterised by ataxia per se; however, DM1 and ataxia patients show similar disturbances in movement coordination often experiencing walking and balance difficulties, although caused by different underlying pathologies. This study aims to investigate the use of a scale previously described for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) with the hypothesis that it could have utility in DM1 patients as a measure of disease severity and risk of falling. Data from 54 DM1 patients were pulled from the PHENO-DM1 natural history study for analysis. Mean SARA score in the DM1 population was 5.45 relative to the maximum score of eight. A flooring effect (score 0) was observed in mild cases within the sample. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability was high with intraclass coefficients (ICC) of 0.983 and 1.00, respectively. Internal consistency was acceptable as indicated by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.761. Component analysis revealed two principle components. SARA correlated with: (1) all measures of muscle function tested, including quantitative muscle testing of ankle dorsiflexion (r = -0.584*), the 6 min walk test (r = -0.739*), 10 m walk test (r = 0.741*), and the nine hole peg test (r = 0.602*) and (2) measures of disease severity/burden, such as MIRS (r = 0.718*), MDHI (r = 0.483*), and DM1-Activ (r = -0.749*) (*p < 0.001). The SARA score was predicted by an interaction between modal CTG repeat length and age at sampling (r = 0.678, p = 0.003). A score of eight or above predicted the use of a walking aid with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85.7%. We suggest that further research is warranted to ascertain whether SARA or components of SARA are useful outcome measures for clinical trials in DM1. As a tool, it can be used for gathering information about disease severity/burden and helping to identify patients in need of a walking aid, and can potentially be applied in both research and healthcare

  5. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard everyday use – home computer user Advanced Advanced Advanced Disability Mobility impairment (quadriplegic – Frederik’s Ataxia), speech impairment) Mobility impairment (quadriplegic - Physical cerebral palsy, speech impairment) Mobility...

  6. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  7. Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Košćal Milanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (Tg were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months. Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group. Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group. After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01, LDL-C (p<0.01 and Tg (p<0.0001 and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05 was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can

  8. Identification of a physically idealized human rated rocket based interplanetary transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewig, Ralph

    Every system engineering trade study has to address the challenge of eliminating unintentional bias towards one of the available system options. This challenge becomes especially difficult when trading conceptual options, where the amount and fidelity of data available to characterize the options is highly variable. This dissertation introduces the methodology of Physical Idealization as a tool to remove unintentional bias from conceptual trade studies. The premise is that (1) given the options available based on our understanding of physics, and (2) within the set of constraints necessary to define the problem, it is possible to identify the optimal physically idealized solution. This solution can then be used as a benchmark for technology development and real world system implementation. The methodology of Physical Idealization is developed to support a study of Interplanetary Transportation Systems (ITS). The ITS is modeled as consisting of payload, power, and propulsion subsystems, and optimized using a simplified two-dimensional equation of motion set. Both a genetic algorithm and gradient based optimization methods are used in a nested loop process. The presented results illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses associated with using physical idealization in a trade study, showing the methodology to be a useful addition to the system engineer's selection of tools.

  9. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. RESULTS: Physically active women had lower fat percentage...... were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score......PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...

  10. Comparing Three Dual-Task Methods and the Relationship to Physical and Cognitive Impairment in People with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Kirkland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-tasking (DT is a measure to detect impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS. We compared three DT methods to determine whether cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA or physical disability (Expanded Disease Severity Scale; EDSS was related to DT performance. We recruited MS participants with low disability (<3 EDSS, n=13 and high disability (≥3 EDSS, n=9 and matched controls (n=13. Participants walked at self-selected (SS speed on an instrumented walkway (Protokinetics, Havertown, USA, followed by DT walks in randomized order: DT ABC (reciting every second letter of the alphabet, DT 7 (serially subtracting 7’s from 100, and DT 3 (counting upwards, leaving out multiples and numbers that include 3. DT 7 resulted in the most consistent changes in performance. Both MS and control groups reduced velocity and cadence and shortened step length during DT with no significant differences between groups. Control subjects widened stride width by about 1 cm while MS subjects (collapsed as one group did not. MS subjects with higher disability significantly increased percentage time in double support during DT compared to SS (F=12.95, p<0.001. The change in DS was related to cognitive and not physical disability (r=0.54,  p<0.05.

  11. Physical Performance, Balance, Mobility, and Muscle Strength Decline at Different Rates in Elderly People

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Márcia Mariko; Otonari, Thais Satie; Takara, Kelly Sayuri; Carmo, Carolina M; Tanaka, Clarice

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the decline in functionality of elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects comprised 152 individuals (96 women; 56 men) divided into 3 groups: G1 (60 to 69 years, n=53); G2 (70 to 79 years, n=65); and G3 (80 years or older, n=34). Physical performance, balance, mobility, and muscle strength were assessed using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale (BERG), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and leg press test, respec...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  13. Whole-exome sequencing and imaging genetics identify functional variants for rate of change in hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, K; Corneveaux, J J; Kim, S; Lin, H; Risacher, S L; Shen, L; Swaminathan, S; Ramanan, V K; Liu, Y; Foroud, T; Inlow, M H; Siniard, A L; Reiman, R A; Aisen, P S; Petersen, R C; Green, R C; Jack, C R; Weiner, M W; Baldwin, C T; Lunetta, K; Farrer, L A; Furney, S J; Lovestone, S; Simmons, A; Mecocci, P; Vellas, B; Tsolaki, M; Kloszewska, I; Soininen, H; McDonald, B C; Farlow, M R; Ghetti, B; Huentelman, M J; Saykin, A J

    2013-07-01

    Whole-exome sequencing of individuals with mild cognitive impairment, combined with genotype imputation, was used to identify coding variants other than the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele associated with rate of hippocampal volume loss using an extreme trait design. Matched unrelated APOE ε3 homozygous male Caucasian participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were selected at the extremes of the 2-year longitudinal change distribution of hippocampal volume (eight subjects with rapid rates of atrophy and eight with slow/stable rates of atrophy). We identified 57 non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) which were found exclusively in at least 4 of 8 subjects in the rapid atrophy group, but not in any of the 8 subjects in the slow atrophy group. Among these SNVs, the variants that accounted for the greatest group difference and were predicted in silico as 'probably damaging' missense variants were rs9610775 (CARD10) and rs1136410 (PARP1). To further investigate and extend the exome findings in a larger sample, we conducted quantitative trait analysis including whole-brain search in the remaining ADNI APOE ε3/ε3 group (N=315). Genetic variation within PARP1 and CARD10 was associated with rate of hippocampal neurodegeneration in APOE ε3/ε3. Meta-analysis across five independent cross sectional cohorts indicated that rs1136410 is also significantly associated with hippocampal volume in APOE ε3/ε3 individuals (N=923). Larger sequencing studies and longitudinal follow-up are needed for confirmation. The combination of next-generation sequencing and quantitative imaging phenotypes holds significant promise for discovery of variants involved in neurodegeneration.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  16. Influence of Information Related to Child Physical Abuse on Professional Ratings of Adjustment and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoma, Virginia M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the influence of access to information of a history of physical maltreatment on evaluative responses of 40 social services and clinical psychology professionals. Findings verified the influence of such information on professional judgments and point to a possible pattern of erroneous judgments. (Author/PB)

  17. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  18. Understanding Participation Rates in Post-16 Mathematics and Physics: Conceptualising and Operationalising the UPMAP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Hoyles, Celia; Mujtaba, Tamjid; Riazi-Farzad, Bijan; Rodd, Melissa; Simon, Shirley; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-01-01

    We report on a project currently in progress that aims to identify through research the range of factors (individual, school and out-of-school, including home) and their interactions that influence post-16 (i.e. post-compulsory) participation in mathematics and physics in the UK and to assess their relative importance among different student…

  19. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  20. Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Jäger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of homeopathically potentized Arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid in a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.. The test substances were applied in nine potency levels (17x, 18x, 21x–24x, 28x, 30x, 33x and compared with controls (unsuccussed and succussed water regarding their influence on the plant’s growth rate. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic(V for 48 h. Afterwards, plants grew in either potentized substances or water controls for 6 days. Growth rates of frond (leaf area and frond number were determined with a computerized image analysis system for different time intervals (days 0–2, 2–6, 0–6. Five independent experiments were evaluated for each test substance. Additionally, five water control experiments were analyzed to investigate the stability of the experimental setup (systematic negative control experiments. All experiments were randomized and blinded. The test system exhibited a low coefficient of variation (≈1%. Unsuccussed and succussed water did not result in any significant differences in duckweed growth rate. Data from the control and treatment groups were pooled to increase statistical power. Growth rates for days 0–2 were not influenced by any homeopathic preparation. Growth rates for days 2–6 increased after application of potentized Arsenicum album regarding both frond area (p < 0.001 and frond number (p < 0.001, and by application of potentized nosode (frond area growth rate only, p < 0.01. Potencies of gibberellic acid did not influence duckweed growth rate. The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Thus, false-positive results can be excluded with high certainty. To conclude, the test system with L. gibba impaired by arsenic(V was stable and reliable. It yielded evidence for specific effects of homeopathic Arsenicum album preparations and it will provide a valuable tool for future experiments that aim at

  1. Effects of baseline CSF α-synuclein on regional brain atrophy rates in healthy elders, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Mattsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF α-synuclein is reduced in synucleinopathies, including dementia with Lewy bodies, and some studies have found increased CSF α-synuclein in Alzheimer's disease (AD. No study has explored effects of CSF α-synuclein on brain atrophy. Here we tested if baseline CSF α-synuclein affects brain atrophy rates and if these effects vary across brain regions, and across the cognitive spectrum from healthy elders (NL, to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD. METHODS: Baseline CSF α-synuclein measurements and longitudinal structural brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 74 NL, 118 MCI patients and 55 AD patients. Effects of baseline CSF α-synuclein on regional atrophy rates were tested in 1 four pre-hoc defined regions possibly associated with Lewy body and/or AD pathology (amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, brainstem, and 2 all available regions of interest. Differences across diagnoses were tested by assessing the interaction of CSF α-synuclein and diagnosis (testing NL versus MCI, and NL versus AD. RESULTS: The effects of CSF α-synuclein on longitudinal atrophy rates were not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. There were tendencies for effects in AD in caudate (higher atrophy rates in subjects with higher CSF α-synuclein, P=0.046 and brainstem (higher atrophy rates in subjects with lower CSF α-synuclein, P=0.063. CSF α-synuclein had significantly different effects on atrophy rates in NL and AD in brainstem (P=0.037 and caudate (P=0.006. DISCUSSION: With the possible exception of caudate and brainstem, the overall weak effects of CSF α-synuclein on atrophy rates in NL, MCI and AD argues against CSF α-synuclein as a biomarker related to longitudinal brain atrophy in these diagnostic groups. Any effects of CSF α-synuclein may be attenuated by possible simultaneous occurrence of AD-related neuronal injury and concomitant Lewy body pathology, which may elevate and

  2. Assessment of Physical Activity Intensity by Heart Rate during Sleep Limited Military Operations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    1957). The effects of training heartrate : A longitudinal study. American Medical Experimental Biology, 35, 307-315. Mello, R.P., B.H. Jones, J.A...rate activity plot. Figure 3. Field Maneuver Area thr. Heart rate activity plot. Figret4*Fild anuve Aeafou. ear rte ctvit pot C’"e HEARTRATE (B.P.M.) 0 0

  3. External physical stimulation of the human-fetus during episodes of low heart-rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; ZEELENBERG, HJ; DEVRIES, JIP; DAWES, GS

    1983-01-01

    The effect of shaking the fetus through the maternal abdomen during episodes of low (nonreactive) fetal heart rate variation was studied in 10 healthy nulliparous women near term. Heart rate monitoring from an abdominal electrocardiogram was combined with real-time scanning for body movements and

  4. An evidence-based approach to the creation of normative data: base rates of impaired scores within a brief neuropsychological battery argue for age corrections, but against corrections for medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Voll, Stacey; Simard, Martine; Griffith, Lauren E; Taler, Vanessa; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan; Raina, Parminder

    We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.

  5. LET and dose rate effect on radiation-induced copolymerization in physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Seiko, E-mail: Nakagawa.Seiko@iri-tokyo.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kimura, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Hiroki, Akihiro [Environmental Radiation Processing Group, Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: •LET and dose rate effect on polymerization in gel was almost the same as in solution. •The ratio of the dose rate effect in the gel was higher than that in solution. •The initiation and termination processes show the difference on the dose rate effect. -- Abstract: N{sub 2}-saturated 2-propanol solutions containing styrene and maleimide were gelled by the addition of hydroxypropylcellulose and irradiated by proton, He and C-ion beams. The trend in the dose rate and LET effects on the yield and molecular weight distribution of the polymer produced in the gel was almost the same in the solution. On the contrary, the dose rate effect in the gel was higher than that in the solution. This effect was accelerated for irradiations by proton as well as heavier ion with a higher LET value.

  6. Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo M. Donini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO and metabolically unhealthy (MUO obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL. Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire, disability (TSD-OC test, and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire. MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37. No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37, physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36, obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28, and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27. Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  8. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  9. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (PBoxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (PBoxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  10. Influence of the cooling rate and the blend ratio on the physical stability of co-amorphous naproxen/indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-12-01

    Co-amorphization represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios. The samples were analyzed using XRPD and FTIR, both directly after preparation and during storage to investigate their physical stabilities. All cooling methods led to fully amorphous samples, but with significantly different physical stabilities. Samples prepared by fast cooling had a higher degree of crystallinity after 300d of storage than samples prepared by intermediate cooling and slow cooling. Intermediate cooling was subsequently used to prepare co-amorphous NAP/IND at different blend ratios. In a previous study, it was postulated that the equimolar (0.5:0.5) co-amorphous blend of NAP/IND is most stable. However, in the present study the physically most stable blend was found for a NAP/IND ratio of 0.6:0.4, which also represents the eutectic composition of the crystalline NAP/γ-IND system. This indicates that the eutectic point may be of major importance for the stability of binary co-amorphous systems. Slight deviations from the optimal naproxen molar fraction led to significant recrystallization during storage. Either naproxen or γ-indomethacin recrystallized until a naproxen molar fraction of about 0.6 in the residual co-amorphous phase was reached again. In conclusion, the physical stability of co-amorphous NAP/IND may be significantly improved, if suitable preparation conditions and the optimal phase composition are chosen.

  11. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherburn Margaret

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a physiotherapy program, including exercise and manual therapy, in reducing impairments and improving physical function and health-related quality of life in people with a history of painful osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Methods 20 participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 11 or control (n = 9 group. The intervention group attended individual sessions with an experienced clinician once a week for 10 weeks and performed daily home exercises with adherence monitored by a self-report diary. The control group received no treatment. Blinded assessment was conducted at baseline and 11 weeks. Questionnaires assessed self-reported changes in back pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life. Objective measures of thoracic kyphosis, back and shoulder muscle endurance (Timed Loaded Standing Test, and function (Timed Up and Go test were also taken. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant reductions in pain during movement (mean difference (95% CI -1.8 (-3.5 to -0.1 and at rest (-2.0 (-3.8 to -0.2 and significantly greater improvements in Qualeffo physical function (-4.8 (-9.2 to -0.5 and the Timed Loaded Standing test (46.7 (16.1 to 77.3 secs. For the perceived change in back pain over the 10 weeks, 9/11 (82% participants in the intervention group rated their pain as 'much better' compared with only 1/9 (11% participants in the control group. Conclusion Despite the modest sample size, these results support the benefits of exercise and manual therapy in the clinical management of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, but need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Trail registration NCT00638768

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  13. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS Dose-rate dependence of optically stimulated luminescence signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingqiang, Wei; Zhaoyang, Chen; Yanwei, Fan; Yurun, Sun; Yun, Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is the luminescence emitted from a semiconductor during its exposure to light. The OSL intensity is a function of the total dose absorbed by the sample. The dose-rate dependence of the OSL signal of the semiconductor CaS doped Ce and Sm was studied by numerical simulation and experiments. Based on a one-trap/one-center model, the whole OSL process was represented by a series of differential equations. The dose-rate properties of the materials were acquired theoretically by solving the equations. Good coherence was achieved between numerical simulation and experiments, both of which showed that the OSL signal was independent of dose rate. This result validates that when using OSL as a dosimetry technique, the dose-rate effect can be neglected.

  15. Rating the quality of trials in systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Mark R; Herbert, Robert D; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Physical therapists seeking to use evidence to guide their practice may have limited time to read research reports. One way to reduce the time required to identify and read about the research that is relevant to a particular clinical question is to read a systematic review that summarizes multiple studies. This paper explains the process that is used to conduct systematic reviews, which includes the establishment of a protocol, comprehensive searching, appraisal of the quality of the included studies, data extraction and metaanalysis, and consideration of the clinical and research implications of the findings. We also consider how the reader of a systematic review can determine whether the review is likely to provide an unbiased (believable) estimate of the treatment effect. A systematic review of randomized trials of a cardiopulmonary physical therapy intervention is used as an example. The issue of appraisal of quality is then discussed further, with a demonstration of how one validated tool for quality appraisal-the PEDro scale-can be used to evaluate a randomized trial in cardiopulmonary physical therapy.

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, DE; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting he...

  17. Influence of physical exercise on serum digoxin concentration and heart rate in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bøtker, H E; Toft, P; Klitgaard, N A; Simonsen, E E

    1991-01-01

    Heart rate and serum digoxin concentration in eight patients with atrial fibrillation were studied at rest and during exercise when initial serum digoxin concentrations were zero and at low and high therapeutic values. Eight patients with ischemic heart disease and in sinus rhythm were studied for comparison. Though the serum digoxin concentration decreased significantly during exercise, the absolute reduction in heart rate was the same at rest and during exercise in patients with atrial fibr...

  18. 将瑜伽手印练习用于视障大学生体育课的尝试%Try to use hand yoga method for visually impaired physical education of college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role to health of body and mind, in a planned way of physical exercise can improve the visually impaired students' physical quality, promote their psychological health. Disabled and visually impaired college students have mastered now based on the analysis of common psychological problems, the tentative will hand yoga this new way of physical and mental exercise used to visually impaired college physical education, provides the reference for the future of university physical education for the disabled.%体育锻炼对身心健康具有重要的作用,有计划的体育锻练能够提高视障大学生的身体素质、促进其心理健康。以目前已掌握的残疾人及视障大学生普遍存在的心理问题的研究分析为基础,尝试性将瑜伽手印练习这一新颖的身心锻炼方式运用于视障大学生体育课,为今后残疾人大学体育教育提供参考依据。

  19. Prediction of Basic Math Course Failure Rate in the Physics, Meteorology, Mathematics, Actuarial Sciences and Pharmacy Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rojas-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2013 with the purpose of predicting the failure rate of math courses taken by Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science, Physics and Meteorology students at Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR. Using the Logistics Regression statistical techniques applied to the 2010 cohort, failure rates were predicted of students in the aforementioned programs in one of their Math introductory courses (Calculus 101 for Physics and Meteorology, Math Principles for Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Applied Differential Equations for Pharmacy. For these models, the UCR admission average, the student’s genre, and the average correct answers in the Quantitative Skills Test were used as predictor variables. The most important variable for all models was the Quantitative Skills Test, and the model with the highest correct classification rate was the Logistics Regression. For the estimated Physics-Meteorology, Pharmacy and Mathematics-Actuarial Science models, correct classifications were 89.8%, 73.6%, and 93.9%, respectively.

  20. Modification of atomic physics rates due to nonlocal electron parallel heat transport in divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, F. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Matte, J.P. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)]. E-mail: matte@inrs-emt.uquebec.ca; Alouani-Bibi, F. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Kim, C.G. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stotler, D.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The effect of steep temperature gradients on the rate of ionization of atomic hydrogen is studied numerically with the electron kinetic code 'FPI' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 1208]. A set of cross sections ['Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction data for fusion'. Supplement to the journal Nucl. Fusion 4 (1993)] has been used which gives the same rates of radiation, ionization and recombination as in the well known edge modeling codes 'UEDGE' and 'DEGAS' for Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions. For this purpose, 30 energy levels are included in the computation, as stepwise ionization is dominant. The enhancement of the ionization rate by non-Maxwellian effects in the colder part of the plasma is significant.

  1. Relation between the compaction rate and physical and mechanical properties of particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moura Dias

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The compaction rate, the relation between the density of the wood panel and the density of the wood used for producing the particles, is an indicator of the product's densification. Among the various types of wood panels, particleboards are widely employed in the lumber industry, mainly for the furniture production. This paper presents a study of the relation between the compaction rate and the properties of tensile strength perpendicular to surface, Modulus of Rupture (MOR and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE obtained from a static bending test, thickness swelling and water absorption (2 and 24 hours. These properties were calculated according to the Brazilian ABNT, NBR 14810 standard. Particleboards were produced using the species Pinus elliotti and adhesive ureaformaldehyde. The relation was established by a multiple linear regression, and the most appropriate statistical models were determined. The estimated models indicate statistically significant effects of water absorption in 2 hours and MOR in the particleboards' compaction rate.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  4. Assessment of heart rate variability based on mobile device for planning physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.

  5. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2010-01-01

    /kg/min) (women 0.40, p 2000 counts/min) (women 0.28, p coefficient between self-reported leisure PA and overall PA (counts/min) measured by accelerometer was 0.62 (95% CI 0.51, 0.71) for women and 0.......59 (95% CI 0.47, 0.69) for men, and for VO₂(max) the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.86 (95% CI 0.81, 0.90) for both sexes. Among all participants, an inverse dose-response relationship was observed between self-reported leisure PA and resting heart rate for both men and women (p

  6. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  7. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Sicher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  8. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicher, Richard C

    2015-08-05

    Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  9. Physical activity as a health factor modifying heart rate variability (HRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielska-Swadzba Danuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was the evaluation of the selected HRV factors of the training volleyball players in two training periods and non-training people. Materials and methods : The study involved 8 leading volleyball players aged 20-23 and 13 non-training persons aged 19-26. The study of the training players was conducted twice: in the pre-competition and in the competition period. The study for the non-training persons was conducted once. The selected factors of the spectral analysis have been evaluated: TP [ms 2], share of LF and HF power [n.u], LF/HF indicator and time analysis factors: RR [ms], HR [1/min], RMSSD [ms]. Results : Statistically significant differences appeared only in the selected time analysis factors (RR, HR, between the group of the training and non-training persons. Other differences in the evaluated parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Physical activity influences on the HRV growth. HRV measurement may serve for the control of the changes taking place in the AUN under the influence of the physical activity.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  11. Use of heart rate variability differentiates between physical and psychological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing differing states of physi...

  12. Effects of a Group Contingency Strategy on Middle School Physical Education Students' Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Azevedo, Liane; Eberline, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a dependent group contingency on eighth-grade students' heart rates. Participants were 18 male and female students. A multielement research design was used to examine the intervention effects. The intervention consisted of: (a) teacher explanation about effort; (b) students' suggestions to…

  13. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  14. Saliva secretion rate and acidity in a group of physically disabled older care home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, G.J. van der; Brand, H.S.; De Visschere, L.M.; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of older people have teeth, which are vulnerable to oral diseases. To maintain good oral health, an adequate amount of saliva should be secreted and the saliva should possess adequate buffer capacity. The study aim was to investigate the associations of saliva secretion rate and

  15. Revealing Type Ia supernova physics with cosmic rates and nuclear gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) remain mysterious despite their central importance in cosmology and their rapidly increasing discovery rate. The progenitors of SNIa can be probed by the delay time between stellar birth and death. The explosions and progenitors of SNIa can be probed by MeV nuclear gamma rays emitted in the decays of radioactive nickel and cobalt into iron. We compare the cosmic star formation and SNIa rates, finding that their different redshift evolution requires a large fraction of SNIa to have large delay times. A delay time distribution of the form t^{-1.0+/-0.3} provides a good fit, implying 50% of SNIa explode more than ~ 1 Gyr after progenitor birth. The extrapolation of the cosmic SNIa rate to z = 0 agrees with the rate we deduce from catalogs of local SNIa. We investigate prospects for gamma-ray telescopes to exploit the facts that escaping gamma rays directly reveal the power source of SNIa and uniquely provide tomography of the expanding ejecta. We find large improvements relative to earl...

  16. Saliva secretion rate and acidity in a group of physically disabled older care home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, G.J.; Brand, H.S.; Visschere, L.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; de Baat, C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of older people have teeth, which are vulnerable to oral diseases. To maintain good oral health, an adequate amount of saliva should be secreted and the saliva should possess adequate buffer capacity. The study aim was to investigate the associations of saliva secretion rate and aci

  17. The Effect of a Restraint Reduction Program on Physical Restraint Rates in Rehabilitation Settings in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Y. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In view of the adverse effects of using restraints, studies examining the use of restraint reduction programs (RRPs are needed. Objectives. To investigate the effect of an RRP on the reduction of physical restraint rates in rehabilitation hospitals. Methods. A prospective quasi-experimental clinical trial was conducted. Demographic data, medical and health-related information on recruited patients from two rehabilitation hospitals, as well as facility data on restraint rates were collected. Results. The increase in the restraint rate in the control site was 4.3 times greater than that in the intervention site. Changes in the restraint mode, from continuous to intermittent, and the type of restraint used were found between the pre- and postintervention periods in both the control site and the intervention site. Discussion. Compared with that in the control site, the RRP in the intervention site helped arrest any increase in the restraint rate although it had no effect on physical restraint reduction. The shift of restraint mode from continuous to intermittent in the intervention site was one of the positive outcomes of the RRP.

  18. Precursory seismicity in regions of low strain rate: Insights from a physics-based earthquake23 simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Annemarie; Rhoades, David A.; Colella, Harmony V.

    2017-03-01

    The well-established earthquake forecasting model 'Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale' (EEPAS) is based on the observation that the magnitude and rate of minor earthquakes increases prior to large earthquakes. The precursor time is measured between this increase and the mainshock and is in the order of months to decades. Fitting the EEPAS model to different regional earthquake catalogues has indicated that the precursor time is longer in more slowly deforming tectonic environments. Examples from the stable continental region of Australia confirm this. To overcome the challenge of limited earthquake records in the analysis of the precursor time for areas with low strain rate, we use the physics-based earthquake simulator, RSQSim to generate a series of synthetic earthquake catalogues. A fault network with realistic complexity, is employed, based on the Wellington, New Zealand, fault network. The slip rates on faults are systematically reduced by five successive factors of 1/4. Fitting the EEPAS model to these synthetic catalogues shows that the precursor time is inversely proportional to the reduction in slip rate. Results suggest that the expected precursor times for large earthquakes in stable continental regions far exceed the length of available catalogues. The expected precursor time for the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, which apparently had no precursory seismicity in the instrumental catalogue, also exceeds the length of the available catalogue. Therefore, applying the EEPAS model to physics-based simulators allows us to start understanding the phenomenon of precursory seismicity.

  19. Impaired β-cell function attenuates training effects by reducing the increase in heart rate reserve in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Minami, Keisuke; Sato, Yukio; Takai, Manabu; Takahashi, Eiji; Hayashi, Akio; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Osada, Naohiko; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is characterized as a metabolic disorder syndrome that is upstream of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated exercise training effects on the exercise tolerance and heart rate dynamics in patients with IR or pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Seventy patients (mean age, 60.1 years) with myocardial infarction (MI) participating in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation program were studied. Patients diagnosed with DM were excluded. Homeostasis model-assessment indices were used to divide patients into three groups - A: IR; B: normal; and C: β-cell dysfunction. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) was performed and peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was measured. After baseline testing, subjects participated in a supervised, combined aerobic and resistance exercise program. Peak V˙O2 at baseline was comparable among the three groups, and it improved after training in all groups (pincrease and percentage increase in peak V˙O2 were smaller in Group C than in Group A (pHeart rate (HR) reserve (peak HR-rest HR), and HR recovery immediately 1min after exercise during CPX were calculated in 45 patients who were not taking negative chronotropic agents. Group C alone did not show any significant increase in HR reserve. HR reserve at both baseline and after training had significant positive correlations with peak V˙O2. HR recovery was 1.9 beats/min lower in group C than group A, but this was not significant. HR recovery in group C did not increase after cardiac rehabilitation. Impaired HR reserve increase after training in patients with pancreatic β-cell dysfunction attenuates exercise training effects on functional capacity. Comprehensive treatment including vigorous exercise training will be needed in such prediabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing specialist early years provision for speech and language impaired children with mainstream nursery provision in the UK - an application of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J; Dockrell, J; Williams, K; Seeff, B

    2004-03-01

    This study examines the application of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) to specialist early years provision for children with developmental speech and language impairment. The scale, which has been used in the national Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) study in the UK comprises seven subscales describing the quality of provision along a continuum centred on the following areas: 'space and furnishings', 'personal care routines', 'language reasoning', 'activities', 'interaction', 'program structure', and 'parents and staff'. The ECERS was applied to two nurseries funded by the UK charity I CAN by two researchers with inter-rater-reliability coefficients ranging from 0.91 to 0.96. There were notable differences between the specialist early years provision and 'average' nursery provision in the UK. On 7/8 measures the early years centre scores are markedly higher than average pre-school provisions. The standard of education and care for the pre-school provisions included in the EPPE project ranged from below minimal (for the diversity subscale, ECERS-E) to approaching good (for the space and furnishings subscale). In contrast, the early years centres were rated as between minimal to good on areas such as space and furnishings and good to excellent on all other areas. Clearly specialist services such as those described offer something different from the average. Given results which suggest the positive effects on the children's language abilities of such services it is quite possible that the distinctive characteristics of the nursery environment are responsible for the positive impact. There is a good case for extending the application of the ECERS as a way of helping those providing specialist services start to detect the active ingredients of the provision.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  3. Social cohesion and self-rated health: The moderating effect of neighborhood physical disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Ralston, Margaret L; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and its companion datasets, we examined how neighborhood disorder, perceived danger and both individually perceived and contextually measured neighborhood social cohesion are associated with self-rated health. Results indicate that neighborhood disorder is negatively associated with health and the relationship is explained by perceived cohesion and danger, which are both also significant predictors of health. Further, individually perceived cohesion emerges as a more important explanation of self-rated health than neighborhood-level social cohesion. Finally, neighborhood disorder and perceived cohesion interact to influence health, such that cohesion is especially beneficial when residents live in neighborhoods characterized by low to moderate disorder; once disorder is at high levels, cohesion no longer offers protection against poor health. We interpret our findings as they relate to prior research on neighborhoods, psychosocial processes, and health, and discuss their implications for intervention efforts that address disorder in urban communities.

  4. Coamorphous drug systems: enhanced physical stability and dissolution rate of indomethacin and naproxen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Grohganz, Holger

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in drug development today is that many new drug candidates are poorly water-soluble, and one of the approaches to overcome this problem is to transfer a crystalline drug into its amorphous form, thus increasing dissolution rate and apparent solubility of the compound...... at 277.15 and 298.15 K under dry conditions (phosphorus pentoxide) and analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Intrinsic dissolution testing was carried out to identify dissolution advantages of the coamorphous form over its crystalline counterparts or amorphous indomethacin. Fourier transform......, samples at the 1:2 and 2:1 ratios showed recrystallization of the excess drug upon storage whereas the 1:1 ratio samples remained amorphous. Intrinsic dissolution testing showed increased dissolution rate of both drugs in the coamorphous form as well as a synchronized release for the 1:1 coamorphous blend...

  5. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  6. Heart Rate monitoring during physical exercise using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhosein Khas; Moradi, Parsa; Malihi, Mahan; Karimi, Sajjad; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals during subjects' intensive exercises is a challenging problem, since signals are strongly affected by motion artifacts caused by unexpected movements. This paper presents a method that uses both time and frequency characteristics of signals; using sparse signal reconstruction for high-resolution spectrum estimation. Experimental results on type data sets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at peak speed of 15 km/hour. The results have a performance with the average absolute error being 1.80 beat per minute.

  7. Experimental Measurements of the Water Evaporation Rate of a Physical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turza Róbert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of indoor swimming pools and wellness centers are currently growing, it is necessary to concentrate on the parameters of indoor environments. These parameters are necessary for the design of the HVAC systems that operate these premises. In indoor swimming-pool facilities, the energy demand is large due to ventilation losses from exhaust air. Since water evaporates from a pool’s surface, exhaust air has a high water content and specific enthalpy. In this paper the results of the water evaporation rate measured from swimming pool surfaces at higher thermal water temperatures are described.

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  11. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bi-hemipheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF. In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for determining diffusivity measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient’s lesion and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS+PT/OT showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%, while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065 were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r=0.65; p<0.05. The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than

  12. Physical and mathematical justification of the numerical Brillouin zone integration of the Boltzmann rate equation by Gaussian smearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illg, Christian; Haag, Michael; Teeny, Nicolas; Wirth, Jens; Fähnle, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    Scatterings of electrons at quasiparticles or photons are very important for many topics in solid-state physics, e.g., spintronics, magnonics or photonics, and therefore a correct numerical treatment of these scatterings is very important. For a quantum-mechanical description of these scatterings, Fermi's golden rule is used to calculate the transition rate from an initial state to a final state in a first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. One can calculate the total transition rate from all initial states to all final states with Boltzmann rate equations involving Brillouin zone integrations. The numerical treatment of these integrations on a finite grid is often done via a replacement of the Dirac delta distribution by a Gaussian. The Dirac delta distribution appears in Fermi's golden rule where it describes the energy conservation among the interacting particles. Since the Dirac delta distribution is a not a function it is not clear from a mathematical point of view that this procedure is justified. We show with physical and mathematical arguments that this numerical procedure is in general correct, and we comment on critical points.

  13. Physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the specific star formation rates of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2015-01-01

    Two explanations have been put forward to explain the observed conformity between the colours and specific star formation rates (SFR/$M_*$) of galaxies on large scales: 1) the formation times of their surrounding dark matter halos are correlated (commonly referred to as "assembly bias"), 2) gas is heated over large scales at early times, leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies (commonly referred to as "pre-heating") . To distinguish between the pre-heating and assembly bias scenarios, we search for relics of energetic feedback events in the neighbourhood of central galaxies with different specific star formation rates. We find a significant excess of very high mass ($\\log M_* > 11.3$) galaxies out to a distance of 2.5 Mpc around low SFR/$M_*$ central galaxies compared to control samples of higher SFR/$M_*$ central galaxies with the same stellar mass and redshift. We also find that very massive galaxies in the neighbourhood of low SFR/$M_*$ galaxies have muc...

  14. Influence of antenatal physical exercise on heart rate variability and QT variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; Emery, S J; Uzun, O; Rassi, D; Lewis, M J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to characterise the influence of an antenatal exercise programme on ECG-derived cardiac variables. Fifity-one healthy pregnant women were recruited and randomly assigned (2 × 2×2 design) to an exercise group or a control group. Exercising groups attended weekly classes from the 20th week of pregnancy onwards. Cardiovascular assessments (heart rate variabiliy (HRV), QT, and the QT variability index (QTVI)) were performed at 12-16, 26-28, 34-36 weeks and 12 weeks following birth, during supine rest and exercise conditions. Advancing gestation was associated with an increased maternal heart rate (p = 0.001), shorter QT interval (p = 0.003), diminished HRV (p = 0.002) and increased QTVI (p = 0.002). Each of these changes was reversed within 12 weeks postpartum (p Exercise group displayed exaggerated changes for all variables (except QT) but only during supine rest in the third trimester (p exercise programme undertaken between mid and late pregnancy exaggerated these changes during rest in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  15. Sinking rates of microplastics and potential implications of their alteration by physical, biological, and chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Nicole; Reichardt, Aurelia M; Waniek, Joanna J

    2016-08-15

    To follow the pathways of microplastics in aquatic environments, profound knowledge about the behaviour of microplastics is necessary. Therefore, sinking experiments were conducted with diverse polymer particles using fluids with different salinity. Particles ranged from 0.3 and 3.6mm with sinking rates between 6 and 91×10(-3)ms(-1). The sinking velocity was not solely related to particle density, size and fluid density but also to the particles shape leading to considerable deviation from calculated theoretical values. Thus, experimental studies are indispensable to get basic knowledge about the sinking behaviour and to gain representative datasets for model approaches estimating the distribution of microplastics in aquatic systems. The sinking behaviour may be altered considerably by weathering and biofouling demanding further studies with aged and fouled plastic particles. Furthermore, assumptions are made about the influence of sinking fouled microplastics on the marine carbon pump by transferring organic carbon to deeper water depths.

  16. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Jakub; Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-07-25

    Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors' accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running.

  17. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors’ accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. Objective The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. Methods A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. Results OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. Conclusions The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running. PMID:28743682

  18. Autonomic dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment: evidence from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Nicolini

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is set to become a major health problem with the exponential ageing of the world's population. The association between MCI and autonomic dysfunction, supported by indirect evidence and rich with clinical implications in terms of progression to dementia and increased risk of mortality and falls, has never been specifically demonstrated.To conduct a comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in subjects with MCI by means of power spectral analysis (PSA of heart rate variability (HRV at rest and during provocative manoeuvres.This cross-sectional study involved 80 older outpatients (aged ≥ 65 consecutively referred to a geriatric unit and diagnosed with MCI or normal cognition (controls based on neuropsychological testing. PSA was performed on 5-minute electrocardiographic recordings under three conditions--supine rest with free breathing (baseline, supine rest with paced breathing at 12 breaths/minute (parasympathetic stimulation, and active standing (orthosympathetic stimulation--with particular focus on the changes from baseline to stimulation of indices of sympathovagal balance: normalized low frequency (LFn and high frequency (HFn powers and the LF/HF ratio. Blood pressure (BP was measured at baseline and during standing. Given its exploratory nature in a clinical population the study included subjects on medications with a potential to affect HRV.There were no significant differences in HRV indices between the two groups at baseline. MCI subjects exhibited smaller physiological changes in all three HRV indices during active standing, consistently with a dysfunction of the orthosympathetic system. Systolic BP after 10 minutes of standing was lower in MCI subjects, suggesting dysautonomia-related orthostatic BP dysregulation.Our study is novel in providing evidence of autonomic dysfunction in MCI. This is associated with orthostatic BP dysregulation and the ongoing follow-up of the study population will

  19. Self-ratings of physical attractiveness in a competitive context: when males are more sensitive to self-perceptions than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Gad; Gill, Tripat

    2009-10-01

    The authors investigated sex differences in the ratings of physical attractiveness in a competitive context. Participants in an Ultimatum Game experiment offered to split a sum of money with their opponents who could either accept or reject the offers; subsequently, physical attractiveness ratings (both self-ratings and of the other) were obtained. The authors found that male participants rated themselves higher on physical attractiveness when facing male opponents than when facing female ones; there was no such difference for the female participants. Furthermore, male participants' self-ratings of physical attractiveness were higher than the ratings provided by their corresponding male opponents. The authors discuss these findings using the tenets of evolutionary psychology pertaining to as male intra-sexual rivalry in competitive contexts.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  6. The effect of substrate rotation rate on physical properties of cadmium telluride films prepared by a glancing angle deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Siyanaki, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.hosseini@gmail.com; Rezagholipour Dizaji, Hamid, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com; Khorramabadi, Shiva, E-mail: khorramabadi.sh@gmail.com

    2015-02-27

    Physical properties of cadmium telluride thin films, deposited on glass substrates by modified glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with various substrate rates of rotation, were investigated in this study. In contrast to obliquely columnar thin films fabricated by the conventional GLAD technique, in which higher columnar angle is coupled to higher degree of porosity, this study introduces obliquely deposited thin films which have packed columnar structures despite their highly tilted columns. Structural and optical properties and surface morphology of the CdTe thin films deposited by this technique were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Glancing angle deposition technique was employed to prepare CdTe thin films. • The effect of substrate rate of rotation on optical properties was studied. • Highly tilted and packed columnar structure was fabricated. • A dramatic decline in refractive index in one of the specimens was observed.

  7. Effect of Low-Intensity Physical Activity and Moderate- to High-Intensity Physical Exercise During Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Physical Fitness, Fatigue, and Chemotherapy Completion Rates: Results of the PACES Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M; van Harten, Wim H; Geleijn, Edwin; Kieffer, Jacobien M; Buffart, Laurien M; de Maaker-Berkhof, Marianne; Boven, Epie; Schrama, Jolanda; Geenen, Maud M; Meerum Terwogt, Jetske M; van Bochove, Aart; Lustig, Vera; van den Heiligenberg, Simone M; Smorenburg, Carolien H; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A J H; Sonke, Gabe S; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-06-10

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a low-intensity, home-based physical activity program (Onco-Move) and a moderate- to high-intensity, combined supervised resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack) versus usual care (UC) in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, enhancing health-related quality of life, and optimizing chemotherapy completion rates in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. We randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy (N = 230) to Onco-Move, OnTrack, or UC. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes were assessed before random assignment, at the end of chemotherapy, and at the 6-month follow-up. We used generalized estimating equations to compare the groups over time. Onco-Move and OnTrack resulted in less decline in cardiorespiratory fitness (P physical functioning (P ≤ .001), less nausea and vomiting (P = .029 and .031, respectively) and less pain (P = .003 and .011, respectively) compared with UC. OnTrack also resulted in better outcomes for muscle strength (P = .002) and physical fatigue (P exercise program is most effective for patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. A home-based, low-intensity physical activity program represents a viable alternative for women who are unable or unwilling to follow the higher intensity program. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. GAMA/H-ATLAS: common star formation rate indicators and their dependence on galaxy physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Norberg, P.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Heinis, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Cooray, A.; da Cunha, E.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Lacey, C.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Owers, M. S.; Popescu, C. C.; Smith, D. J. B.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-09-01

    We compare common star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the local Universe in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) equatorial fields (˜160 deg2), using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from GALEX, far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) photometry from Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, and Hα spectroscopy from the GAMA survey. With a high-quality sample of 745 galaxies (median redshift = 0.08), we consider three SFR tracers: UV luminosity corrected for dust attenuation using the UV spectral slope β (SFRUV, corr), Hα line luminosity corrected for dust using the Balmer decrement (BD) (SFRH α, corr), and the combination of UV and infrared (IR) emission (SFRUV + IR). We demonstrate that SFRUV, corr can be reconciled with the other two tracers after applying attenuation corrections by calibrating Infrared excess (IRX; i.e. the IR to UV luminosity ratio) and attenuation in the Hα (derived from BD) against β. However, β, on its own, is very unlikely to be a reliable attenuation indicator. We find that attenuation correction factors depend on parameters such as stellar mass (M*), z and dust temperature (Tdust), but not on Hα equivalent width or Sérsic index. Due to the large scatter in the IRX versus β correlation, when compared to SFRUV + IR, the β-corrected SFRUV, corr exhibits systematic deviations as a function of IRX, BD and Tdust.

  9. Heart rate recovery normality data recorded in response to a maximal exercise test in physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Martín López, Aurora; Nuñez, María Jesús; López Chicharro, Jose

    2014-06-01

    Despite a growing clinical interest in determining the heart rate recovery (HRR) response to exercise, the limits of a normal HRR have not yet been well established. This study was designed to examine HRR following a controlled maximal exercise test in healthy, physically active adult men. The subjects recruited (n = 789) performed a maximal stress test on a treadmill. HRR indices were calculated by subtracting the first and third minute heart rates (HRs) during recovery from the maximal HR obtained during stress testing and designated these as HRR-1 and HRR-3, respectively. The relative change in HRR was determined as the decrease in HR produced at the time points 1 and 3 min after exercise as a percentage of the peak HR (%HRR-1/HR(peak) and %HRR-3/HR(peak), respectively). Percentile values of HRR-1 and HRR-3 were generated for the study population. Mean HHR-1 and HHR-3 were 15.24 ± 8.36 and 64.58 ± 12.17 bpm, respectively, and %HRR-1/HR(peak) and %HRR-3/HR(peak) were 8.60 ± 4.70 and 36.35 ± 6.79%, respectively. Significant correlation was detected between Peak VO2 and HRR-3 (r = 0.36; p < 0.001) or %HRR-3/HR(peak) (r = 0.23; p < 0.001). Our study provides normality data for HRR following a maximal Ergometry test obtained in a large population of physically active men.

  10. MICROST: A mixed approach for heart rate monitoring during intensive physical exercise using wrist-type PPG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shilin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of heart rate (HR) monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals is strongly influenced by motion artifacts (MAs), since the intensive physical exercises are common in real world. Few works focus on this study so far because of unsatisfying quality of corrupted PPG signals. In this paper, we propose an accurate and efficient strategy, named MICROST, which estimates heart rate based on a mixed approach. The MICROST framework is designed as a MIxed algorithm which consists of acceleration Classification (AC), fiRst-frame prOcessing and heuriStic Tracking. Experimental results using recordings from 12 subjects during fast running and intensive movement showed the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.58 beat per minute (BPM), and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground-truth of heart rate was 0.988. We discuss our approach in real time to face the applications of wearable devices such as smart-watches in reality.

  11. Gamma Ray Burst and star formation rates: The physical origin for the redshift evolution of their ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M; Tacchella, S

    2013-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and galaxies at high redshift represent complementary probes of the star formation history of the Universe. In fact, both the GRB rate and the galaxy luminosity density are connected to the underlying star formation. Here, we combine a star formation model for the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function from z=0 to z=10 with a metallicity-dependent efficiency for GRB formation to simultaneously predict the comoving GRB rate. Our model sheds light on the physical origin of the empirical relation often assumed between GRB rate and luminosity density-derived star formation rate: Rgrb(z) = \\epsilon(z)*SFR_{obs}(z), with \\epsilon(z) (1+z)^{1.2}. At z0. Models with total suppression of GRB formation at log(Z/Zsun)>0 are disfavored. At z>4, most of the star formation happens in low-metallicity hosts with nearly saturated efficiency of GRB production per unit stellar mass. However at the same epoch, galaxy surveys miss an increasing fraction of the predicted luminosity density because of f...

  12. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wu-jun; WANG Shao-hua; WU Long-mei; DING Yan-feng; WENG Fei; WU Xiao-ran; LI Gang-hua; LIU Zheng-hui; TANG She; DING Cheng-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Lodging is an important factor limiting rice yield and quality by bending or breaking stem injaponica rice (Oryza sativaL.) production. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanism of lodging resistance injaponica rice as affected by carbohydrate components, especialy its related arrangement in culm tissue and response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Field experiments were conducted in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province, China, by using twojaponica rice vari-eties Wuyunjing 23 (lodging-resistance variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety) with three top-dressing N fertilizer rates (0, 135 and 270 kg N ha–1) in 2013 and 2014. Lodging related physical parameters, morphological characteristics and stem carbohydrate components were investigated at 30 d after ful heading stage. Results showed that with increasing N fertilizer rates, the lodging rate and lodging index increased rapidly primarily due to signiifcant reduction of breaking strength in twojaponica rice varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that breaking strength was signiifcantly and positively correlated with bending stress, but negatively correlated with section modulus, except for signiifcant correlation at W3668 in 2014. Higher stem plumpness status and structural carbohydrate contents signiifcantly enhanced stem stiffness, despite of lower non-structural carbohydrate. With higher N fertilizer rate, the culm wal thickness was almost identical, and culm diameter increased slightly. The structural carbohydrates, especialy for lignin content in culm, reduced signiifcantly under high N rate. Further histochemical staining analysis revealed that high N treatments decreased the lignin deposition rapidly in the sclerenchyma cels of mechanical tissue, large vascular bundle and smal vascular bundle region, which were consistent with reduction of bending stress, especialy for W3668 and thus, resulted in poor stem strength and higher lodging index. These results suggested that

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  17. Practical cut-offs for visual rating scales of medial temporal, frontal and posterior atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D; Cavallin, L; Larsson, E-M; Muehlboeck, J-S; Mecocci, P; Vellas, B; Tsolaki, M; Kłoszewska, I; Soininen, H; Lovestone, S; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L-O; Westman, E

    2015-09-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe, frontal lobe and posterior cortex can be measured with visual rating scales such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy - frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales, respectively. However, practical cut-offs are urgently needed, especially now that different presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are included in the revised diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to generate a list of practical cut-offs for the MTA, GCA-F and PA scales, for both diagnosis of AD and determining prognosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to evaluate the influence of key demographic and clinical factors on these cut-offs. AddNeuroMed and ADNI cohorts were combined giving a total of 1147 participants (322 patients with AD, 480 patients with MCI and 345 control subjects). The MTA, GCA-F and PA scales were applied and a broad range of cut-offs was evaluated. The MTA scale showed better diagnostic and predictive performances than the GCA-F and PA scales. Age, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status and age at disease onset influenced all three scales. For the age ranges 45-64, 65-74, 75-84 and 85-94 years, the following cut-offs should be used. MTA: ≥1.5, ≥1.5, ≥2 and ≥2.5; GCA-F, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1; and PA, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1, respectively, with an adjustment for early-onset ApoE ε4 noncarrier AD patients (MTA: ≥2, ≥2, ≥3 and ≥3; and GCA-F: ≥1, ≥1, ≥2 and ≥2, respectively). If successfully validated in clinical settings, the list of practical cut-offs proposed here might be useful in clinical practice. Their use might also (i) promote research on atrophy subtypes, (ii) increase the understanding of different presentations of AD, (iii) improve diagnosis and prognosis and (iv) aid population selection and enrichment for clinical trials. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Correlation between Global Rating Scale and Specific Checklist Scores for Professional Behaviour of Physical Therapy Students in Practical Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the specific item checklist (checklist and global rating scale (GRS scores are correlated in practical skills examinations (PSEs. Professional behaviour was evaluated using both the checklist and GRS scores for 183 students in three PSEs. Mean, standard deviation, and correlation for checklist and GRS scores were calculated for each station, within each PSE. Pass rate for checklist and GRS was determined for each PSE, as well as for each individual checklist item within each PSE. Overall, pass rate was high for both checklist and GRS evaluations of professional behaviour in all PSEs. Generally, mean scores for the checklist and GRS were high, with low standard deviations, resulting in low data variability. Spearman correlation between total checklist and GRS scores was statistically significant for two out of five stations in PSE 1, five out of six stations in PSE 2, and three out of four stations in PSE 3. The GRS is comparable to the checklist for evaluation of professional behaviour in physical therapy (PT students. The correlation between the checklist and GRS appears to become stronger in the assessment of more advanced students.

  19. Effects of high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser micromachining on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Luo, Yiming; Yu, Jian; Liu, Bowen; Hu, Minglie; Chai, Lu; Wang, Chingyue

    2015-10-19

    The effects of femtosecond laser ablation, with 115 fs pulses at 1040 nm wavelength and 57 MHz repetition-rate, on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA) were studied in air and in water. The surface of the PLA sample ablated by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser was analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the experiments in the air at ambient temperature, melting resolidification was negligible for the experiments conducted under water. Neither in air nor under water did oxidation and crystallization process take place in the laser ablated surface. In addition, the intensity of some oxygen related peaks increased for water experiments, probably due to the hydrolysis. Meantime, the chemical shift to higher energies appeared in C1s XPS spectrum of laser processing in water. Interestingly, a large amount of defects were observed after laser processing in air, while no significant change was shown under water experiments. This indicates that thermal and mechanical effects by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser ablation in water are quite limited, which could be even ignored.

  20. Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: a self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394 British secondary school students (204 boys, 189 girls, 1 gender not specified; M age = 11.97 years; SD = .89; range = 11-14 years) who responded to a multisection inventory (tapping autonomy-support, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and self-determined motivation). The students' respective PE teachers subsequently provided ratings reflecting the effort and persistence each student exhibited in their PE classes. The hypothesized relationships among the study variables were examined via structural equation modeling analysis using latent factors. Results of maximum likelihood analysis using the bootstrapping method revealed the proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data, chi-squared (292) = 632.68, p motivation positively predicted teacher ratings of effort and persistence in PE. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing student motivation in PE settings.

  1. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (PHorse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  2. Physical activity does not influence the effect of antioxidant supplementation at nutritional doses on the incidence of impaired fasting glucose: a 7.5 year post-hoc analysis from the SU.VI.MAX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezeu, L; Henegar, A; Kesse-Guyot, E; Julia, C; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; Ristow, M; Czernichow, S

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation with high doses of antioxidant vitamins prevents the insulin-sensitizing effects of physical exercise. However, little is known whether antioxidant supplementation affects the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Data from 8938 subjects included in a randomized controlled trial on supplementation with antioxidants vitamins and trace elements at nutritional doses (SU.VI.MAX) were used to examine the effects of antioxidants on incident IFG after 7.5 years of follow-up, with and without stratification for daily physical exercise. The odds-ratio (95% CI) for developing an IFG among study participants receiving antioxidant supplementation was 1.34 (0.90-1.97) (p=0.33), in comparison to placebo. This risk did not vary significantly according to physical activity level (p for homogeneity=0.10). Supplementation with trace elements and antioxidants at nutritional doses apparently does not affect the incidence of IFG irrespective of self-reported physical exercise habits.

  3. The Nature and Rate of Behaviour That Challenges in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Hearing Impairments/Deafness (A Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskermolen, Willem Meindert; Hoekman, Joop; Aldenkamp, Albert Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this article, we describe our study of the prevalence of behaviour that challenges and which internal factors are related to behaviour that challenges in 21 people (fourteen are male, seven are female, varying in age from 12.4 to 42 years; mean 26.6, SD 7.27) with intellectual disabilities who have hearing impairments. Materials and…

  4. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursion in Listeners with Normal Hearing and Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency fluctuations in human voices can usually be described as coherent frequency modulation (FM). As listeners with hearing impairment (HI listeners) are typically less sensitive to FM than listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners), this study investigated whether hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM…

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  6. Physical Activity Is not Associated with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Young and Middle-Aged Adults : Results from the Population-Based Longitudinal Doetinchem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hulsegge, Gerben; Hartman, Linda; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2015-01-01

    There is debate as to whether physical inactivity is associated with reduced kidney function. We studied the prospective association of (changes in) physical activity with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adult men and women. We included 3,935 participants aged 26 to 65 years from the

  7. Longitudinal associations between physical and cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena I Tolea

    Full Text Available To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217; physical only (n = 169; cognitive only (n = 158, or both (n = 220] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations. Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills. We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, p<0.001, with baseline physical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294. In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk.

  8. The Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C): A Rating Scale for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Pre-Dementia Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Brodaty, Henry; Cieslak, Alicja; Cummings, Jeffrey; Fischer, Corinne E; Gauthier, Serge; Geda, Yonas E; Herrmann, Nathan; Kanji, Jamila; Lanctôt, Krista L; Miller, David S; Mortby, Moyra E; Onyike, Chiadi U; Rosenberg, Paul B; Smith, Eric E; Smith, Gwenn S; Sultzer, David L; Lyketsos, Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a construct that describes the emergence at ≥50 years of age of sustained and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), as a precursor to cognitive decline and dementia. MBI describes NPS of any severity, which are not captured by traditional psychiatric nosology, persist for at least 6 months, and occur in advance of or in concert with mild cognitive impairment. While the detection and description of MBI has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria, there is no instrument that accurately reflects MBI as described. To develop an instrument based on ISTAART-AA MBI criteria. Eighteen subject matter experts participated in development using a modified Delphi process. An iterative process ensured items reflected the five MBI domains of 1) decreased motivation; 2) emotional dysregulation; 3) impulse dyscontrol; 4) social inappropriateness; and 5) abnormal perception or thought content. Instrument language was developed a priori to pertain to non-demented functionally independent older adults. We present the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C), a 34-item instrument, which can easily be completed by a patient, close informant, or clinician. The MBI-C provides the first measure specifically developed to assess the MBI construct as explicitly described in the criteria. Its utility lies in MBI case detection, and monitoring the emergence of MBI symptoms and domains over time. Studies are required to determine the prognostic value of MBI for dementia development, and for predicting different dementia subtypes.

  9. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Pérez-Zepeda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery.Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study.Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada, Tirana (Albania, Manizales (Colombia, and Natal (Brazil.Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995.The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable (SPPB less than 8 was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable, adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin.A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites.These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults.

  10. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  11. Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

  12. The influence of self-rated health on the development of change in the level of physical activity for participants in prescribed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Singhammer, John

    2011-01-01

    with values of 28% and 79%, respectively. Conclusions: Exercise on Prescription (EoP) improves levels of physical activity (MET) of participants with good and poor self-rated health in the long term enough to accommodate national guidelines of levels of physical activity. Participants with poor self...... issues such as self-rated quality of life and self-rated health. This study extends previous research conducted on the long-term influence of prescribed exercise on psychosocial issues. Specifically, it was analysed if participants’ level of self-rated health (good or poor) at baseline would be decisive...... for the level of physical activity in the long term. Methods: This study included a baseline analysis of participants in a treatment group (TG) and follow-up after 4, 10 and 16 months. The TG included individuals with lifestyle diseases who followed supervised group-based training and received motivational...

  13. A slow cooling rate of indomethacin melt spatially confined in microcontainers increases the physical stability of the amorphous drug without influencing its biorelevant dissolution behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous indomethacin was prepared by melting the γ-form of indomethacin, spatially confined within microcontainers (inner diameter of 223 μm), followed by cooling of the melt at a rate of 14, 23 or 36 K/min. The physical stability of the amorphous indomethacin within microcontainers was investi......Amorphous indomethacin was prepared by melting the γ-form of indomethacin, spatially confined within microcontainers (inner diameter of 223 μm), followed by cooling of the melt at a rate of 14, 23 or 36 K/min. The physical stability of the amorphous indomethacin within microcontainers....../min, whereas cracks and an uneven surface were observed when cooling at rates of 23 and 36 K/min. The uneven surface is hypothesised to be the main reason for the lower physical stability, as the cracks could act as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The rate of cooling was not seen to have any effect...

  14. Men's ratings of physical attractiveness, health, and partner suitability simultaneously versus separately: Does it matter whether within- or between-subjects designs are used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hull, Charlotte

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies have documented moderate-to-large associations between ratings of physical attractiveness and other interpersonal traits, but this research has invariably relied on within-subjects designs that leave open the possibility of halo effects or response biases. In the present study, 40 men completed the Photographic Figure Rating Scale in a within-subjects design, rating the figures for physical attractiveness, health, and suitability as a long-term partner. In addition, 108 men completed the same scale in a between-subjects design, being randomly allocated to one of three subgroups where they rated the figures for attractiveness, health, or suitability as a long-term partner. Results indicated no significant differences in ratings for the within-subjects participants. In contrast, there were significant differences in ratings for the between-subjects design. These results highlight the importance of considering halo and response bias effects when designing studies of interpersonal judgements and interpreting their results.

  15. Papain and its inhibitor E-64 reduce camelid semen viscosity without impairing sperm function and improve post-thaw motility rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, C.M.; Evans, G; Rodney, R.; Maxwell, W.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    In camelids, the development of assisted reproductive technologies is impaired by the viscous nature of the semen. The protease papain has shown promise in reducing viscosity, although its effect on sperm integrity is unknown. The present study determined the optimal papain concentration and exposure time to reduce seminal plasma viscosity and investigated the effect of papain and its inhibitor E-64 on sperm function and cryopreservation in alpacas. Papain (0.1 mg mL–1, 20 min, 37°C) eliminat...

  16. Robust heart rate estimation using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during physical exercise: an approach based on adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Sibylle; Vesin, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals are easily corrupted by motion artifacts when the subjects perform physical exercise. This paper introduces a two-step processing scheme to estimate heart rate (HR) from wrist-type PPG signals strongly corrupted by motion artifacts. Adaptive noise cancellation, using normalized least-mean-square algorithm, is first performed to attenuate motion artifacts and reconstruct multiple PPG waveforms from different combinations of corrupted PPG waveforms and accelerometer data. An adaptive band-pass filter is then used to track the common instantaneous frequency component (i.e. HR) of the reconstructed PPG waveforms. The proposed HR estimation scheme was evaluated on two datasets, composed of records from running subjects and subjects performing different kinds of arm/forearm movements and resulted in average absolute errors of 1.40  ±  0.60 and 4.28  ±  3.16 beats-per-minute for these two datasets, respectively. Importantly, the proposed method is fully automatic, induces an average estimation delay of 0.93 s, and is therefore suitable for real-time monitoring applications.

  17. Low-pressure effective fluorescence lifetimes and photo-physical rate constants of one- and two-ring aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, Thorsten; Faust, Stephan; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2015-12-01

    One- and two-ring aromatics such as toluene and naphthalene are frequently used molecular tracer species in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging diagnostics. Quantifying LIF signal intensities requires knowledge of the photo-physical processes that determine the fluorescence quantum yield. Collision-induced and intramolecular energy transfer processes in the excited electronic state closely interact under practical conditions. They can be separated through experiments at variable low pressures. Effective fluorescence lifetimes of gaseous toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, anisole, naphthalene, and 1-methylnaphthalene diluted in CO2 were measured after picosecond laser excitation at 266 nm and time-resolved detection of fluorescence intensities. Measurements in an optically accessible externally heated cell between 296 and 475 K and 0.010-1 bar showed that effective fluorescence lifetimes generally decrease with temperature, while the influence of the bath-gas pressure depends on the respective target species and temperature. The results provide non-radiative and fluorescence rate constants and experimentally validate the effect of photo-induced cooling.

  18. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  19. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  20. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albaugh, Vance L.; Judson, Jessica G.; She, Pengxiang; Lang, Charles H.; Maresca, Kevin P.; Joyal, John L.; Christopher J Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; while these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food...

  1. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  2. The use of combined heart rate response and accelerometry to assess the level and predictors of physical activity in tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, N

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: We assessed the role of tuberculosis (TB) disease and HIV infection on the level of physical activity. A combined heart rate and movement sensor was used to assess habitual physical activity in TB patients and non-TB controls. The association between sputum-negative TB, sputum-positive TB...... infection (eB 0·59, 95% CI 0·46-0·75) were associated with reduced activity compared to controls. Anaemia accounted for a substantial part of the effects of HIV, while elevated AGP primarily mediated the TB effect. The level of physical activity is highly influenced by TB and HIV, and mainly mediated...

  3. Joint association of screen time and physical activity on self-rated health and life satisfaction in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Nassim; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Rasool; Safiri, Saeid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Self-rated health and life satisfaction are two subjective measures for assessing overall health status. This study aims to investigate the association of self-rated health and life satisfaction with physical activity and screen time. As part of the fourth survey of a national surveillance program in Iran (CASPIAN-IV study), 14 880 students aged 6 to 18 years were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Data were obtained from the WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire. A total of 13 486 students with mean age of 12.47 (SD 3.36) completed the study. In crude model both prolonged screen time and physical activity were associated with favorable life satisfaction and self-rated health. However, in multivariate analysis only high physical activity was associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.39), while prolonged screen time was not associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.02) and life satisfaction (OR 0.94). For combined screen time-physical activity variable, low screen time-high physical activity combination had the highest OR for both good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.43) in multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that increasing physical activity is more crucial than emphasizing reducing screen time in improving the well-being of children and adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Physical mechanism or evolutionary trade-off? Factors dictating the relationship between metabolic rate and ambient temperature in carabid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Schramm, Bartosz W; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kozłowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    The tight association between ambient temperature (T) and metabolic rate (MR) is a common occurrence in ectotherms, but the determinants of this association are not fully understood. This study examined whether the relationship between MR and T is the same among individuals, as predicted by the Universal Temperature Dependence hypothesis, or whether this relationship differs between them. We used flow-through respirometry to measure standard MR and to determine gas exchange patterns for 111 individuals of three Carabidae species which differ in size (Abax ovalis, Carabus linnei and C. coriaceus), exposed to four different temperatures (ten individuals of each species measured at 6, 11, 16 and 21°C). We found a significant interaction between ln body mass and the inverse of temperature, indicating that in a given species, the effect of temperature on MR was weaker in larger individuals than in smaller individuals. Overall, this finding shows that the thermal dependence of MR is not body mass invariant. We observed three types of gas exchange patterns among beetles: discontinuous, cyclic and continuous. Additionally, the appearance of these patterns was associated with MR and T. Evolution in diverse terrestrial environments could affect diverse ventilation patterns, which accommodate changes in metabolism in response to temperature variation. In conclusion, explaining the variance in metabolism only through fundamental physical laws of thermodynamics, as predicted by the Universal Temperature Dependence hypothesis, appears to oversimplify the complexity of nature, ignoring evolutionary trade-offs that should be taken into account in the temperature - metabolism relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (Pphysical activity intensities. Establishing validity of wearable devices is of particular interest as these devices are being used in weight loss interventions and could impact findings. Future research should investigate why differences between exercise intensities and the devices exist.

  6. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health.

  7. Reliability of Clinician Rated Physical Effort Determination During Functional Capacity Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trippolini, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Jansen, B.; Oesch, P.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Reneman, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) can be used to make clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. During FCE the evaluator attempts to assess the amount of physical effort of the patient. The aim of this study is to analyze the reliability of physical effort determination using ob

  8. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  9. RELATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF DISEASE AND IMPAIRMENT OF HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE SECONDARY TO CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SZABO, BM; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; BROUWER, J; HAAKSMA, J; LIE, KI

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak oxygen consumption were compared to heart rate variability and analyzed in 79 heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fraction

  10. Incongruence of subjective memory impairment ratings and the experience of memory problems in older adults without dementia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki; Mogle, Jacqueline; Kitko, Lisa; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Wion, Rachel; Kitt-Lewis, Erin; Kolanowski, Ann

    2017-06-12

    The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of older adults living with subjective memory impairment (SMI) and examine the extent to which SMI severity was associated with impact of SMI on daily life. A mixed methods convergent design was utilized. Participants with SMI (n = 19, mean age 80.7 years) were recruited from community settings. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis; these findings were integrated with descriptive statistics from questionnaire and cognitive status data. The impact of SMI varied depending on the personal meaning individuals attributed to the experience. Older adults with normal cognition reported episodic memory problem compared to more pervasive problems reported by participants with mild cognitive deficits. The impact of memory problems ranged from frustration/embarrassment to avoidance of social activities, but the degree of emotional impact was not reflected in SMI severity or cognitive status. SMI is common in older adults without dementia but the impact on function and well-being is variable and does not seem to be associated with objective cognition. Future research is needed to validate these associations and to inform the development of SMI measures that accurately reflect older adults' experiences.

  11. Prática de atividade física habitual entre adolescentes com deficiência visual La actividad física habitual entre los adolescentes con discapacidad visual Habitual physical activity among adolescents with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A prática de atividade física é reconhecida como uma potente ferramenta na prevenção de doenças crônico-degenerativas, entretanto ainda se observa um elevado índice de sedentarismo na população, especialmente na parcela composta por pessoas com deficiência. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a prática habitual de atividade física em adolescentes com deficiência visual. Para tanto, 16 adolescentes com deficiência visual (idade = 12,81 ± 2,07 anos responderam a questionários e utilizaram pedômetro por quatro dias. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva, teste t independente e correlação, adotando-se em todas as situações significância de alfa La actividad física es reconocida como una herramienta en la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas, sin embargo, ha observado una alta tasa de inactividad de la población, sobre todo en la parte compuesta por personas con discapacidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica de actividad física en adolescentes con discapacidad visual. Para ello, 16 adolescentes con discapacidad visual (edad = 12,81 ± 2,07 años completaron cuestionarios y se utilizó podómetro durante 4 días. Fue utilizada estadística descriptiva, prueba t independiente y correlación, importancia de la alfa Physical activity practice is known as a great tool in chronic diseases prevention, however we can observe a high prevalence of sedentary habits, especially among people with disability. The purpose of this study was to analyze habitual physical activity practice in adolescents with visual impairment. For that, 16 adolescents with visual impairment (age = 12.81 ± 2.07 years old answered a questionnaire and used pedometer for four days. It was used descriptive statistic, independent T test and correlation, in every case with significance level alpha < 0.05. Results showed that physical activity level among adolescents was often below the recommended parameters. Girls and those

  12. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity : Changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated

  13. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity : Changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE AND MOBILITY IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cahill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences.  The car system (automobility has had as one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their local environment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion of physical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobility impaired people.  In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavement cycling.

  15. Three-month stability of the CogState brief battery in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle-rate of change substudy (AIBL-ROCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yen Ying; Jaeger, Judith; Harrington, Karra; Ashwood, Tim; Ellis, Kathryn A; Stöffler, Albrecht; Szoeke, Cassandra; Lachovitzki, Rebecca; Martins, Ralph N; Villemagne, Victor L; Bush, Ashley; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Large prospective studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have sought to understand the pathological evolution of AD and factors that may influence the rate of disease progression. Estimates of rates of cognitive change are available for 12 or 24 months, but not for shorter time frames (e.g., 3 or 6 months). Most clinical drug trials seeking to reduce or modify AD symptoms have been conducted over 12- or 24-week periods. As such, we aimed to characterize the performance of a group of healthy older adults, adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and adults with AD on the CogState battery of tests over short test-retest intervals. This study recruited 105 healthy older adults, 48 adults with aMCI, and 42 adults with AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle study and administered the CogState battery monthly over 3 months. The CogState battery of tests showed high test-retest reliability and stability in all clinical groups when participants were assessed over 3 months. When considered at baseline, the CogState battery of tests was able to detect AD-related cognitive impairment. The data provide important estimates of the reliability, stability, and variability of each cognitive test in healthy older adults, adults with aMCI, and adults with AD. This may potentially be used to inform future estimates of cognitive change in clinical trials.

  16. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursionin Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels henrik

    2014-01-01

    affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM cues. Method: Vibrato maps were obtained in 14 NH and 12 HI listeners with different degrees of musical experience. The FM rate and FM excursion of a synthesized vowel, to which coherent FM was applied, were adjusted until a singing voice emerged. Results......: In NH listeners, adding FM to the steady vowel components produced perception of a singing voice for FM rates between 4.1 and 7.5 Hz and FM excursions between 17 and 83 cents on average. In contrast, HI listeners showed substantially broader vibrato maps. Individual differences in map boundaries were......, overall, not correlated with audibility or frequency selectivity at the vowel fundamental frequency, with no clear effect of musical experience. Conclusion: Overall, it was shown that hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM-rate and FM-excursion cues, possibly due to deficits in FM...

  17. On the Physical Basis of Rate Law Formulations for River Evolution, and their Applicability to the Simulation of Evolution after Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Parker, G.; Fu, X.

    2015-12-01

    River morphology evolves in response to trade-offs among a series of environmental forcing factors, and this evolution will be disturbed if such environmental factors change. One example of response to chronic disturbance is the intensive river evolution after earthquakes in southwest China's mountain areas. When simulating river morphological response to environmental disturbance, an exponential rate law with a specified characteristic response time is often regarded as a practical tool for quantification. As conceptual models, empirical rate law formulations can be used to describe broad brush morphological response, but their physically basis is not solid in that they do not consider the details of morphodynamic processes. Meanwhile, river evolution can also be simulated with physically-based morphodynamic models which conserve sediment via the Exner equation. Here we study the links between the rate law formalism and the Exner equation through solving the Exner equation mathematically and numerically. The results show that, when implementing a very simplified form of a relation for bedload transport, the Exner equation can be reduced to the diffusion equation, the solution of which is a Gaussian function. This solution coincides with the solution associated with rate laws, thus providing a physical basis for such formulations. However, when the complexities of a natural river are considered, the solution of the Exner equation will no longer be a simple Gaussian function. Under such circumstances, the rate law becomes invalid, and a full understanding of the response of rivers to earthquakes requires a complete morphodynamic model.

  18. Heart failure patients demonstrate impaired changes in brachial artery blood flow and shear rate pattern during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Lier, D.P. van; Bellersen, L.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects. What is the main finding and its importance? Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF

  19. Evaluating sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to physical weathering using a soil evolution model (SoilGen2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolot, E.; Finke, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    Silicate mineral dissolution rates depend on the interaction of a number of factors categorized either as intrinsic (e.g. mineral surface area, mineral composition) or extrinsic (e.g. climate, hydrology, biological factors, physical weathering). Estimating the integrated effect of these factors on the silicate mineral dissolution rates therefore necessitates the use of fully mechanistic soil evolution models. This study applies a mechanistic soil evolution model (SoilGen) to explore the sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to the integrated effect of other soil-forming processes and factors. The SoilGen soil evolution model is a 1-D model developed to simulate the time-depth evolution of soil properties as a function of various soil-forming processes (e.g. water, heat and solute transport, chemical and physical weathering, clay migration, nutrient cycling, and bioturbation) driven by soil-forming factors (i.e., climate, organisms, relief, parent material). Results from this study show that although soil solution chemistry (pH) plays a dominant role in determining the silicate mineral dissolution rates, all processes that directly or indirectly influence the soil solution composition play an equally important role in driving silicate mineral dissolution rates. Model results demonstrated a decrease of silicate mineral dissolution rates with time, an obvious effect of texture and an indirect but substantial effect of physical weathering on silicate mineral dissolution rates. Results further indicated that clay migration and plant nutrient recycling processes influence the pH and thus the silicate mineral dissolution rates. Our silicate mineral dissolution rates results fall between field and laboratory rates but were rather high and more close to the laboratory rates possibly due to the assumption of far from equilibrium reaction used in our dissolution rate mechanism. There is therefore a need to include secondary mineral precipitation mechanism in our

  20. Physical weathering and regolith behaviour in a high erosion rate badland area at the Pyrenees: research design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regües, D.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on badland areas in the Vallcebre basin (High Llobregat suggested that the erosion rates are controlled by weathering rate of mudrocks. The present work was started to characterize the physical weathering processes and rates in relationship with thermal and moisture conditions.
    The method used consists of the continuous monitoring of regolith temperatures at different conditions of aspect, depth and lithology (color, and the periodical sampling of regolith moisture and bulk density, the last taken as an indicator of the weathering status. Besides this quantitative information, the changes of the surface of the regolith have been monitored with the help of photographic techniques, using a especially designed tripod. To complete the field observations, a laboratory experiment is being performed, analyzing the volumetric changes suffered by undisturbed rock samples subject to thermal and moisture oscillations.
    The results obtained emphasize the role of frost action, especially during wet conditions. Aspect and lithologic differences introduce significant nuances in thermal regime and volumetric changes respectively.

    [es] Estudios anteriores en zonas acarcavadas de la cuenca de Vallcebre (Alto Llobregat sugieren que las tasas de erosión están limitadas por la meteorización de las rocas arcillosas que las constituyen. El presente trabajo ha sido planteado para caracterizar y evaluar los procesos de meteorización física en relación con los regímenes térmico e hídrico.
    El método empleado consiste en la monitorización continua de temperaturas del aire y del regolito en diversas condiciones de profundidad, exposición y litología (color, así como el muestreo periódico de humedad y densidad aparente, considerada ésta última como indicadora del grado de meteorización. Además de esta información cuantitativa, se ha realizado un seguimiento de los cambios en la micromorfología superficial, mediante

  1. The rate of second electron transfer to QB(-) in bacterial reaction center of impaired proton delivery shows hydrogen-isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Ágnes; Wraight, Colin A; Maróti, Péter

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd electron transfer in reaction center of photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a two step process in which protonation of QB(-) precedes interquinone electron transfer. The thermal activation and pH dependence of the overall rate constants of different RC variants were measured and compared in solvents of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O). The electron transfer variants where the electron transfer is rate limiting (wild type and M17DN, L210DN and H173EQ mutants) do not show solvent isotope effect and the significant decrease of the rate constant of the second electron transfer in these mutants is due to lowering the operational pKa of QB(-)/QBH: 4.5 (native), 3.9 (L210DN), 3.7 (M17DN) and 3.1 (H173EQ) at pH7. On the other hand, the proton transfer variants where the proton transfer is rate limiting demonstrate solvent isotope effect of pH-independent moderate magnitude (2.11±0.26 (WT+Ni(2+)), 2.16±0.35 (WT+Cd(2+)) and 2.34±0.44 (L210DN/M17DN)) or pH-dependent large magnitude (5.7 at pH4 (L213DN)). Upon deuteration, the free energy and the enthalpy of activation increase in all proton transfer variants by about 1 kcal/mol and the entropy of activation becomes negligible in L210DN/M17DN mutant. The results are interpreted as manifestation of equilibrium and kinetic solvent isotope effects and the structural, energetic and kinetic possibility of alternate proton delivery pathways are discussed.

  2. Analytical bit error rate performance evaluation of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing power line communication system impaired by impulsive and Gaussian channel noise

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi Mahbubur Rahman; Satya Prasad Majumder

    2015-01-01

    An analytical approach is presented to evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance of a power line (PL) communication system considering the combined influence of impulsive noise and background PL Gaussian noise. Middleton class-A noise model is considered to evaluate the effect of impulsive noise. The analysis is carried out to find the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio and BER considering orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with binary phase shift keying modulation wit...

  3. Gut evacuation rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with different physical properties. A CREATE project

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Turid Synnøve; Ytrestøyl, Trine; Hatlen, Bjarne; Sixten, Hanne Jorun; Hillestad, Marie; Sveier, Harald; Selset, Roger; Åsgård, Torbjørn Einar

    2014-01-01

    To measure the effect of physical feed quality on gut evacuation, Atlantic salmon with mean weight 1047 g (measured after finishing the sampling) was fed two extruded feeds with different physical quality to satiation. Each feed quality was produced in three batches to contain three different markers (La, Yb and Y). The measured hardness for Diet 1 was 128.5, 140.5 and 152.1 N for the batches added La, Yb and Y, respectively. For Diet 2, the corresponding figures were 148.2, 172.0 and 153.3 N...

  4. Heart failure patients demonstrate impaired changes in brachial artery blood flow and shear rate pattern during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Nathalie M M; Seeger, Joost P H; van Lier, Dirk P T; Bellersen, Louise; van Dijk, Arie P J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects. What is the main finding and its importance? Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF patients is associated with an attenuated increase in brachial artery anterograde and mean shear rate and skin temperature. Differences between HF patients and control subjects cannot be explained fully by differences in workload. HF patients demonstrate a less favourable shear rate pattern during cycle exercise compared with control subjects. Repeated elevations in shear rate (SR) in conduit arteries, which occur during exercise, represent a key stimulus to improve vascular function. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate distinct changes in SR in response to moderate-intensity cycle exercise compared with healthy control subjects. We examined brachial artery SR during 40 min of cycle exercise at a work rate equivalent to 65% peak oxygen uptake in 14 HF patients (65 ± 7 years old, 13 men and one woman) and 14 control subjects (61 ± 5 years old, 12 men and two women). Brachial artery diameter, SR and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were assessed using ultrasound at baseline and during exercise. The HF patients demonstrated an attenuated increase in mean and anterograde brachial artery SR during exercise compared with control subjects (time × group interaction, P = 0.003 and P exercise and remained increased throughout the exercise period in both groups (time × group interaction, P = 0.11). In control subjects, the immediate increase in OSI during exercise (time, P exercise did not normalize in HF patients (time × group interaction, P = 0.029). Subgroup analysis of five HF patients and five control subjects with comparable workload (97 ± 13 versus 90 ± 22 W, P = 0.59) confirmed the presence of distinct changes in mean SR during exercise (time × group

  5. MIMO Transmission with Residual Transmit-RF Impairments

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Burg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Physical transceiver implementations for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems suffer from transmit-RF (Tx-RF) impairments. In this paper, we study the effect on channel capacity and error-rate performance of residual Tx-RF impairments that defy proper compensation. In particular, we demonstrate that such residual distortions severely degrade the performance of (near-)optimum MIMO detection algorithms. To mitigate this performance loss, we propose an efficient algorithm, which is based on an i.i.d. Gaussian model for the distortion caused by these impairments. In order to validate this model, we provide measurement results based on a 4-stream Tx-RF chain implementation for MIMO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM).

  6. Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population. METHODS: Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007-2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore...... a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous and sedentary intensity level were derived from the IPAQ...

  7. Individualizing pharmacotherapy in patients with renal impairment: the validity of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula in specific patient populations with a glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn L Eppenga

    Full Text Available The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula is widely used in clinical practice to assess the correct drug dose. This formula is based on serum creatinine levels which might be influenced by chronic diseases itself or the effects of the chronic diseases. We conducted a systematic review to determine the validity of the MDRD formula in specific patient populations with renal impairment: elderly, hospitalized and obese patients, patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and human immunodeficiency virus.We searched for articles in Pubmed published from January 1999 through January 2014. Selection criteria were (1 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min (/1.73 m2, (2 MDRD formula compared with a gold standard and (3 statistical analysis focused on bias, precision and/or accuracy. Data extraction was done by the first author and checked by a second author. A bias of 20% or less, a precision of 30% or less and an accuracy expressed as P30% of 80% or higher were indicators of the validity of the MDRD formula. In total we included 27 studies. The number of patients included ranged from 8 to 1831. The gold standard and measurement method used varied across the studies. For none of the specific patient populations the studies provided sufficient evidence of validity of the MDRD formula regarding the three parameters. For patients with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis, hospitalized patients and elderly with moderate to severe renal impairment we concluded that the MDRD formula is not valid. Limitations of the review are the lack of considering the method of measuring serum creatinine levels and the type of gold standard used.In several specific patient populations with renal impairment the use of the MDRD formula is not valid or has uncertain validity.

  8. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Coco D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Lo Coco,1 Gianluca Lopez,1 Salvatore Corrao,2,31Neurology and Stroke Unit, 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, Palermo, 3Centre of Research for Effectiveness and Appropriateness in Medicine (C.R.E.A.M., Di.Bi.M.I.S., University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Abstract: We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the

  9. Effects of the Size of Cosmological N-body Simulations on Physical Quantities – II: Halo Formation and Destruction Rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayanti Prasad

    2007-06-01

    In this study we show how errors due to finite box size affect formation and the destruction rate for haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. In an earlier study we gave an analytic prescription of finding the corrections in the mass function. Following the same approach, in this paper we give analytical expressions for corrections in the formation rate, destruction rate and the rate of change in comoving number density, and compute their expected values for the power law ( = -2) and LCDM models.

  10. Effect of Late Revascularization of a Totally Occluded Coronary Artery After Myocardial Infarction on Mortality Rates in Patients with Renal Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Ramin; Hochman, Judith S.; Dzavik, Vladimir; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Forman, Sandra A.; Schiele, Francois; Michalis, Lampros K.; Nikas, Dimitris; Jaroch, Joanna; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2012-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and a negative prognostic indicator after myocardial infarction (MI). Randomized data comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to medical therapy in MI patients with renal insufficiency are needed. The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) compared optimal medical therapy alone to PCI with optimal medical therapy in 2201 high risk patients with an occluded infarct artery >24 hours post-MI with serum creatinine ≤2.5 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, MI, and class IV heart failure (HF). Analyses were carried out utilizing estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) as a continuous variable and by eGFR categories. Long term follow up data (maximum 9 years) were used for this analysis. Lower eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) was associated with development of the primary outcome (6-year life-table rate 16.9% in eGFR>90; 19.2% in eGFR 60–89; 34.9% in eGFR<60; p-value <0.0001), death, and class IV HF, with no difference in rates of reinfarction. On multivariable analysis, eGFR was an independent predictor of death and HF. There was no effect of treatment assignment on the primary endpoint regardless of eGFR, and there was no significant interaction between eGFR and treatment assignment on any outcome. In conclusion, lower eGFR at enrollment was independently associated with death and HF in OAT participants. Despite this increased risk, the lack of benefit from PCI in the overall trial was also seen in patients with renal dysfunction and persistent occlusion of the infarct artery in the subacute phase post MI. PMID:22728005

  11. Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Jäger; Claudia Scherr; Meinhard Simon; Peter Heusser; Stephan Baumgartner

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homeopathically potentized Arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid in a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). The test substances were applied in nine potency levels (17x, 18x, 21x–24x, 28x, 30x, 33x) and compared with controls (unsuccussed and succussed water) regarding their influence on the plant’s growth rate. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic(V) for 48 h. Afterwards, plants grew in either potentized substances or water contro...

  12. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  14. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  15. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  16. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  17. The effect of physical restraint on behavior under the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Loughead, Thomas E.

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies have identified and manipulated collateral behavior to assess the effect of collateral behavior on performance under the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule. However, conclusions could not be applied to subjects not observed to engage in collateral behavior. The present study used a technique that prevented the occurrence of the types of collateral behavior typically observed in the pigeon. This technique did not require the identification of collateral behavior in the subjects. The exclusion of the types of collateral behavior typically observed in pigeons resulted in higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates under large DRL values but had no effect at lower DRL values. It was concluded that collateral behavior is necessary for low response rates and high reinforcement rates under large DRL values. PMID:16811757

  18. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-04-28

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  19. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DODGE COUNTY, WISCONSIN (AND INCORPORATED AREAS) - Fox Lake Physical Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  20. Slow physical growth, delayed reflex ontogeny and permanent behavioural as well as cognitive impairments in rats following intra-generational protein malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIJAZ AHMAD NAIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stressors including protein malnutrition (PMN during pre-, neo- and post-natal age have been documented to affect cognitive development and cause increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Most studies have addressed either of the three windows and that does not emulate the clinical conditions of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR. Such data fail to provide a complete picture of the behavioural alterations in the F1 generation. The present study thus addresses the larger window from gestation to F1 generation, a new model of intra-generational PMN. Naive Sprague Dawley (SD dams pre-gestationally switched to LP (8% protein or HP (20% protein diets for 45 days were bred and maintained throughout gestation on same diets. Pups born (HP/LP dams were maintained on the respective diets post-weaningly. The present study aimed to show the sex specific differences in the neurobehavioral evolution and behavioural phenotype of the HP/LP F1 generation pups. A battery of neurodevelopmental reflex tests, behavioural (Open field and forelimb gripstrength test and cognitive (Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze assays were performed. A decelerated growth curve with significantly restricted body and brain weight, delays in apparition of neuro-reflexes and poor performance in the LP group rats was recorded. Intra-generational PMN induced poor habituation-with-time in novel environment exploration, low anxiety and hyperactive like profile in open field test in young and adult rats. The study revealed poor forelimb neuromuscular strength in LP F1 pups till adulthood. Group occupancy plots in Morris water maze test revealed hyperactivity with poor learning, impaired memory retention and integration, thus modeling the signs of early onset Alzehemier phenotype. In addition, a gender specific effect of LP diet with severity in males and favouring female sex was also noticed.

  1. Slow Physical Growth, Delayed Reflex Ontogeny, and Permanent Behavioral as Well as Cognitive Impairments in Rats Following Intra-generational Protein Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aijaz A.; Patro, Ishan K.; Patro, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors including protein malnutrition (PMN) during pre-, neo- and post-natal age have been documented to affect cognitive development and cause increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Most studies have addressed either of the three windows and that does not emulate the clinical conditions of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Such data fail to provide a complete picture of the behavioral alterations in the F1 generation. The present study thus addresses the larger window from gestation to F1 generation, a new model of intra-generational PMN. Naive Sprague Dawley (SD) dams pre-gestationally switched to LP (8% protein) or HP (20% protein) diets for 45 days were bred and maintained throughout gestation on same diets. Pups born (HP/LP dams) were maintained on the respective diets post-weaningly. The present study aimed to show the sex specific differences in the neurobehavioral evolution and behavioral phenotype of the HP/LP F1 generation pups. A battery of neurodevelopmental reflex tests, behavioral (Open field and forelimb gripstrength test), and cognitive [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM)] assays were performed. A decelerated growth curve with significantly restricted body and brain weight, delays in apparition of neuro-reflexes and poor performance in the LP group rats was recorded. Intra-generational PMN induced poor habituation-with-time in novel environment exploration, low anxiety and hyperactive like profile in open field test in young and adult rats. The study revealed poor forelimb neuromuscular strength in LP F1 pups till adulthood. Group occupancy plots in MWM test revealed hyperactivity with poor learning, impaired memory retention and integration, thus modeling the signs of early onset Alzehemier phenotype. In addition, a gender specific effect of LP diet with severity in males and favoring female sex was also noticed. PMID:26696810

  2. Slow Physical Growth, Delayed Reflex Ontogeny, and Permanent Behavioral as Well as Cognitive Impairments in Rats Following Intra-generational Protein Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aijaz A; Patro, Ishan K; Patro, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors including protein malnutrition (PMN) during pre-, neo- and post-natal age have been documented to affect cognitive development and cause increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Most studies have addressed either of the three windows and that does not emulate the clinical conditions of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Such data fail to provide a complete picture of the behavioral alterations in the F1 generation. The present study thus addresses the larger window from gestation to F1 generation, a new model of intra-generational PMN. Naive Sprague Dawley (SD) dams pre-gestationally switched to LP (8% protein) or HP (20% protein) diets for 45 days were bred and maintained throughout gestation on same diets. Pups born (HP/LP dams) were maintained on the respective diets post-weaningly. The present study aimed to show the sex specific differences in the neurobehavioral evolution and behavioral phenotype of the HP/LP F1 generation pups. A battery of neurodevelopmental reflex tests, behavioral (Open field and forelimb gripstrength test), and cognitive [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM)] assays were performed. A decelerated growth curve with significantly restricted body and brain weight, delays in apparition of neuro-reflexes and poor performance in the LP group rats was recorded. Intra-generational PMN induced poor habituation-with-time in novel environment exploration, low anxiety and hyperactive like profile in open field test in young and adult rats. The study revealed poor forelimb neuromuscular strength in LP F1 pups till adulthood. Group occupancy plots in MWM test revealed hyperactivity with poor learning, impaired memory retention and integration, thus modeling the signs of early onset Alzehemier phenotype. In addition, a gender specific effect of LP diet with severity in males and favoring female sex was also noticed.

  3. High-Bandwidth AFM-Based Rheology Reveals that Cartilage is Most Sensitive to High Loading Rates at Early Stages of Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Bozchalooi, Iman S.; Li, Yang; Han, Lin; Hung, Han-Hwa; Frank, Eliot; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Ortiz, Christine; Grodzinsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a newly developed atomic-force-microscopy-based wide-frequency rheology system, we measured the dynamic nanomechanical behavior of normal and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-depleted cartilage, the latter representing matrix degradation that occurs at the earliest stages of osteoarthritis. We observed unique variations in the frequency-dependent stiffness and hydraulic permeability of cartilage in the 1 Hz-to-10 kHz range, a frequency range that is relevant to joint motions from normal ambulation to high-frequency impact loading. Measurement in this frequency range is well beyond the capabilities of typical commercial atomic force microscopes. We showed that the dynamic modulus of cartilage undergoes a dramatic alteration after GAG loss, even with the collagen network still intact: whereas the magnitude of the dynamic modulus decreased two- to threefold at higher frequencies, the peak frequency of the phase angle of the modulus (representing fluid-solid frictional dissipation) increased 15-fold from 55 Hz in normal cartilage to 800 Hz after GAG depletion. These results, based on a fibril-reinforced poroelastic finite-element model, demonstrated that GAG loss caused a dramatic increase in cartilage hydraulic permeability (up to 25-fold), suggesting that early osteoarthritic cartilage is more vulnerable to higher loading rates than to the conventionally studied “loading magnitude”. Thus, over the wide frequency range of joint motion during daily activities, hydraulic permeability appears the most sensitive marker of early tissue degradation. PMID:23561529

  4. Reduced heart rate variability in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Association with impaired emotional and social functioning, and potential for treatment using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques.

  5. Analytical bit error rate performance evaluation of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing power line communication system impaired by impulsive and Gaussian channel noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is presented to evaluate the bit error rate (BER performance of a power line (PL communication system considering the combined influence of impulsive noise and background PL Gaussian noise. Middleton class-A noise model is considered to evaluate the effect of impulsive noise. The analysis is carried out to find the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio and BER considering orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM with binary phase shift keying modulation with coherent demodulation of OFDM sub-channels. The results are evaluated numerically considering the multipath transfer function model of PL with non-flat power spectral density of PL background noise over a bandwidth of 0.3–100 MHz. The results are plotted for several system and noise parameters and penalty because of impulsive noise is determined at a BER of 10^−6. The computed results show that the system suffers significant power penalty because of impulsive noise which is higher at higher channel bandwidth and can be reduced by increasing the number of OFDM subcarriers to some extent. The analytical results conform well with the simulation results reported earlier.

  6. Effects of movement music therapy with a percussion instrument on physical and frontal lobe function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuko; Umemura, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Hirai, Takayoshi

    2017-09-22

    We tested the hypothesis that performing a rhythmic physical task accompanied by a cognitive task, such as multitask movement music therapy (MMT) involving repetitive rhythmic movement with a musical instrument (the Naruko clapper), may improve pre-frontal cortex (PFC) function and cognitive performance. Forty-five older adult participants with MCI (74.62 ± 5.05 years) participated in this randomized, controlled, single-blind intervention trial. 35 were assigned to the MMT group and 10 to the control STT group. Before and after the 12-week exercise program, we administered six physical function tests, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and measured relative oxyhemoglobin concentrations using 45-multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy as a reflection of hemodynamic responses in the PFC. We observed significant improvements in FAB scores only in the MMT group. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the PFC during the exercise was significantly increased in the MMT group compared with the STT group. The CBF increase was significantly correlated among various channels in the MMT group. The MMT program appeared to stimulate the PFC and improve cognitive performance in our older adult participants with MCI, suggesting that the repetitive, rhythmic movements of MMT can activate the prefrontal area in older adults. Clinical Trial Registry Numbers: R000026130, UMIN000022671 (2016/06/08) [(University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Center] retrospectively registered.

  7. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Krista S; Siebrant, Sarah M; Brown, Gregory A; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a "physically active" home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system.

  8. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  9. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  10. Physical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  11. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  12. TROIKA: a general framework for heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during intensive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Pi, Zhouyue; Liu, Benyuan

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during subjects' intensive exercise is a difficult problem, since the signals are contaminated by extremely strong motion artifacts caused by subjects' hand movements. So far few works have studied this problem. In this study, a general framework, termed TROIKA, is proposed, which consists of signal decomposiTion for denoising, sparse signal RecOnstructIon for high-resolution spectrum estimation, and spectral peaK trAcking with verification. The TROIKA framework has high estimation accuracy and is robust to strong motion artifacts. Many variants can be straightforwardly derived from this framework. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/h showed that the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.34 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground truth of heart rate was 0.992. This framework is of great values to wearable devices such as smartwatches which use PPG signals to monitor heart rate for fitness.

  13. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  14. Sex Differences in the Level and Rate of Change of Physical Function and Grip Strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Maier, Heiner; McGue, Matt;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. METHOD: The baseline survey included 2,262 Danes born in 1905 and alive in 1998 and followed-up in 2000, 2003, and 2005. Hence, the authors fully used...... with intercepts and slopes. DISCUSSION: The Danish data suggested that the longest-living individuals have higher initial levels of strength score and grip strength and smaller rate of change. The data further suggested that the initial level of strength score and grip strength was more predictive of mortality...... than the rate of change was, and the predictive effects were similar in men and women....

  15. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  16. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.; Kryukova, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged ...

  17. Heart Rate-Corrected QT and JT Intervals in Electrocardiograms in Physically Fit Students and Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Durakovic, Zijad; Prskalo, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    In literature, data on the prevalence of prolonged and shortened corrected QT (QTc) have shown considerable variability. The aim of the study was to compare QTc and JTc intervals of competitive student athletes and noncompetitive sport participants to QTc cutoff points used in athletes. A group of 485 physically fit candidates for the study of kinesiology (139 female and 346 male candidates) aged 18-20 participated in the study. Basic anthropometry, field fitness test, cardiovascular, electrocardiograms measurements, and blood sampling for lipid profile were conducted. The prolonged QTc according to European Society of Cardiology criteria was found in 2.9% of female and 4.3% of male students. When the "Seattle criteria" were used, the proportion of prolonged QTc was 1.44% in female and 0.29% in male students. The shortened QTc according to the Seattle cutoff points was presented in 0.7% of female and 2.0% of male students. The JTc over 400 ms was found in 0.72% of female and 0.29% of male students. The JTc shorter than 320 ms was presented in 0.7% of female and 1.1% of male students. No significant differences were found between students involved in competitive sport and those involved in recreational sporting activities. Female students had lower body mass index and blood pressure values, better blood lipid profile, and lower uric acid concentrations. In conclusion, the Seattle criteria markedly decreased the proportion of prolonged QTc in student athletes, particularly in male students. It seems that the JTc interval could be a better parameter than the QTc interval for the estimation of specific repolarization time in physically fit university students.

  18. The Practice of Whole Course First-rate Service from the Physical Examination Center%体检中心全程优质服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛; 赵长伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the practice and effect of whole course first-rate service from the physical examina-tion.Methods:To conduct the whole course first-rate service in 2013,it means pre-hospital service、the process service of physical examination and post physical examination service , pre-hospital service conducts the pre-hospital coaching and communication to medical customers ,as well as the formulating the medical examination process、the open and programmed physical process ,the post physical examination service means informationized and healthy management ,physical examination extending services,to divide into two groups according to different physical examination time quantum ,the control group is from January,2011 to December,2012,the observation group is from January ,2013 to January,2014,compare the situation of medical volume growth in two groups ,as well as the satisfaction of health management、featuring services、service efficien-cy、service process .Results:The medical volume growth of observation group is obviously higher than that of control group (P<0.05);The satisfaction of physical examination healthy management、featuring service、service efficiency、service process of observation group is obviously higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The physical examina-tion center conducts whole course first-rate service,promotes physical examination service quality ,as a result,it can improve the client satisfaction ,lift the health level of the whole nation .%目的:探析体检中心全程优质服务的做法与效果。方法:2013年进行全程优质服务,全程体检优质服务即进行院前服务、体检过程服务及体检后服务。院前服务进行体检客户的院前指导沟通、制定体检流程、开放程序化的体检过程,体检后服务即进行信息化、健康管理、体检延伸服务。按体检时间段的不同分入两组,对照组为2011年1月至2012年12月,观察组为2013

  19. Biobehavioral Triggers of Cardiac Arrhythmia during Daily Life: The Role of Emotion, Physical Activity, and Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lanza, Galeazzi , Guido, Luciente, Bellocci, et al., 1999); however, there are several possible explanations for the discrepancy. First, although... Galeazzi , Guido, Luciente, Bellocci, et al., 1999), HRV may not be predictive of arrhythmia in other cardiac populations, such as patients with dilated...Lanza GA, Galeazzi M, Guido V, Luciente M, Bellocci F, et al. (1999). Additional predictive value of heart rate variability in high-risk patients

  20. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4... RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability... addition to the etiological, anatomical, pathological, laboratory and prognostic data required for...