WorldWideScience

Sample records for rate effectiveness factor

  1. Soft factors have an empirically testifiable effect on rating grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laufer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions herein contain the summary of the results of an empirical survey in proof of the effects of soft factors on corporate rating grade.In the effort, three different software applications have been used. By means of the applications, the soft factors in corporate ratings previously identified in a related effort have been assessed for their impacts. That means all other applicable soft factors have been treated in a neutral manner.As a result based on assessments supplied by the three applications, weighted effect has been determined of soft factors, allowing to compile priority charts for the deployment of the factors as a targeted marketing tool. The charts also include the respective positive and a negative effects of hard factors.

  2. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For low mass high density stars, the effect of degenerate non- ... where the prime indicates differentiation with respect to E. The values of S and asso- ..... Equlibrium time increases when going lower masses. These are ∼ 2 × 1010 and ∼ 5 × 109 years for. 0.7M⊙, and 1M⊙, respectively. The variation of X1 for masses 0.7, ...

  3. Study on the effect factor of the absolute fission rates measured by depleted uranium fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun; Wang Mei; Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei

    2003-01-01

    The absolute fission rates was measured by the depleted uranium fission chamber. The efficiency of the fission fragments recorded in the fission chamber was analyzed. The factor influencing absolute fission rates was studied in the experiment, including the disturbing effect between detectors and the effect of the structural of the fission chamber, etc

  4. Dose and Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor (DDREF); Der Dosis- und Dosisleistungs-Effektivitaetsfaktor (DDREF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, Joachim [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    For practical radiation protection purposes it is supposed that stochastic radiation effects a determined by a proportional dose relation (LNT). Radiobiological and radiation epidemiological studies indicated that in the low dose range a dependence on dose rates might exist. This would trigger an overestimation of radiation risks based on the LNT model. OCRP had recommended a concept to combine all effects in a single factor DDREF (dose and dose-Rate effectiveness factor). There is still too low information on cellular mechanisms of low dose irradiation including possible repair and other processes. The Strahlenschutzkommission cannot identify a sufficient scientific justification for DDREF and recommends an adaption to the actual state of science.

  5. The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. -- Highlights: ► The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined. ► Previous studies measured human exposure to pollution by fixed monitoring stations. ► This study measured actual personal exposure by mini sensors. ► High level of subjective social load and noise increase HRV. ► Low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. -- The research focuses on the effects of environmental factors; noise, subjective social stress, thermal load and CO on Heart Rate Variability

  6. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. [The effect of assertiveness training on communication related factors and personnel turnover rate among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ja; Lee, Haejung

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of assertiveness training on nurses' assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Nurses were assigned into the experimental or control groups, each consisting of 39 nurses. Data was collected between January to March 2004. An 'Assertiveness Training Program' for Nurses developed by Park was used for the study. To emphasize assertiveness practice, 5 practice sessions utilizing ABCDE principles were added to Park's program. To examine the effects of the program, differences between the two groups in assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate were analyzed using ANCOVA. The assertiveness training was effective in improving the nurses' assertiveness behaviors, but was not effective in improving interpersonal relations, reducing the subjects' communication conflicts, changing the conflict management style or reducing their personnel turnover rate. There have been many studies about factors affecting nurses' personnel turnover rates, but few have been done about methods of intervention to reduce the personnel turnover rate. Thus, this study provides a significant contribution in attempting such an intervention from nursing management perspectives.

  8. Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Roy; Walsh, Linda; Azizova, Tamara; Rühm, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). We identified 22 LDR studies with dose-response risk estimates for solid cancer after minimizing information overlap. For each study, a parallel risk estimate was derived from the LSS risk model using matching values for sex, mean ages at first exposure and attained age, targeted cancer types, and accounting for type of dosimetric assessment. For each LDR study, a ratio of the excess relative risk per Gy (ERR Gy -1 ) to the matching LSS ERR risk estimate (LDR/LSS) was calculated, and a meta-analysis of the risk ratios was conducted. The reciprocal of the resultant risk ratio provided an estimate of the DREF. The meta-analysis showed a LDR/LSS risk ratio of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.57) for the 19 studies of solid cancer mortality and 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.54) when three cohorts with only incidence data also were added, implying a DREF with values around 3, but statistically compatible with 2. However, the analyses were highly dominated by the Mayak worker study. When the Mayak study was excluded the LDR/LSS risk ratios increased: 1.12 (95% CI 0.40, 1.84) for mortality and 0.54 (95% CI 0.09, 0.99) for mortality + incidence, implying a lower DREF in the range of 1-2. Meta-analyses that included only cohorts in which the mean dose was LDR data provide direct evidence regarding risk from exposures at low dose rates as an important complement to the LSS risk estimates used

  9. The Effect of Political and Economic Factors on Corporate Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Åsa; Porter, Susan; Perry Williams, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Economists and political scientists have long been interested in factors that affect the statutory tax rate on businesses set by federal governments. In this study, we examine the impact of political and economic factors on several measures of tax rates and tax incentives offered across 19 developed countries for the years 1979 through 2005. Our results indicate that while economic conditions such as openness, strategic interaction, budget constraints, economic downturns and an aging populati...

  10. Evaluating Effective Teaching in College Level Economics Using Student Ratings of Instruction: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbetsiafa, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect students' evaluation of economic instruction using a sample of 1300 completed rating instruments at a comprehensive four-year mid-western public university. The study uses factor analysis to determine the validity and reliability of the evaluation instrument in assessing instructor or course…

  11. Towards a new dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF)? Some comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, K H

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this article is to offer a broader, mechanism-based, analytical tool than that used by (Rühm et al 2016 Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) for the interpretation of cancer induction relationships. The article explains the limitations of this broader analytical tool and the implications of its use in view of the publications by Leuraud et al 2015 (Lancet Haematol. 2 e276-81) and Richardson et al 2015 (Br. Med. J. 351 h5359). The publication by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79), which is clearly work in progress, reviews the current status of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) as recommended by the ICRP. It also considers the issues which might influence a reassessment of both the value of the DDREF as well as its application in radiological protection. In this article, the problem is approached from a different perspective and starts by commenting on the limited scientific data used by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) to develop their analysis which ultimately leads them to use a linear-quadratic dose effect relationship to fit solid cancer mortality data from the Japanese life span study of atomic bomb survivors. The approach taken here includes more data on the induction of DNA double strand breaks and, using experimental data taken from the literature, directly relates the breaks to cell killing, chromosomal aberrations and somatic mutations. The relationships are expanded to describe the induction of cancer as arising from radiation induced cytological damage coupled to cell killing since the cancer mutated cell has to survive to express its malignant nature. Equations are derived for the induction of cancer after both acute and chronic exposure to sparsely ionising radiation. The equations are fitted to the induction of cancer in mice to illustrate a dose effect relationship over the total dose range. The 'DDREF' derived from the two equations varies with dose and the DDREF concept is called into question. Although the equation for

  12. The Effect of Selected Nonmusical Factors on Adjudicators' Ratings of High School Solo Vocal Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of differentiated performance attire and stage deportment on adjudicators' ratings of high school solo vocal performances. High school choral students (n = 153) and undergraduate (n = 97) and graduate music majors (n = 32) served as adjudicators (N = 282). Adjudicators rated recorded solo vocal…

  13. Effects of non-surgical factors on digital replantation survival rate: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Guo, F; Qi, J; Xiang, W; Zhang, J

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival rate of digital replantation by a meta-analysis. A computer retrieval of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, and CNKI databases was conducted to identify citations for digital replantation with digit or finger or thumb or digital or fingertip and replantation as keywords. RevMan 5.2 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios. In total, there were 4678 amputated digits in 2641 patients. Gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation (P > 0.05). Age, injured hand, injury type, zone, and the method of preservation the amputated digit significantly influence the survival rate of digital replantation (P < 0.05). Children, right hand, crush, or avulsion and little finger are the risk factors that adversely affect the outcome. Level 5*. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Effects of Hospital-Level Factors on Patients' Ratings of Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mona; Makarem, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    The quality of physician-patient communication influences patient health outcomes and satisfaction with healthcare delivery. Yet, little is known about contextual factors that influence physicians' communication with their patients. The main purpose of this article is to examine organizational-level factors that influence patient perceptions of physician communication in inpatient settings. We used the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey and American Hospital Association data to determine patients' ratings of physician communication at the hospital level, and to collect information about hospital-level factors that can potentially influence physician communication. Our sample consisted of 2,756 hospitals. We ran a regression analysis to determine the predictors of poor physician communication, measured as the percentage of patients in a hospital who reported that physicians sometimes or never communicated well. In our sample of hospitals, this percentage ranged between 0% and 21%, with 25% of hospitals receiving poor ratings from more than 6% of patients. Three organizational factors had statistically significant negative associations with physician communication: for-profit ownership, hospital size, and hospitalists providing care in the hospital, On the other hand, the number of full-time-equivalent physicians and dentists per 10,000 inpatient days, physician ownership of the hospital, Medicare share of inpatient days, and public ownership were positively associated with patients' ratings of physician communication. Physician staffing levels are an understudied area in healthcare research. Our findings indicate that physician staffing levels affect the quality of physician communication with patients. Moreover, for-profit and larger hospitals should invest more in physician communication given the role that HCAHPS plays in value-based purchasing.

  15. Effects of abortion and other risk factors on conception rate in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Stygar, Anna Helena

    2017-01-01

    factor because of a significant interaction with IDIM and milk yield level. In conclusion, this study revealed that difference in CR between as well as within studied herds was remarkable. Moreover, calving season (due to for example heat stress in the warmer season) is a more important factor...... days after calving (2nd – 14th estrus cycle (3-WIM period)). After eliminating outliers and periods with missing records, the dataset included 200,580 insemination records of 31,830 cows observed between 2004 and 2014. A logistic regression model was developed to evaluate the effects of herd, parity......, calving season, cumulative fat corrected milk yield level (CFCML), mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk period (MAS), experience of mastitis in previous 3-WIM periods (EMAS), days in milk for insemination (IDIM) and all significant 2-way interactions on CR. Overall, the CR (total cows pregnant/total number...

  16. Factors effecting Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure ratings:an empirical study of Finnish listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Roitto, A. (Artturi)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure is becoming more common practise amongst companies, it is valuable to understand the underlying factors involved. The Goal of this thesis is to examine if the factors suggested by previous studies seem to have significance in a Finnish sample composed of 31 listed companies. As an ancillary research question linkage between Corporate Governance recommendation devi...

  17. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  18. Effects of non-implantation factors on survival rate of microbe irradiated by low-energy N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianyou; Chen Linhai; Qin Guangyong; Li Zongwei; Su Mingjie; Wang Yanping; Chang Shenghe; Huo Yuping; Li Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    The effects of non-implantation factors, such as drying, vacuum and the staying time of the E.coli LE392 culture, on survival rate of E.coli LE392 were studied when E.coli LE392 was irradiated by the low-energy N + . The results show that the survival rate of E.coli LE392 does not reduce steadily all the time but rapidly drops sometime during drying. The survival rate of E.coli LE392 declines sharply as the samples are placed in vacuum, then falls in distinctively with increasing of time. the tolerance of E.coli LE392 towards vacuum increasingly strengthens when the E.coli LE392 culture is placed at room temperature. Preparing the culture in batchs can ensure the consistency of the irradiated samples and avoid errors caused by the inconsistent samples. When the non-implantation factors are controlled, E.coli is implanted by 30 kev N + of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 and 3 x 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. And the results show no difference in the E.coli's survival rates between batchs at the same dose. (authors)

  19. A 'cost-effective' probabilistic model to select the dominant factors affecting the variation of the component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1992-11-01

    Within the framework of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the component failure rate λ is a key parameter in the sense that the study of its behavior gives the essential information for estimating the current values as well as the trends in the failure probabilities of interest. Since there is an infinite variety of possible underlying factors which might cause changes in λ (e.g. operating time, maintenance practices, component environment, etc.), an 'importance ranking' process of these factors is considered most desirable to prioritize research efforts. To be 'cost-effective', the modeling effort must be small, i.e. essentially involving no estimation of additional parameters other than λ. In this paper, using a multivariate data analysis technique and various statistical measures, such a 'cost-effective' screening process has been developed. Dominant factors affecting the failure rate of any components of interest can easily be identified and the appropriateness of current research plans (e.g. on the necessity of performing aging studies) can be validated. (author)

  20. An analysis of the effects of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on obliteration rates after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay; Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationships of smoking and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and gender) to rates of radiosurgery-induced obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 329 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. There were 113 smokers, 29 hypertensives, 5 diabetics, 4 hypercholesterolemics, 159 male patients, and 170 female patients. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 3 years after radiosurgery. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that smoking had no effect on AVM obliteration (p>0.43). Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration in this study (p>0.78). However, females aged 12-49 had a statistically significant lower in-field obliteration rate than males (78% vs. 89%, p=0.0102). Conclusion: Smoking has no effect on AVM obliteration. Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect in this study. Further study is needed to establish whether estrogen has a vascular protective effect that could partially limit radiosurgical AVM obliteration, as suggested by this study

  1. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rating factor. 650.707 Section 650.707 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The.... ER15OC02.010 The lower the rating factor, the higher the priority for selection and funding. (b) The terms...

  2. Alkaline earth metabolism: a model useful in calculating organ burdens, excretion rates and committed effective dose equivalent conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Myers, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Two mathematical models of alkaline earth metabolism in man have been developed from the postulates given in ICRP Publication 20. Both models have recycling between the organs and blood included explicitly, and the first one retains the power function used by the ICRP for diminution in mineral bone from being available for resorption by blood. In the second model, this diminution is represented by secondary compartments in mineral bone. Both models give good agreement with the retention functions developed in ICRP Publication 20. The second one has been incorporated into a larger model which includes the lung and G.I. tract. This overall model has been used to calculate organ burdens excretion rates, and committed effective dose equivalent factors for the more important radioisotopes of the alkaline earth elements for inhalation and ingestion exposures. (author)

  3. The usefulness of design of experimentation in defining the effect difficult airway factors and training have on simulator oral-tracheal intubation success rates in novice intubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frank; Carpenter, Judi; Rhoades, Carol; Holleran, Renee; Snow, Gregory

    2010-04-01

    This exploratory study examined novice intubators and the effect difficult airway factors have on pre- and posttraining oral-tracheal simulation intubation success rates. Using a two-level, full-factorial design of experimentation (DOE) involving a combination of six airway factors (curved vs. straight laryngoscope blade, trismus, tongue edema, laryngeal spasm, pharyngeal obstruction, or cervical immobilization), 64 airway scenarios were prospectively randomized to 12 critical care nurses to evaluate pre- and posttraining first-pass intubation success rates on a simulator. Scenario variables and intubation outcomes were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model to determine two-way main and interactive effects. Interactive effects between the six study factors were nonsignificant (p = 0.69). For both pre- and posttraining, main effects showed the straight blade (p = 0.006), tongue edema (p = 0.0001), and laryngeal spasm (p = 0.004) significantly reduced success rates, while trismus (p = 0.358), pharyngeal obstruction (p = 0.078), and cervical immobilization did not significantly change the success rate. First-pass intubation success rate on the simulator significantly improved (p = 0.005) from pre- (19%) to posttraining (36%). Design of experimentation is useful in analyzing the effect difficult airway factors and training have on simulator intubation success rates. Future quality improvement DOE simulator research studies should be performed to help clarify the relationship between simulator factors and patient intubation rates.

  4. Effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the gene expression of hemopoietic factors of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirata, Katsutoshi; Saitou, Mikio; Yanai, Takanori; Sato, Fumiaki [Institute for Environmental Science, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of prolonged low-dose irradiation on the gene expression of hemopoietic factors in tissues, gene expression was analyzed in the spleen as a hemopoietic tissue that is well known to be one of the most sensitive tissues to irradiation. SPF C3H/HeN female mice (Clea Japan Inc.) were irradiated under SPF conditions with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays at doses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy and a dose rate of 20 mGy/day. Non-irradiated mice of the same age were maintained as controls. At the end of the period of irradiation, both groups of mice were sacrificed and dissected to extract total RNA from their tissues. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the Northern hybridization were employed to detect gene expression. RT-PCT showed no marked changes in the gene expression of GM-CSF. IL-6 gene expression was shown to tend to be enhanced by prolonged low-dose irradiation. The results of Northern hybridization showed that IL-6 mRNA was expressed slightly in both groups, and it was too weak to compare the difference in mRNA expression level between the irradiated group and the controls. No mRNA expression of GM-CSF was detected by Northern hybridization. Based on these results, it was concluded that the gene expression levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF were inadequate to detect the chemiluminescence signals without amplification. It was therefore concluded that improvement of detection sensitivity and larger RNA samples would be necessary for further analysis of the gene expression of hemopoietic factors. (K.H.)

  5. Isotopic discrimination factors and nitrogen turnover rates in reared Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (Thunnus thynnus: effects of maternal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Uriarte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis to study animal diets requires estimates of isotopic turnover rates (half time, t50 and discrimination factors (Δ for an accurate interpretation of trophic patterns. The stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were analysed for eggs and reared larvae of Thunnus thynnus, as well as for the different diets supplied during the experiment. The results showed high values of δ15N in eggs and larvae (n=646 until 4 DAH. After this time lapse, the stable isotope values declined progressively until 12 DAH, when notochord flexion began. The δ13C showed an inverse trend, suggesting that maternal inheritance of the stable isotopes is evident until pre-flexion stages. This study proposes a model for estimating maternal isotopic signatures of bluefin broodstock. After notochord flexion, larvae were fed with aquaculture-bred gilthead seabream, which resulted in a rapid increase of bluefin larvae δ15N values together with a rapid decrease in δ13C values. The estimated nitrogen half-time to reach the steady state from the diet was 2.5±0.3 days and the discrimination factor was 0.4±0.3(‰. These results represent the first data set that has allowed isotopic nitrogen turnover rates and discrimination factors of the larval stages of bluefin tuna to be estimated.

  6. Investigating Rate of Iatric Tourisms’ Satisfaction and Prioritizing the Effective Factors on it via Fuzzy TOPSIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr Bafghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research aimed to investigate rate of iatric tourisms’ satisfaction about provided medical services for them and their fellow travelers in Yazd city. For this purpose, the quality level of services provided to the patients and their fellow travelers was investigated and some solutions have been suggested in order to enhance this level. Methods: In this direction, a questionnaire was designed according to SERVQUAL model in 5 aspects consisting of 21 questions. Therefore, quality differences have been measured according to opinions of 114 foreign patients and their fellow travelers in the hospitals around the city. This is a descriptive- measurement research. In order to analyze the data available techniques in statistics were utilized and Fuzzy TOPSIS technique was used for prioritizing the solutions. Results: The results revealed that services quality difference is significant in 3 aspects of responsibility, guarantee and agreement. In other words, there is a significant difference between patients’ perception and expectation with those of their fellow travelers regarding quality of provided services. Conclusion: However, results of rating with Fuzzy TOPSIS indicated that the factors of proper equipments and proper quality of therapy are in the better situation comparing with other factors.

  7. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  8. The effects of environmental factors and experimental method on the results of low dose rate microprocessor irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, A; Gerard, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Gauthier, G; Henry, J Y; Le Meur, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1992-02-01

    As part of the safety studies of nuclear facilities, a series of experiments have been in progress over a number of years to determine the principal parameters for which allowance needs to be made in the testing of microprocessors in low dose rate nuclear irradiation environments. This paper contains a brief description of the results already published, followed by a review of the latest results obtained, specifically as concerns the effects of temperature, the origin of the batch, the angle of incidence of the radiation and the test routine used. (author)

  9. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.

  10. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  11. Factors Impacting Online Ratings for Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Nathaniel E; Chiao, Whitney; Durr, Megan L; Jiang, Nancy

    2018-06-01

    To identify factors associated with online patient ratings and comments for a nationwide sample of otolaryngologists. Ratings, demographic information, and written comments were obtained for a random sample of otolaryngologists from HealthGrades.com and Vitals.com . Online Presence Score (OPS) was based on 10 criteria, including professional website and social media profiles. Regression analyses identified factors associated with increased rating. We evaluated for correlations between OPS and other attributes with star rating and used chi-square tests to evaluate content differences between positive and negative comments. On linear regression, increased OPS was associated with higher ratings on HealthGrades and Vitals; higher ratings were also associated with younger age on Vitals and less experience on HealthGrades. However, detailed correlation studies showed weak correlation between OPS and rating; age and graduation year also showed low correlation with ratings. Negative comments more likely focused on surgeon-independent factors or poor bedside manner. Though younger otolaryngologists with greater online presence tend to have higher ratings, weak correlations suggest that age and online presence have only a small impact on the content found on ratings websites. While most written comments are positive, deficiencies in bedside manner or other physician-independent factors tend to elicit negative comments.

  12. Extracting factors for interest rate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgedey, L.; Galic, E.

    2001-04-01

    Factor based interest rate models are widely used for risk managing purposes, for option pricing and for identifying and capturing yield curve anomalies. The movements of a term structure of interest rates are commonly assumed to be driven by a small number of orthogonal factors such as SHIFT, TWIST and BUTTERFLY (BOW). These factors are usually obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of historical bond prices (interest rates). Although PCA diagonalizes the covariance matrix of either the interest rates or the interest rate changes, it does not use both covariance matrices simultaneously. Furthermore higher linear and nonlinear correlations are neglected. These correlations as well as the mean reverting properties of the interest rates become crucial, if one is interested in a longer time horizon (infrequent hedging or trading). We will show that Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a more appropriate tool than PCA, since ICA uses the covariance matrix of the interest rates as well as the covariance matrix of the interest rate changes simultaneously. Additionally higher linear and nonlinear correlations may be easily incorporated. The resulting factors are uncorrelated for various time delays, approximately independent but nonorthogonal. This is in contrast to the factors obtained from the PCA, which are orthogonal and uncorrelated for identical times only. Although factors from the ICA are nonorthogonal, it is sufficient to consider only a few factors in order to explain most of the variation in the original data. Finally we will present examples that ICA based hedges outperforms PCA based hedges specifically if the portfolio is sensitive to structural changes of the yield curve.

  13. Effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors in murine bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Mikio; Sirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Onodera, Junichi; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Radiobiology, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors of cells, the dose dependency of the expression of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), of mice is being measured at accumulated doses between 1 and 8 Gy, with the dose interval of 1 Gy. In the present work, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H-HeN female mice were irradiated by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays with the doses of 5-8 Gy at the dose rate of 20 mGy (22 h-day){sup -1}, and the expression of IL-6 and GM-CSF in bone marrow and spleen cells from the mice were measured semiquantitatively by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. (author)

  14. Effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors in murine bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Mikio; Yamada, Yutaka; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Izumi, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Onodera, Jun' ichi; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors of cells, the expression of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), of mice is being measured at accumulated doses between 1 and 8 Gy, with the dose interval of 1 Gy. In the present work, ten specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H/HeN female mice per experimental group were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays with the doses of 1-4 Gy at the dose rate of 20 mGy/(22 h-day), and the expression of IL-6 and GM-CSF in bone marrow and spleen cells from the mice was measured semiquantitatively by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. (author)

  15. Effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors in murine bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitou, Mikio; Yamada, Yutaka; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Izumi, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Onodera, Jun'ichi; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the production of growth factors of cells, the expression of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), of mice is being measured at accumulated doses between 1 and 8 Gy, with the dose interval of 1 Gy. In the present work, ten specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H/HeN female mice per experimental group were irradiated with 137 Cs γ-rays with the doses of 1-4 Gy at the dose rate of 20 mGy/(22 h-day), and the expression of IL-6 and GM-CSF in bone marrow and spleen cells from the mice was measured semiquantitatively by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  17. The effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion and blood fatigue factors of athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsoo; Choo, JongHoo; Ju, Sungbum

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the blood fatigue factors of athletes who have patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects and Methods] The research subjects were seven athletes in their twenties who suffer from PFPS. They were divided into a control group and an aroma stimulation group and performed isotonic exercises repeatedly. After exercising, the RPE and blood fatigue factors, including creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia, were measured through blood sampling. [Results] The aroma stimulus group showed significantly lower RPE than the control group immediately after exercising, which included leg presses, leg curls, bicep curls, and leg extensions. Among the blood fatigue factors, the change in LDH indicated the effect of aroma stimulation. [Conclusion] We confirmed that aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise has the positive effect of reducing the RPE and blood fatigue factors, such as blood LDH, of the athletes with PFPS.

  18. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rithidech, K.N.; Rusek, A.; Reungpatthanaphong, P.; Honikel, L.; Simon, S.R.

    2010-05-28

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory [i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min{sup -1}, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays (10 mGy min{sup -1}). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, delivered at 10 mGy min{sup -1}, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-{kappa}B activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p < 0.05 or < 0.01) were induced by either dose rate, these levels varied over time for each protein. Further, only a dose rate of 5 mGy min{sup -1} induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  19. Sediment redistribution and grainsize effects on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates and focusing factors in the Panama Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, Matthew R.; Marcantonio, Franco; Lyle, Mitchell; Ibrahim, Rami; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we examine how redistribution of differing grain sizes by sediment focusing processes in Panama Basin sediments affects the use of 230Th as a constant-flux proxy. We study representative sediments of Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time slices from four sediment cores from two different localities close to the ridges that bound the Panama Basin. Each locality contains paired sites that are seismically interpreted to have undergone extremes in sediment redistribution, i.e., focused versus winnowed sites. Both Holocene and LGM samples from sites where winnowing has occurred contain significant amounts (up to 50%) of the 230Th within the >63 μm grain size fraction, which makes up 40-70% of the bulk sediment analyzed. For sites where focusing has occurred, Holocene and LGM samples contain the greatest amounts of 230Th (up to 49%) in the finest grain-sized fraction (winnowed sites. Corrections made using a model by Kretschmer et al. (2010) suggest a maximum change of about 30% in 230Th-derived MARs and focusing factors at focused sites, except for our most focused site which requires an approximate 70% correction in one sample. Our 230Th-corrected 232Th flux results suggest that the boundary between hemipelagically- and pelagically-derived sediments falls between 350 and 600 km from the continental margin.

  20. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rithidech, K.N.; Rusek, A.; Reungpatthanaphong, P.; Honikel, L.; Simon, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min -1 , the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of 137 Cs γ rays (10 mGy min -1 ). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or 137 Cs γ rays, delivered at 10 mGy min -1 , was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p -1 induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  1. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  2. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XIII. Effect of structural factors on incorporation of drugs into hair: the incorporation rates of amphetamine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the incorporation mechanism of drugs from blood into hair, seven effects of structural factors on the incorporation rate (ICR) were studied using 32 amphetamine analogs: (1) effect of a straight chained N-alkyl group; (2) effect of benzene and furan ring at N-position; (3) effect of aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy groups; (4) effect of triple bond group at N-position; (5) effect of N-acyl group and ketone group; (6) effect of methylenedioxy and methoxy groups on benzene ring; and (7) comparison between phenyltertiarybutylamines and phenylisopropylamines. After shaving the back hair and i.p. administration of drugs to Dark-Agouti rats (5 mg/kg, 10 days, n = 3), the areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs) of drugs in the plasma and the concentrations in hair newly grown for 4 weeks were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ICRs represented by the ratios of hair concentrations to AUCs were compared with those of amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA). The ICRs of N-alkyl AP increased depending on the length of carbon branches from proton to propyl (C3 > C2 > C1 > H) at N-position. The compounds containing a benzene or furan ring at the N-position (benzphetamine, clobenzorex, norbenzphetamine, prenylamine, furfenorex, and norfurfenorex) had much higher ICRs than those of AP or MA, suggesting that a benzene or furan ring increases their ICRs. The ICRs of deprenyl, nordeprenyl, and fenproporex were significantly low, implying that triple bonds such as of a propargyl or cyano group serve as a negative factor for the ICRs. An ephedrine group (ephedrine, methylephedrine, phenylpropanolamine) showed slightly lower ICRs than the corresponding amphetamine group. However, a hydroxy group on benzene ring apparently decreased the ICRs. Methoxy and methylenedioxy groups on benzene ring distinctly increased their ICRs. The lack of basicity such as N-formyl MA, N-acetyl AP, and N-acetyl MA dramatically lowered their ICRs to

  3. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using 15 N tracer additions of NHG 4 + , NO 2 - , and NO 3 - . Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured 15 N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH 4 + , while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N 2 O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased

  4. Bayesian estimation of dose rate effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.J.; Groer, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    A Bayesian statistical method was used to quantify the effectiveness of high dose rate 137 Cs gamma radiation at inducing fatal mammary tumours and increasing the overall mortality rate in BALB/c female mice. The Bayesian approach considers both the temporal and dose dependence of radiation carcinogenesis and total mortality. This paper provides the first direct estimation of dose rate effectiveness using Bayesian statistics. This statistical approach provides a quantitative description of the uncertainty of the factor characterising the dose rate in terms of a probability density function. The results show that a fixed dose from 137 Cs gamma radiation delivered at a high dose rate is more effective at inducing fatal mammary tumours and increasing the overall mortality rate in BALB/c female mice than the same dose delivered at a low dose rate. (author)

  5. Implantation rate effects on microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyke, W.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.; Wood, S.; Doyle, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report a detailed TEM study of rate effects in a metal (304 SS) where we dope with an insoluble atom (He) and create the displacement damage with high energy Si. The rates of doping and the rates of producing lattice damage are independently varied during dual implantation. In addition to varying the doping rates of the He the magnitude of the displacement damage prior to He implantation is also varied (beam history). We find that the beam history has virtually no effect on maximum bubble size but it has a major effect on the average cavity diameter. A weak dependence of cavity number density on helium implantation rate is found. The total dislocation density is relatively independent of the doping rate and beam history at 550 and 700 0 C, whereas the loop fraction is sensitive to beam history at these temperatures. Acicular precipitate formation is weakly dependent on doping, doping rate and more strongly dependent on doping concentration and temperature. This form of solute segregation is very sensitive to beam history. (orig.)

  6. Adolescent immunization rates and the effect of socio-demographic factors on immunization in a cosmopolitan city (ERZURUM) in the eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Arikan, Duygu; Ozyazicioğlu, Nurcan

    2006-04-01

    Pediatric vaccinations have decreased the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases in children, but adolescents continue to be adversely affected by vaccine preventable disease. The present study was performed to determine the status of adolescents immunization and to investigate the effect of several socio-demographic factors on immunization. Using the cluster-sampling method, 817 adolescents were selected in 24 high schools (15,000 students) in central district of Erzurum (Turkey). Adolescents were categorized as completely vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, unvaccinated or vaccination status unknown. Of the 817 adolescents, 6.9% were completely vaccinated, 24.4% were incompletely vaccinated and 64.1% were unvaccinated. The vaccination status of 4.6% of adolescents was unknown. A significantly correlation was seen between the number of siblings, the level of mother and father education, the level of parent's socio-economics status, health insurance and immunization status. Our findings indicated a small percentage of adolescents receive all of the recommended vaccine. In immunization programs in Turkey, priority should be given to increase adolescent immunization rate with a middle school and/or adolescents, vaccination.

  7. Study of Effectiveness of Human Factors Engineering Interference in Cumulative Trauma Disorders Rate Decreasing in the Tehran South Health Center 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisepehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to now accomplished many investigations about cumulative trauma disorders (CTD accession. For the most part sitting pattern and unsuitable task posture has been specified reason of these complications. In the publicized stats from a foreign source ambit of 44 percent of people who worked with computer has been afflict to the CTD's. The aim of this paper is to find and measurement of CTD and ergonomic intervention and investigation rate of this intervention's effect in the Tehran south health center. This center use paperless system. Methods: In this research Nordic questionnaire distribute between 68 persons of the center to determine CTD's. By technical expert inspection specified reason of complications. Observantly to state methods reason which create more severity and frequency CTD's has been recognized and interference with human factors engineering. For the more efficiency of interference Anthropometry has been used for all of Work stations and for any person designed a significant posture. Results: results that obtained before interference indicate that were CTD's complications at more of employees which 90 percent of them suffered of up spine pain. Also 27.4 percent of them had shoulder pain and 20.4 percent had neck pain. After the interference these measures decreased. And complaint of employee decreased 40.8 percent to up spine pain. Also for the shoulder pain it reached to 22 and neck pain 17.6 percent. With state test identified that there are significant difference between CTD after and before of intervention (p<0.005. Conclusion: Being unsuitable task posture is main cause of CTD's in the Work stations. We can prevent to increasing these complications in the work place by simple approach like adjustment in the desk and chair height, correct performance working training and doing simple exercise.

  8. Determining factors for implant referral rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2002-01-01

    The research findings indicate that the field of implant dentistry will only grow at a moderately low level unless certain changes are made. Findings indicated that the effort by the implant companies has been nothing short of dramatic, and yet almost 60% of restorative doctors do not participate annually in any implant case. There was no clear indication that younger restorative doctors will significantly increase the number of implant referrals, as their overall implant education has not dramatically differed from those dentists who graduated in earlier years. Once the research was completed, it became obvious to Levin Group that the driving force behind implant referral growth will be implant surgeons, because of their one-to-one relationship with restorative doctors. The Levin Group Implant Management and Marketing Consulting Program is based on approaching restorative doctors in several different levels, starting with awareness all the way through to case facilitation and long-term tracking and communication. Finally, a continuing marketing/education effort needs to be consistently in place with effective materials, not only to create a high level of awareness, but also to motivate restorative doctors to refer cases and then work through the case with the implant surgeon to a satisfactory completion for the restorative doctor, implant surgeon, and patient. While the surgical insertion of implants may seem to carry a high-profit margin relative to the restoration of implants, the truth is that the restoration of implants usually provides a 40% higher profit margin for the restorative doctor than traditional dental services. One of the key issues is that referring doctors have not necessarily learned how to set fees and present cases with regard to implant dentistry. The key factor here is to ensure that the patient understands that implant services involve higher fees than traditional services, because of the necessarily higher levels of experience, education

  9. Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.

  10. Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA Study: The effects of exercise and technology on heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stuckey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that an eight-week exercise intervention supported by mobile health (mHealth technology would improve metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors and heart rate variability (HRV in a population with MetS risk factors. Participants (n=12; 3 male; aged 56.9±7.0y reported to the laboratory for assessment of MetS risk factors and fitness (VO2max at baseline (V0 and after eight-weeks (V2 of intervention. Participants received an individualized exercise prescription and a mHealth technology kit for remote monitoring of blood pressure (BP, blood glucose, physical activity and body weight via smartphone. Participants underwent 24-h ambulatory monitoring of R-R intervals following V0 and V2. Low and high frequency powers of HRV were assessed from the recording and the ratio of low-to-high frequency powers and low and high frequency power in normalized units were calculated. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that waist circumference (V0: 113.1±11.0cm, V2: 108.1±14.7cm; p=0.004 and diastolic BP (V0: 81±6mmHg, V2: 76±11mmHg; p=0.04 were reduced and VO2max increased (V0: 31.3ml/kg/min, V2: 34.8ml/kg/min; p=0.02 with no changes in other MetS risk factors. Low and high frequency powers in normalized units were reduced (V0: 75.5±12.0, V2: 72.0±12.1; p=0.03 and increased (V0: 24.5±12.0, V2: 28.0±12.1; p=0.03, respectively, with no other changes in HRV. Over the intervention period, changes in systolic BP were correlated negatively with the changes in R-R interval (r=-0.600; p=0.04 and positively with the changes in heart rate (r=0.611; p=0.03, with no other associations between MetS risk factors and HRV parameters. Thus, this eight-week mHealth supported exercise intervention improved MetS risk factors and HRV parameters, but only changes in systolic BP were associated with improved autonomic function.

  11. Economic Factors for Televison Programme Rating in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaz Dodic; Bojan Nastav

    2011-01-01

    Factors that influence televison programme rating can be divided into environment, outer factors and internal factors of televison programmes. In this paper we apply the regression analysis to study the influence of the number of unemployed, inflation rate, average salary, consumers’ trust, households’ financial status in the past 12 months and the economic state in Slovenia on rating of national, commercial and other televison programmes in Slovenia in the 2000–2009 period. The results show ...

  12. What determines the exchange rate: economic factors or market sentiment?

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory P. Hopper

    1997-01-01

    Do economic factors influence exchange rates? Or does market sentiment play a bigger role? Are short-run exchange rates predictable? Greg Hopper reviews exchange-rate economics, focusing on what is predictable and what isn't. He also examines the practical implications of exchange-rate theories for currency option pricing, risk management, and portfolio selection.

  13. Rating and Importance of Non-financial Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsorčík, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation deals with rating and non-financial factors that form its important part. Rating described in the thesis shall be understood as credit rating, i.e. as an instrument that helps to asses creditworthiness of a company and its future prospects. Typical credit rating is based on an assessment of financial and non-financial factors of a company. Whereas financial factors are widely accepted as inputs of the assessment, the role of non-financial factors remains ambiguous. We have th...

  14. Dose rate determining factors of PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Takumi; Kuge, Toshiharu; Nakano, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dose rate trends and water chemistry has been studied to clarify the determining factors on the dose rates. Therefore dose rate trends and water chemistry of 11 PWR plants of KEPCO (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.) were summarized. It is indicated that the chemical composition of the oxide film, behaviour of corrosion products and Co-58/Co-60 ratio in the primary system have effected dose rate trends based on plant operation experiences for over 40 years. According to plant operation experiences, the amount of Co-58 has been decreasing with the increasing duration of SG (Steam Generator) usage. It is indicated that the stable oxide film formation on the inner surface of SG tubing, is a major beneficial factor for radiation sources reduction. On the other hand, the reduction of the amount of Co-60 for the long term has been not clearly observed especially in particular high dose plants. The primary water parameters imply that considering release and purification balance on Co-59 is important to prevent accumulation of source term in primary water. In addition, the effect of zinc injection, which relates to the chemical composition of oxide film, was also assessed. As the results, the amount of radioactive Co has been clearly decreased. The decreasing trend seems to correlate to the half-life of Co-60, because it is considered that the injected zinc prevents the uptake of radioactive Co into the oxide film on the inner surface of the components and piping. In this paper, the influence of water chemistry and the replacement experiences of materials on the dose rates were discussed. (author)

  15. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn Strøier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...

  16. Conversion Factors for Predicting Unshielded Dose Rates in Shielded Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, M.; Seamans Jr, J.V.; Arbon, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed and used by the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project for determining the activity content and the unshielded surface dose rate for lead lined containers contaminated with transuranic waste. Several methods were investigated: - Direct measurement of the dose rate after removing the shielding. - Use of a MicroShield R derived dose conversion factor, (mRem/hr unshielded )/(mRem/hr shielded ), applied to the measured surface dose rate to estimate the unshielded surface dose rate. - Use of a MicroShield R derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. - Use of an empirically derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. The last approach proved to be the most efficacious by using a combination of nondestructive assay and empirically defined dose rate conversion factors. Empirically derived conversion factors were found to be highly dependent upon the matrix of the waste. Use of conversion factors relied on activity values corrected to address the presence of a lead liner. (authors)

  17. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance ratings and personality factors in radar controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether primary or second-order personality questionnaire factors were related to job performance ratings on the Employee Appraisal Record in a sample of 264 radar controllers. A Pearson correlation matrix wa...

  19. The dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents calculations that illustrate two conclusions; for any particular cell type there will be a critical radius at which tumor control breaks down, and the radius at which this occurs is strongly dependent upon the low-dose-rate radiosensitivity of the cells

  20. Evaluating the underlying factors behind variable rate debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Kim, Tae Hyun Tanny

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends show a greater usage of variable rate debt among health care bond issues. In 2004, 63.4% of the total health care bonds issued were variable rate compared with 30.6% in 1995 (Fitch Ratings, 2005). The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the underlying factors, credit spread, issue characteristics, and issuer factors behind why hospitals and health system borrowers select variable rate debt compared with fixed rate debt. From 2000 to 2004, this study sampled 230 newly issued tax-exempt bonds issued by acute care hospitals and health care systems that included both variable and fixed rate debt issues. Using a logistic regression model, hospitals with variable rate debt issues were assigned a value of 1, whereas hospitals with fixed rate debt issues were assigned a value of 0. This study found a positive association between bond insurance and variable rate debt and a negative association between callable feature and variable rate debt. Facilities located in certificate-of-need states that possessed higher case mix acuity, earned higher profit margins, generated higher debt service coverage, and held less debt were more likely to issue variable rate debt. Overall, hospital managers and board members of hospitals possessing a strong financial performance have an interest in utilizing variable rate debt to lower their cost of capital. In addition, this outcome may also reflect that investment bankers are doing a better job in educating senior hospital management about the interest rate savings benefit of variable rate compared with fixed rate debt.

  1. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  2. Aspect-Aware Latent Factor Model: Rating Prediction with Ratings and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) achieve good accuracy in rating prediction, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendation for local users or items. In this paper, we employ textual review information with ratings to tackle these limitations. Firstly, we apply a proposed aspect-aware topic model (ATM) on the review text to model user preferences and item features from different aspects, and estimate the aspect...

  3. Application of a conversion factor to estimate the adenoma detection rate from the polyp detection rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Francis, Dawn L

    2011-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality benchmark for colonoscopy. Many practices find it difficult to determine the ADR because it requires a combination of endoscopic and histologic findings. It may be possible to apply a conversion factor to estimate the ADR from the polyp detection rate (PDR).

  4. Impact of Constant Rate Factor on Objective Video Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of constant rate factor value on the objective video quality assessment using PSNR and SSIM metrics. Compression efficiency of H.264 and H.265 codecs defined by different Constant rate factor (CRF values was tested. The assessment was done for eight types of video sequences depending on content for High Definition (HD, Full HD (FHD and Ultra HD (UHD resolution. Finally, performance of both mentioned codecs with emphasis on compression ratio and efficiency of coding was compared.

  5. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... policies of national and international institutions. Fourteen partly overlapping factors are identified and grouped in five categories: increased pressure on labor, geographical expansion, resource efficiency, technological progress, and destruction or devaluation of capital. It is suggested...

  6. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-02-01

    Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) 3,10(6) / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. From a total of 98 pairs of men's and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 10(6) / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 10(6) / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  7. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  8. Structure factors for tunneling ionization rates of molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.B.; Jensen, F.; Tolstikhin, O.I.

    2013-01-01

    Within the weak-field asymptotic theory, the dependence of the tunneling ionization rate of a molecule in a static electric field on its orientation with respect to the field is determined by the structure factor for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). An accurate determination...

  9. Gamma dose rate effect on JFET transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, J.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Gamma dose rate on JFET transistors is presented. The irradiation was accomplished at the following available dose rates: 1, 2.38, 5, 10 , 17 and 19 kGy/h at a constant dose of 600 kGy. A non proportional relationship between the noise and dose rate in the medium range (between 2.38 and 5 kGy/h) was observed. While in the low and high ranges, the noise was proportional to the dose rate as the case of the dose effect. This may be explained as follows: the obtained result is considered as the yield of a competition between many reactions and events which are dependent on the dose rate. At a given values of that events parameters, a proportional or a non proportional dose rate effects are generated. No dependence effects between the dose rate and thermal annealing recovery after irradiation was observed . (author)

  10. P270: Factors associated with fall rate in psychogeriatric residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, N.M.; de Groot, Maartje H; Hortobágyi, T.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Falls in psychogeriatric residents represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. Identifying fall risk factors and their inter-relationship may help to individualize prevention programs and increase the effectiveness. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between patient

  11. Influence factors on etching rate of PET nuclear pore membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhenzhong; Wu Zhendong; Liang Haiying; Ju Wei; Chen Dongfeng; Fu Yuanyong; Qu Guopu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nuclear pore membrane is a kind of liquid filtration material manufactured by irradiation and chemical etching. Various conditions in etch process have a great influence on etch rate. Purpose: The influence factors of concentration and temperature of etch solution and the irradiation energy of heavy ions on etch rate was studied. Methods: Four layers of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films were stacked together and were irradiated with 140-MeV 32 S ions at room temperature under vacuum conditions. Utilizing conductivity measurement technique, the electrical current changes through the u:radiated PET film were monitored during etching, from which the breakthrough time and therefore the track etching rate was calculated. Results: The results show that there is an exponential correlation between etch rate and temperature, and a linear correlation between etch rate and concentration. The track etching rate increases linearly with energy loss rate. Empirical formula for the bulk etching rate as a function of etchant concentration and temperature was also established via fitting of measurements. Conclusion: It is concluded that by using 1.6-MeV·u -1 32 S ions, PET nuclear pore membrane with cylindrical pore shape can be prepared at 85℃ with etchant concentration of l mol·L -1 . (authors)

  12. Scale factor measure method without turntable for angular rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangyi; Han, Xuefei; Yao, Yanqing; Xiong, Yuting; Huang, Yuqiong; Wang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a scale factor test method without turntable is originally designed for the angular rate gyroscope. A test system which consists of test device, data acquisition circuit and data processing software based on Labview platform is designed. Taking advantage of gyroscope's sensitivity of angular rate, a gyroscope with known scale factor, serves as a standard gyroscope. The standard gyroscope is installed on the test device together with a measured gyroscope. By shaking the test device around its edge which is parallel to the input axis of gyroscope, the scale factor of the measured gyroscope can be obtained in real time by the data processing software. This test method is fast. It helps test system miniaturized, easy to carry or move. Measure quarts MEMS gyroscope's scale factor multi-times by this method, the difference is less than 0.2%. Compare with testing by turntable, the scale factor difference is less than 1%. The accuracy and repeatability of the test system seems good.

  13. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  14. [Factors affecting the participation rates in epidemiologic surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R Z; Jiao, W; Mu, L G; Chen, K; Li, G; Huang, W; Wang, R X; Tan, S R

    2017-10-10

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the response in health-related epidemiological investigation among Chinese population aged 15 and over. We analyzed the specific causes of non-response, and explored the effective ways to improve the response rate, so as to provide reference for future epidemiological studies of this kind. Methods: Two modes of studies regarding the prevalence of important cardiovascular diseases were used in Chongqing, during the 12(th) Five-Year Plan period in oder to find out the cause related to non-response. Intervention programs were carried out to evaluate the effects. Results: When using the concentrated mode (CM), the completion rate to the questionnaires was only 20.00 % in the pre-investigation, with the response rate as 13.48 % . In the deconcentrated mode (DM), the completion rate was 31.16 % , with the response rate as 25.19 % . After a series of incentives provided to both the respondents and the project-related core staff in the two modes, response rates of the two modes increased to the expected 60 % . Conclusions: CM appeared having advantages on quality control, but was more time consuming, with higher cost, and without effective follow-up measures to improve the response rate. However, DM had the advantages on controlling the cost and could increase the response rate through making advanced appointment with the households but quality control remained difficult. Two key points should be strengthened to improve the response rates, which including: Precisely finding out the research objects and providing incentives to the respondents to attract their interests of participating in the investigation.

  15. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  16. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  17. Ekonomski dejavniki gledanosti televizijskih programov v Sloveniji = Economic Factors for Televison Programme Rating in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Dodič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors that influence televison programme rating can be divided intoenvironment, outer factors and internal factors of televison programmes.In this paper we apply the regression analysis to study the influence ofthe number of unemployed, inflation rate, average salary, consumers’trust, households’ financial status in the past 12 months and the economicstate in Slovenia on rating of national, commercial and othertelevison programmes in Slovenia in the 2000–2009 period. The resultsshow that inflation, unemployment, average salary and economicstate have a positive effect, whereas consumers’ trust and households’financial status in the past 12 months have a negative impact on rating.The e xplanatory power of the models is relatively low. In orderto study the topic further research, focusing (also on factors not includedin the analysis (e. g. culture and internal factors of televisonprogrammes, is needed.

  18. Physical heterogeneity control on effective mineral dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heewon; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis

    2018-04-01

    Hydrologic heterogeneity may be an important factor contributing to the discrepancy in laboratory and field measured dissolution rates, but the governing factors influencing mineral dissolution rates among various representations of physical heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we present multiple reactive transport simulations of anorthite dissolution in 2D latticed random permeability fields and link the information from local grid scale (1 cm or 4 m) dissolution rates to domain-scale (1m or 400 m) effective dissolution rates measured by the flux-weighted average of an ensemble of flow paths. We compare results of homogeneous models to heterogeneous models with different structure and layered permeability distributions within the model domain. Chemistry is simplified to a single dissolving primary mineral (anorthite) distributed homogeneously throughout the domain and a single secondary mineral (kaolinite) that is allowed to dissolve or precipitate. Results show that increasing size in correlation structure (i.e. long integral scales) and high variance in permeability distribution are two important factors inducing a reduction in effective mineral dissolution rates compared to homogeneous permeability domains. Larger correlation structures produce larger zones of low permeability where diffusion is an important transport mechanism. Due to the increased residence time under slow diffusive transport, the saturation state of a solute with respect to a reacting mineral approaches equilibrium and reduces the reaction rate. High variance in permeability distribution favorably develops large low permeability zones that intensifies the reduction in mixing and effective dissolution rate. However, the degree of reduction in effective dissolution rate observed in 1 m × 1 m domains is too small (equilibrium conditions reduce the effective dissolution rate by increasing the saturation state. However, in large domains where less- or non-reactive zones develop, higher

  19. Abdominoplasty: Risk Factors, Complication Rates, and Safety of Combined Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ramirez, J Roberto; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2015-11-01

    Among aesthetic surgery procedures, abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate, but previous studies are limited by small sample sizes or single-institution experience. A cohort of patients who underwent abdominoplasty between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Major complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed evaluating risk factors, including age, smoking, body mass index, sex, diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures. The authors identified 25,478 abdominoplasties from 183,914 procedures in the database. Of these, 8,975 patients had abdominoplasty alone and 16,503 underwent additional procedures. The number of complications recorded was 1,012 (4.0 percent overall rate versus 1.4 percent in other aesthetic surgery procedures). Of these, 31.5 percent were hematomas, 27.2 percent were infections and 20.2 percent were suspected or confirmed venous thromboembolism. On multivariate analysis, significant risk factors (p procedures (1.5), and procedure performance in a hospital or surgical center versus office-based surgical suite (1.6). Combined procedures increased the risk of complication (abdominoplasty alone, 3.1 percent; with liposuction, 3.8 percent; breast procedure, 4.3 percent; liposuction and breast procedure, 4.6 percent; body-contouring procedure, 6.8 percent; liposuction and body-contouring procedure, 10.4 percent). Abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate compared with other aesthetic procedures. Combined procedures can significantly increase complication rates and should be considered carefully in higher risk patients. Risk, II.

  20. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  1. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  2. Recurrens Rates and Affecting Factors in Patients Operated for Endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate reurrens rates and affecting factors in patients operated for endometrioma.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: The cases operated for over cyst diagnosis and pathologically endometrioma diagnosis between the years 2000-2004 has been reviewed retrospectively. Cases’s age, cyst diameter, endometriosis stage and operation procedure have been recorded and the cases that have recurrence and factors affecting recurrence are evaluated.\tRESULTS: Results: 51 of 137 (37.3% cases with endometrioma that have average age of 29.1 in course of operation ± 5.4 had left side, 37 of 137(27% had right side and 49 of 137 (35.7% had bilateral endometrioma. Average diameter of endometriomas was 5.1 ±1.9 cm (1-1.5 cm. After average 3.3±1.8 years from first operation time in 42 cases(30.6% had recurrence. in the left over recurrence rate was signifciantly high (10.8% to 41.2% than right over. For recurrence rate There were no significiant diference between the 102 cases that had laparoscopy and 35 cases that had laparotomy according to cyst diameter, case ages and type of operation.\tWhen the cases were reviewed according to endometriozis staging, There were significiantly high recurrence rate at stage III (28.9% and stage IV(46.0%. With respect to the operation type, patients that had one-sided ooferektomi,relapse is not seen. Patients that had fenestration and ablation as operation, relapse rate is 52.9% significiantly higher than patients that had kistektomi (26.9%.Despite decrease in preoperative complaints (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain in early postoperative period, they recurred in late postoperative period. 47(56% of 84 patients who have fertility desire gave live birth unfortunately 12(14.3% of them.\tCONCLUSION: Recurrence rates were signifiantly higher in cases with lift sided endometrioma, advanced stafe of endometriosis and in patient udergone fenestration and ablation for treatment.

  3. A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan

    1980-01-01

    A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function...

  4. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  5. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  6. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    , such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more......Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...

  7. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  8. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  9. Strain rate effects of AM60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehkopf, J.D.; Krause, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium is seeing increasing use in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio and its ability to be cast to tight dimensional tolerances. Presently, main applications include interior components such as instrument panels, steering wheels and seat frames. Consequently, there is a strong need for understanding the rate effect on the behaviour of magnesium under impact type loading. In this work the effect of strain rate on AM60 tensile behaviour was investigated through both high and cold temperature testing, at ranges relevant to the automotive environment. Microstructural analysis, presented in this paper, includes porosity, grain size and fracture surface analyses. (author)

  10. A meta-analysis of the factors influencing development rate variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development rates of Aedes aegypti are known to vary with respect to many abiotic and biotic factors including temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition. The relative importance of these factors and their interactions are not well established across populations. We performed meta-analysis on a dataset of development rate estimates from 49 studies. Results Meta-analytic results indicated that the environmental factor of temperature is sufficient to explain development rate variability in Ae. aegypti. While diet and density may greatly impact other developmental phenotypes, these results suggest that for development rate these factors should never be considered to the exclusion of temperature. The effect of temperature on development rate is not homogenous or constant. The sources of heterogeneity of the effect of temperature are difficult to analyze due to lack of consistent reporting of larval rearing methods. Conclusions Temperature is the most important ecological determinant of development rate in Ae. aegypti, but its effect is heterogeneous. Ignoring this heterogeneity is problematic for models of vector population and vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:24495345

  11. Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.

  12. Effect of Air Injection on Nucleation Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    From disruption of the supersaturated solution to improved mass transfer in the crystallizing suspension, the introduction of a moving gas phase in a crystallizer could lead to improved rates of nucleation and crystal growth. In this work, saturated air has been injected to batch crystallizers...... to study the effects on formation of the first crystal and subsequent turbidity buildup. To account for the typically large sample-to-sample variation, nucleation rates were evaluated for a large number of replicates using probability distributions of induction times. The slope and the intercept...... was reduced from 69 to 13 min, and the mean induction time decreased from 128 to 36 min. The effect on aqueous solutions of l-arginine was less apparent, with a detection delay reduction from 15 to 3 min, and no significant changes on the rate of primary nucleation. These results demonstrate the potential...

  13. Taoshan uranium ore fields in situ blasting heap leaching rate influence factors to investigate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Taoshan ore field ore in situ blasting heap leaching out build industrial test and production process, stope leaching rate and leaching cycle is large than that, after analysis, blasting method and cloth liquid way is to affect leaching rate and leaching cycle of the main factors. This paper holds that as far as possible using stratified deep hole blasting of squeezing up ways to reduce the building pile of in-situ leaching ore block rate; Adopting effective cloth tube way, increase the leaching agent and ore contact comprehensive; Introduction of bacterial leaching, and other means to improve leaching rate, shorten production cycle, etc to solve it. (authors)

  14. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  15. What factors drive interest rate spread of commercial banks? Empirical evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Were

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.

  16. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  17. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  18. Factor-Based Student Rating in Academic Performance in Southern Province of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulinda, Ephrard; Role, Elizabeth; Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku

    2013-01-01

    This study examined students' perception on academic performance using five-factor ratings namely, principal's instructional leadership, school climate, school facilities, teachers' effectiveness and family support. Data for this study were collected from selected Parent's Private Seventh-Day Adventist Secondary Schools (PPSDASS) in Southern…

  19. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  20. Strain rate effects for spallation of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler-Combe, Ulrich; Panteki, Evmorfia; Kühn, Tino

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The strain rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property - which can be covered by rate dependent stress strain relations - or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included strain rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to strain rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high strain effects [3].

  1. Strain rate effects for spallation of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häussler-Combe Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The strain rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property – which can be covered by rate dependent stress strain relations – or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included strain rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to strain rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high strain effects [3].

  2. Effectiveness of human factors simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-01-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  3. Dose-rate effects in external beam radiotherapy redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C. Clifton; Gerweck, Leo E.; Zaider, Marco; Yorke, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in external beam radiotherapy, both in technical advances and in clinical approaches, have prompted renewed discussions on the potential influence of dose-rate on radio-response in certain treatment scenarios. We consider the multiple factors that influence the dose-rate effect, e.g. radical recombination, the kinetics of sublethal damage repair for tumors and normal tissues, the difference in α/β ratio for early and late reacting tissues, and perform a comprehensive literature review. Based on radiobiological considerations and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model we estimate the influence of overall treatment time on radio-response for specific clinical situations. As the influence of dose-rate applies to both the tumor and normal tissues, in oligo-fractionated treatment using large doses per fraction, the influence of delivery prolongation is likely important, with late reacting normal tissues being generally more sensitive to the dose-rate effect than tumors and early reacting tissues. In conventional fractionated treatment using 1.8-2 Gy per fraction and treatment times of 2-10 min, the influence of dose-rate is relatively small. Lastly, the dose-rate effect in external beam radiotherapy is governed by the overall beam-on-time, not by the average linac dose-rate, nor by the instantaneous dose-rate within individual linac pulses which could be as high as 3 x 10 6 MU/min.

  4. Effects of ion and electron screening on thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of screening by ions and electrons on thermonuclear reaction rates in stellar plasmas are considered. The enhancement of the reaction rate ranges from negligible to extremely large (on the order of 10 26 or greater). In order to calculate these effects, the potential about a given reacting nucleus is determined. First, Boltzmann-Vlasov and Poisson-Boltzmann equations are solved to yield a Yukawa potential. A suitable approximation to this potential is integrated in the action integral to give the barrier penetration. The screened reaction rate is then found by the saddle-point method. In developing a general formalism to calculate the screened reaction rate and the screening factor, effects due to the finite size of the nucleus are considered and found to be negligible. An expression for the screening factor for resonant reaction rates is also derived. A different and relatively simple approach, based on work of Stewart and Pyatt (1966), is used to find the barrier penetration from the action integral in two approximations: a modified Coulomb potential and a constant-shift potential. Screening factors are calculated for carbon burning at T 6 = 100 and T 6 = 400 for a wide range of densities and also for several examples in late stellar evolution. These screening factors are, for the most part, greater than those given by most others by a few percent at low density to 4 or more orders of magnitude at T 6 = 100 and rho = 10 10 g/cm 3 . Near the edge of the crystalline lattice region, however, they are significantly lower than those of some others. The increase in reaction rates for carbon burning indicates that carbon ignition may occur at lower densities than previously thought and may affect the density at which a supernova shock may occur

  5. Mutagenic effect of clastogenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagov, P.S.; Morozik, M.S.; Morozik, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Clastogenic factors (CF) were first described in the plasma of persons who had been irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. In present study, the effect of CF from blood serum samples from Chernobyl liquidators on HPV-G (human keratinocyte cells immortalized with HPV virus) cells using micronuclei test has been studied. The analysis has shown that CF from liquidators' serum samples induce significantly higher level of micronuclei compared to control. (authors)

  6. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rate effects in resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, C.; Riegler, W.; Kalweit, A.

    2006-01-01

    The resistive plates in RPCs cause a drop of the electric field in the gas gap at high particle rates or large gas gain, which affects efficiency and time resolution. This effect is typically estimated by assuming the particle flux to be a DC current that causes a voltage drop when it passes through the resistive plate. In an improved model by Abbrescia (Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 533 (2004) 7), the fluctuation of the field in the gas gap is modelled by assuming that the avalanche partially discharges a small capacitor which gets recharged with a time constant characteristic for the given RPC. In our approach, the effect is calculated by using the exact analytic solution for the time dependent electric field of a point charge sitting on the surface of a resistive plate in an RPC. This is, by definition, the best possible approximation to reality. The solution is obtained using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations. The formulas are presented as integral representations with 'cured' integrands, which allow easy numerical evaluation for Monte Carlo simulations. The solutions show that the charges in RPCs are 'destroyed' with a continuous distribution of time constants which are related in a very intuitive way to some limiting cases. Using these formulas we present a Monte Carlo simulation of rate effects, proving the applicability of this approach. Finally, we compare the Monte Carlo results to analytical calculations, similar to the ones proposed by Gonzalez-Diaz et al. (see proceedings of this conference)

  8. Influence of solvent evaporation rate and formulation factors on solid dispersion physical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian X; Yang, Mingshi; Berg, Frans van den; Pajander, Jari; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka

    2011-12-18

    New chemical entities (NCEs) often show poor water solubility necessitating solid dispersion formulation. The aim of the current study is to employ design of experiments in investigating the influence of one critical process factor (solvent evaporation rate) and two formulation factors (PVP:piroxicam ratio (PVP:PRX) and PVP molecular weight (P(MW))) on the physical stability of PRX solid dispersion prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The results showed the rank order of an increase in factors contributing to a decrease in the extent of PRX nucleation being evaporation rate>PVP:PRX>P(MW). The same rank order was found for the decrease in the extent of PRX crystal growth in PVP matrices from day 0 up to day 12. However, after 12days the rank became PVP:PRX>evaporation rate>P(MW). The effects of an increase in evaporation rate and PVP:PRX ratio in stabilizing PRX were of the same order of magnitude, while the effect from P(MW) was much smaller. The findings were confirmed by XRPD. FT-IR showed that PRX recrystallization in the PVP matrix followed Ostwald's step rule, and an increase in the three factors all led to increased hydrogen bonding interaction between PRX and PVP. The present study showed the applicability of the Quality by Design approach in solid dispersion research, and highlights the need for multifactorial analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  10. Factors affecting patients' ratings of health-care satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne K; Fuglsang, Marie; Miiller, Max Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surveys that include rating scales are commonly used to collect data about patients' experiences. We studied how patients associated their ratings with their experiences of care. METHODS: A survey and a qualitative study were conducted at a Danish hospital. Initially, 19 female pati...

  11. Factors which determine the swelling rate of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Once void nucleation subsides, the swelling rate of many austenitic alloys becomes rather insensitive to variables that control the transient regime of swelling. Models are presented which describe the roles of nickel, chromium and silicon in void nucleation. The relative insensitivity of steady-state swelling to temperature, displacement rate and composition is also discussed

  12. X particle effect for 6Li reaction rates calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, G.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    The inferred primordial 6 L i-7 L i abundances are different from standard big bang nucleosynthesis results, 6 L i is 1000 times larger and 7 L i is 3 times smaller than the big bang prediction. In big bang nucleosynthesis, negatively charged massive X particles a possible solution to explain this primordial Li abundances problem [1]. In this study, we consider only X particle effect for nuclear reactions to obtain S-factor and reaction rates for Li. All S-factors calculated within the Optical Model framework for d(α,γ)6 L i system. We showed that the enhancement effect of massive negatively charged X particle for 6 L i system reaction rate.(author)

  13. Late effects of low doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper outlines the spectrum of problems and approaches used in work on the derivation of quantitative prognoses of late effects in man of low doses and dose rates. The origins of principal problems encountered in radiation risks assessments, definitions and explanations of useful quantities, methods of deriving risk factors from biological and epidemiological data, and concepts of risk evaluation and problems of acceptance are individually discussed

  14. Rate My Information Systems Professor: Exploring the Factors That Influence Student Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Mark; Crable, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Based on 820 entries on Ratemyprofessors.com, we explore whether information systems course ratings differ from those in marketing or management courses, whether lower level course ratings differ from those in senior or graduate level courses, whether course ratings differ between genders, and whether perceived course difficulty impacts course…

  15. Which Factors Affect Citation Rates in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kristie L; Dodson, Thomas B; Egbert, Mark A; Susarla, Srinivas M

    2017-07-01

    Citation rate is one of several tools to measure academic productivity. The purposes of this study were to estimate and identify factors associated with citation rates in the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) literature. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of publications in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (JOMS), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (IJOMS), and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology (OOOO) from January through December 2012. The predictor variables were author- and article-specific factors. The outcome variable was the citation rate, defined as the total number of citations for each article over a 4-year period. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. The authors identified 993 articles published during 2012. The mean number of citations at 4 years after publication was 5.6 ± 5.3 (median, 4). In bivariate analyses, several author- and article-specific factors were associated with citation rates. In a multiple regression model adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers, first author H-index, number of authors, journal, OMS focus area, and Oxford level of evidence were significantly associated with citation rate (P ≤ .002). The authors identified 5 factors associated with citation rates in the OMS literature. These factors should be considered in context when evaluating citation-based metrics for OMS. Studies that focus on core OMS procedures (eg, dentoalveolar surgery, dental implant surgery), are published in specialty-specific journals (eg, JOMS or IJOMS), and have higher levels of evidence are more likely to be cited. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses: do local labor market factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Williams, Eric S; Wagar, Terry H

    2008-01-01

    Turnover of nursing staff is a significant issue affecting health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of turnover. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to turnover and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational turnover and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."

  17. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale.......At the macro- and meso-scales a rate dependent constitutive model is used in which visco-elasticity is coupled to visco-plasticity and damage. A viscous length scale effect is introduced to control the size of the fracture process zone. By comparison of the widths of the fracture process zone...

  18. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  19. The price of reverse factoring : financing rates vs. payment delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van der K.; Reindorp, M.J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse factoring –a financial arrangement where a corporation facilitates early payment of its trade credit obligations to suppliers– is increasingly popular in industry. Many firms use the scheme to induce their suppliers to grant them more lenient payment terms. By means of a periodic review base

  20. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution intranscription factor binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, EricS.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2003-08-28

    The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Here we analyze the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikataeto study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artifacts of computational motif finding algorithms. As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the effective use of comparative

  1. Factoring vs linear modeling in rate estimation: a simulation study of relative accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G; Greenland, S

    1998-07-01

    A common strategy for modeling dose-response in epidemiology is to transform ordered exposures and covariates into sets of dichotomous indicator variables (that is, to factor the variables). Factoring tends to increase estimation variance, but it also tends to decrease bias and thus may increase or decrease total accuracy. We conducted a simulation study to examine the impact of factoring on the accuracy of rate estimation. Factored and unfactored Poisson regression models were fit to follow-up study datasets that were randomly generated from 37,500 population model forms that ranged from subadditive to supramultiplicative. In the situations we examined, factoring sometimes substantially improved accuracy relative to fitting the corresponding unfactored model, sometimes substantially decreased accuracy, and sometimes made little difference. The difference in accuracy between factored and unfactored models depended in a complicated fashion on the difference between the true and fitted model forms, the strength of exposure and covariate effects in the population, and the study size. It may be difficult in practice to predict when factoring is increasing or decreasing accuracy. We recommend, therefore, that the strategy of factoring variables be supplemented with other strategies for modeling dose-response.

  2. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start

  3. Hospital ownership: a risk factor for nosocomial infection rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C; Behnke, M; Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P

    2018-03-26

    In some countries, a relationship between hospital ownership and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) rates has been described. To investigate the association between hospital ownership and occurrence of HCAI in Germany. Five different components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were analysed with regard to the influence of hospital ownership in the period 2014-2016. Endpoints included ventilator-associated pneumonia, central-venous-catheter-associated bloodstream infections, urinary-catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections (SSI) following hip prosthesis and colon surgery, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and hand rub consumption per 1000 patient-days. Three hospital ownership types (public, non-profit and private) were analysed using univariate and multi-variate methods. The distribution of hospitals according to the three ownership types was similar in all components. In total, 661 intensive care units (ICUs), 149 departments performing colon procedures, and 349 departments performing hip prosthesis were included. In addition, 568 hospitals provided their MRSA rates and 236 provided their CDI rates, and 1833 ICUs and 12,934 non-ICUs provided their hand rub consumption data. In general, the differences between the hospital types were rather small and not significant for the ICUs. In the multi-variate analysis, public hospitals had a lower SSI rate following hip prosthesis (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.99). Hospital ownership was not found to have a major influence on the incidence of HCAI in Germany. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy in activation analysis: count rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Fleming, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy inherent in activation analysis is ultimately limited by the uncertainty of counting statistics. When careful attention is paid to detail, several workers have shown that all systematic errors can be reduced to an insignificant fraction of the total uncertainty, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. A matter of particular importance is the reduction of errors due to high counting rate. The loss of counts due to random coincidence (pulse pileup) in the amplifier and to digitization time in the ADC may be treated as a series combination of extending and non-extending dead times, respectively. The two effects are experimentally distinct. Live timer circuits in commercial multi-channel analyzers compensate properly for ADC dead time for long-lived sources, but not for pileup. Several satisfactory solutions are available, including pileup rejection and dead time correction circuits, loss-free ADCs, and computed corrections in a calibrated system. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured routinely with acceptably small errors at a dead time as high as 20 percent

  5. Risk management under a two-factor model of the term structure of interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents several applications to interest rate risk management based on a two-factor continuous-time model of the term structure of interest rates previously presented in Moreno (1996). This model assumes that default free discount bond prices are determined by the time to maturity and two factors, the long-term interest rate and the spread (difference between the long-term rate and the short-term (instantaneous) riskless rate). Several new measures of ``generalized duration" are p...

  6. Self-citation rate and impact factor in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2018-02-01

    Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report ® . The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.

  7. Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng

    2016-10-10

    The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

  8. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse effect rates. 655.207 Section 655.207... Agricultural Employment § 655.207 Adverse effect rates. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the adverse effect rates for all agricultural and logging employment shall be the prevailing wage rates in the...

  9. Influence diagram of physiological and environmental factors affecting heart rate variability: an extended literature overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fatisson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV corresponds to the adaptation of the heart to any stimulus. In fact, among the pathologies affecting HRV the most, there are the cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders, which are associated with high medical cost in Western societies. Consequently, HRV is now widely used as an index of health.In order to better understand how this adaptation takes place, it is necessary to examine which factors directly influence HRV, whether they have a physiological or environmental origin. The primary objective of this research is therefore to conduct a literature review in order to get a comprehensive overview of the subject.The system of these factors affecting HRV can be divided into the following five categories: physiological and pathological factors, environmental factors, lifestyle factors, non-modifiable factors and effects. The direct interrelationships between these factors and HRV can be regrouped into an influence diagram. This diagram can therefore serve as a basis to improve daily clinical practice as well as help design even more precise research protocols.

  10. [Factors influencing conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B A

    2005-04-01

    This review describes factors that affect conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Intervals of 7 days between GnRH and PGF2alpha, 48 hours to the second GnRH treatment and a further 16 to 20 hours to the timed insemination have been proven to be most effective. Conception rates (CR) increase as lactation progresses up to 100 days in milk. Primiparous cows have higher CR than older cows. Anovular cows at the start of the synchronization protocols have poor CR. These are highest for cows started in early dioestrus. While poor body condition and some post partum and post insemination health disorders have negative effects on the CR, a significant effect of postpartum chronic endometritis could not be demonstrated. High milk yield was also not shown to have a negative effect on CR in almost all studies, while the negative effect of heat stress on fertility is also found in Ovsynch cows. However, the negative effects of high milk yields and heat stress on AI submission rates are overcome by the timed insemination protocol.

  11. Factors Affecting Pavement Surface and Evaluation Rating Accuracy and Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Sharlan R; Haddock, John E

    2018-01-01

    The collection of sufficient, accurate, and consistent pavement condition data is essential to an effective pavement management system. Condition data drive a variety of pavement management tasks such as: • Predicting future pavement performance• Identifying current and future maintenance and rehabilitation needs • Estimating budget needs and requirements • Reporting to decision makers • Selecting appropriate pavement management tools Pavement condition data are represented at either th...

  12. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Rater and Ratee Effects in Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Robert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the consistency and loci of leniency, halo, and range restriction effects in performance ratings in a longitudinal study. Policy supervisors (N=90) rated 350 subordinates on five occasions. Concluded that reliable variance in mean ratings is partly attributable to ratees, but mainly introduced by raters. (JAC)

  14. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1991-08-01

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60 Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  15. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. DECREASING SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT. THEORETICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and social empowerment in Romania are unconcievable in the absence of a modern education system, which needs both economic and financial investments and social, political, cultural measures to increase the inclusion of young people in school system. In this particular context, given that Romania faces a high degree rate of school dropout, and moreover there are few chances that Romania reach its goals, we try in this paper to look inside the real situation. Indeed, school dropout present serious negative consequences both on individual level and for the whole society. Recognising this fact, next step is to investigate and reveal the determining factors for this situation, and we are particularly interested in the economic and systemic factors. Consequently, we present in this paper first a brief literature review on the fenomenon of school dropping out, including reviewing main studies related to factors, effects, causes etc. In the second part, starting from several statistical data provided by INS, EUROSTAT and UNICEF studies, we propose some theoretical models and policy reccomendations in order to decrease the school dropout rate and especially the early school dropout rate.

  17. Ekonomski dejavniki gledanosti televizijskih programov v Sloveniji = Economic Factors for Televison Programme Rating in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Dodič; Bojan Nastav

    2011-01-01

    Factors that influence televison programme rating can be divided intoenvironment, outer factors and internal factors of televison programmes.In this paper we apply the regression analysis to study the influence ofthe number of unemployed, inflation rate, average salary, consumers’trust, households’ financial status in the past 12 months and the economicstate in Slovenia on rating of national, commercial and othertelevison programmes in Slovenia in the 2000–2009 period. The resultsshow that in...

  18. Factors Affecting the Rate of Pediatric Pneumonia in Developing Countries: a Review and Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of children less than 5 years old die from pneumonia globally and about 75-70% of these deaths occur in infants. Persian and English articles of International and National databases such as “WHO, Scopus and the Cochrane, Pub Med, Science Direct, Wiley, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Med Lib and Iran Doc were searched from 1970 to 2014. Result: The factors such as low birth weight, malnutrition, lack of breast feeding, micronutrient deficiencies, smoking tobacco, kindergarten and maternal education are the most important factors affecting the rate of pneumonia in developing countries. Conclusion: Actions such as nutritional interventions develop effective strategies on abstinence of smoking, promote the knowledge and practice of mothers about proper care of infants could have a significant effect on the reduction of morbidity and mortality of pneumonia in the infants.

  19. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  20. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  1. Experimental study of relationship between average isotopic fractionation factor and evaporation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic fractionation is the basis of tracing the water cycle using hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Isotopic fractionation factors in water evaporating from free water bodies are mainly affected by temperature and relative humidity, and vary significantly with these atmospheric factors over the course of a day. The evaporation rate (E can reveal the effects of atmospheric factors. Therefore, there should be a certain functional relationship between isotopic fractionation factors and E. An average isotopic fractionation factor (α* was defined to describe isotopic differences between vapor and liquid phases in evaporation with time intervals of days. The relationship between α* and E based on the isotopic mass balance was investigated through an evaporation pan experiment with no inflow. The experimental results showed that the isotopic compositions of residual water were more enriched with time; α* was affected by air temperature, relative humidity, and other atmospheric factors, and had a strong functional relation with E. The values of α* can be easily calculated with the known values of E, the initial volume of water in the pan, and isotopic compositions of residual water.

  2. Nuclear power's effects on electric rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.S.; Lancaster, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Government and the electric utility industry are re-evaluating nuclear power's contribution to the total U.S. energy supplies. This article addresses how the recently increased nuclear plant construction and operation costs are translated into the prices that consumers pay for electricity. The electric rates that consumers pay must reflect the costs of producing electricity, as well as the costs of transmission, distribution, metering, and billing. The use of nuclear power for electric production is anticipated to grow rapidly so as to meet a larger portion of our country's electricity needs through the end of the century; so nuclear power costs are expected to be an even larger portion of the total electricity price. There are certain rate-making issues that are actively being discussed in public forums and before state and Federal regulatory bodies. These issues are not unique to nuclear power, but take on added significance when nuclear power is used by utilities to produce electricity because of the technology required and because of the type, timing, and magnitude of the costs involved. These are: (1) inclusion of construction work in progress in the rate base; (2) fuel adjustment clauses and treatment of nuclear fuel cycle costs; (3) treatment of certain taxes under the rate-making method called normalization or deferral accounting (sometimes referred to as ''phantom taxes''); and (4) rate treatment for particular nuclear expense items reflecting costs of delays, plant cancellations, and operational slowdowns

  3. Detection of the sulfhydryl groups in proteins with slow hydrogen exchange rates and determination of their proton/deuteron fractionation factors using the deuterium-induced effects on the 13C(beta) NMR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Jee, JunGoo; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-05-05

    A method for identifying cysteine (Cys) residues with sulfhydryl (SH) groups exhibiting slow hydrogen exchange rates has been developed for proteins in aqueous media. The method utilizes the isotope shifts of the C(beta) chemical shifts induced by the deuteration of the SH groups. The 18.2 kDa E. coli peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), which was selectively labeled with [3-(13)C;3,3-(2)H(2)]Cys, showed much narrower line widths for the (13)C(beta) NMR signals, as compared to those of the proteins labeled with either [3-(13)C]Cys or (3R)-[3-(13)C;3-(2)H]Cys. The (13)C(beta) signals of the two Cys residues of EPPIb, i.e. Cys-31 and Cys-121, labeled with [3-(13)C;3,3-(2)H(2)]Cys, split into four signals in H(2)O/D(2)O (1:1) at 40 degrees C and pH 7.5, indicating that the exchange rates of the side-chain SH's and the backbone amides are too slow to average the chemical shift differences of the (13)C(beta) signals, due to the two- and three-bond isotope shifts. By virtue of the well-separated signals, the proton/deuteron fractional factors for both the SH and amide groups of the two Cys residues in EPPIb could be directly determined, as approximately 0.4-0.5 for [SD]/[SH] and 0.9-1.0 for [ND]/[NH], by the relative intensities of the NMR signals for the isotopomers. The proton NOE's of the two slowly exchanging SH's were clearly identified in the NOESY spectra and were useful for the determining the local structure of EPPIb around the Cys residues.

  4. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly

  5. Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Payman; Li Mo

    2005-01-01

    Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formability in a model binary system is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. To isolate atomic size effect from the rest of the factors that critically influence the glass formation, a hard sphere model is employed in conjunction with a newly developed densification method. The glass formability is defined as a set of optimal conditions that result in the slowest cooling rate of the glass-forming liquid. Critical cooling rates are identified from extensive molecular dynamics simulations. A kinetic glass-forming diagram is mapped out that marks the boundary between the glass-forming regions and competing crystalline phases in terms of the parameters of the atomic size ratio and alloy concentration. It is found that the potency of the atomic size difference on glass formation is influenced greatly by the competing metastable and equilibrium crystalline phases in the system, and the kinetic processes leading to the formation of these phases. The mechanisms of the atomic size effect on topological instability of crystal packing and glass formation are discussed

  6. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  7. Comparison of the two different standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metghalchi, M.; Ashrafi, R.

    1983-01-01

    A very useful and simple way of obtaining the dose rate associated with neutron or photon fluxes is to multiply these fluxes by the appropriate flux-to-dose rate conversion factors. Two basic standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors. are being used in all over the world, those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) and the American National Standars (ANS). The purpose of this paper is to compare these two standard with each other. The comparison proved that the dose rate associated with a specific neutron flux, obtained by the ANS flux-to-dose rate conversion factors is usually higher than those calculated by the ICRP's conversion factors. Whereas in the case of the photon, in all energies, the difference between the dose rates obtained by these two standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors are noticeable, and the ANS results are higher than the ICRP ones. So, it should be noted that for a specific neutron or photon flux the dose rate obtained by the ANS flux-to-dose rate conversion factors are more conservative than those obtained by the ICRP's. Therefore, in order to establish a more reasonable new standard flux-to-dose rate conversion factors, more work should be done. (author)

  8. Factors determining the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) on-kinetics in skeletal muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2004-01-01

    Using a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously [Korzeniewski and Mazat (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 143-148; Korzeniewski and Zoladz (2001) Biophys. Chem. 92, 17-34], we analyse the effect of several factors on the oxygen-uptake kinetics, especially on the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) and half-transition time t(1/2), at the onset of exercise in skeletal muscles. Computer simulations demonstrate that an increase in the total creatine pool [PCr+/-Cr] (where Cr stands for c...

  9. Factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale as per DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Joungmin

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 recently proposed new diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many new or updated tools have been developed since the DSM-IV was published in 1994, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) has been used consistently in ASD diagnosis and research due to its technical adequacy, cost-effectiveness, and practicality. Additionally, items in the CARS did not alter following the release of the revised DSM-IV because the CARS factor structure was found to be consistent with the revised criteria after factor analysis. For that reason, in this study confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the CARS. Participants (n = 150) consisted of children with an ASD diagnosis or who met the criteria for broader autism or emotional/behavior disorder with comorbid disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, intellectual or developmental disabilities. Previous studies used one-, two-, and four-factor models, all of which we examined to confirm the best-fit model on confirmatory factor analysis. Appropriate comparative fit indices and root mean square errors were obtained for all four models. The two-factor model, based on DSM-5 criteria, was the most valid and reliable. The inter-item consistency of the CARS was 0.926 and demonstrated adequate reliability, thereby supporting the validity and reliability of the two-factor model of CARS. Although CARS was developed prior to the introduction of DSM-5, its psychometric properties, conceptual relevance, and flexible administration procedures support its continued role as a screening device in the diagnostic decision-making process. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  11. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  12. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  13. The role of elastomeric pumps in postoperative analgesia in orthopaedics and factors affecting their flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorides, Anthony Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Elastomeric pumps are mechanical devices composed of an elastomeric balloon reservoir into which the drug to be infused is stored, a protective casing (used by some manufacturers), a flow controller and a wound catheter. In orthopaedics they are used to provide continuous local infiltration analgesia. In this way patients rely less on other routes of analgesia and thus avoid their systemic side effects. Studies have shown good response to analgesia with these pumps for the first 24 hours but their benefit is not as clear at 48 and 72 hours. There are numerous factors that affect the flow rate of elastomeric pumps. Some are inherent to all elastomeric pumps such as: the pressure exerted by the elastomeric balloon, catheter size, the vertical height of the pump in relation to the wound, viscosity and partial filling. There are also other factors which vary according to the manufacturer such as: the optimal temperature to obtain the desired flow rate as this directly affects viscosity, the dialysate that the analgesic drug is mixed with (ie normal saline or 5% dextrose), and the storage conditions of the fluid to be infused. It is thus essential to follow the clinical guidelines provided by the manufacturer in order to obtain the desired flow rate. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON WHEAT TRADE WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Changyou; Kim, Mina; Koo, Won W.; Cho, Guedae; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2002-01-01

    A modified gravity-type model was employed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate volatility on wheat exports worldwide. Special attention was given to the econometric properties of the gravity model within panel framework. Short and long-term measures of exchange rate volatility were constructed and compared. Both measures of exchange rate volatility have exhibited a negative effect on world wheat trade and the long-term effect was even larger. This result implies that exchange rate volatil...

  15. 37 CFR 385.17 - Effect of rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of rates. 385.17 Section 385.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND... Digital Phonorecord Deliveries and Limited Downloads § 385.17 Effect of rates. In any future proceedings...

  16. Examination of Environmental Factors Influencing the Emission Rates of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some types of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs that are emitted from plastics used in building materials and household appliances have been associated with health risks, even at low concentrations. It has been reported that di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP—one of the most commonly used plasticizers—causes asthma and allergic symptoms in children at home. The amount of emitted DEHP, which is classified as a SVOC, can be measured using a microchamber by the thermal desorption test chamber method. To accurately measure the SVOC emission rates, the relation between SVOC and environmental factors should be clarified. Herein, we examined the effects of the temperature, relative humidity, concentration of airborne particles, and flow field in the microchamber on SVOC emission rates. The flow fields inside the microchamber were analyzed via computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The emission rate of SVOC released from PVC flooring increased under high temperatures and at high concentrations of airborne particles but did not depend on the relative humidity. From an evaluation performed using an index of air change efficiency, such as the air age and the coefficient of air change performance, we found that a fixed air exchange rate of 1.5 h−1 in the microchamber is desirable.

  17. Increasing pandemic vaccination rates with effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Natalie J

    2011-06-01

    Communicating effectively with the public about the importance of vaccination during a pandemic poses a challenge to health communicators. The public's concerns about the safety, effectiveness and necessity of vaccines lead many people to refuse vaccination and the current communication strategies are often unsuccessful at overcoming the public's resistance to vaccinate. Convincing the public to receive a vaccination, especially during a pandemic when there can be so much uncertainty about the vaccine and the disease, requires a revised communication approach. This revised approach should integrate into messages information that the public identifies as important, as well as presenting messages in a way that is consistent with our evolved social learning biases. These biases will impact both the content of the message and who delivers the message to different target populations. Additionally, an improved understanding between media and health communicators about the role each plays during a crisis may increase the effectiveness of messages disseminated to the public. Lastly, given that the public is increasingly seeking health information from on-line and other electronic sources, health communication needs to continue to find ways to integrate new technologies into communication strategies.

  18. Factors that influence influenza vaccination rates among the elderly: nurses' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah

    2018-03-01

    To explore which factors nurses perceive to help and hinder influenza vaccination rates among the elderly. Influenza-related illnesses and deaths have disproportionately high prevalence among the elderly. Vaccination is an effective tool to prevent complications. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses focusing on barriers, facilitators and health care providers' roles in influencing patients to be vaccinated. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Nurses identified that the prevalent barriers were fear of the vaccine's side effects, feelings of good health and technical considerations. Facilitators included ease of access and encouragement from health providers, media and social networks. The health care team was influential in raising vaccination rates through direct recommendation, providing concrete information or leading by example. The health care team can influence patients to vaccinate. Investments in training nurses in the knowledge and skills needed to educate patients, and providing nurses with the necessary resources to engage patients in these discussions may be beneficial. Nurse managers can be instrumental in enhancing nurses' roles and actions to increase influenza vaccination rates among the elderly. It is essential to reinforce the nurses' role in promoting vaccination among seniors. Given that nurses are the largest number of health professionals, their potential outreach to large numbers of people is strong. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Diew Lai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. For Malaysia, no significant causal relation is found from the rate of interest to exchange rates, as the authorities in Malaysia did not actively adopt a high interest rate policy to defend the currency.

  20. Survival Rate and Associated Factors of Childhood Leukemia in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Resent reviews have shown that about 18% of all child cancers are leukemia. Track of the survival rate can help researchers improve quality of life of patients through improving screening or discovery of better treatments. Objectives This review aimed at estimating the 5-year survival rates and associated factors of childhood leukemia in Iran. Data Sources We carried out a systematic review through search of relevant studies published in English (PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and ISI and Persian databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex. Study Selection The study included all epidemiologic studies that estimated survival rate in children with leukemia in Iran during years 2002 to 2015, and a standardized manner was used for extraction of information. Data Extraction The entire text or summary of all searched articles was extracted and then, related articles were selected, and irrelevant ones were excluded. Fixed and random effects models were calculated by the STATA using standard meta-analysis methods. Heterogeneity was assessed by I² statistics. Results The overall 5-year survival rate in patients with childhood leukemia in Iran was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67, 10 studies, in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL subtype was 71.0% (95% CI: 68.0 to 74.0, and in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtype was 46.0%. Results of the meta analysis showed significant poor survival with relapse (heart rate (HR 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.27 to 1.98 and white blood count (WBC counts ≥ 50,000 (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.60. Conclusions The results showed that 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were lower than patients with ALL. The results of this meta analysis strongly support the need for future research, action, and guidance for clinicians to improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for children with leukemia.

  1. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words

    OpenAIRE

    Vejdemo, Susanne; H?rberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For t...

  3. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-01-01

    510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches

  4. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  5. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  6. Mechanism of Strain Rate Effect Based on Dislocation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Qin; Shi-Sheng, Hu; Li-Ming, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on dislocation theory, we investigate the mechanism of strain rate effect. Strain rate effect and dislocation motion are bridged by Orowan's relationship, and the stress dependence of dislocation velocity is considered as the dynamics relationship of dislocation motion. The mechanism of strain rate effect is then investigated qualitatively by using these two relationships although the kinematics relationship of dislocation motion is absent due to complicated styles of dislocation motion. The process of strain rate effect is interpreted and some details of strain rate effect are adequately discussed. The present analyses agree with the existing experimental results. Based on the analyses, we propose that strain rate criteria rather than stress criteria should be satisfied when a metal is fully yielded at a given strain rate. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  7. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...

  8. Guideline values for skin decontamination measures based on nuclidspecific dose equivalent rate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfob, H.; Heinemann, G.

    1992-01-01

    Corresponding dose equivalent rate factors for various radionuclides are now available for determining the skin dose caused by skin contamination. These dose equivalent rate factors take into account all contributions from the types of radiation emitted. Any limits for skin decontamination measures are nowhere contained or determined yet. However, radiological protection does in practice require at least guideline values in order to prevent unsuitable or detrimental measures that can be noticed quite often. New calculations of dose equivalent rate factors for the skin now make the recommendation of guideline values possible. (author)

  9. Factors for effective BIM governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alreshidi, Eissa; Mourshed, Monjur; Rezgui, Yacine

    2017-01-01

    With increasing complexity of construction projects, a collaborative environment becomes essential to ensure effective communication during the project lifecycle. Conventional team collaboration raises issues such as the lack of trust; uncertainties regarding ownership and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); miscommunication; and cultural differences, among others. Additional issues can arise in relation to the generated data, including data loss, data inconsistency, errors, and liability fo...

  10. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, the Centre's support has helped Tanzania reduce child ... how it was developed and applied and what was learned from it. ... case study research. The first was ... into play. 3 For the purpose of the study, a partnership is effective.

  11. The effects of vacuum polarization on thermonuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Added to the pure Coulomb potential, the contribution from vacuum polarization increases the barrier, reducing the wave function (u) for reacting nuclei within the range of nuclear forces. The cross section and reaction rate are then reduced accordingly by a factor proportional to u squared. The effect is treated by evaluating the vacuum polarization potential as a small correction to the Coulomb term, then computing u in a WKB formulation. The calculation is done analytically employing the small r power-series expansion for the Uehling potential to express the final result in terms of convenient parameters. At a temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 7th K the (negative) correction is 1.3 percent for the fundamental fusion process p + p yields d + e(+) + nu.

  12. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD). Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of...

  13. Calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are presented for the calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radioactive decay. A dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the dose-equivalent rate per unit radionuclide concentration. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each radiation type and exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors are derived for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. In addition, photon dose-rate conversion factors are estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations are based on the assumption that the exposure medium is infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. The dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water then follow from the requirement that all of the energy emitted in the radioactive decay is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated at a reference location above a smooth, infinite plane using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air

  14. The Skill-Biased Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Kaiser; Michael Siegenthaler

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between real exchange rate movements and firms' skill demand. Real exchange rate movements may affect unskilled workers differently than skilled workers because of skill-specific adjustment costs, or because exchange rates lead to changes in relative factor prices and firms' competition intensity. Using panel data on Swiss manufacturers, we find that an appreciation increases high-skilled and reduces low-skilled employment in most firms, while total employment...

  15. Factors affecting the first service conception rate of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M A R; Das, Z C; Bhattacharjee, J; Rahman, M M; Islam, M M; Haque, M A; Parrish, J J; Shamsuddin, M

    2013-06-01

    The successful outcome of an insemination is a combination of both male and female fertility-linked factors. We investigated the first service conception rate of cows at artificial insemination (AI) in the smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh. Frozen straws were prepared from ejaculates of Bos indicus (n = 7) and Bos indicus × Bos taurus (n = 7) AI bulls. Fertility was determined from 6101 first services in cows that were performed by 18 technicians in four regions between April 2004 and March 2005. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation between 60 and 90 days post-insemination. The Asian version of Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA ASIA) was used for bulls-, cows- and AI-related data recording, and later retrieved for analysis. The mean ± SD number of inseminations performed from individual bulls and their conception rates were 436.0 ± 21.6 and 50.7 ± 1.9%, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated body condition scores (BCS), heat detection signs, months of AI and their interactions had greatest effects (odds ratios: 1.24-16.65, p conception rate in cows. Fertility differed (p conception rate of 53.6%, 48.8% and 50.1%, respectively (p Conception rate between technicians ranged between 43.4% and 58.6% (p < 0.05). The days interval from calving to first service (overall mean ± SD = 153.4 ± 80.6) had relationship (p < 0.001) with BCS, months of previous calving and parity of the cows. Fertility at AI in smallholder farms can be improved by training farmers on nutrition and reproductive management of the cows. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  18. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  19. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  20. Intraoperative radiotherapy combined with resection for pancreatic cancer. Analysis of survival rates and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Hirotaka; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroaki; Suehara, Nobuhiro; Abe, Yuji; Ihara, Takaaki; Iwashita, Toshimitsu; Mitsuyama, Shoshu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) combined with surgical resection. Subjects were consecutive 69 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with surgery alone (n=31) or surgical resection combined with IORT (n=38) in a 13 year period between 1991 and 2003. We evaluated the effects of IORT against local recurrence of cancer and patients' survival, retrospectively. Furthermore, clinicopathological factors affecting the 5-year survival rate in the two groups were comparatively investigated. The IORT group showed a significantly lower local recurrence rate of cancer than that in the surgery alone group (7.8% and 22.6%, respectively; p<0.05). The 5-year survival probability in the IORT group was significantly higher than that in the surgery alone group (29.9% and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.05). According to the Japanese classification of pancreatic cancer, cancers located in the pancreas body or tail, no local residual cancer post operative procedure (R0), low grade local cancer progression (t1, 2), and low grade intrapancreatic neural invasion (ne0, 1) were significantly better prognostic factors in the IORT group than those in the surgery alone group. There were no significant differences between the both groups in the 5-year survival rate in terms of the sex of the patients, cancer of the pancreas head, histological type, more than R1, the presence of lymph node involvement, ne2-3, and clinical stages. IORT is a useful intraoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, when the curative resection is achieved. Our data have suggested that IORT suppresses the local recurrence of cancer and provides the significant survival benefit for those patients. (author)

  1. Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Students' Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Maria T.

    1987-01-01

    A study found that the physical attractiveness of a dental school teacher affected the student's opinion of teaching effectiveness, regardless of the student's sex, with effectiveness ratings correlating with pleasing appearance. (MSE)

  2. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  3. Dose-rate effects on mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the life cycle and on cell survival was studied for a range of different dose rates. Log phase, plateau phase and synchronized cultures of different mammalian cells were used. Cell cycle redistribution during the radiation exposure was found to be a very important factor in determining the overall dose-rate effect for log phase and synchronized cells. In fact, cell cycle redistribution during the exposure, in some instances, resulted in a lower dose rate being more effective in cell killing per unit dose than a higher dose rate. For plateau phase cultures, where cell cycle times are greatly lengthened, the effects of redistribution in regard to cell killing was virtually eliminated. Both fed and unfed plateau phase cultures exhibited a dose-rate effect, but it was found that below dose rates of 154 rad/h there is no further loss in effectiveness

  4. Looking beyond credit ratings : Factors investors consider In pricing European asset-backed securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabozzi, F.; Vink, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate what credit factors investors rely upon when pricing the spread at issue for European asset-backed securities. More specifically, we investigate how credit factors affect new issuance spreads after taking into account credit rating. We do so by investigating

  5. An assessment system for rating scientific journals in the field of ergonomics and human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W. Karwowski

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA method for selecting and rating scientific and professional journals representing the discipline of ergonomics and human factors is proposed. The method is based upon the journal list, impact factors and citations provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and the

  6. A systematic review of factors influencing student ratings in undergraduate medical education course evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Student ratings are a popular source of course evaluations in undergraduate medical education. Data on the reliability and validity of such ratings have mostly been derived from studies unrelated to medical education. Since medical education differs considerably from other higher education settings, an analysis of factors influencing overall student ratings with a specific focus on medical education was needed. Methods For the purpose of this systematic review, online databases (Pu...

  7. Review of low dose-rate epidemiological studies and biological mechanisms of dose-rate effects on radiation induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Otsuka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Radiation protection system adopts the linear non-threshold model with using dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The dose-rate range where DDREF is applied is below 100 mGy per hour, and it is regarded that there are no dose-rate effects at very low dose rate, less than of the order of 10 mGy per year, even from the biological risk evaluation model based on cellular and molecular level mechanisms for maintenance of genetic integrity. Among low dose-rate epidemiological studies, studies of residents in high natural background areas showed no increase of cancer risks at less than about 10 mGy per year. On the other hand, some studies include a study of the Techa River cohort suggested the increase of cancer risks to the similar degree of Atomic bomb survivor data. The difference of those results was supposed due to the difference of dose rate. In 2014, International Commission on Radiological Protection opened a draft report on stem cell biology for public consultations. The report proposed a hypothesis based on the new idea of stem cell competition as a tissue level quality control mechanism, and suggested that it could explain the dose-rate effects around a few milligray per year. To verify this hypothesis, it would be needed to clarify the existence and the lowest dose of radiation-induced stem cell competition, and to elucidate the rate of stem cell turnover and radiation effects on it. As for the turnover, replenishment of damaged stem cells would be the important biological process. It would be meaningful to collect the information to show the difference of dose rates where the competition and the replenishment would be the predominant processes. (author)

  8. Factors affecting healing rates after arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Hollins, Anthony M; Kim, Hyun-Min; Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Steger-May, Karen; Galatz, Leesa M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-12-01

    Double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs were developed to improve initial biomechanical strength of repairs to improve healing rates. Despite biomechanical improvements, failure of healing remains a clinical problem. To evaluate the anatomical results after double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with ultrasound to determine postoperative repair integrity and the effect of various factors on tendon healing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Forty-eight patients (49 shoulders) who had a complete arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (double-row technique) were evaluated with ultrasound at a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Outcome was evaluated at a minimum of 1-year follow-up with standardized history and physical examination, visual analog scale for pain, active forward elevation, and preoperative and postoperative shoulder scores according to the system of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and the Simple Shoulder Test. Quantitative strength was measured postoperatively. Ultrasound and physical examinations were performed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery (mean, 16 months; range, 6 to 36 months) and outcome questionnaire evaluations at a minimum of 12 months after surgery (mean, 29 months; range, 12 to 55 months). Of 49 repairs, 25 (51%) were healed. Healing rates were 67% in single-tendon tears (16 of 24 shoulders) and 36% in multitendon tears (9 of 25 shoulders). Older age and longer duration of follow-up were correlated with poorer tendon healing (P repair (P rotator cuff repair. The biological limitation at the repair site, as reflected by the effects of age on healing, appears to be the most important factor influencing tendon healing, even after maximizing repair biomechanical strength with a double-row construct.

  9. 27 CFR 27.41 - Computation of effective tax rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.41 Computation of effective tax rate. (a) The proprietor shall compute the effective tax rate for distilled spirits containing eligible wine or...

  10. The development of a student rating of teaching effectiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of student ratings of teaching effectiveness has become the most widely used, and often the only, source of information to assess and improve teaching effectiveness. Important prerequisites for questionnaires for student ratings should, therefore, be reliability and validity. The research reported in this article presents ...

  11. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  12. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  13. Virulence factor genotypes of Helicobacter pylori affect cure rates of eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    The cure rates of Helicobacter pylori infection by using a combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and antimicrobial agents are mainly influenced by bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and the magnitude of acid inhibition during the treatment. Currently used empirical triple therapies do not reliably produce a > or =80% cure rate on an intention-to-treat basis. Therefore, tailored regimens based on relevant microbiological findings and pharmacogenomics are recommended for attaining an acceptable > or =95% cure rate. Recently, virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA and vacA, are reported to be major factors determining the cure rates. Individuals infected with strains with cagA-negative and vacA s2 genotypes have significantly increased risk of eradication failure of H. pylori infection. These virulence factors enhance gastric mucosal inflammation and are associated with the development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori virulence factors induce proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- which influence mucosal inflammation and/or gastric acid secretion. When physicians select an H. pylori eradication regimen with an acceptable cure rate, they might need to consider H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA and vacA.

  14. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Kortman, M.; Velde, E.R. te; Macklon, N.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Leerentveld, R.A.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schats, R.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Helmerhorst, F.M.; Bots, R.S.G.M.; Simons, A.H.M.; Hogerzeil, H.V.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dop, P.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  15. Late effects of radiation: host factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of host factors on radiation late effects and in particular cancer. Radiation induces cellular changes that result in initiated cells with a potential to become cancers. The expression of the initiated cells as tumors is influenced, if not determined, by both tissue and systemic factors that are sex-, age-, and species-dependent

  16. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  17. Constraints on the bulk Lorentz factor of gamma-ray bursts with the detection rate by Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The bulk Lorentz factor(Γ) of the outflow is an essential parameter to understanding the physics of gamma-ray burst (GRB). Informations about the Lorentz factors of some individual GRBs have been obtained from the spectral features of the high-energy gamma-ray emissions (>100 MeV), assuming that the spectral breaks or cutoffs are due to the pair-production attenuation (i.e., γγ → e+e-). In this paper, we attempt to interpret the dependence of the LAT detection rate of GRBs on the number of high-energy gamma-rays, taking into account the attenuation effect. We first simulate a long-GRB sample with Monte Carlo method using the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and properties of the GRB spectrum. To characterize the distribution of the Lorentz factors, we assume that the Lorentz factors follow the relation Γ =Γ _0E_iso,52k, where Eiso, 52 is the isotropic photon energy in unit of 1052erg. After taking into account the attenuation effect related with the above Lorentz factor distribution, we are able to reproduce the LAT-detected rate of GRBs as the function of the number of gamma-rays for suitable choice of the values of Γ0 and k. The result suggests that the distribution of the bulk Lorentz factor for the majority of GRBs is in the range of 50 - 250.

  18. Factors affecting the size of ovulatory follicles and conception rate in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, A; Kafi, M; Zamiri, M J; Akbari, R

    2016-03-01

    Two studies were designed to determine (1) the effects of Heatsynch and Ovsynch protocols versus spontaneous ovulation and (2) the effects of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis on the size of the ovulatory follicle, conception rate, and embryonic/fetal (E/F) death in high-yielding dairy cows. In study 1, cows without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis were randomly allocated to either an Ovsynch (n = 45) or Heatsynch (n = 39) ovulation synchronization protocol or spontaneous ovulation (n = 43) groups. Blood samples were collected on the day of artificial insemination (AI) to measure progesterone (P4), estradiol-17β, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 7 days later to measure P4. Study 2 consisted of cows (n = 351) with or without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis which were artificially inseminated after a 55-day voluntary waiting period. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed at the time of AI to measure the ovulatory follicle size and on Days 30 and 68 after AI to diagnose pregnancy in both studies. In study 1, the mean (±standard error of the mean) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was greater (P = 0.0005) and E/F mortality was lower (P = 0.007) for the spontaneous ovulation group compared with Ovsynch and Heatsynch groups. Serum concentration of P4 on Day 7 after AI was correlated with the size of the ovulatory follicle (P = 0.007). Conception rate at Days 30 and 68 was not significantly different between the three experimental groups in study 1. Cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations greater than 55 ng/mL at AI had significantly higher Day 68 conception rate (50% vs. 24%) and lower E/F death (16.6% vs. 40%) compared to cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations lower than 56 ng/mL at AI. The conception rate on Days 30 and 68 for follicles of 10 to 14 mm in diameter (34% and 21.8%) was significantly lower than follicles of

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  20. Recurrent rates and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy after primary phototherapeutic keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasetsuwan N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ngamjit Kasetsuwan, Kanokorn Sakpisuttivanit, Usanee Reinprayoon, Vilavun Puangsricharern Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To assess the recurrent rate, mean survival time, and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy (BK after primary treatment with phototherapeutic keratectomy.Methods: Medical records from 72 patients (72 eyes who had phototherapeutic keratectomy for painful BK were evaluated. Data for sex, age, duration of BK, associated ocular and systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, asthma, dyslipidemia, and rheumatoid arthritis, frequency and degree of pain (grade 1–3, visual acuity, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and laser setting were extracted and analyzed.Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.2±11.4 years. The mean preoperative duration of BK was 15.0±11.0 months. Most patients had pseudophakic BK (69.40%. Majority of the cases had grade 3 degree of pain (48.60%. Glaucoma and hypertension were markedly found among these patients (51.40% and 19.40%, respectively. Preoperative mean intraocular pressure and corneal thickness were 13.70±4.95 mmHg and 734.1±83.80 µm, respectively. The mean laser diameter and depth were 8.36±1.22 mm and 38.89±8.81 µm, respectively. Systemic disease was significantly associated with the risk for developing recurrent painful BK (P=0.022, hazard ratio [HR] 1.673, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.58. The overall recurrent rate was 51%. The average duration time of recurrent painful BK was 17.3±12.9 months (range 1–50 months. The median survival time before recurrence was 29.0±6.6 months.Conclusion: Systemic disease was found to be the only risk factor significantly associated with the development of recurrent painful BK. Low recurrent rate and long mean survival time showed that phototherapeutic

  1. Conversion factors for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-02-01

    Conversion factors necessary for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey are presented. The conversion factors were determined based on calculation assuming a Gaussian plume model as a function of atmospheric stability, down-wind distance and flight height. First, the conversion factors for plumes emitting mono-energy gamma rays were calculated, then, conversion factors were constructed through convolution for the radionuclides essential in an accident of a nuclear reactor, and for mixtures of these radionuclides considering elapsed time after shutdown. These conversion factors are shown in figures, and also polynomial expressions of the conversion factors as a function of height have been decided with the least-squares method. A user can easily obtain proper conversion factors from data shown here. (author)

  2. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mushwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147 attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteristics of participants. Participants reported that health services were not conveniently available for them. Their relationship with nurses was poor (p < 0.05 as reported by 73% of participants with regard to maintenance of confidentiality. Participants reported key psychosocial variables such as inadequate sexual knowledge (61%, changing attitudes towards sex (58.9% and peer pressure (56.3% as contributory to high pregnancy rate. Recommendations were made to improve school health services, reproductive education in school curricula focussing on reproductive health, sexuality and guidance for future research.

  3. Ethanol ablation of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: Evaluation of recurrence rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C.H.; Baek, J.H.; Ha, E.J.; Choi, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.-W.; Kim, T.Y.; Kim, W.B.; Shong, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate recurrence rate and associated risk factors for recurrence after ethanol ablation (EA) in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent for procedures was obtained. From April 2009 to April 2013, 107 consecutive patients with predominantly cystic nodules were treated using EA. Recurrence was defined as nodules showing a residual solid portion with internal vascularity, cosmetic problems remaining, or persistent symptoms, and patients who requested additional therapy to resolve their symptomatic or cosmetic problems. Delayed recurrence was defined as treated nodules that showed no recurrent features at 1 month, but showed newly developed recurrent features during the longer follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used for variables to demonstrate the independent factors related to volume reduction. Results: One month after EA, 18.7% of patients (20/107) showed recurrence. Among 87 patients with non-recurrence, 24.1% (21/87) showed delayed recurrence. The total recurrence rate was 38.3% (41/107). Patients with recurrence (n = 41) were treated using radiofrequency ablation (n = 28), second EA (n = 4), and refused further treatment (n = 9). These patients responded well to repeat EA and radiofrequency ablation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the initial nodule volume (>20 ml; p < 0.036) and vascularity (grade >1; p < 0.049) were independent predictors of volume reduction at last follow-up. Conclusions: The results revealed that although EA seemed to be effective during the initial period, delayed recurrence should be considered during longer-term follow-up. The independent predictors of recurrence were initial volume (>20 ml) and vascularity. - Highlights: • Ethanol ablation showed unsatisfactory results in 18.7% of patient at one month. • Delayed recurrence was observed in 24

  4. Effects of meditation practice on spontaneous eyeblink rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Ayla; Slagter, Heleen A; Bachhuber, David R W; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    A rapidly growing body of research suggests that meditation can change brain and cognitive functioning. Yet little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying meditation-related changes in cognition. Here, we investigated the effects of meditation on spontaneous eyeblink rates (sEBR), a noninvasive peripheral correlate of striatal dopamine activity. Previous studies have shown a relationship between sEBR and cognitive functions such as mind wandering, cognitive flexibility, and attention-functions that are also affected by meditation. We therefore expected that long-term meditation practice would alter eyeblink activity. To test this, we recorded baseline sEBR and intereyeblink intervals (IEBI) in long-term meditators (LTM) and meditation-naive participants (MNP). We found that LTM not only blinked less frequently, but also showed a different eyeblink pattern than MNP. This pattern had good to high degree of consistency over three time points. Moreover, we examined the effects of an 8-week course of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sEBR and IEBI, compared to an active control group and a waitlist control group. No effect of short-term meditation practice was found. Finally, we investigated whether different types of meditation differentially alter eyeblink activity by measuring sEBR and IEBI after a full day of two kinds of meditation practices in the LTM. No effect of meditation type was found. Taken together, these findings may suggest either that individual difference in dopaminergic neurotransmission is a self-selection factor for meditation practice, or that long-term, but not short-term meditation practice induces stable changes in baseline striatal dopaminergic functioning. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. On the rate of return and risk factors to international oil companies in Iran's buy-back service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, Abbas; Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the rate of return (ROR) and risk factors faced by Shell Exploration, an international oil company (IOC), in its Soroosh and Nowrooz buy-back service contract in Iran. In particular, based on our models of cash flow, we analyze the buy-back contract specific risk factors that can contribute to a reduction in the rate of return for the international oil company. Our cash flow models resemble the cash flow of buy-back service contracts before the Iranian government changed the way it determined the capital cost ceiling and pre-defined the oil price in these contracts in 2008–2009. Our actual and contractual cash flow models reveal that Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. Furthermore, we find that among the risk factors that we considered, a capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the IOC's ROR. Moreover, we show that there is a potential for modifying the contracts in order for the IOC to face an actual ROR closer to the contractual ROR even if the contract faces cost overrun or delay, without exceeding the maximum contractual ROR that the National Iranian Oil Company is willing to give. - Highlights: • Buy-back contract specific risk factors can reduce the rate of return. • Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. • A capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the rate of return. • Contracts can be modified to better share the risk.

  6. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Lintsen, A.M.; Jong, P.C.M. Pasker-de; Boer, de, E.J.; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.; Braat, D.D.; Leeuwen, van, F.E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was combined with medical record data on IVF treatment. All IVF clinics in The Netherlands participated in this study. The main outcome measures were live birth rate per first cycle of IVF differentia...

  7. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  8. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  9. A study on effective factors on employee motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers' behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents' statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers' motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.

  10. Factors That Influence the Rating of Perceived Exertion After Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Tuch, Carolin; Frei, Klaus Michael; Wyss, Thomas

    2018-03-15

    Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is an often used measure to assess athletes' training load. However, little is known which factors could optimize the quality of data collection thereof. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of (i) the survey methods and (ii) the time points when sRPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective (heart rate training impulse; TRIMP) assessment of training load. In the first part, 45 well-trained subjects (30 men, 15 women) performed 20 running sessions with a heart rate monitor and reported sRPE 30 minutes after training cessation. For the reporting the subjects were grouped into three survey method groups (paper-pencil, online questionnaire, and mobile device). In the second part of the study, another 40 athletes (28 men, 12 women) performed 4x5 running sessions with the four time points to report the sRPE randomly assigned (directly after training cessation, 30 minutes post-exercise, in the evening of the same day, the next morning directly after waking up). The assessment of sRPE is influenced by time point, survey method, TRIMP, sex, and training type. It is recommended to assess sRPE values via a mobile device or online tool, as the survey method "paper" displayed lower correlations between sRPE and TRIMP. Subjective training load measures are highly individual. When compared at the same relative intensity, lower sRPE values were reported by women, for the training types representing slow runs, and for time points with greater duration between training cessation and sRPE assessment. The assessment method for sRPE should be kept constant for each athlete and comparisons between athletes or sexes are not recommended.

  11. Rates of credit obligations compliance on IFRS financial statement as a factor of financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Uvarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purposes of effective management of economic activity of the entities of insufficiently own accounting information. For objective assessment of a financial and economic provision of the entity it is necessary to pass from separate accounting data to certain valuable ratios of major factors – to financial performance or financial ratios. Calculation and interpretation of their values the integral and essentially necessary part of a financial analysis, especially it is important if the company has credit liabilities. Conditions of credit agreements often include accomplishment of credit covenants which represent restrictions for activities and a financial position of the company in addition to timely settlement of percent and a body of the credit and provide to lessors a certain level of safety from bankruptcy of the debtor. The article considers the covenants and financial covenants definitions; the main financial covenants containing in credit agreements between large banks and borrowers; data on structure of a credit portfolio and financial debt of NLMK as at June 30, 2016; the main financial covenants containing in credit agreements of the companies of NLMK Group; definitions and formulas of calculation of financial rates based on the IFRS financial statement; calculation of covenants on the example of IFRS consolidated financial statements of NLMK; subtleties of calculation of financial rates; the main differences of financial rates calculation based on the financial statements prepared on the different principles; conclusion about stability and a financial condition of NLMK by the results received during calculation financial covenants as at end of the first half of the year 2016.

  12. Effects of interest and exchange rate policies on Brazilian exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Sonaglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In heterodox literature, the industrial sector is considered strategic for economic development. Consequently, reducing the contribution of this sector in the production of the country before it has reached the stage of economic maturity, affects the productive dynamics and slow technical progress. The appreciation of the real exchange rate is seen as one of the factors responsible for the reduction of the external competitiveness of Brazilian manufactures, and this exchange rate valuation may be occurring due to the differences between domestic and international interest rates. Given this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of changes in the monetary and exchange rate policy and in the composition of the total exports on the performance of the Brazilian economy using a structuralist model. The results reinforce the importance of the manufacturing sector to economic growth, especially in a competitive exchange rate environment.

  13. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  14. Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbeck, D.

    1999-01-01

    This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

  15. Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissileff, Harry R; Zimmerli, Ellen J; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J; Walsh, B Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eating rate on binge size in BN, in order to determine whether binge size is mediated, in part, by rate of eating. Thirteen BN and 14 NC subjects were asked to binge eat a yogurt shake that was served at a fast rate (140g/min) on one occasion and at a slow rate (70g/min) on another. NC subjects consumed 169 g more when eating at the fast rate than when eating at the slow rate. In contrast, consumption rates failed to influence binge size in patients with BN (fast: 1205 g; slow: 1195 g). Consequently, there was a significant group by rate interaction. As expected, patients with BN consumed more overall than NC subjects (1200 g vs. 740 g). When instructed to binge in the eating laboratory, patients with BN ate equally large amounts of food at a slow rate as at a fast rate. NC subjects ate less at a slow rate. These findings indicate that in a structured laboratory meal paradigm binge size is not affected by rate of eating. PMID:17996257

  16. Effect of radiation doses rate on SOS response induction in irradiated Escherichia coli Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuetara Lugo, Elizabeth B.; Fuentes Lorenzo, Jorge L.; Almeida Varela, Eliseo; Prieto Miranda, Enrique F.; Sanchez Lamar, Angel; Llagostera Casal, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to study the effect of radiation dose rate on the induction of SOS response in Escherichia coli cells. We measured the induction of sul A reporter gene in PQ-37 (SOS Chromotest) cells. Lead devises were built with different diameter and these were used for diminishing the dose rate of PX- -30M irradiator. Our results show that radiation doses rate significantly modifies the induction of SOS response. Induction factor increases proportionally to doses rate in Escherichia coli cells defective to nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), but not in wild type cells. We conclude that the dose rate affects the level of induction of SOS response

  17. Acute effects of hemodialysis on salivary flow rate and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, C. P.; Brand, H. S.; Veerman, E. C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, M.; Henskens, Y. M. C.; Valentijn, R. M.; Vos, P. F.; Bijlsma, J. A.; ter Wee, P. M.; van Amerongen, B. M.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate acute effects of hemodialysis (HD) on the salivary flow rate, pH and biochemical composition before, during and after completion of a dialysis session. Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and chewing-stimulated whole saliva (CH-SWS) were collected in 94 HD patients. Salivary flow rate, pH,

  18. Effect of weed management methods and nitrogen fertilizer rates on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inefficient weed management practices and the use of inappropriate nitrogen fertilizer rates are the major causes of low yield of wheat in Ethiopia. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at Bobicho and Faate in southern Ethiopia to determine the effect of weed management practices and N fertilizer rates on grain yield ...

  19. Personality Characteristics of Counselors Rated as Effective or Ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J. D.; Weslander, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was used to discriminate counselors rated as highly effective, as average, or as ineffective. Results indicated significant correlations between tested personality characteristics and rated job performances. Employment level, sex, age, certification, and degree status were of no significance in predicting…

  20. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  1. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Dong Phung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of effectiveness of exchange rate policy in contemporary Vietnam, along with the assessment of the mechanism of this policy from 1989 to the present day. The author analyzes constraints of implementing the exchange rate policy in the past and gives recommendations aimed at improving its efficiency nowadays.

  2. The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural export commodities in Nigeria. ... The overall results confirmed that in most cases, the lagged values of exchange rate devaluation had a significant and positive relationship with agricultural export commodities but of a higher magnitude in the Total agricultural ...

  3. American National Standard: neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose rate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard presents data recommended for computing biological dose rates due to neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are given; the energy range for the gamma-ray conversion factors is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Specifically, this Standard is intended for use by shield designers to calculate wholebody dose rates to radiation workers and the general public. Establishing dose-rate limits is outside the scope of this Standard. Use of this Standard in cases where the dose equivalents are far in excess of occupational exposure guidelines is not recommended

  4. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of titanium hydride ... hydride powder, while switching it from internal diffusion to chemical reaction. ... TiH phase and oxides form on the powder surface, controlling the process.

  5. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  6. Effect of atrioventricular conduction on heart rate variability

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Talha Jamal; Ali, Hussnain; Majeed, S. M Imran; Khan, Shoab A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT) on the short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) by computing HRV parameters using intervals between the onsets of successive P waves (PP time series) for three groups: normal

  7. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  8. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.G.; Lee, S.Y.; Yook, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for neutrons and gamma rays based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N666. These data are used to calculate the dose rate distribution of neutron and gamma ray in radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are presented; the corresponding energy range for gamma rays is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors were calculated, under the assumption that radiation energy distribution has nonlinearity in the phantom, have different meaning from those values obtained by monoenergetic radiation. Especially, these values were determined with the cross section library. The flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors obtained in this work were in a good agreement to the values presented by ANSI. Those data will be useful for the radiation shielding analysis and the radiation dosimetry in the case of continuous energy distributions. (author)

  9. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...

  10. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yusuf; T. Nakao; S. T. Long; S. Fujita

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  11. Real Effective Exchange Rate Dynamics in Malawi and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kisu Simwaka

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the main determinants of real effective exchange rate in Malawi and South Africa. In our empirical analysis, we conducted unit root and cointegration test in order to determine the time series properties of the data and establish whether there is a long run relationship between real effective exchange rate and explanatory variables. Having ascertained that almost all variiables are integrated of order one and cointegrated, an error correction model is formulated and es...

  12. [Poor self-rated mastication and associated factors in Brazilian adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ana Paula Gasparini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2012-05-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of bad/very bad self-rated mastication and investigated associated factors among Brazilian adults. The sample included 13,431 adults examined and interviewed in the SBBrazil project. Self-rated mastication was combined in three categories: good/ very good (the reference), fair, and bad/very bad. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure the association between fair and bad/very bad self-rated mastication and all independent variables included in the analysis, with significance set at p mastication as good/very good, 24.9% as fair, and 19.5% as bad/very bad. In the final multivariate analysis, factors associated with bad or fair self-rated mastication were: receiving no information on how to avoid oral problems; presenting fewer than 23 remaining teeth; requiring total or partial prosthesis; bad/very bad self-rated oral health; gingival pain and/or toothache in the previous year; and need of dental treatment. In conclusion, various factors were associated with self-rated mastication, especially subjective conditions, thus emphasizing its importance as an oral health indicator.

  13. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  14. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Determinants Factors of Interest Rates on Three-Month Deposits of Bank Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedy Kurniawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Operating Expenses of Operating Income (BOPO, inflation, exchange rate, and the amount of money supply (M1 to the interest rate of three month deposits of the State-Owned Bank in Indonesia in 2007-2015. This research uses the error correction model analysis. The result obtained is the CAR that has a significant effect on the long term and has no effect on the short term, BOPO has a significant influence on the long term and short term, inflation has the significant effect on the long term and has no effect on the short term, the exchange rate has an influence on the short and long term, the money supply has no effects on the short and long-term on the interest rate on three month deposits of the State-Owned Bank.

  16. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate....... METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... oxygen saturation rate increased significantly from 96% to 99% (P heart rate decreased significantly from 85 beats/min to 81 beats/min (P heart rate occurred...

  17. Effect of nuclear reaction rates on primordial abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. The effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight has been investigated. Also the study have been taken of these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. Here it has been found that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of 6 Li and 7 Li

  18. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Surgeon Demographic Factors Predict Postoperative Complication Rates After Elective Spinal Fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Danielle S; Cook, Ralph W; Weiner, Joseph A; Schallmo, Michael S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Freshman, Ryan D; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-03-01

    Retrospective cohort. Determine whether surgeon demographic factors influence postoperative complication rates after elective spine fusion procedures. Surgeon demographic factors have been shown to impact decision making in the management of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Complication rates are frequently reported outcome measurements used to evaluate surgical treatments, quality-of-care, and determine health care reimbursements. However, there are few studies investigating the association between surgeon demographic factors and complication outcomes after elective spine fusions. A database of US spine surgeons with corresponding postoperative complications data after elective spine fusions was compiled utilizing public data provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2011-2013) and ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard (2009-2013). Demographic data for each surgeon was collected and consisted of: surgical specialty (orthopedic vs. neurosurgery), years in practice, practice setting (private vs. academic), type of medical degree (MD vs. DO), medical school location (United States vs. foreign), sex, and geographic region of practice. General linear mixed models using a Beta distribution with a logit link and pairwise comparison with post hoc Tukey-Kramer were used to assess the relationship between surgeon demographics and complication rates. 2110 US-practicing spine surgeons who performed spine fusions on 125,787 Medicare patients from 2011 to 2013 met inclusion criteria for this study. None of the surgeon demographic factors analyzed were found to significantly affect overall complication rates in lumbar (posterior approach) or cervical spine fusion. Publicly available complication rates for individual spine surgeons are being utilized by hospital systems and patients to assess aptitude and gauge expectations. The increasing demand for transparency will likely lead to emphasis of these statistics to improve outcomes. We conclude that none of the

  20. Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: the influence of halo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M; Pelham, W E; Koplewicz, H S

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of teachers' ratings and examined whether these ratings are influenced by halo effects. One hundred thirty-nine elementary school teachers viewed videotapes of what they believed were children in regular fourth-grade classrooms. In fact, the children were actors who followed prepared scripts that depicted a child engaging in behaviors characteristic of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oppositional defiant disorder or a normal youngster. The findings provide support for a bias that was unidirectional in nature. Specifically, teachers rated hyperactive behaviors accurately when the child behaved like an ADHD youngster. However, ratings of hyperactivity and of ADHD symptomatic behaviors were spuriously inflated when behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder occurred. In contrast, teachers rated oppositional and conduct problem behaviors accurately, regardless of the presence of hyperactive behaviors. The implications of these findings regarding diagnostic practices and rating scale formats are discussed.

  1. The term structure of interest rates and macroeconomic factors: Evidence from Indian financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hassan Shareef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The term structure of interest rate per-se is not impeccable for explaining the behavior of the future economic conditions and hence incorporating macro factors in the term structure model is more tractable. The study uses monthly data of macro factors for a period of eighteen years from April 1998 to May 2016. Using structural vector auto regression estimates, Granger causality/block exogeneity wald test along with impulse response functions and forecast error variance decomposition analysis the study tests the proportion of term structure attributable to macro-economic shocks. The findings of the study show that short term rates are mainly influenced by the fiscal deficit present in emerging economies while long term rates get affected when market participants revise their expectation on yields. In addition, the output growth of the country is mainly depended on long and short rates and exchange rate fluctuations have a significant role in the fiscal deficit of the country. Keywords: Term structure of interest rates, Inflation, Output growth, NEER, Monetary policy rate, JEL Classification: E43, E31, E2

  2. Effects of raising US interest rates on global FX markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the global financial crisis of 2008, many countries decreased their domestic interest rates as a means of stimulating economic growth, while also providing protection from substantial default on debt. Low interest rates reduce the incentive to save, prompting consumers to purchase assets, such as housing, thus implicitly increasing wealth. In addition, they make the currency relatively cheaper, making exports more competitive, while reducing foreign demand for holding debt in that currency. All these should stimulate economy, albeit at the cost of reduced competitiveness in the world financial markets, where return on investment is largely determined by the interest rates. Low interest rates also prompt greater borrowing, which may not be sustainable once they start to rise. In addition, those that largely depend on interest rate income may seek more speculative and high-risk investments, potentially leading to significant defaults. Finally, as the market interest rate is composed of the real rate and inflation, decreasing rates changes the balance in this relationship, which may lead to inflationary economy. Now that the US has increased its domestic rates for the first time since 2006, it is important to examine the potential effects this will have on global markets and other economies. This paper offers some insights into the dynamics of the FX markets and discusses why the US rate is so closely watched worldwide.

  3. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  4. The Multi-state Latent Factor Intensity Model for Credit Rating Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new empirical reduced-form model for credit rating transitions is introduced. It is a parametric intensity-based duration model with multiple states and driven by exogenous covariates and latent dynamic factors. The model has a generalized semi-Markov structure designed to accommodate many of the

  5. Macroeconomics factors and the balanced value of the Czech Koruna/Euro Exchange rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůha, J.; Derviz, Alexis

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 7-8 (2006), s. 318-343 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : exchange rate * latent risk * order flow pricing kernel Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006

  6. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  7. No evidence of purported lunar effect on hospital admission rates or birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that a fraction of nursing professionals believe in a "lunar effect"-a purported correlation between the phases of the Earth's moon and human affairs, such as birth rates, blood loss, or fertility. This article addresses some of the methodological errors and cognitive biases that can explain the human tendency of perceiving a lunar effect where there is none. This article reviews basic standards of evidence and, using an example from the published literature, illustrates how disregarding these standards can lead to erroneous conclusions. Román, Soriano, Fuentes, Gálvez, and Fernández (2004) suggested that the number of hospital admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding was somehow influenced by the phases of the Earth's moon. Specifically, the authors claimed that the rate of hospital admissions to their bleeding unit is higher during the full moon than at other times. Their report contains a number of methodological and statistical flaws that invalidate their conclusions. Reanalysis of their data with proper procedures shows no evidence that the full moon influences the rate of hospital admissions, a result that is consistent with numerous peer-reviewed studies and meta-analyses. A review of the literature shows that birth rates are also uncorrelated to lunar phases. Data collection and analysis shortcomings, as well as powerful cognitive biases, can lead to erroneous conclusions about the purported lunar effect on human affairs. Adherence to basic standards of evidence can help assess the validity of questionable beliefs.

  8. Factors Influencing University Nursing Students' Measles Vaccination Rate During a Community Measles Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A systematic measles vaccination program targeting nursing students upon their entry to university is needed. In order to increase the measles vaccination rate, application of effective promotion campaigns and education programs is necessary.

  9. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  10. Temperature effects on lithium-nitrogen reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijams, W.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1985-08-01

    A series of experiments have been run with the aim of measuring the reaction rate of lithium and nitrogen over a wide spectrum of lithium pool temperatures. In these experiments, pure nitrogen was blown at a controlled flow rate over a preheated lithium pool. The pool had a surface area of approximately 4 cm 2 and a total volume of approximately 6 cm 3 . The system pressure varied from 0 to 4 psig. The reaction rate was very small - approximately 0.002 to 0.003 g Li min cm 2 for lithium temperatures below 500 0 C. Above 500 0 C the reaction rate began to increase sharply, and reached a maximum of approximately 0.80 g Li min cm 2 above 700 0 C. It dropped off beyond 1000 0 C and seemed to approach zero at 1150 0 C. The maximum reaction rate observed in these forced convection experiments was higher by 60% than those previously observed in experiments where the nitrogen flowed to the reaction site by means of natural convection. During a reaction, a hard nitride layer built up on the surface of the lithium pool - its effect on the reaction rate was observed. The effect of the nitrogen flow rate on the reaction rate was also observed

  11. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  12. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  13. Examining different factors in effectiveness of advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.

  14. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Ajigasawa Town and environmental factors affecting it in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    We surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 46 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Ajigasawa Town. Glass dosimeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the town. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosimeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Ajigasawa Town varied from 48 to 57 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the town. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in IES. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (23 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  15. Effects of storage conditions on transpiration rate of pomegranate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of temperature (5, 10, 15 and 22 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (76%, 86% and 96%) on the transpiration rate (TR) of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Bhagwa fruit fractions, namely arils and aril-sac. Both temperature and RH had significant effects on the TR of fruit fractions. The TR ...

  16. Factors determining the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) on-kinetics in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2004-05-01

    Using a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously [Korzeniewski and Mazat (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 143-148; Korzeniewski and Zoladz (2001) Biophys. Chem. 92, 17-34], we analyse the effect of several factors on the oxygen-uptake kinetics, especially on the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) and half-transition time t(1/2), at the onset of exercise in skeletal muscles. Computer simulations demonstrate that an increase in the total creatine pool [PCr+/-Cr] (where Cr stands for creatine and PCr for phosphocreatine) and in glycolytic ATP supply lengthen the half-transition time, whereas increase in mitochondrial content, in parallel activation of ATP supply and ATP usage, in oxygen concentration, in proton leak, in resting energy demand, in resting cytosolic pH and in initial alkalization decrease this parameter. Theoretical studies show that a decrease in the activity of creatine kinase (CK) [displacement of this enzyme from equilibrium during on-transient (rest-to-work transition)] accelerates the first stage of the VO2 on-transient, but slows down the second stage of this transient. It is also demonstrated that a prior exercise terminated a few minutes before the principal exercise shortens the transition time. Finally, it is shown that at a given ATP demand, and under conditions where CK works near the thermodynamic equilibrium, the half-transition time of VO2 kinetics is determined by the amount of PCr that has to be transformed into Cr during rest-to-work transition; therefore any factor that diminishes the difference in [PCr] between rest and work at a given energy demand will accelerate the VO2 on-kinetics. Our conclusions agree with the general idea formulated originally by Easterby [(1981) Biochem. J. 199, 155-161] that changes in metabolite concentrations determine the transition times between different steady states in metabolic systems.

  17. Success rates and factors associated with failure of temporary anchorage devices: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Shehab A; Alyan, Doha; Fayed, Mona S; Alhammadi, Maged S; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the present study was to investigate success rates and associated factors affecting temporary anchorage device (TAD) failure in different biomechanical applications. A total of 180 TADs were used as a part of 82 patients' treatment plan (24 males and 58 females); their mean age was 21.41 years. Three types of TADs were used: 50 (3M ESPE, Neuss, Germany), 56 (Bone screw; Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea), and 74 (Morelli, Sorocaba, Brazil). Eight maxillary and four mandibular sites were selected for insertion. Three different lengths (6, 8, and 10 mm) and three different diameters (1.5, 1.6, and 1.8 mm) were used. The force levels were set at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g. Patient-, implant-, and operator-dependent factors were evaluated throughout the 266 days of function. Qualitative variables were described by proportions and percentages and analyzed using χ 2 test. The overall success rate was 82.2%. The higher age group showed a significantly higher success rate. Oral hygiene showed a statistically-significant (P ˂ .05) difference between both success and failure groups. All other patient-related factors showed no significant differences. Regarding force levels used, the highest success rate was in 250 g and the lowest was in 100 g. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding other implant- and operator-related factors. Temporary anchorage devices have a good success rate and are beneficial to be integrated in orthodontic treatment planning. Patient age, oral hygiene, and force level are the most significant factors affecting TAD success. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection rates: a theory-based approach for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M; Jensen, Christopher D; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zauber, Ann G; Levin, Theodore R; Quinn, Virginia P; Corley, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy have generally not been successful, and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection rates by using theory-based tools for understanding behavior. We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at 3 Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection rate variability by using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-based tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior model; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Nine factors potentially associated with adenoma detection rate variability were identified, including 6 related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove, style of endoscopy team leadership, compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions, examination technique during withdrawal, difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas, and examiner fatigue and pain), 2 related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and 1 related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. By using theory-based tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection rate variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios K; Soranoglou, Vasileios G; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P; Poultsides, Lazaros A

    2018-04-01

    As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05. A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA. The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  1. A systematic review of factors influencing student ratings in undergraduate medical education course evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-03-05

    Student ratings are a popular source of course evaluations in undergraduate medical education. Data on the reliability and validity of such ratings have mostly been derived from studies unrelated to medical education. Since medical education differs considerably from other higher education settings, an analysis of factors influencing overall student ratings with a specific focus on medical education was needed. For the purpose of this systematic review, online databases (PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science) were searched up to August 1st, 2013. Original research articles on the use of student ratings in course evaluations in undergraduate medical education were eligible for inclusion. Included studies considered the format of evaluation tools and assessed the association of independent and dependent (i.e., overall course ratings) variables. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were checked by two independent reviewers, and results were synthesised in a narrative review. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative research (2 studies) indicated that overall course ratings are mainly influenced by student satisfaction with teaching and exam difficulty rather than objective determinants of high quality teaching. Quantitative research (23 studies) yielded various influencing factors related to four categories: student characteristics, exposure to teaching, satisfaction with examinations and the evaluation process itself. Female gender, greater initial interest in course content, higher exam scores and higher satisfaction with exams were associated with more positive overall course ratings. Due to the heterogeneity and methodological limitations of included studies, results must be interpreted with caution. Medical educators need to be aware of various influences on student ratings when developing data collection instruments and interpreting evaluation results. More research into the reliability and validity of overall course ratings as typically used in the

  2. Factors Affecting the Success Rate of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Paediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat Jabrayilov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine factors affecting the success rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL in children. The series consisted of 41 consecutive children operated on by the same surgical team for renal calculi with PNL between June 2002 and May 2015 in our institution. A single calyx or pelvic stone was described as simple, while calculi located in more than one location (calyx and pelvis or more than one calices or staghorn stones were described as complex. The procedure was deemed successful if the patient was completely stone-free (SF or had residual fragments <4 mm. Thirty-four patients were found to be SF or had residual fragments <4 mm on the postoperative first day, thus the success rate was 82.9%. In complex stones, the success rate was significantly lower (45.5% than simple stones (96.7% (p < 0.001. The grade of hydronephrosis (Grade 0–1 vs. Grade 2–3 also had a negative impact on the success, with rates of 92.6% vs. 64.3%, respectively (p = 0.022. Previous urological procedure history on the same side yielded a success rate of 58.3%, whereas the success rate in the primary patients was 93.1% (p < 0.001. The localization of the stone (complex vs. simple, degree of hydronephrosis, and history of previous urological procedures were found to be the factors that affected the success of the paediatric PNL.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Inlet Gas-Mixture Flow Rate Effects on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zahed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate and uniformity of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD technique is investigated by using a numerical model. In this reactor, inlet gas mixture, including xylene as carbon source and mixture of argon and hydrogen as  carrier gas enters into a horizontal CVD reactor at atmospheric pressure. Based on the gas phase and surface reactions, released carbon atoms are grown as CNTs on the iron catalysts at the reactor hot walls. The effect of inlet gas-mixture flow rate, on CNTs growth rate and its uniformity is discussed. In addition the velocity and temperature profile and also species concentrations throughout the reactor are presented.

  4. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Wamington

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

  5. Contextual factors and effective school improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

    This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there

  6. Effect of humidity on radon exhalation rate from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Obayashi, Haruo; Tsuji, Naruhito; Nakayoshi, Hisao

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is evaluation of seasonal humidity effect on radon exhalation rate from concrete. Three concrete pieces have been placed in three different fixed humidity circumstances for about a year. The three fixed humidities are selected 3, 10, 25 g m -3 in absolute humidity, those correspond to dry condition as control, winter and summer, respectively. Radon exhalation rate from each concrete piece is measured every one month during humidity exposure. Under the lower humidity, radon exhalation rate from concrete is small. On the contrary, radon exhalation rate is large in the higher humidity circumstance. This trend is consistent with the seasonal variation of indoor air radon concentration in low air-exchange-rate room. (author)

  7. INTEREST RATES AND CURRENCIES EFFECTS ON ISLAMIC AND CONVENTIONAL BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Syamni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bond markets have not been well developed in emerging countries. Realizing its important role, especially after the 1997 crises and the islamic economics development, emerging countries have started to develop such markets. This research examines the effect of interest rates and currencies on Islamic and conventional bonds in Bursa Malaysia. The analysis on Islamic bonds shows that interest rates and currencies do not influence Islamic bonds, which supports the prohibition of interest in Islam. The analysis on conventional bonds finds evidence that both interest rates and currencies affect conventional bond. It also finds evidence of a negative association between interest rates and a conventional bond. Keywords: Interest rate, currency, conventional bond, Islamic bond JEL classification numbers: G11, G12, G15

  8. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Sales Tax Rates on Food Exemptions

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Agostini

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I explore the relationship between the sales tax rate and the tax treatment of food in American states. One of the main difficulties in the empirical estimation of this relationship is that state governments set the two tax policy variables. This produces a potential endogeneity problem that would bias the estimates if not considered. I use instrumental variables to solve the problem and to identify the effect of the sales tax rate on the probability of having a food exemption. ...

  10. The Thick Market Effect on Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gan; Qinghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies how the thick market effect influences local unemployment rate fluctuations. The paper presents a model to demonstrate that the average matching quality improves as the number of workers and firms increases. Unemployed workers accumulate in a city until the local labor market reaches a critical minimum size, which leads to cyclical fluctuations in the local unemployment rates. Since larger cities attain the critical market size more frequently, they have shorter unemploymen...

  11. Effectiveness of Taxicab Security Equipment in Reducing Driver Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K.C.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Damadi, Parisa; Wu, Nan; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Taxicab drivers historically have had one of the highest work-related homicide rates of any occupation. In 2010 the taxicab driver homicide rate was 7.4 per 100,000 drivers, compared to the overall rate of 0.37 per 100,000 workers. Purpose Evaluate the effectiveness of taxicab security cameras and partitions on citywide taxicab driver homicide rates. Methods Taxicab driver homicide rates were compared in 26 major cities in the U.S. licensing taxicabs with security cameras (n=8); bullet-resistant partitions (n=7); and cities where taxicabs were not equipped with either security cameras or partitions (n=11). News clippings of taxicab driver homicides and the number of licensed taxicabs by city were used to construct taxicab driver homicide rates spanning 15 years (1996–2010). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to model the Poisson-distributed homicide rates on city-specific safety equipment installation status, controlling for city homicide rate and the concurrent decline of homicide rates over time. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Cities with cameras experienced a threefold reduction in taxicab driver homicides compared with control cities (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0.12, 0.61; p=0.002). There was no difference in homicide rates for cities with partitions compared with control cities (RR=1.15; 95% CI=0.80, 1.64; p=0.575). Conclusions Municipal ordinances and company policies mandating security cameras appear to be highly effective in reducing taxicab driver deaths due to workplace violence. PMID:23790983

  12. Activation of 125I-Factor IX and 125I-Factor X: Effect of tissue factor and Factor VII, Factor Xsub(a) and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterud, B.; Rapaport, S.I.

    Activation of Factor IX and Factor X was studied by adding 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X to reaction mixtures and quantitating cleavage products by reduced sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Thrombin failed to activate Factors IX or X; Factor Xsub(a) produced insignificant amounts of cleavage products of both factors. In contrast, the reaction product of tissue factor and Factor VII cleaved large amounts of both Factor IX and Factor X in purified systems and in plasma. In incubation mixtures of plasma containing added 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X, tissue factor and Ca 2+ ions, the percentage of total radioactivity in the heavy chain peak of 125 I-IXsub(a) and the heavy chain of 125 I-Xsub(a) increased at a similar rate. When the tissue factor was diluted, similar curves were obtained for percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor IX and percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor X plotted against tissue factor concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that activation of Factor IX by the tissue factor-Factor VII reaction product represents a physiologically significant step in normal haemostasis. (author)

  13. Effect of cooling rate on crystallization in an aluminophosphosilicate melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on spontaneous crystallization behavior of an alumino-phospho-silicate melt is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and viscometry. The cooling rates of 160, 2100 and 12000 K/s are attained by subjecting ......, the opalescence of the glass can be tuned by adjusting the cooling rate. This makes the production of opal glasses or transparent glass ceramics more efficient and energy saving, since the conventional isothermal treatment procedure can be left out....

  14. Exchange Rate Effects on International Commercial Trade Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to be an evaluation sustained by theoretical and empirical considerations of the exchange rate impact on international commercial trade competitiveness. In this respect, the study aims to find how the exchange rate influences Romanian competitiveness through assessing the effects generated on exports and imports. The main purpose of the study is to assess the complex action of the exchange rate on international commercial trade competitiveness in contemporaneity and the connections between these variables. The empirical part contains a regression analysis where exports and imports are dependent variables influenced by a series of determinants.

  15. Organ Donation in Switzerland - An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Isabelle; Immer, Franz F.; Jüni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased’s next of kin (NOK) for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. Methods and Analysis During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions. PMID:25208215

  16. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Hans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey’s test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  17. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  18. Factors associated with 56-day non-return rate in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Fouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify factors associated with the 56-day non-return rate (56-NRR in dairy herds in the Galician region, Spain, and to estimate it for individual Holstein bulls. The experiment was carried out in herds originated from North-West Spain, from September 2008 to August 2009. Data of the 76,440 first inseminations performed during this period were gathered. Candidate factors were tested for their association with the 56-NRR by using a logistic model (binomial. Afterwards, 37 sires with a minimum of 150 first performed inseminations were individually evaluated. Logistic models were also estimated for each bull, and predicted individual 56-NRR rate values were calculated as a solution for the model parameters. Logistic regression found four major factors associated with 56-NRR in lactating cows: age at insemination, days from calving to insemination, milk production level at the time of insemination, and herd size. First-service conception rate, when a particular sire was used, was higher for heifers (0.71 than for lactating cows (0.52. Non-return rates were highly variable among bulls. Asignificant part of the herd-level variation of 56-NRR of Holstein cattle seems attributable to the service sire. High correlation level between observed and predicted 56-NRR was found.

  19. Heart rate variation and electroencephalograph--the potential physiological factors for thermal comfort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Lian, Z; Liu, W; Jiang, C; Liu, Y; Lu, H

    2009-04-01

    Human thermal comfort researches mainly focus on the relation between the environmental factors (e.g. ambient temperature, air humidity, and air velocity, etc.) and the thermal comfort sensation based on a large amount of subjective field investigations. Although some physiological factors, such as skin temperature and metabolism were used in many thermal comfort models,they are not enough to establish a perfect thermal comfort model. In this paper,another two physiological factors, i.e. heart rate variation (HRV) and electroencephalograph (EEG), are explored for the thermal comfort study. Experiments were performed to investigate how these physiological factors respond to the environmental temperatures, and what is the relationship between HRV and EEG and thermal comfort. The experimental results indicate that HRV and EEG may be related to thermal comfort, and they may be useful to understand the mechanism of thermal comfort.

  20. Models of Anaylzing the Influence of Factors on Forming Profit Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara S. Jakovčević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in this paper is focused on identifying the impact of individual factors on the elements of the profit rate. The primary aim of this work is a methodological overview of solutions for understanding the full content of the profit rate as a cause of economic quality as well as indicators of the results of reproduction. Application of model analysis of profit rate factors was performed in an enterprise from Serbia that manufactures construction materials from baked clay. The aim is of application is to test the range in determining elements and factors of economic success of the enterprise, and quantification of changes in its assumptions. The results are useful guideline for the management to take organizational measures to increase the economic success of the enterprise. This means eliminating the negative, emphasizing the positive impact of objectively, and organizational factors to make higher economic success. Based on empirical research, it could be concluded that the proposed quantitative models of analyzing the dynamics of enterprise business quality could be applied in practice.

  1. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  2. Eliminating the Effect of Rating Bias on Reputation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rapid development of the e-commercial and interest-base websites makes it more pressing to evaluate objects’ accurate quality before recommendation. The objects’ quality is often calculated based on their historical information, such as selected records or rating scores. Usually high quality products obtain higher average ratings than low quality products regardless of rating biases or errors. However, many empirical cases demonstrate that consumers may be misled by rating scores added by unreliable users or deliberate tampering. In this case, users’ reputation, that is, the ability to rate trustily and precisely, makes a big difference during the evaluation process. Thus, one of the main challenges in designing reputation systems is eliminating the effects of users’ rating bias. To give an objective evaluation of each user’s reputation and uncover an object’s intrinsic quality, we propose an iterative balance (IB method to correct users’ rating biases. Experiments on two datasets show that the IB method is a highly self-consistent and robust algorithm and it can accurately quantify movies’ actual quality and users’ stability of rating. Compared with existing methods, the IB method has higher ability to find the “dark horses,” that is, not so popular yet good movies, in the Academy Awards.

  3. Effective factors on mobile phone customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mohafez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular phone is one of the most profitable industries in the world and especially in middle east regions. There is a growing competition among different firms in this market and the market share is exchanged very quickly depending on the features and equipments introduced. Customer satisfaction plays an important role on retaining present marker share or absorbing new customers. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of different factors influencing customer satisfaction such as the effect of perceived expectations on perceived quality and the effect of perceived expectation on perceived value. The survey is performed among customers who live in Tehran, the capital city of Iran and it shows there are some meaningful and positive relationship between perceived expectations and other factors such as perceived quality and perceived value. There is also positive relationship between perceived quality and perceived value. perceived expectation and customer satisfaction.

  4. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M; Rimstidt, J Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J

    2017-07-14

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H 2 O activity decreases.

  5. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H2O activity decreases.

  6. Effective dark count rate reduction by modified SPAD gating circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef, E-mail: blazej@fjfi.cvut.cz; Kodet, Jan

    2015-07-01

    For our main application of single photon counting avalanche detectors in focus – laser ranging of space objects and laser time transfer – the ultimate requirements are relatively large and homogeneous active area having a diameter of 100 to 200 µm and a sub-picosecond stability of timing. The detector dark count rate and after-pulsing probability are parameters of relatively lower, but not negligible importance. In presented paper we will focused on them. We have developed a new active quenching and gating scheme which can reduce afterpulsing effect and hence also effective dark count rate at lower temperature. In satellite laser ranging system the effective dark count rate was reduced more than 35 times. This improvement will contribute in increasing the data yield and hence to increase precision and productivity. - Highlights: • Signal and quenching path in a control circuit stayed unaffected by gating. • The detector package optimized for laser time transfer systems is considered. • After-pulsing effect is reduced by a modification of the use of gate signal. • The dark count rate is reduced for gate rates of the order of units of kHz.

  7. Effect of arsenic and cadmium on the growth rate and nutrient utilization rates of Asterionelia formosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, H.L.; Yaguchi, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Many volatile trace elements are released during combustion of fossil fuels. They may eventually be transported to aquatic ecosystems by wet or dry deposition, and some of them may be toxic to aquatic organisms. We are investigating the effects of arsenic and cadmium on an algal species found in Lake Michigan. Little information is available on chronic effects of these elements. Cadmium is widely used in the plating, pigment, and plastics industries. Arsenic and cadmium also enter the lake as a result of their use in agricultural pesticides and insecticides. Increased fossil fuel utilization in this region may result in increased arsenic and cadmium levels in the lake water if the present levels are not under geochemical control. We are using continuous culture techniques to assess biological effects of arsenic and cadmium concentrations between 2 and 20 times ambient levels. Uptake of arsenic and cadmium and their effects on nutrient utilization and growth rate are being measured for Astrerionella formaso, an important diatom, in spring and fall in Lake Michigan. Continuous culture techniques permit evaluation of subtle pollutant effects, such as physiological impairment and decreased reproductive rates, over many generations

  8. Genotoxic effects of high dose rate X-ray and low dose rate gamma radiation in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Anne; Eide, Dag M; Brede, Dag A; Ellender, Michele; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Oughton, Deborah H; Bouffler, Simon D; Brunborg, Gunnar; Olsen, Ann Karin

    2017-10-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans are based on epidemiological data largely drawn from the Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies, which received an acute high dose rate (HDR) ionising radiation. Limited knowledge exists about the effects of chronic low dose rate (LDR) exposure, particularly with respect to the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor. As part of a study to investigate the development of colon cancer following chronic LDR vs. acute HDR radiation, this study presents the results of genotoxic effects in blood of exposed mice. CBAB6 F1 Apc +/+ (wild type) and Apc Min/+ mice were chronically exposed to estimated whole body absorbed doses of 1.7 or 3.2 Gy 60 Co-γ-rays at a LDR (2.2 mGy h -1 ) or acutely exposed to 2.6 Gy HDR X-rays (1.3 Gy min -1 ). Genotoxic endpoints assessed in blood included chromosomal damage (flow cytometry based micronuclei (MN) assay), mutation analyses (Pig-a gene mutation assay), and levels of DNA lesions (Comet assay, single-strand breaks (ssb), alkali labile sites (als), oxidized DNA bases). Ionising radiation (ca. 3 Gy) induced genotoxic effects dependent on the dose rate. Chromosomal aberrations (MN assay) increased 3- and 10-fold after chronic LDR and acute HDR, respectively. Phenotypic mutation frequencies as well as DNA lesions (ssb/als) were modulated after acute HDR but not after chronic LDR. The Apc Min/+ genotype did not influence the outcome in any of the investigated endpoints. The results herein will add to the scant data available on genotoxic effects following chronic LDR of ionising radiation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:560-569, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society. © 2017 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society.

  9. Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between radiation and mutation rates in Chernobyl across 45 published studies, covering 30 species. Overall effect size of radiation on mutation rates estimated as Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was very large (E = 0.67; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.59 to 0.73), accounting for 44.3% of the total variance in an unstructured random-effects model. Fail-safe calculations reflecting the number of unpublished null...

  10. Effect of alumina on the dissolution rate of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palavit, G.; Montagne, L.

    1997-01-01

    Small alumina addition to silicate glasses improves their chemical durability, but a large amount of alumina can also be beneficial to obtain a high dissolution rate. This paper describes the effect of Al 3+ on the early stage of glass alteration, in relation with its coordination in the glass and also with the reactions involved (hydrolysis and ionic exchange). We describe briefly nuclear magnetic resonance tools available to characterize the aluminum environments in the glasses. The rote of alumina on the dissolution rate of phosphate glasses is also discussed in order to show that the effect of Al 3+ is dependant upon the nature of the glass matrix. (author)

  11. Skin dose rate conversion factors after contamination with radiopharmaceuticals: influence of contamination area, epidermal thickness and percutaneous absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P; Berus, D; Caveliers, V; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Verellen, D

    2013-01-01

    Skin contamination with radiopharmaceuticals can occur during biomedical research and daily nuclear medicine practice as a result of accidental spills, after contact with bodily fluids of patients or by inattentively touching contaminated materials. Skin dose assessment should be carried out by repeated quantification to map the course of the contamination together with the use of appropriate skin dose rate conversion factors. Contamination is generally characterised by local spots on the palmar surface of the hand and complete decontamination is difficult as a result of percutaneous absorption. This specific issue requires special consideration as to the skin dose rate conversion factors as a measure for the absorbed dose rate to the basal layer of the epidermis. In this work we used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the contamination area, the epidermal thickness and the percutaneous absorption on the absorbed skin dose rate conversion factors for a set of 39 medical radionuclides. The results show that the absorbed dose to the basal layer of the epidermis can differ by up to two orders of magnitude from the operational quantity H p (0.07) when using an appropriate epidermal thickness in combination with the effect of percutaneous absorption. (paper)

  12. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  13. Life Insurance Take-Up Rate Influencing Factors Comparison between Malaysia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kardinar Wijayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study will investigate the factors that influence take-up rates within the Malaysian Life Insurance industry to discover potential opportunities and limitations. For comparative purposes, the study is modelled on Power (2013 who examined four factors affecting customer satisfaction in life insurance in Japan (product, price, customer services and procedures and documentation. This study is exploratory in nature using both secondary research and primary data from questionnaires. The main finding was “Product offerings” being the most significant variation, both an opportunity and limitation, due to the relative maturity, experience and changing trends within the insurance market of Japan, conversely growth, infancy and different dynamics in Malaysia.

  14. Biological effect of Pulsed Dose Rate brachytherapy with stepping sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbergen, Erik F.M. van; Fowler, Jack F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the possible increase of radiation effect in tissues irradiated by pulsed brachytherapy (PDR), for local tissue dose-rates between those 'averaged over the whole pulse' and the instantaneous high dose rates close to the dwell positions. An earlier publication (Fowler and Mount 1992) had shown that, for dose rates (averaged for the duration of the pulse) up to 3 Gy/h, little change of isoeffect doses from continuous low dose rate (CLDR) are expected, unless larger doses per fraction than 1 Gy are used, and especially if components of very rapid repair are present with half-times of less than about 0.5 hours. However, local and transient dose rates close to stepping sources can be up to several Gy per minute. Methods: Calculations were done assuming the linear quadratic formula for radiation damage, in which only the dose-squared term is subject to repair, at a constant exponential rate. The formula developed by Dale for fractionated low-dose-rate radiotherapy was used. A constant overall time of 140 hours and constant total dose of 70 Gy were assumed throughout, the continuous low dose-rate of 0.5 Gy/h (CLDR) providing the unitary standard effects for each PDR condition. Effects of dose-rates ranging from 4 Gy/h to 120 Gy/h (HDR at 2 Gy/min) were studied, and T (1(2)) from 4 minutes to 1.5 hours. Results: Curves are presented relating the ratio of increased biological effect (proportional to log cell kill) calculated for PDR relative to CLDR. Ratios as high as 1.5 can be found for large doses per pulse (> 1 Gy) at high instantaneous dose-rates if T (1(2)) in tissues is as short as a few minutes. The major influences on effect are dose per pulse, half-time of repair in the tissue, and - when T (1(2)) is short - the instantaneous dose-rate. Maximum ratios of PDR/CLDR effect occur when the dose-rate is such that pulse duration is approximately equal to T (1(2)) of repair. Results are presented for late-responding tissues, the differences from CLDR

  15. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  16. Standardized Testing Practices: Effect on Graduation and NCLEX® Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Pamela K

    The use standardized testing in pre-licensure nursing programs has been accompanied by conflicting reports of effective practices. The purpose of this project was to describe standardized testing practices in one states' nursing programs and discover if the use of a cut score or oversight of remediation had any effect on (a) first time NCLEX® pass rates, (b) on-time graduation (OTG) or (c) the combination of (a) and (b). Administrators of 38 nursing programs in one Southwest state were sent surveys; surveys were returned by 34 programs (89%). Survey responses were compared to each program's NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate; t-tests were conducted for significant differences associated with a required minimum score (cut score) and oversight of remediation. There were no significant differences in NCLEX pass or on-time graduation rates related to establishment of a cut score. There was a significant difference when the NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate were combined (Outcome Index "OI") with significantly higher program outcomes (P=.02.) for programs without cut-scores. There were no differences associated with faculty oversight of remediation. The results of this study do not support establishment of a cut-score when implementing a standardized testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of health information exchange adoption on ambulatory testing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen E; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Leblanc, William G; Dickinson, L Miriam; Libby, Anne M; Nease, Donald E

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of the adoption of ambulatory electronic health information exchange (HIE) on rates of laboratory and radiology testing and allowable charges. Claims data from the dominant health plan in Mesa County, Colorado, from 1 April 2005 to 31 December 2010 were matched to HIE adoption data on the provider level. Using mixed effects regression models with the quarter as the unit of analysis, the effect of HIE adoption on testing rates and associated charges was assessed. Claims submitted by 306 providers in 69 practices for 34 818 patients were analyzed. The rate of testing per provider was expressed as tests per 1000 patients per quarter. For primary care providers, the rate of laboratory testing increased over the time span (baseline 1041 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 13.9 each quarter) and shifted downward with HIE adoption (downward shift of 83, prates or imputed charges in either provider group. Ambulatory HIE adoption is unlikely to produce significant direct savings through reductions in rates of testing. The economic benefits of HIE may reside instead in other downstream outcomes of better informed, higher quality care.

  18. Effects of slow breathing rate on heart rate variability and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjun; Chang, Qinghua; Zhang, Jia; Chai, Wenshu

    2018-05-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of slow breathing on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.We studied 60 patients with essential hypertension and 60 healthy controls. All subjects underwent controlled breathing at 8 and 16 breaths per minute. Electrocardiogram, respiratory, and blood pressure signals were recorded simultaneously. We studied effects of slow breathing on heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory peak, high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, and LF/HF ratio of HRV with traditional and corrected spectral analysis. Besides, we tested whether slow breathing was capable of modifying baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects.Slow breathing, compared with 16 breaths per minute, decreased the heart rate and blood pressure (all P hypertensive subjects. Slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects (from 59.48 ± 6.39 to 78.93 ± 5.04 ms/mm Hg, P hypertension. Besides, slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects. These demonstrate slow breathing is indeed capable of shifting sympatho-vagal balance toward vagal activities and increasing baroreflex sensitivity, suggesting a safe, therapeutic approach for essential hypertension.

  19. Factors associated with citation rate of randomised controlled trials in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Matteo; Landi, Niccolò; Briganti, Gennaro; Lombardi, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of citation rate as a measure of quality of research is strongly criticized and debated, it remain a widely used method to evaluate performances of researchers, articles and journals. The aim of this study was to test which factors are associated with citation rate of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) published on the physiotherapy field. All RCTs abstracted in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), indexed in Scopus database and published in 2008 were included. PEDro score, language of publication, indexing in PubMed database, type of access to articles, subdiscipline, the number of authors, the country where the study was performed, the type of institution where the study was conducted and the number of centres involved in the study (multicentric vs single-centre). and the 2013 5-year impact factor of the publishing journals were considered as independent variables. Citation rate until December 2013 was extracted from Scopus database and used as dependent variable. Six hundred and nineteen RCTs, published in 283 journals, were included and analysed. The 5-year impact factor was the strongest variable associated with the citation rate and explained approximately 50 % of the variance, and the number of authors explained an additional small part (about 1 %) of variability. The other variables were excluded from the model. The study highlights that 5-year Impact Factor, not accessibility (language of publication, indexing in PubMed database or the type of access to articles) or reported quality (PEDro score), is a strong predictor of the number of citations for RCTs in the physiotherapy field. Our findings support the increasingly widespread idea that citation analysis does not reflect the scientific merit of the cited work, at least in terms of reported quality.The results of this study need to be confirmed with a publication window larger than one year.

  20. TT Mutant Homozygote of Kruppel-like Factor 5 Is a Key Factor for Increasing Basal Metabolic Rate and Resting Metabolic Rate in Korean Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ran; Kwon, In-Su; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of KLF5 to basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the inhibition of obesity in Korean children. A variation of KLF5 (rs3782933) was genotyped in 62 Korean children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we developed a model to predict BMR in children. We divided them into several groups; normal versus overweight by body mass index (BMI) and low BMR versus high BMR by BMR. There were no differences in the distributions of alleles and genotypes between each group. The genetic variation of KLF5 gene showed a significant correlation with several clinical factors, such as BMR, muscle, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Children with the TT had significantly higher BMR than those with CC (p = 0.030). The highest muscle was observed in the children with TT compared with CC (p = 0.032). The insulin and C-peptide values were higher in children with TT than those with CC (p= 0.029 vs. p = 0.004, respectively). In linear regression analysis, BMI and muscle mass were correlated with BMR, whereas insulin and C-peptide were not associated with BMR. In the high-BMR group, we observed that higher muscle, fat mass, and C-peptide affect the increase of BMR in children with TT (p BMR (adjust r(2) = 1.000, p BMR in Korean children. We could make better use of the variation within KLF5 in a future clinical intervention study of obesity.

  1. The effect of recruitment rate and other demographic parameters on the transmission of dengue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A. K.; Anggriani, N.

    2015-03-01

    One of important factors which always appears in most of dengue transmission mathematical model is the number of new susceptible recruited into the susceptible compartment. In this paper we discuss the effect of different rates of recruitment on the transmission of dengue disease. We choose a dengue transmission model with the most realistic form of recruitment rate and analyze the effect of environmental change to the transmission of dengue based on the selected model. We model the effect of environmental change by considering that it can alter the value of mosquito's carrying capacity and mosquito's death rate. We found that the most prevalent effect of the environmental change to the transmission of dengue is when it can alter the death rate of the mosquitoes.

  2. Coronary artery bypass graft readmission rates and risk factors - A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T Robert; White, Robert S; Gaber-Baylis, Licia K; Turnbull, Zachary A; Rong, Lisa Q

    2018-04-17

    Hospital readmissions contribute substantially to the overall healthcare cost. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is of particular interest due to its relatively high short-term readmission rates and mean hospital charges. A retrospective review was performed on 2007-2011 data from California, Florida, and New York from the State Inpatient Databases, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. All patients ≥18 years of age who underwent isolated CABG and met inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. Insurance status was categorized by Medicaid, Medicare, Private Insurance, Uninsured, and Other. Primary outcomes were unadjusted rates and adjusted odds of readmission at 30- and 90-days. Secondary outcomes included diagnosis at readmission. A total of 177,229 were included in the analyses after assessing for exclusion criteria. Overall 30-day readmission rate was 16.1%; rates were highest within Medicare (18.4%) and Medicaid (20.2%) groups and lowest in the private insurance group (11.7%; p readmission diagnoses were atrial fibrillation (26.7%), pleural effusion (22.5%), and wound infection (17.7%). Medicare patients had the highest proportion of readmissions with atrial fibrillation (31.7%) and pleural effusions (23.3%), while Medicaid patients had the highest proportion of readmissions with wound infections (21.8%). Similar results were found at 90 days. Risk factors for readmission included non-private insurance, age, female sex, non-white race, low median household income, non-routine discharge, length of stay, and certain comorbidities and complications. CABG readmission rates remain high and are associated with insurance status and racial and socioeconomic markers. Further investigation is necessary to better delineate the underlying factors that relate racial and socioeconomic disparities to CABG readmissions. Understanding these factors will be key to improving healthcare outcomes and expenditure. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by

  3. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  4. Experiment on the Influence Factors of Steam Distillation Rate of Crude Oil in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the influence of complexity of reservoir properties in porous media and the diversity of operating conditions on the steam distillation rate of crude oil in the process of heavy oil exploitation with steam injection, steam distillation simulation devices are used to study steam distillation rate of crude oil in porous media. Then steam distillation ratio is obtained under the condition of different core permeability, oil saturation, steam temperatures, system pressure, steam injection rates and steam distillation rates with different viscosities of crude oil. The results show that the steam distillation rate of crude oil in porous media depends mainly on the nature of the crude oil itself, for temperature and pressure are the key factors compared with the pore structure, the initial oil saturation and steam injection rate. The experimental results help estimate the amount of crude oil and the required steam in the reservoir in the steam drive process, aiming to facilitate the optimization design and operation of steam drive.

  5. Factors related to low birth rate among married women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Roh, Eun Ha

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing low birth rate among married women using the National Survey data in Korea. We compared the different influences on women's first and subsequent childbirths. This study was a secondary analysis using the "National Survey on Fertility and Family Health and Welfare", which was a nationally representative survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. We analyzed the data of 3,482 married women (aged between 19 and 39 years) using SPSS 20.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and binary and ordinal logistic regression models. The factors influencing women's first childbirth included perceptions about the value of marriage and children and their education level. The factors influencing their subsequent childbirths included multifaceted variables of maternal age during the first childbirth, residential area, religion, monthly household income, perceptions about the value of marriage and children, and social media. It is necessary to improve women's awareness and positive perceptions about marriage and children in order to increase the birth rate in Korea. Moreover, consistently providing financial and political support for maternal and childcare concerns and using social media to foster more positive attitudes toward having children may enhance birth rates in the future.

  6. Classification of complementary and alternative medical practices: Family physicians' ratings of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Christopher J

    2008-11-01

    ABSTRACTOBJECTIVETo develop a classification of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices widely available in Canada based on physicians' effectiveness ratings of the therapies.DESIGNA self-administered postal questionnaire asking family physicians to rate their "belief in the degree of therapeutic effectiveness" of 15 CAM therapies.SETTINGProvince of Alberta.PARTICIPANTSA total of 875 family physicians.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESDescriptive statistics of physicians' awareness of and effectiveness ratings for each of the therapies; factor analysis was applied to the ratings of the 15 therapies in order to explore whether or not the data support the proposed classification of CAM practices into categories of accepted and rejected.RESULTSPhysicians believed that acupuncture, massage therapy, chiropractic care, relaxation therapy, biofeedback, and spiritual or religious healing were effective when used in conjunction with biomedicine to treat chronic or psychosomatic indications. Physicians attributed little effectiveness to homeopathy or naturopathy, Feldenkrais or Alexander technique, Rolfing, herbal medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and reflexology. The factor analysis revealed an underlying dimensionality to physicians' effectiveness ratings of the CAM therapies that supports the classification of these practices as either accepted or rejected.CONCLUSIONThis study provides Canadian family physicians with information concerning which CAM therapies are generally accepted by their peers as effective and which are not.

  7. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  8. Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness Manual. Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, B. Everard

    The Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness (IRTE) is an instrument for recording senior high school student perceptions of teacher performance in ten trait areas: teacher appearance, ability to explain, friendliness, grading fairness, discipline, outside classroom assignments, enjoyment of teaching, voice, mannerisms, and command of subject…

  9. Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate of indigenous Nguni cattle under in situ conservation in the low-input communal production ... as not at risk of extinction, while the individual enterprises were classified as being endangered-maintained without the exchange of germ plasm among them.

  10. Effective factors on bank resource mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Ghorbannejad Maleki; Jafar Beikzad

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to detect effective factors on mobilization of East Azarbaijan Agricultural Bank resources in terms of deposits absorption. In order to reaching this goal, six hypotheses have been arranged and a questionnaire including 28 questions has been designed. So after justifiability and perpetuity evaluation, the questionnaires are distributed among managers of these banks. We have analyzed the data using multi variable regression analysis, Pearson's R and Variant an...

  11. DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN RATING: FACTOR BASED ORDERED PROBIT MODELS FOR PANEL DATA ANALYSIS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Teker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compose a new rating methodology and provide credit notches to 23 countries which of 13 are developed and 10 are emerging. There are various literature that explains the determinants of credit ratings. Following the literature, we select 11 variables for our model which of 5 are eliminated by the factor analysis. We use specific dummies to investigate the structural breaks in time and cross section such as pre crises, post crises, BRIC membership, EU membership, OPEC membership, shipbuilder country and platinum reserved country. Then we run an ordered probit model and give credit notches to the countries. We use FITCH ratings as benchmark. Thus, at the end we compare the notches of FITCH with the ones we derive out of our estimated model.

  12. Ventilation rate in equilibrium factor measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Leitao, R.M.S.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.

    1994-08-01

    Ventilation rate values are calculated from track density measurements in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), both when ventilation is the main cause of radioactive disequilibrium in radon progeny and when it shares importance with other agents. The method consists in exposing a SSNTD of high intrinsic efficiency (CR-39) in filtered and unfiltered conditions and, in addition, covered with a thin Aluminium foil, to stop alpha particles from 218 Po and 222 Rn. No calibrations are required but, when necessary, independent measurements of the loss rates of radioactivity to aerosol and to walls have to perform. Ventilation rates depend upon geometry detection efficiencies for alpha particles, here obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account the space distribution of emission positions. This may lead to sizeable corrections in ventilation and equilibrium factor values. Since geometric detection efficiencies depend upon alpha-particle ranges in air, the influences of barometric variables are also discussed. (author). 7 refs

  13. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  14. Community-based stillbirth rates and risk factors in rural Sarlahi, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2011-06-01

    To assess stillbirth rates and antepartum risk factors in rural Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial in Sarlahi, Nepal, from 2002 to 2006. Multivariate regression modeling was performed to calculate adjusted relative risk estimates. Among 24531 births, the stillbirth rate was 35.4 per 1000 births (term stillbirth rate 21.2 per 1000 births). Most births occurred at home without a skilled birth attendant. The majority (69%) of intrapartum maternal deaths resulted in stillbirth. The adjusted RR (aRR) of stillbirth was 2.74 among nulliparas and 1.47 among mothers with history of a child death. Mothers above the age of 30 years carried a 1.59-fold higher risk for stillbirth than mothers who were 20-24 years old. The stillbirth risk was lower among households where the father had any formal education (aRR 0.70). Land ownership (aRR 0.85) and Pahadi ethnicity (aRR 0.67; reference: Madhesi ethnicity) were associated with significantly lower risks of stillbirth. Stillbirth rates were high in rural Nepal, with the majority of stillbirths occurring at full-term gestation. Nulliparity, history of prior child loss, maternal age above 30 years, Madhesi ethnicity, and socioeconomic disadvantage were significant risk factors for stillbirth. Clinicaltrials.govNCT00 109616. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eBouyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g. and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G. t. (Diptera: Glossinidae. Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection.Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-Sept 2007 in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba. In total, 1,423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximal, minimal and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd and night (LSTn as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect.The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies, followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies. The best model (lowest AICc for the global infection rates was the one with the maximal daily temperature only as fixed effect (p<0.001. For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximal daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximal daily temperature was the main effect (p<0.001. The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%, and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p=0.03.The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.

  16. [Tobacco use rate and associated factors in middle school students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Feng, G Z; Jiang, Y; Zhang, J R; Liu, L X

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand tobacco use rate and explore the factors associated with tobacco use in middle school students in China. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 155 117 eligible middle students selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 31 provinces of China. The questionnaire consists of the following topics: tobacco use and cessation, passive smoking, access to tobacco products, tobacco control and tobacco advertisement, and knowledge about and attitudes to tobacco. Software SAS 9.3 was used for sample weighting and data analysis. Results: Current tobacco use rate was 6.9 % in middle school students in China. The rate was higher in boys (11.2 % ) than in girls (2.2 % ), and in rural area (7.8 % ) than in urban area (4.8 % ). Students in western area had the highest tobacco use rate (10.3 % ), followed by the students in middle area (6.4 % ), and the rate in students in eastern area was lowest (4.5 % ). Parent smoking (especially mother smoking), friend smoking, teacher smoking, pocket money for a week>20 yuan, tobacco advertisement or promotion, passive smoking, misconception of tobacco addiction, active attitude to smoking behavior were the risk factors for tobacco use. Conclusions: Smoking rate in boys in China was higher than the average global level. A comprehensive intervention strategy by Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be used to reduce tobacco use in adolescents, including health education, increasing cigarette price, banning tobacco advertisement and promotion, and smoke-free legislation.

  17. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  18. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.; Shipmon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  19. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shipmon, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  20. Radioablation of liver malignancies with interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Complications and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wolf, Steffen; Damm, Robert; Seidensticker, Max; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Fischbach, Frank; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Magdeburg (Germany); Peters, Nils; Hass, Peter; Gademann, Guenther [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Magdeburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate complications and identify risk factors for adverse events in patients undergoing high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (iBT). Data from 192 patients treated in 343 CT- or MRI-guided interventions from 2006-2009 at our institution were analyzed. In 41 %, the largest tumor treated was ≥ 5 cm, 6 % of the patients had tumors ≥ 10 cm. Prior to iBT, 60 % of the patients had chemotherapy, 22 % liver resection, 19 % thermoablation or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Safety was the primary endpoint; survival data were obtained as the secondary endpoints. During follow-up, MRI or CT imaging was performed and clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained. The rate of major complications was below 5 %. Five major bleedings (1.5 %) occurred. The frequency of severe bleeding was significantly higher in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. One patient developed signs of a nonclassic radiation-induced liver disease. In 3 patients, symptomatic gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers were detected. A dose exposure to the GI wall above 14 Gy/ml was a reliable threshold to predict ulcer formation. A combination of C-reactive protein ≥ 165 mg/l and/or leukocyte count ≥ 12.7 Gpt/l on the second day after the intervention predicted infection (sensitivity 90.0 %; specificity 92.8 %.) Two patients (0.6 %) died within 30 days. Median overall survival after the first liver treatment was 20.1 months for all patients and the local recurrence-free surviving proportion was 89 % after 12 months. Image-guided iBT yields a low rate of major complications and is effective. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der Komplikationsrate und Identifizierung von Risikofaktoren fuer Komplikationen und Nebenwirkungen bei Patienten mit Lebermalignomen, die mit der hochdosierten interstitiellen Brachytherapie (iBT) behandelt wurden. Von 2006 bis 2009 wurden 192 Patienten in 343 CT- oder MRT-gefuehrten Interventionen behandelt und deren Daten ausgewertet. Der groesste behandelte Tumor war in

  1. Effective dose rate coefficients for exposure to contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K.G. [Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States); Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckerman, K.F.; Easterly, C.E. [Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bellamy, M.B.; Hiller, M.M.; Dewji, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Manger, R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has undertaken calculations related to various environmental exposure scenarios. A previous paper reported the results for submersion in radioactive air and immersion in water using age-specific mathematical phantoms. This paper presents age-specific effective dose rate coefficients derived using stylized mathematical phantoms for exposure to contaminated soils. Dose rate coefficients for photon, electron, and positrons of discrete energies were calculated and folded with emissions of 1252 radionuclides addressed in ICRP Publication 107 to determine equivalent and effective dose rate coefficients. The MCNP6 radiation transport code was used for organ dose rate calculations for photons and the contribution of electrons to skin dose rate was derived using point-kernels. Bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons of positron emission were evaluated as discrete photons. The coefficients calculated in this work compare favorably to those reported in the US Federal Guidance Report 12 as well as by other authors who employed voxel phantoms for similar exposure scenarios. (orig.)

  2. Effect on Dietary Protein and Feeding Rate on Growth of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus Fuscoguttatus) Juvenile

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuqi, Muhammad; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya; Suwirya, Ketut

    2012-01-01

    The grouper fish culture was developed after its succesful seed production in hatchery well known. In grow-out culture grouper, the protein requirement and feeding rate have to know well in order to understand the effectiveness on feed utilization . The experiment was designed by factorial design with the first factor as 3 dietary protein (36%, 42%, 48%) and the second factor as 3 feeding rate ( 1,5%, 2,0%, 2,5%). Ten of juvenile tiger grouper (102, 51-102, 73 g of body weight) were stocked i...

  3. [Dose rate-dependent cellular and molecular effects of ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyszewski, Waldemar M; Wideł, Maria; Szurko, Agnieszka; Maniakowski, Zbigniew

    2008-09-11

    The aim of radiation therapy is to kill tumor cells while minimizing damage to normal cells. The ultimate effect of radiation can be apoptotic or necrotic cell death as well as cytogenetic damage resulting in genetic instability and/or cell death. The destructive effects of radiation arise from direct and indirect ionization events leading to peroxidation of macromolecules, especially those present in lipid-rich membrane structures as well as chromatin lipids. Lipid peroxidative end-products may damage DNA and proteins. A characteristic feature of radiation-induced peroxidation is an inverse dose-rate effect (IDRE), defined as an increase in the degree of oxidation(at constant absorbed dose) accompanying a lower dose rate. On the other hand, a low dose rate can lead to the accumulation of cells in G2, the radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle since cell cycle control points are not sensitive to low dose rates. Radiation dose rate may potentially be the main factor improving radiotherapy efficacy as well as affecting the intensity of normal tissue and whole-body side effects. A better understanding of dose rate-dependent biological effects may lead to improved therapeutic intervention and limit normal tissue reaction. The study reviews basic biological effects that depend on the dose rate of ionizing radiation.

  4. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  5. Suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunmi; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Sung-Il; Park, Sohee; Won, Young-Joo; Yun, Young Ho

    2010-08-01

    As the number of cancer survivors increases, suicide risk approaches that of the general population. We therefore investigated suicide rates and risk factors among Korean cancer patients. We observed 816,295 cancer patients for 3,007,294 person-years from 1993 to 2005 through a nationwide cancer registry. We calculated their sex- and age-standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and studied suicide risk factors using rate ratios (RR) based on a log-linear Poisson regression model. Compared with the Korean general population, the suicide rate among cancer patients was high [SMR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.91-2.08]. The rates were highest in the year following the cancer diagnosis (SMR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.73) and were still elevated 5 years later (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.36). The clinical groups at highest risk were male pancreas cancer patients (SMR, 6.01; 95% CI, 4.33-8.33) and female lung cancer patients (SMR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.55-4.94). The sociodemographic groups at highest risk were those who had no spouse versus those who were married (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.35-1.68), those who were not employed versus those who were (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.54), and those who did not have high school education versus those who had (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.79). Korean cancer patients are at increased risk of suicide. Both clinical and sociodemographic factors play a role. There is a need for social support and suicide prevention strategies for cancer survivors in Korea. (c)2010 AACR.

  6. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  7. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  8. Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we use a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between radiation and mutation rates in Chernobyl across 45 published studies, covering 30 species. Overall effect size of radiation on mutation rates estimated as Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was very large (E = 0.67; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.59 to 0.73), accounting for 44.3% of the total variance in an unstructured random-effects model. Fail-safe calculations reflecting the number of unpublished null results needed to eliminate this average effect size showed the extreme robustness of this finding (Rosenberg's method: 4135 at p = 0.05). Indirect tests did not provide any evidence of publication bias. The effect of radiation on mutations varied among taxa, with plants showing a larger effect than animals. Humans were shown to have intermediate sensitivity of mutations to radiation compared to other species. Effect size did not decrease over time, providing no evidence for an improvement in environmental conditions. The surprisingly high mean effect size suggests a strong impact of radioactive contamination on individual fitness in current and future generations, with potentially significant population-level consequences, even beyond the area contaminated with radioactive material.

  9. A discrete-time two-factor model for pricing bonds and interest rate derivatives under random volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Heston, Steven L.; Nandi, Saikat

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a discrete-time two-factor model of interest rates with analytical solutions for bonds and many interest rate derivatives when the volatility of the short rate follows a GARCH process that can be correlated with the level of the short rate itself. Besides bond and bond futures, the model yields analytical solutions for prices of European options on discount bonds (and futures) as well as other interest rate derivatives such as caps, floors, average rate options, yield curv...

  10. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).

  11. Factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.S. Crippa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, translated into Portuguese. The BPRS was administered to a heterogeneous group of psychiatric inpatients (N = 98 and outpatients (N = 62 in a University Hospital. Each patient was evaluated from one to eight times. The interval between consecutive interviews was one week for the inpatients and one month for the outpatients. The results were submitted to factorial analysis. The internal consistency of the total scale and of each factor was also estimated. Factorial analysis followed by normalized orthogonal rotation (Varimax yielded four factors: Withdrawal-Retardation, Thinking Disorder, Anxious-Depression and Activation. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.766 to 0.879. The data show that the factor structure of the present instrument is similar to that of the American version of the BPRS which contains 18 items, except for the absence of the fifth factor of the latter scale, Hostile-Suspiciousness.

  12. Structure factors for tunneling ionization rates of molecules: General Hartree-Fock-based integral representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Jensen, Frank; Dnestryan, Andrey I.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2017-07-01

    In the leading-order approximation of the weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT), the dependence of the tunneling ionization rate of a molecule in an electric field on its orientation with respect to the field is determined by the structure factor of the ionizing molecular orbital. The WFAT yields an expression for the structure factor in terms of a local property of the orbital in the asymptotic region. However, in general quantum chemistry approaches molecular orbitals are expanded in a Gaussian basis which does not reproduce their asymptotic behavior correctly. This hinders the application of the WFAT to polyatomic molecules, which are attracting increasing interest in strong-field physics. Recently, an integral-equation approach to the WFAT for tunneling ionization of one electron from an arbitrary potential has been developed. The structure factor is expressed in an integral form as a matrix element involving the ionizing orbital. The integral is not sensitive to the asymptotic behavior of the orbital, which resolves the difficulty mentioned above. Here, we extend the integral representation for the structure factor to many-electron systems treated within the Hartree-Fock method and show how it can be implemented on the basis of standard quantum chemistry software packages. We validate the methodology by considering noble-gas atoms and the CO molecule, for which accurate structure factors exist in the literature. We also present benchmark results for CO2 and for NH3 in the pyramidal and planar geometries.

  13. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor-Barriuso Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.

  14. Effects of step rate manipulation on joint mechanics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Michalski, Max P; Wille, Christa M; Ryan, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    the objective of this study was to characterize the biomechanical effects of step rate modification during running on the hip, knee, and ankle joints so as to evaluate a potential strategy to reduce lower extremity loading and risk for injury. three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 45 healthy recreational runners during treadmill running at constant speed under various step rate conditions (preferred, ± 5%, and ± 10%). We tested our primary hypothesis that a reduction in energy absorption by the lower extremity joints during the loading response would occur, primarily at the knee, when step rate was increased. less mechanical energy was absorbed at the knee (P running and may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of common running-related injuries.

  15. Mitigating costs and the preemptive effect of federal rate orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darr, F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The role of federalism in the regulation of energy production is a long-standing problem. This article is divided into five parts. Following a summary of the case 'New Orleans Public Service, Inc. v. Council of New Orleans' (NOPSI) in Part I the article addresses the statutory and interpretive foundations of the filed rate doctrine described in Part II. Part III discusses the Supreme Court's extension of the doctrine into greater federal management of retail rates and introduces the reaction of the lower courts to the Supreme Court's decisions. Part IV analyzes the NOPSI exception requiring a utility to mitigate the effects of a FERC order in light of the policy distinctions inherent in the filed rate doctrine and the recognized eceptions. Part V addresses a related policy issue of the appropriate venue for challenging state orders to deny costs arising from federal orders. 153 refs

  16. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    We combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of Silicon. We obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, we study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates.

  17. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    The authors combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of silicon. They obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, the authors study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates

  18. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  19. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  20. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Incidence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms and influential factors in young children in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, M.; Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.

    2008-01-01

    questionnaire based on an ISAAC protocol to all children in the age of 1-6 years. Five years later a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the children that were 1-3 years at baseline. In total, 4779 children (response rate = 73%) participated in both surveys and constitute the study population in this cohort...... study. Results: The 5-year incidence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 4.9% (95% CI 4.3-5.3), rhinitis was 5.7% (5.0-6.4) and eczema was 13.4% (12.3-14.5). However, incidence rates strongly depend on the health status of the baseline population. Risk factors for incident asthma were male gender and short...... period of breast-feeding. Allergic symptoms in parents were also a strong risk factor for incident asthma, as well as for rhinitis and eczema. Conclusion: When comparing incident rates of asthma between different studies it is important to realize that different definitions of the healthy baseline...

  2. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  3. Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eCarnevali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In humans, there are large individual differences in the levels of vagal modulation of resting heart rate. High levels are a recognized index of cardiac health, whereas low levels are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several factors are thought to contribute significantly to this inter-individual variability. While regular physical exercise seems to induce an increase in resting vagal tone, chronic life stress and psychosocial factors such as negative moods and personality traits appear associated with vagal withdrawal. Preclinical research has been attempting to clarify such relationships and to provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying vagal tone impairment/enhancement. This paper focuses on rat studies that have explored the effects of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise on vagal modulation of resting heart rate. Results are discussed with regard to: (i individual differences in resting vagal tone, cardiac stress reactivity and arrhythmia vulnerability; (ii elucidation of the neurobiological determinants of resting vagal tone.

  4. Self-serving bias effects on job analysis ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Martin, Nicholas R; Vasilopoulos, Nicholas L; Thibodeuax, Henry F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether worker-oriented job analysis importance ratings were influenced by subject matter experts' (SME) standing (as measured by self-rated performance) on a competency. This type of relationship (whereby SMEs indicate that the traits they have are important for successful job performance) is an example of the self-serving bias (which is widely described in the social cognition literature and rarely described in the industrial/organizational psychology literature). An archival dataset covering 57 clerical and technical occupations with 26,682 participants was used. Support was found for the relationship between self-rated performance and importance ratings. Significant relationships (typically in the .30s) were observed for all 31 competencies that were studied. Controls were taken to account for common method bias and differences in the competencies required for each of the 57 occupations. Past research has demonstrated the effects of the self-serving bias on personality-based job analysis ratings. This study was the first to extend these findings to traditional job analysis, which covers other competencies in addition to personality. In addition, this study is the first to use operational field data instead of laboratory data.

  5. Effect of electromagnetic navigated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement on failure rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nayoung; Kim, Dongwon

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic (EM) navigation system on ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rate through comparing the result of standard shunt placement. All patients undergoing VP shunt from October 2007 to September 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The first group received shunt surgery using EM navigation. The second group had catheters inserted using manual method with anatomical landmark. The relationship between proximal catheter position and shunt revision rate was evaluated using postoperative computed tomography by a 3-point scale. 1) Grade I; optimal position free-floating in cerebrospinal fluid, 2) Grade II; touching choroid or ventricular wall, 3) Grade III; tip within parenchyma. A total of 72 patients were participated, 27 with EM navigated shunts and 45 with standard shunts. Grade I was found in 25 patients from group 1 and 32 patients from group 2. Only 2 patients without use of navigation belonged to grade III. Proximal obstruction took place 7% in grade I, 15% in grade II and 100% in grade III. Shunt revision occurred in 11% of group 1 and 31% of group 2. Compared in terms of proximal catheter position, there was growing trend of revision rate according to increase of grade on each group. Although infection rate was similar between both groups, the result had no statistical meaning (p=0.905, chi-square test). The use of EM navigation in routine shunt surgery can eliminate poor shunt placement resulting in a dramatic reduction in failure rates.

  6. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  7. Effects of interest rate, exchange rate and their volatilities on stock prices: evidence from banking industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tehseen JAWAID

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of exchange rate, interest rates, and their volatilities on stock prices of banking industry of Pakistan. Cointegration results suggests the existance of significant negative long run relationship between exchange rate and short term interest rate with stock prices. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship exists between volatilities of exchange rate and interest rate with stock prices. Causality analysis confirms bidirectional causality between exchange rate and stock prices. Whereas, unidirectional causality runs from short term interest rate to stock prices. Sensitivity analysis confirms that the results are robust. It is suggested that investors should invest in banking sector stocks when exchange rate and interest rates are highly volatile. The result also supports the view that exchange rate and interest rate can be used as an indicator for investment decision making in banking sector stocks.

  8. Tax Havens and Effective Tax Rates: An Analysis of Private versus Public European Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Jaafar; John Thorton

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of tax-haven operations on the effective corporate tax burdens of publicly listed and privately held firms domiciled in Europe. In particular, we consider how European firmsÕ tax haven operations interacts with factors such listing status and home-country tax reporting systems to determine the relative tax burdens of publicly listed and private firms. Our main empirical results show that tax haven operations is associated with lower effective tax rates for both private a...

  9. Effects of Surfactants on the Rate of Chemical Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samiey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are self-assembled compounds that depend on their structure and electric charge can interact as monomer or micelle with other compounds (substrates. These interactions which may catalyze or inhibit the reaction rates are studied with pseudophase, cooperativity, and stoichiometric (classical models. In this review, we discuss applying these models to study surfactant-substrate interactions and their effects on Diels-Alder, redox, photochemical, decomposition, enzymatic, isomerization, ligand exchange, radical, and nucleophilic reactions.

  10. The effect of seeding with bacteria on biogas production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangoggo, S.M. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Aliyu, M.; Atiku, A.T. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Energy Research Centre

    1996-09-01

    Biogas as a clean and cheap fuel is studied with the aim of determining the effect of seeding with bacteria on its production rate using four different substrates. The seeding with four different digesters was carried out with 5g of digested cowdung sludge obtained from a working digester. Results indicate that of all the substrates used for the studies, ipomea asarifobia produced the highest amount of biogas over a period of 40 days. (Author)

  11. Estimating Effective Subsidy Rates of Student Aid Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Every year millions of high school students and their parents in the US are asked to fill out complicated financial aid application forms. However, few studies have estimated the responsiveness of government financial aid schemes to changes in financial needs of the students. This paper identifies the effective subsidy rate (ESR) of student aid, as defined by the coefficient of financial needs in the regression of financial aid. The ESR measures the proportion of subsidy of student aid under ...

  12. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  13. Estimating the Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Export Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai-Li; Barrett, Christopher B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes a new empirical look at the long-standing question of the effect of exchange rate volatility on international trade flows by studying the case of Taiwan's exports to the United States from 1989-1998. In particular, we employ sectoral-level, monthly data and an innovative multivariate GARCH-M estimator with corrections for leptokurtic errors. This estimator allows for the possibility that traders' forward-looking contracting behavior might condition the way in which exchange r...

  14. Organ donation in Switzerland--an analysis of factors associated with consent rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased's next of kin (NOK for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values <0.2 were selected for a multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 266 NOK approached for consent, consent was given in 137 (51.5% cases. In multivariable analysis, we found associations of consent rates with Swiss nationality (OR 3.09, 95% CI: 1.46-6.54 and German language area (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.73. Consent rates tended to be higher if a parent was present during the request (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 0.93-3.33 and if the request was done before brain death was formally declared (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 0.90-3.87. CONCLUSION: Establishing an atmosphere of trust between the medical staff putting forward a request and the NOK, allowing sufficient time for the NOK to consider donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions.

  15. Stratification of surgical site infection by operative factors and comparison of infection rates after hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Margaret A; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Fraser, Victoria J; Warren, David K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether operative factors are associated with risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after hernia repair. Retrospective cohort study. Patients Commercially insured enrollees aged 6 months-64 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition, codes for inguinal/femoral, umbilical, and incisional/ventral hernia repair procedures from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2010. SSIs within 90 days after hernia repair were identified by diagnosis codes. The χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to compare SSI incidence by operative factors. A total of 119,973 hernia repair procedures were analyzed. The incidence of SSI differed significantly by anatomic site, with rates of 0.45% (352/77,666) for inguinal/femoral, 1.16% (288/24,917) for umbilical, and 4.11% (715/17,390) for incisional/ventral hernia repair. Within anatomic sites, the incidence of SSI was significantly higher for open versus laparoscopic inguinal/femoral (0.48% [295/61,142] vs 0.34% [57/16,524], P=.020) and incisional/ventral (4.20% [701/16,699] vs 2.03% [14/691], P=.005) hernia repairs. The rate of SSI was higher following procedures with bowel obstruction/necrosis than procedures without obstruction/necrosis for open inguinal/femoral (0.89% [48/5,422] vs 0.44% [247/55,720], Poperative factors may facilitate accurate comparison of SSI rates between facilities.

  16. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  17. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  18. LOW ENDOPHTHALMITIS RATES AFTER INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INJECTIONS IN AN OPERATION ROOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, Florentina J; Brynskov, Troels; Munk, Marion R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of presumed endophthalmitis (EO) after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in three European hospitals performed in an operation room (OR) under sterile conditions. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study between 2003 and 2016...... at three European sites, City Hospital Triemli Zurich, Switzerland (CHT), Zealand University Hospital Roskilde, Denmark (ZUH) and University Clinic Bern, Switzerland (UCB). Intravitreal injection (IVI) database of each department was reviewed. All anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections were...... performed using a standardized sterile technique in an operation room. Injection protocols were similar between the three sites. No preinjection antibiotics were given. Postoperative antibiotics varied among sites. RESULTS: A total of 134,701 intravitreal injections were performed at the 3 sites between...

  19. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR.

  20. Effective dynamics along given reaction coordinates, and reaction rate theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Hartmann, Carsten; Schütte, Christof

    2016-12-22

    In molecular dynamics and related fields one considers dynamical descriptions of complex systems in full (atomic) detail. In order to reduce the overwhelming complexity of realistic systems (high dimension, large timescale spread, limited computational resources) the projection of the full dynamics onto some reaction coordinates is examined in order to extract statistical information like free energies or reaction rates. In this context, the effective dynamics that is induced by the full dynamics on the reaction coordinate space has attracted considerable attention in the literature. In this article, we contribute to this discussion: we first show that if we start with an ergodic diffusion process whose invariant measure is unique then these properties are inherited by the effective dynamics. Then, we give equations for the effective dynamics, discuss whether the dominant timescales and reaction rates inferred from the effective dynamics are accurate approximations of such quantities for the full dynamics, and compare our findings to results from approaches like Mori-Zwanzig, averaging, or homogenization. Finally, by discussing the algorithmic realization of the effective dynamics, we demonstrate that recent algorithmic techniques like the "equation-free" approach and the "heterogeneous multiscale method" can be seen as special cases of our approach.

  1. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubo; Xiao, Gaoxi; Wong, Limsoon; Fu, Xiuju; Ma, Stefan; Hiang Cheng, Tee

    2011-09-01

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to preventing an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. First we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to the fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally, a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an epidemic outbreak from happening in scale-free networks. However, it significantly reduces the fraction of the nodes ever getting infected during the outbreak.

  2. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yubo; Xiao Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Wong Limsoon; Fu Xiuju; Ma, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to preventing an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. First we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to the fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally, a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an epidemic outbreak from happening in scale-free networks. However, it significantly reduces the fraction of the nodes ever getting infected during the outbreak. (paper)

  3. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Publication Rate of Avian Medicine Conference Abstracts and Influencing Factors: 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukaki, Christina; MedVet, Dr; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Huynh, Minh

    2018-06-01

    International conferences on avian medicine and surgery aim to disseminate scientific and evidence-based information in the form of oral presentations and posters. Most manuscripts presented are printed in the conference proceedings as abstracts. Subsequent publication in a scientific peer-reviewed journal is the natural outcome of the research cycle, although studies have shown that the vast majority of conference abstracts are not published. The purpose of this study was to explore 1) the fate of abstracts presented in avian conferences (Association of Avian Veterinarians, European Association of Avian Veterinarians, International Conference on Avian Herpetological and Exotic Mammal Medicine) in the years 2011-2015, 2) assess the publication rate in peer-reviewed journals, 3) describe the time course of subsequent publication, and 4) identify factors associated with increased likelihood of publication. The results showed that 24% of conference abstracts were published within the next 2 years. Depending on the statistical model used, several factors were identified as associated with increased publication rate. North American papers seem to publish with more frequency (univariate model), while European papers had the opposite trend (multivariable model). Likewise, experimental studies were more prone to being published overall (univariate model), whereas retrospective observational studies had a lower rate of publication (multivariable model). Increasing the number of authors was also associated with increased publication rate. Most publications were published in the Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, which tends to suggest that this journal is the main journal of the specialty. Some parameters highlighted in this study may assist conference attendees to assess the likelihood of later publication.

  5. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  6. Observer-rated depression in long-term care: frequency and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githunguri, C.M

    2002-01-01

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  8. Heating and cooling rates and their effects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heating and cooling rates of adult Chersina angulata were investigated to ascertain whether these tortoises can physiologically alter their rates of heat exchange. In addition, heart rates were recorded to provide an insight into the control of heat exchange. C. angulata heats significantly faster than it cools. Heart rates ...

  9. Identifying Metrics before and after Readmission following Head and Neck Surgery and Factors Affecting Readmission Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Sidharth V; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Objectives Determine nationally representative readmission rates after head and neck cancer (HNCA) surgery and factors associated with readmission. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of admissions database. Methods The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was analyzed for HNCA surgery admissions and subsequent readmission within 30 days. The readmission rate, length of stay (LOS), disposition, mortality rate, and total charges were determined. Diagnoses and procedures upon readmission were quantified. Factors that were associated with readmission were determined. Results In total, 132,755 HNCA surgery inpatient admissions (mean age, 57.3 years; 52.2% male) were analyzed. Nationally representative metrics for HNCA surgery were mean LOS (4.4 ± 0.1 days), disposition (home without services, 80.5%; home health care, 10.9%; and skilled facility, 6.6%), mortality rate (1.0% ± 0.1%), and total charges ($53,106 ± $1167). The readmission rate was 7.7% ± 0.2% (mean readmission postoperative days, 17.1 ± 0.1), with readmission LOS (5.6 ± 0.1 days), mortality rate (3.7% ± 0.3%), and total charges ($49,425 ± $1548). The most common diagnoses at readmission included surgical complications (15.5%), mental health and substance abuse (13.1%), hypertension (12.8%), septicemia/infection (12.1%), gastrointestinal disease (11.3%), nutritional/metabolic disorders (10.1%), electrolyte abnormalities (8.5%), and esophageal disorders (8.1%). In multivariate analyses, male sex, increasing All Patients Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) severity score, and initial LOS were associated with readmission (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.11 [1.04-1.20], 1.94 [1.77-2.12], and 1.34 [1.22-1.48], respectively), whereas age and discharge location were not ( P = .361 and .482). Conclusion HNCA surgery readmission is associated with significant increases in services/skilled care on discharge, mortality, and additional total health care cost. This national analysis identifies

  10. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in active seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Laieikawai Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  11. Effects of heterogeneous convergence rate on consensus in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changwei; Dai, Qionglin; Han, Wenchen; Feng, Yuee; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Haihong

    2018-06-01

    The Deffuant model has attracted much attention in the study of opinion dynamics. Here, we propose a modified version by introducing into the model a heterogeneous convergence rate which is dependent on the opinion difference between interacting agents and a tunable parameter κ. We study the effects of heterogeneous convergence rate on consensus by investigating the probability of complete consensus, the size of the largest opinion cluster, the number of opinion clusters, and the relaxation time. We find that the decrease of the convergence rate is favorable to decreasing the confidence threshold for the population to always reach complete consensus, and there exists optimal κ resulting in the minimal bounded confidence threshold. Moreover, we find that there exists a window before the threshold of confidence in which complete consensus may be reached with a nonzero probability when κ is not too large. We also find that, within a certain confidence range, decreasing the convergence rate will reduce the relaxation time, which is somewhat counterintuitive.

  12. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  13. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Factors that drive the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rebecca; Church, Jody; Haas, Marion; Bradford, Wylie; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-10-01

    To identify factors underpinning the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. This will indicate appropriate target areas for policy and for monitoring progress towards reducing the gap. Data from the 2004-05 National Health Survey and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey were used to estimate differences in self-reported diabetes rates and risk/prevention factors between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the contribution of each factor to predicting the probability of diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes are more prevalent and diabetes rates 2.5 to 4 times higher in Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal adults in non-remote NSW. The odds of (known) diabetes for both groups are significantly higher for older people, those with low levels of education and those who are overweight or obese. In the Aboriginal sample, the odds of diabetes are significantly higher for people reporting forced removal of their relatives. Differences in BMI and education appear to be driving the diabetes gap, together with onset at younger ages in the Aboriginal population. Psychological distress, indicated by removal of relatives, may contribute to increased risk of diabetes in the Aboriginal population. The results imply that improved nutrition and exercise, capacity to access and act upon health care information and early intervention are required to reduce the diabetes gap. Current strategies appear to be appropriately aligned with the evidence; however, further research is required to determine whether implementation methods are effective. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-12-01

    Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients' technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients.This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes.During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality.We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality.These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start of CAPD and to

  16. Effect of mineral matter on coal self-heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basil Beamish; Ahmet Arisoy [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic self-heating tests have been conducted on subbituminous coal cores from the same seam profile, which cover a mineral matter content range of 11.2-71.1%. In all cases the heat release rate does not conform to an Arrhenius kinetic model, but can best be described by a third order polynomial. Assessment of the theoretical heat sink effect of the mineral matter in each of the tests reveals that the coal is less reactive than predicted using a simple energy conservation equation. There is an additional effect of the mineral matter in these cases that cannot be explained by heat sink alone. The disseminated mineral matter in the coal is therefore inhibiting the oxidation reaction due to physicochemical effects. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Dissolution rate effect upon lyolumenescence of irradiated potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchinskij, B.L.; Dzelme, Yu.R.; Tiliks, Yu.E.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is aimed at studying dissolution rate effect and concentration of electron acceptor upon lyoluminescence (LL) that occurs during dissolution of solids with radiation defects. For investigation gamma-irradiated potassium chloride monocrystalline disks were used. As a solvent 3x10sup(-6) M solution of C(RH) hodamine in 2.7 KCl aqueous solution is used. It is shown that LL occurs as a result of recombination of radiation defects with the solution and between themselves in two different regions of subsurface layer of the solid. Investigated dependences of LL intensty on dissolution rate are the efficient method of studying the structure of solids-aqueous solution interface and LL mechanism

  18. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  20. Effect of lemongrass tea consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    The existing research findings regarding the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on renal function indices are conflicting and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of infusions prepared from C citratus leaves on creatinine clearance rate (CCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in humans. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusions prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C citratus leaf powder once daily, for 30 days. Serum and urinary levels of urea, creatinine, pH, specific gravity, uric acid, electrolytes, diuretic indices, and eGFR were assessed at days 0, 10, and 30 after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. CCr and eGFR decreased significantly at day 30 in both male and female subjects in all the groups and in females treated with infusion prepared from 8 g of C citratus leaf powder for 10 days. At day 10, CCr and eGFR were unchanged in those treated with infusions prepared from 2 or 4 g of the leaf powder, whereas diuretic indices (urine volume, urination frequency, diuretic action, and saliuretic indices) increased above the baseline levels. Serum and urinary creatinine levels significantly increased (P < .05) in both male and female subjects in all the groups. Serum urea significantly increased in the groups treated with infusions prepared from 4 or 8 g of the leaf powder (P < .05) for 30 days. Serum electrolytes remained unchanged, but their urinary levels increased. We observed dose- and time-dependent adverse effects of C citratus on CCr and eGFR. At a high dose or with prolonged treatment with a low dose, eGFR decrease may be followed by a decline in the other renal function indices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear effects on bremsstrahlung neutrino rates of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Sabin; Horvath, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    We calculate in this work the rates for the neutrino pair production by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung taking into account the full contribution from a nuclear one-pion-exchange potential. It is shown that if the temperatures are low enough (T≤20 MeV), the integration over the nuclear part can be done for the general case, ranging from the completely degenerate (D) to the nondegenerate (ND) regime. We find that the inclusion of the full nuclear contribution enhances the neutrino pair production by nn and pp bremsstrahlung by a factor of about 2 in both the D and ND limits when compared with previous calculations. This result may be relevant for the physical conditions of interest in the semitransparent regions near the neutrinosphere in type II supernovae, cooling of neutron stars, and other astrophysical situations

  2. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  3. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  4. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  5. The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.L.; Lind, T.J.; Thorland, E.C.; Sommer S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of [ge]21 bp) are uncommon. The authors have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3-kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For a sample of 203 independent mutations, the authors estimate the [open quotes]baseline[close quotes] rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb)I deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversion, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA. 58 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. [Influence on AM fungi infection rate and medicine quality of Pinellia ternata in condition of three soil impact factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue-Lian; Liu, Zuo-Yi; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zhu, Guo-Sheng; Cheng, Li-Tao

    2013-04-01

    To explore the influence on AM fungi infection rate and medicine quality of Pinellia ternate in the condition of three soil impact factors. Set the orthogonal test of three factors and levels. Determinate the AM fungi infection rate in early stage of mature & stage of mature of P. ternata, and the water content, water soluble extract, butanedioic acid content and alkaloid content of P. ternata tuber that be harvested also had be determinated. With the P levels to 30 mg x kg(-1) and 90 mg x kg(-1), AM fungi infection was the best when mixed inoculated of EM. Microbial agent inoculated played a decisive role in P. ternata growth and physiological activity, secondary influenced factor was P concentration, and the water stress was the minimal impact. Mixed inoculated of AM fungi and EM treatment with the low P levels (30, 90 mg x kg(-1)) proved better effect on enhancing the water extract content, anedioic acid and alkaloid content, while decreasing the water contents of P. ternata tuber.

  7. On the use of quality factors and fluence to dose rate conversion in human radiation exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhaus, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that various combinations of numbers and factors arrive at estimates of dose and dose effectiveness from values of fluence; but as yet it has not been possible to use biological data with the same degree of precision to estimate the physical data. It would seem that the most reasonable way to use the human data that exist is to apply them as far as possible to the human animal as a whole.

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  9. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  10. Sick leave during pregnancy: a longitudinal study of rates and risk factors in a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørheim, S K; Bjorvatn, B; Eberhard-Gran, M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of, reasons given for, and factors associated with sick leave during pregnancy. Longitudinal, population-based descriptive study. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. All women scheduled to give birth at the hospital (November 2008 to April 2010). Consenting women were handed a questionnaire at the routine ultrasound check at 17 weeks of gestation. Women returning this questionnaire received a second questionnaire at 32 weeks of gestation. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations with somatic, psychiatric and social factors. Rates and duration of sick leave. By 32 weeks of gestation, 63.2% of the 2918 women included were on sick leave, and 75.3% had been on sick leave at some point during their pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain and fatigue/sleep problems were the main reasons given for sick leave. Being on sick leave in all trimesters was strongly associated with hyperemesis, exercising less than weekly, chronic pain before or during pregnancy, infertility treatment (all P workplace (both P pregnancy, but sick leave might not be caused by pregnancy alone. Previous medical and psychiatric history, work conditions and socio-economic factors need to be addressed to understand sick leave during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  11. Cesarean Section Rate in Singleton Primiparae and Related Factors in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng; Wei, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Hui-Xia

    2017-10-20

    The cesarean section rate (CSR) has been a main concern worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the CSR in Beijing, China, and to analyze the related factors of CS delivery. An observational study was conducted in 15 medical centers in Beijing using a systemic cluster sampling method. In total, 15,194 pregnancies were enrolled in the study between June 20, 2013 and November 30, 2013. Independent t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to examine differences between two groups, and related factors of the CSR were examined by multivariable logistic regression. The CSR was 41.9% (4471/10,671) in singleton primiparae. Women who were more than 35 years old had a 7.4-fold increased risk of CS delivery compared with women level. Neonates weighing 3000-3499 g had the lowest CSR (36.2%). Neonates weighing levels, residence, education level, and singleton fetal birth weight are all factors that might significantly affect the CSR.

  12. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  13. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  14. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  15. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...... heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730...

  16. THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE ON THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS AND PROTECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan AKSUYEK,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As with all sectors, recent extreme changes occurred in the exchange rates have substantially affected the construction operations. While the rise in foreign exchange rates leads to harmful effects in the negative direction at the operations having foreign exchange – based debt or it provides also advantageous effect in the positive direction at the construction companies having foreign exchange – indexed investments. In this context, this sudden change in foreign exchange rates which cannot be predicted beforehand and emerges as a result of speculative events. As with all operations carrying out foreign exchange – based tasks, these fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate head first among the factors which affect the achievement or failure of the cost or profit targets previously determined by the construction companies as well. Therefore, the companies whose costs and profits consist of different units of currency in their construction agreements should apply to the hedging methods in order to be protected against the exchange rate. As for the main tools of protection method are the derivative products such as forward, futures, swap and optional contracts. In this study, the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on the completion costs of construction projects is scrutinized. Moreover, the tools which may be employed by the construction companies in order to get rid of exchange rate which adversely influence the building companies in both directions have been comparatively evaluated.

  17. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  18. Metal-silicon reaction rates - The effects of capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is presented showing that the presence of the commonly used anti-reflection coating material Ta2O5 on the free surface of contact metallization can either suppress or enhance, depending on the system, the interaction that takes place at elevated temperatures between the metallization and the underlying Si. The cap layer is shown to suppress both the generation and annihilation of vacancies at the free surface of the metal which are necessary to support metal-Si interactons. Evidence is also presented indicating that the mechanical condition of the free metal surface has a significant effect on the metal-silicon reaction rate.

  19. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  20. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrensch, Margaret; Peskin-Mentzer, Roni; Quesenberry, Charles P Jr; Souders-Mason, Virginia; Spence, Linda; Suzuki, Marisa; Gould, Mary; Chew, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Barlow, Janice; Belli, Flavia; Clarke, Christina; Erdmann, Christine A; Lee, Marion; Moghadassi, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  1. The frequency effect on the fatigue crack growth rate of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.-S.; Chen, J.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Under cyclic loading condition, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate governed by stress intensity factor and stress ratio is well known; Walker's equation, Forman's equation and Elber's equation are typical formulae to describe the fatigue crack growth rate. However, the loading frequency effect on the fatigue crack growth rate has yet to be explored. Recently, studies have focused on the loading frequency effect on some visco-elastic materials, and have provided a clearer understanding of the frequency effect on the fatigue crack growth rate. In a physical sense, knowledge about the loading frequency effect on the fatigue crack growth rate for 304 stainless steel is still lacking. James conducted a lot of experiments, and through data analysis, he concluded an evaluation equation which is based upon the experimental illustration. In this study, the physical properties of the material are used to illustrate the modification of fatigue crack growth rate, and a new formula which is based upon the modified Forman's equation, is provided. (orig.)

  2. Effect of dose rate on radical and property of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Chen Yuxia; Zu Xiaoyan; Li Xin; Jiang Hongyou

    2015-01-01

    The gelatin was irradiated respectively in the range of 0-32 kGy by dose rates of 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator, and the relationships of the radical character and gelatin property with dose rate were investigated through electron spin resonance (ESR) and gelatin permeation chromatogram. The results show that there is weak ESR signal from unirradiated gelatin, but irradiated one presents typical double peak. The order of ESR signal intensity of gelatin with the same absorbed dosage from high to low is 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator. The linear relationship between ESR signal intensity from 60 Co irradiated gelatin and absorbed dose is y= 26.983x 2 +1 641.8x-205.69. The intrinsic viscosity, average relative molecular weight, gelatin strength and breaking elongation of irradiated gelatin from high to low are 480 Gy/min 60 Co, 12000 Gy/min accelerator and 60 Gy/min 60 Co. The protection mechanism of high dose rate radiation on gelatin degradation is that the production of effective long life free radicals reduces. (authors)

  3. High dose rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix: risk factors for late rectal complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Aruga, Moriyo; Kotaka, Kikuo; Fujimoto, Hajime; Minoura, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the incidence of late rectal complications in patients treated with high dose rate brachytherapy for FIGO stage IIB, IIIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and to evaluate the treatment factors associated with an increased probability of treatment complications. Materials and Methods: Records of 100 patients with FIGO IIB or IIIB cervical carcinoma treated with definitive irradiation using high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICR) between 1977 and 1994 were retrospectively reviewed. For each HDR-ICR session, 6 Gy isodose volume was reconstructed three dimensionally and the following three parameters were determined to represent this isodose volume, length (L); maximum longitudinal distance of 6 Gy isodose area in an oblique frontal plane containing the intrauterine applicator, width (W); maximum width of 6 Gy isodose area in the same plane, height (H); maximum dimension of 6 Gy isodose area perpendicular to the intrauterine applicator determined in the oblique sagittal plane. Point P/Q (2 cm ventral/dorsal from the proximal retention point of the intrauterine source) and point R/S (2 cm ventral/dorsal from the midpoint of the ovoid sources) were also defined retrospectively and HDR-ICR dose at these points were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the treatment factors predictive of late rectal complications. Results: The 5-year cumulative cause-specific disease-free survival rate was 50% for all, 74% for Stage IIB, and 38% for Stage IIIB, with a significant difference between two FIGO Stages (p=0.0004). Of patients treated for both stages, 30% and 36% had experienced moderate to severe (Grade 2-4) complications at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Average H value (p=0.013) and cumulative point S dose by HDR-ICR (p=0.020) were significantly correlated with the incidence of late rectal complications (Student's t-test), whereas these factors did not significantly affect the probability of pelvic control. No

  4. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  5. Effect of heating rate on caustic stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indig, M.E.; Hoffman, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a large water leak into the sodium side of a steam generator in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) at Canoga Park, California, is performing a series of tests in a Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR). This test series involves heating a large steam generator that possibly contains localized pockets of aqueous caustic retained from a previous sodium-water reaction. Such pockets of caustic solution could be in contact with welds and other components that contain residual stresses up to the yield point. The LMEC and General Electric (GE) ran a series of tests to evaluate the effect of heating rate on caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for alloys either used or considered for the LLTR. A summary of the temperatures and caustic concentration ranges that can result in caustic SCC for carbon steel and Type-304 stainless steel is given

  6. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.

    1986-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125 I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting

  7. Effects of Cysteamine on Sheep Embryo Cleavage Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ö. ENGİNLER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during in vitro culture leads to defects in development of gametes and embryos. Several antioxidants such as cysteamine, L-ascorbic acid, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, proteins, vitamins have been used to supplement culture media to counter the oxidative stress. This study was conducted to detect the effect of adding cysteamine to the maturation medium to subsequent cleavage rates of sheep embryos. Totally 604 ovaries were obtained by ten replica and 2060 oocytes were collected. The cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered by the slicing method. A total of 1818 selected oocytes were divided into two groups and used for maturation (88.25%. The first group was created as supplemented with cysteamine (Group A and second group (Group B, control without cysteamine in TCM-199. The two groups were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified air for in vitro maturation (IVM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized with 50 x 107 / mL fresh ram semen in BSOF medium for 18 h. After fertilization, maturation groups were divided into two subgroups with different culture media: Group AI-SOF (Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium, Group AII-CR1aa (Charles Rosencrans medium, Group BI-SOF and Group BII-CR1aa were achieved. Cleavage rates were evaluated at day 2. post insemination. The rates of cleavage were detected as 59.54% (184/309, 55.44% (173/312, 65.34% (215/329, 59.34% (200/337 respectively, with showing no statistically significant difference between the groups at the level of P>0.05. In conclusion, supplementing cysteamine to maturation media in TCM-199 did not affect the cleavage rates of sheep embryos in SOF and CR1aa culture media.

  8. Ureteroneocystostomy in primary vesicoureteral reflux: critical retrospective analysis of factors affecting the postoperative urinary tract infection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Serkan Dogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To determine the parameters affecting the outcome of ureteroneocystostomy (UNC procedure for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Materials and Methods Data of 398 patients who underwent UNC procedure from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Different UNC techniques were used according to laterality of reflux and ureteral orifice configuration. Effects of several parameters on outcome were examined. Disappearance of reflux on control VCUG or absence of any kind of UTI/symptoms in patients without control VCUG was considered as clinical improvement. Results Mean age at operation was 59.2 ± 39.8 months and follow-up was 25.6 ± 23.3 months. Grade of VUR was 1-2, 3 and 4-5 in 17, 79, 302 patients, respectively. Male to female ratio was 163/235. UNC was performed bilaterally in 235 patients and intravesical approach was used in 373 patients. The frequency of voiding dysfunction, scar on preoperative DMSA, breakthrough infection and previous surgery was 28.4%, 70.7%, 49.3% and 22.4%, respectively. Twelve patients (8.9% with postoperative contralateral reflux were excluded from the analysis. Overall clinical improvement rate for UNC was 92%. Gender, age at diagnosis and operation, laterality and grade of reflux, mode of presentation, breakthrough infections (BTI under antibiotic prophylaxis, presence of voiding dysfunction and renal scar, and operation technique did not affect the surgical outcome. However, the clinical improvement rate was lower in patients with a history of previous endoscopic intervention (83.9% vs. 94%. Postoperative UTI rate was 27.2% and factors affecting the occurrence of postoperative UTI were previous failed endoscopic injection on univariate analysis and gender, preoperative BTI, postoperative VUR state, voiding dysfunction on multivariate analysis. Surgery related complication rate was 2% (8/398. These were all low grade complications (blood transfusion in 1, hematoma under incision in 3 and prolonged

  9. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  10. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  11. The effect of learning models and emotional intelligence toward students learning outcomes on reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiani, Ani; Silitonga, Mei Y.

    2017-08-01

    This research focused on the effect of learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes on reaction rate teaching topic. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, with 2x2 factorial research design was used. There were two factors tested, namely: the learning models (factor A), and emotional intelligence (factor B) factors. Then, two learning models were used; problem-based learning/PBL (A1), and project-based learning/PjBL (A2). While, the emotional intelligence was divided into higher and lower types. The number of population was six classes containing 243 grade X students of SMAN 10 Medan, Indonesia. There were 15 students of each class were chosen as the sample of the research by applying purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed by applying two-ways analysis of variance (2X2) at the level of significant α = 0.05. Based on hypothesis testing, there was the interaction between learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes. Then, the finding of the research showed that students' learning outcomes in reaction rate taught by using PBL with higher emotional intelligence is higher than those who were taught by using PjBL. There was no significant effect between students with lower emotional intelligence taught by using both PBL and PjBL in reaction rate topic. Based on the finding, the students with lower emotional intelligence were quite hard to get in touch with other students in group discussion.

  12. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAIVALMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.;

  13. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna-Liisa Taivalmaa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.

  14. Effect of neutron irradiation on hatching rate of eggs and growth rate of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubin; Zhao Jide; Liu Shengdian; Xy Xiuwei

    1995-01-01

    It was proved through 3 years of experiments and productions that after the eggs of AA meat chickens being irradiated by 14 MeV fast neutron, the hatching rate and the survival rate as well the weight of commercial chickens increased greatly. In addition it is found that the optimum neutron fluence for hatching and growth rate is 6.2 x 10 5 n·cm -2

  15. Radiobiological modelling of dose-gradient effects in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armpilia, C; Dale, R G; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of a previously published methodology which quantified the radiobiological consequences of dose-gradient effects in brachytherapy applications. The methodology uses the linear-quadratic (LQ) formulation to identify an equivalent biologically effective dose (BED eq ) which, if applied uniformly to a specified tissue volume, would produce the same net cell survival as that achieved by a given non-uniform brachytherapy application. Multiplying factors (MFs), which enable the equivalent BED for an enclosed volume to be estimated from the BED calculated at the dose reference surface, have been calculated and tabulated for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. The main types of brachytherapy (high dose rate (HDR), low dose rate (LDR) and pulsed (PB)) have been examined for a range of radiobiological parameters/dimensions. Equivalent BEDs are consistently higher than the BEDs calculated at the reference surface by an amount which depends on the treatment prescription (magnitude of the prescribed dose) at the reference point. MFs are closely related to the numerical BED values, irrespective of how the original BED was attained (e.g., via HDR, LDR or PB). Thus, an average MF can be used for a given prescribed BED as it will be largely independent of the assumed radiobiological parameters (radiosensitivity and α/β) and standardized look-up tables may be applicable to all types of brachytherapy treatment. This analysis opens the way to more systematic approaches for correlating physical and biological effects in several types of brachytherapy and for the improved quantitative assessment and ranking of clinical treatments which involve a brachytherapy component

  16. Estimating the effects of Exchange and Interest Rates on Stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly closing returns of All-share index, exchange rates and interest rates ... The interest rate also showed a negative relationship but insignificant at the ... is a prerequisite for attracting investments especially foreign direct investment.

  17. Large electron transfer rate effects from the Duschinsky mixing of vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sando, Gerald M.; Spears, Kenneth G; Hupp, Joseph T

    2001-01-01

    vibrations are very important. The Duschinsky effect arises when two electronic states have vibrational normal mode coordinate systems that are rotated and translated relative to each other. We use a conventional quantum rate model for ET, and the examples include 6-8 vibrations, where two vibrational modes...... are mixed with different amounts of coordinate rotation. The multidimensional Franck-Condon factors (FCF) are computed with standard algorithms and recently developed recursion relations. When displaced, totally symmetric modes are involved, rates with Duschinsky mixing can increase several orders...

  18. Rates and risk factors of unplanned 30-day readmission following general and thoracic pediatric surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Stephanie F; Potter, Donald D; Glasgow, Amy E; Klinkner, Denise B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative unplanned readmissions are costly and decrease patient satisfaction; however, little is known about this complication in pediatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine rates and predictors of unplanned readmission in a multi-institutional cohort of pediatric surgical patients. Unplanned 30-day readmissions following general and thoracic surgical procedures in children readmission per 30 person-days were determined to account for varied postoperative length of stay (pLOS). Patients were randomly divided into 70% derivation and 30% validation cohorts which were used for creation and validation of a risk model for readmission. Readmission occurred in 1948 (3.6%) of 54,870 children for a rate of 4.3% per 30 person-days. Adjusted predictors of readmission included hepatobiliary procedures, increased wound class, operative duration, complications, and pLOS. The predictive model discriminated well in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC 0.710 and 0.701) with good calibration between observed and expected readmission events in both cohorts (p>.05). Unplanned readmission occurs less frequently in pediatric surgery than what is described in adults, calling into question its use as a quality indicator in this population. Factors that predict readmission including type of procedure, complications, and pLOS can be used to identify at-risk children and develop prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Schmid, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Co-ordinating metabolism and growth is a key challenge for all organisms. Despite fluctuating environments, cells must produce the same metabolic outputs to thrive. The mechanisms underlying this 'growth homeostasis' are known in bacteria and eukaryotes, but remain unexplored in archaea. In the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, the transcription factor TrmB regulates enzyme-coding genes in diverse metabolic pathways in response to glucose. However, H. salinarum is thought not to catabolize glucose. To resolve this discrepancy, we demonstrate that TrmB regulates the gluconeogenic production of sugars incorporated into the cell surface S-layer glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that TrmB-DNA binding correlates with instantaneous growth rate, likely because S-layer glycosylation is proportional to growth. This suggests that TrmB transduces a growth rate signal to co-regulated metabolic pathways including amino acid, purine, and cobalamin biosynthesis. Remarkably, the topology and function of this growth homeostatic network appear conserved across domains despite extensive alterations in protein components. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Self-rated health and health-strengthening factors in community-living frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Zahra; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa; Jakobsson, Annika; Wilhelmson, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the explanatory power of variables measuring health-strengthening factors for self-rated health among community-living frail older people. Frailty is commonly constructed as a multi-dimensional geriatric syndrome ascribed to the multi-system deterioration of the reserve capacity in older age. Frailty in older people is associated with decreased physical and psychological well-being. However, knowledge about the experiences of health in frail older people is still limited. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The data were collected between October 2008 and November 2010 through face-to-face structured interviews with older people aged 65-96 years (N = 161). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse whether a set of explanatory relevant variables is associated with self-rated health. The results from the final model showed that satisfaction with one's ability to take care of oneself, having 10 or fewer symptoms and not feeling lonely had the best explanatory power for community-living frail older peoples' experiences of good health. The results indicate that a multi-disciplinary approach is desirable, where the focus should not only be on medical problems but also on providing supportive services to older people to maintain their independence and experiences of health despite frailty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Longitudinal dating violence victimization among Latino teens: Rates, risk factors, and cultural influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Cotignola-Pickens, Heather M

    2016-02-01

    This study uses data from two waves of the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) study and focuses on the 1) rates of dating violence victimization by gender, 2) risk of experiencing dating violence victimization over time, 3) association of dating violence victimization with other forms of victimization, and 4) association of immigrant status, acculturation, and familial support with dating violence victimization over time. A total of 547 Latino adolescents, from across the USA, aged 12-18 at Wave 1 participated in both waves of the study. Rates of dating violence were around 19% across waves. Dating violence at Wave 1 and non-dating violence victimization were associated with an elevated risk of dating violence during Wave 2. Cultural factors did not distinguish between dating violence trajectories, except for immigrant status and familial support being associated with no dating violence victimization. Overall, dating violence affects a large number of Latino teens and tends to continue over time. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ (2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher ( χ (2)=6.386, P dislipidemia ( χ (2)=7.117, P dislipidemia ( P dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  3. [Analysis of cataract surgical rate and its influencing factors in Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-ming; Zhu, Jian-feng; Zou, Hai-dong; He, Xian-gui; Zhao, Rong; Lu, Li-na

    2013-12-17

    To explore the cataract surgical rate (CSR) of Shanghai from 2006 to 2012 and examine its influencing factors. As of 2003, a cataract surgery registration form had been filled by physicians after every cataract surgery in Shanghai. The local eye disease prevention team then entered the relevant information into the Shanghai Cataract Operations Database. Based upon this database, CSR of Shanghai was calculated. And the number of cataract surgeries was compared between Shanghai urban and suburban districts as well as among different medical institutions. The overall CSR in Shanghai increased from 1741 in 2006 to 2313 in 2012. In 2012, CSR in urban districts reached 6013 while it stood at 460 and 584 in inner and outer suburb districts respectively. The number of hospitals performing cataract surgery in urban districts was much more than that in suburbs. And the average number of cataract surgeries per hospital per year in suburbs was only one third of that (748 cases) in urban areas. The number of cataract surgeries at in private hospitals increased rapidly during the past 7 years. The number of 1921 cases was nearly twice as many as that at tertiary hospitals in 2012. Phacoemulsification surgery was the most popular surgical choice for cataract removal, accounting for 98.40% of total cataract surgeries in 2012. Until 2012, CSR in Shanghai dropped below the target of World Health Organization (WHO). A low level of CSR in suburbs is a major influencing factor for the overall level of CSR in Shanghai.

  4. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  5. The Effects Of Asymmetric Transmission Of Exchange Rate On Inflation In Iran: Application Of Threshold Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghdi Yazdan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent fluctuation in the exchange rate and the presence of several factors such as the various economy-political sanctions (mainly embargos on oil and banking, extreme volatility in different economic fields, and consequently the devaluation of national and public procurement -A landmark that is emanating from exchange rate fluctuation - two points should be noted: First, it is essential to review the effect of exchange rate fluctuation on macro economic variables such as inflation and to provide appropriate policies. Second, the existence of this condition provides the chance to study the relation between exchange rate and inflation in a non-linear and asymmetric method. Hence, the present study seeks to use TAR model and, on the basis of monthly time series data over the period March 2002 to March 2014, to analyze the cross-asymmetric and non-linear exchange rate on consumer price index (CPI in Iran. The results also show the presence of an asymmetric long-term relationship between these variables (exchange rate and CPI. Also, in the Iranian economy, the effect of negative shocks of exchange rate on inflation is more sustainable than the one from positive shocks.

  6. Self-citation rates among medical imaging journals and a possible association with impact factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, Timothy P.; Kurmis, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Since conceptualisation in 1955, journal impact factors (IFs) have evolved as surrogate markers of perceived 'quality'. However, no previous research has explored the relationship between IF and journal self-citation rate, which may inflate this measure. Given Radiography's ongoing push to achieve Medline and ISI database inclusion, this paper aimed to quantitatively explore the frequency of self-citation and correlate this with ISI-reported IF. Methods: A review of articles published in two peer-reviewed, Medline and ISI-listed, imaging journals (Radiology and Academic Radiology), and Radiography, within in a 12-month period, was performed. The total number of citations and self-citations per article was recorded, and the results compared. Basic statistical and correlation analyses between listed IF ratings and self-citation indices were also performed. Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this work represents the preliminary investigation exploring the association between ISI-listed IF and self-citation frequency. From the current results it can be suggested that such a relationship does exist, as demonstrated by the strongly positive correlation statistic (Pearson's r 2 = 0.99). Radiology was noted to have a considerably larger mean number of self-citations per article than the other two journals (p < 0.01), despite near-equivalent numbers of references per article. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there may be relationship between an ISI-listed IFs and journal self-citation rates. It is hoped that this paper will be of interest in academic and research circles, both within medical imaging and more widely, and may provide impetus for discussion relating to self-citation frequency and influence on resultant IF calculations.

  7. A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.S.; Wemple, B.C.; Jamison, A.E.; Fredriksen, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Campbell, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated N deposition is continuing on many forested landscapes around the world and our understanding of ecosystem response is incomplete. Soil processes, especially nitrification, are critical. Many studies of soil N transformations have focused on identifying relationships within a single watershed but these results are often not transferable. We studied 10 small forested research watersheds in the northeastern USA to determine if there were common factors related to soil ammonification and nitrification. Vegetation varied between mixed northern hardwoods and mixed conifers. Watershed surface soils (Oa or A horizons) were sampled at grid or transect points and analyzed for a suite of chemical characteristics. At each sampling point, vegetation and topographic metrics (field and GIS-based) were also obtained. Results were examined by watershed averages (n = 10), seasonal/watershed averages (n = 28), and individual sampling points (n = 608). Using both linear and tree regression techniques, the proportion of conifer species was the single best predictor of nitrification rates, with lower rates at higher conifer dominance. Similar to other studies, the soil C/N ratio was also a good predictor and was well correlated with conifer dominance. Unlike other studies, the presence of Acer saccharum was not by itself a strong predictor, but was when combined with the presence of Betula alleghaniensis. Topographic metrics (slope, aspect, relative elevation, and the topographic index) were not related to N transformation rates across the watersheds. Although found to be significant in other studies, neither soil pH, Ca nor Al was related to nitrification. Results showed a strong relationship between dominant vegetation, soil C, and soil C/N. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  9. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  10. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  11. Effect of quench rate on the mechanical properties of U-6 wt % Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.

    1980-03-01

    U-6 wt % Nb conventionally is water quenched from 800 0 C in order to obtain a niobium supersaturated α'' structure having good corrosion resistance and high ductility (125% tensile elongation). The high cooling rate associated with the water quench, however, produces undesirable distortion and residual stress. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the quench rate could be reduced (in order to minimize the distortion and residual stress problems) without sacrificing properties. The results indicate that quench rate can be reduced by as much as a factor of 10 without any loss of ductility, and that a factor of 100 reduction in quench rate (as is produced by air cooling) still produces material with moderate ductility (> 12% tensile elongation). The results also indicate that supersaturated α'' structures are produced at all of these quench rates. This suggests that these reductions in quench rate should not have drastic adverse effects on corrosion resistance. Hence, it should not be possible to substantially reduce the magnitudes of the distortion and residual stress problems while retaining appreciable ductility and corrosion resistance in U-6 wt % Nb

  12. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies

  13. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming, E-mail: sunmingming@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Teng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Jiang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno 40105 (Kenya)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  14. Retrospective ratings of emotions: the effects of age, daily tiredness, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aire eMill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remembering the emotions we have experienced in the past is the core of one´s unique life-experience. However, there are many factors, both at the state and trait level that can affect the way past feelings are seen. The main aim of the current study was to examine the impact of individual differences on systematic biases in retrospective ratings compared to the momentary experience of basic emotions such as sadness, fear, happiness, and anger. To this end, an experience sampling study across two weeks was conducted using a younger and an older age-group; the experience of momentary emotions was assessed on 7 randomly determined occasions per day, the retrospective ratings being collected at the end of each day about that day, as well as at the end of the study about the previous two weeks. The results indicated that age and daily tiredness have significant effects on retrospective emotion ratings over a one-day period (state level, enhancing the retrospective ratings of negative emotions and decreasing the ratings of felt happiness. Whereas personality traits influence the more long-term emotion experience (trait level, with all Big Five personality traits having selective impact on retrospective emotion ratings of fear, sadness, happiness, and anger. Findings provide further evidence about the systematic biases in retrospective emotion ratings, suggesting that, although retrospective ratings are based on momentary experience, daily tiredness and personality traits systematically influence the way in which past feelings are seen.

  15. Retrospective Ratings of Emotions: the Effects of Age, Daily Tiredness, and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Aire; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    Remembering the emotions we have experienced in the past is the core of one's unique life-experience. However, there are many factors, both at the state and trait level that can affect the way past feelings are seen. The main aim of the current study was to examine the impact of individual differences on systematic biases in retrospective ratings compared to the momentary experience of basic emotions such as sadness, fear, happiness, and anger. To this end, an experience sampling study across 2 weeks was conducted using a younger and an older age-group; the experience of momentary emotions was assessed on 7 randomly determined occasions per day, the retrospective ratings being collected at the end of each day about that day, as well as at the end of the study about the previous 2 weeks. The results indicated that age and daily tiredness have significant effects on retrospective emotion ratings over a 1-day period (state level), enhancing the retrospective ratings of negative emotions and decreasing the ratings of felt happiness. Whereas personality traits influence the more long-term emotion experience (trait level), with all Big Five personality traits having selective impact on retrospective emotion ratings of fear, sadness, happiness, and anger. Findings provide further evidence about the systematic biases in retrospective emotion ratings, suggesting that, although retrospective ratings are based on momentary experience, daily tiredness and personality traits systematically influence the way in which past feelings are seen. PMID:26793142

  16. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  17. Effect of maternal education on the rate of childhood handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, S; Milaat, W M; Abalkhail, B A; Soliman, N K

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the relation between maternal education and various maternal risk factors, identify the impact of maternal education on the risk of childhood handicap and estimate the proportion of childhood handicap that can be prevented by maternal education. Data was collected from all married women attending the two major maternity and child hospitals in Jeddah during April 1999. Women with at least one living child were interviewed for sociodemographic factors and having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child and the population attributable risk percent were calculated. Some potential risk factors are dominant in our society as approximately 30% of women did not attend school and 84% did not work. Consanguineous marriages accounted for about 43%. Pre-marriage counseling was limited as only 10% of women counseled before marriage. The proportion of unemployment and consanguineous marriages decreased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Conversely, the proportion of women reporting pre-marriage counseling increased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Approximately, 7% of women reported having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child showed a significant sharp decline with increase in maternal education level. At least 25% of childhood handicap can be prevented by achieving female primary education and up to half of cases can be prevented if mothers finish their intermediate education. Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.

  18. Effect of atrioventricular conduction on heart rate variability

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Talha Jamal

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT) on the short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) by computing HRV parameters using intervals between the onsets of successive P waves (PP time series) for three groups: normal, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) patients. A very precise wavelet transform based ECG delineator was developed to detect PP, PR and RR time series. Mean PR variation in arrhythmia and SCD group was found to be significantly high as compared to the normal group. It was observed that when PR variations in arrhythmia and SCD cases crossed a certain threshold, RR variability no longer provided a very accurate estimate of HRV. In such cases, PP variability was able to provide a better assessment of HRV. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Exchange rate and trade balance: J-curve effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pavle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that exchange rate depreciation in Serbia improves trade balance in the long run, while giving rise to a J-curve effect in the short run. These results add to the already existent empirical evidence for a diverse set of other economies. Both Johansen's and autoregressive distributed lag approach are respectively used giving similar long-run estimates showing that real depreciation improves trade balance. Corresponding errorcorrection models as well as impulse response functions indicate that, following currency depreciation, trade balance first deteriorates before it later improves, i.e. exhibiting the J-curve pattern. These results are relevant for policy making both in Serbia and in a number of other emerging Europe countries as they face major current account adjustments after BoP crises of 2009.

  20. Effects of flow rate and temperature on cyclic gas exchange in tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Air flow rates may confound the investigation and classification of insect gas exchange patterns. Here we report the effects of flow rates (50, 100, 200, 400 ml min(-1)) on gas exchange patterns in wild-caught Glossina morsitans morsitans from Zambia. At rest, G. m. morsitans generally showed continuous or cyclic gas exchange (CGE) but no evidence of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE). Flow rates had little influence on the ability to detect CGE in tsetse, at least in the present experimental setup and under these laboratory conditions. Importantly, faster flow rates resulted in similar gas exchange patterns to those identified at lower flower rates suggesting that G. m. morsitans did not show DGE which had been incorrectly identified as CGE at lower flow rates. While CGE cycle frequency was significantly different among the four flow rates (prate treatment variation. Using a laboratory colony of closely related, similar-sized G. morsitans centralis we subsequently investigated the effects of temperature, gender and feeding status on CGE pattern variation since these factors can influence insect metabolic rates. At 100 ml min(-1) CGE was typical of G. m. centralis at rest, although it was significantly more common in females than in males (57% vs. 43% of 14 individuals tested per gender). In either sex, temperature (20, 24, 28 and 32 degrees C) had little influence on the number of individuals showing CGE. However, increases in metabolic rate with temperature were modulated largely by increases in burst volume and cycle frequency. This is unusual among insects showing CGE or DGE patterns because increases in metabolic rate are usually modulated by increases in frequency, but either no change or a decline in burst volume. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Shariki Village and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 51 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Shariki Village. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the village. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Shariki Village varied from 49 to 55 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the village. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (25 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  2. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Mutsu city and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed outdoor γ-ray dose rates throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found a mean annual dose rate of 28 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Mutsu City. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the city. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Mutsu City varied from 17 to 32 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were almost the same as the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the local ground. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 26 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (24 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  3. The biological effect of 125I seed continuous low dose rate irradiation in CL187 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Hong-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of 125I seed continuous low-dose-rate irradiation on colonic cell line CL187 in vitro. Methods The CL187 cell line was exposed to radiation of 60Coγ ray at high dose rate of 2 Gy/min and 125I seed at low dose rate of 2.77 cGy/h. Radiation responses to different doses and dose rates were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Under 125I seed low dose rate irradiation, a total of 12 culture dishes were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control group, and 2, 5, and 10 Gy irradiation groups. At 48 h after irradiation, apoptosis was detected by Annexin and Propidium iodide (PI staining. Cell cycle arrests were detected by PI staining. In order to investigate the influence of low dose rate irradiation on the MAPK signal transduction, the expression changes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Raf under continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDR and/or EGFR monoclonal antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Results The relative biological effect (RBE for 125I seeds compared with 60Co γ ray was 1.41. Apoptosis rates of CL187 cancer cells were 13.74% ± 1.63%, 32.58% ± 3.61%, and 46.27% ± 3.82% after 2 Gy, 5 Gy, and 10 Gy irradiation, respectively; however, the control group apoptosis rate was 1.67% ± 0.19%. G2/M cell cycle arrests of CL187 cancer cells were 42.59% ± 3.21%, 59.84% ± 4.96%, and 34.61% ± 2.79% after 2 Gy, 5 Gy, and 10 Gy irradiation, respectively; however, the control group apoptosis rate was 26.44% ± 2.53%. P 2/M cell cycle arrest. After low dose rate irradiation, EGFR and Raf expression increased, but when EGFR was blocked by a monoclonal antibody, EGFR and Raf expression did not change. Conclusion 125I seeds resulted in more effective inhibition than 60Co γ ray high dose rate irradiation in CL187 cells. Apoptosis following G2/M cell cycle arrest was the main mechanism of cell-killing effects under low dose rate irradiation. CLDR could

  4. Impact of Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Infant Mortality Rate in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC: Evidence from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: infant mortality rate is one of the main health indicators for assessing the health system’s performance over the world. We aim to examine the socioeconomic and health system factors affect infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013. Methods: was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure and female labor force participation rate on infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013.  These data were obtained from World Bank and World Health Organization data bank. Results: our results showed the total fertility rate had a positive and significant impact on infant mortality in the studied period. Also, there are negative significant associations between GDP per capita and public health expenditure with infant mortality. We did not observe any relationship between infant mortality and female labour force participation rate in the studied countries from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion: total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure were identified as the main factors affecting on infant mortality in OPEC over the ten years (2004-2013. This study enables health policy-makers to better understand the factors affecting on infant mortality and thereby take necessary steps in managing and decreasing the infant mortality rate in the studied countries.

  5. The Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL): a factor analysis of the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Palese, Alvisa

    2013-12-01

    The development of self-directed learning (SDL) is a growing priority among nurses and other health care workers: they need to be prepared in order for their university education to be effective and relevant to their lifelong learning. To learn in a self-directed manner, it is necessary to develop an awareness of one's ability to self-learn and then to implement appropriate and effective strategies; progress must be assessed using validated measurement tools. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Italian version of the Self-Rating Scale of Self-directed Learning (SRSSDL(Ita)), and to provide evidence of its validity. A cross-sectional design was undertaken. Given that the instrument is composed of 60 items, a total of 600 to 900 participants were targeted. In addition, according to the theoretical assumption that self-directed learning - as a crucial component of lifelong learning - is a measurable skill that is developed across the individual's professional life, a maximum variation sample was examined. Therefore, 847 participants were involved, including 453 nurses, 141 radiology technicians, 182 nursing students and 68 radiology technician students. Principal component analysis and factor analysis were performed. The Italian version of the SRSSDL Scale consists of 40 items composed of eight factors: Awareness (α=0.805), Attitudes (α=0.778), Motivation (α=0.789), Learning Strategies (α=0.789), Learning Methods (α=0.781), Learning Activities (α=0.676), Interpersonal Skills (α=0.684), and Constructing Knowledge (α=0.732). The SRSSDLIta consists of 40 items across eight factors. The shorter Italian version might reduce the time needed to complete, thereby making the tool faster and easier to use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Exchange Rate Instability on Imports and Exports of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kafayat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The instability in exchange rate (appreciation and depreciation in home currency is an important factor indetermination of trade balance of a country. Fluctuating exchange rates impacts the decision making of investors and traders, it shatters their confidence which ultimately leads to the slowness of trade process. In this research paper the effect of exchange rate instability is measured on imports and exports of Pakistan. For this purpose Regression analysis is used and it is calculated that if instability is created due to depreciation in home currency (Pak rupee then it has positive impact on Pakistan‘s exports, while it has absolutely no effect on imports of Pakistan. Since Pak rupee has very limited appreciation during last 20 years so appreciation effect of home currency can not be calculated on Imports and exports of Pakistan. In theoretical prospective the devaluation of home currency should decrease the volume of imports, because it will cost more for Pakistan to import goods from other countries. But our empirical findings show that, this is not the case between exchange rate and imports of Pakistan. The imports of Pakistan grew even in large figure as the home currency depreciated against other currencies. So this shows that depreciation of home currency do not effect the imports in of Pakistan. Our findings through regression analysis show that by decrease in value of home currency imports of Pakistan increase. So depreciation in home currency has no effect on imports volume.

  7. EFFECTS OF INTEREST RATE DEREGULATION ON AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AND GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis O. ONYISHI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of interest rate deregulation on agricultural finance and growth in Nigeria. The study specifically ascertained the factors that determine the aggregate credit volume to agriculture within the periods of regulation and deregulation in the Nigerian economy, determined the effects of government finance interventions on agricultural sector performance in the Nigerian economy, determined the periodic effects of macroeconomic financial indicators on Agriculture’s gross domestic product (GDP contribution to Nigerian economy and estimated the level of real credit growth of agricultural finance in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression technique and chow test were used for data analysis. The chow test showed that there was a significant differential effect on the aggregate credit volume to agricultural sector between the regulated and deregulated regimes. Interest rate was an important determinant of aggregate credit volume to the agricultural sector in Nigeria, especially during the deregulated period but monetary authorities should ensure appropriate determination of interest rate level that will break the double-edge effect of interest rates on savers and investors.

  8. Motivating factors for high rates of influenza vaccination among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Gaur, Aditya H; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2011-08-11

    Recent guidance from related regulatory agencies and medical societies supports mandatory vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) against influenza. At St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, a pediatric oncology referral center, more than 90% of HCWs receive vaccine each year without a policy mandating immunization. Factors associated with HCW uptake of influenza vaccines have not previously been evaluated in a high compliance rate setting. A structured, anonymous, electronic questionnaire was distributed in August 2010 to employees (HCW and non-HCW). Demographics, prior receipt of influenza vaccines, reasons for acceptance or refusal of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine, and attitudes on mandatory vaccination were assessed. 95.0% of 925 HCWs and 63.1% of all 3227 qualifying employees responded to the survey. 93.8% and 75.2% of HCW reported receiving seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, respectively, in the 2009-2010 season. Benefits to self and/or patients were cited as the most frequent reasons for accepting seasonal (83.5% and 78.3%, respectively) and 2009 H1N1 (85.9% and 81.1%, respectively) vaccination. 36.6% of HCWs opposed mandating influenza vaccination; 88.2% and 59.9% of whom reported receiving the seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, respectively. Violation of freedom of choice and personal autonomy were the most frequently reported reasons for opposition. In this cohort of HCWs with a high influenza vaccination rate, realistic assessments of the potential benefits of vaccination appear to have driven the choice to accept immunization. Despite this, mandating vaccination was viewed unfavorably by a significant minority of vaccinated individuals. Employee concerns over autonomy should be addressed as institutions transition to mandatory vaccination policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting synchronization and conception rate after the Ovsynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2010-06-01

    Objectives were to evaluate risk factors affecting ovulatory responses and conception rate to the Ovsynch protocol. Holstein cows, 466, were submitted to the Ovsynch protocol [day 0, GnRH-1; day 7, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha); day 9, GnRH-2] and 103 cows were inseminated 12 h after GnRH-2. Information on parity, days in milk at GnRH-1, body condition, milk yield, exposure to heat stress, pre-synchronization with PGF(2alpha) and the use of progesterone insert from GnRH-1 to PGF(2alpha) was collected. Ovaries were scanned to determine responses to treatments. Overall, 54.7%, 10.6%, 2.2%, 81.1%, 9.0%, 91.5% and 36.9% of the cows ovulated to GnRH-1, multiple ovulated to GnRH-1, ovulated before GnRH-2, ovulated to GnRH-2, multiple ovulated to GnRH-2, experienced corpus luteum (CL) regression and conceived, respectively. Ovulation to GnRH-1 was greater in cows without a CL at GnRH-1, cows with follicles >19 mm and cows not pre-synchronized with PGF(2alpha) 14 days before GnRH-1. Multiple ovulations to GnRH-1 increased in cows without CL at GnRH-1 and cows with follicles Conception rate at 42 days after AI increased in cows with body condition score > 2.75 and cows that ovulated to GnRH-2. Strategies that optimize ovulation to GnRH-2, such as increased ovulation to GnRH-1, should improve response to the Ovsynch protocol.

  10. The Factors that Effect to Take Part in Betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Çelik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its’ nature, betting in sports includes factors such as huge revenue, hot money flow, entertainment, thrill, dreams and happening of these dreams. Herewith, these factors pointed out in society effects people’s betting motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that effects participators/players to take part in betting. While the universe of the study composed players in Ankara, the sampling group consisted of a legal bookmaker of Spor Toto Teşkilat Bakanlığı and Türkiye Jokey Kulübü that is easily accessible and has a huge rate of revenue. In total, 80 participators (15 students, 20 workers, 20 civil servants, 15 handicraftsmen and 10 self employments participated to study and filled in the questionnaire that expert opinion was taken, validity and reliability were done, According to the results acquired, it was determined that participators take part in betting to enhance the quality of life, bring enjoy and attraction of their life, getting rid of stress and most importantly making money because of some reasons such as economic crisis and financial difficulty in their society, their low income level and their debts.

  11. Adolescent personality factors in self-ratings and peer nominations and their prediction of peer acceptance and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, R H; van Aken, M A; van Lieshout, C F

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the robustness of the Big Five personality factors in adolescents' self-ratings and peer nominations was investigated. Data were obtained on 2,001 adolescents attending secondary school (885 girls; 1,116 boys; M age = 14.5 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the self-ratings confirmed the Big Five personality factors. In contrast, exploratory analysis on the peer nominations revealed five different factors: Aggression-Inattentiveness, Achievement-Withdrawal, Self-Confidence, Sociability, and Emotionality-Nervousness. It is suggested that peers evaluate group members not in terms of their personality but in terms of their group reputation. Peer evaluations contributed substantially to the prediction of peer acceptance and rejection; the Big Five personality factors based on self-ratings did not.

  12. Israel's Security Barrier: Effects On Operational Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The route of the barrier is tinder intense discussion at this time and if implemented as planned by the Sharon government will negatively affect the factors of space and force. The barrier must be constructed along the correct route in order to maximize operational factors.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of indomethacin and piroxicam administration before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Gül, Özer; Şık, Aytek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups. Two groups were administered oral piroxicam (10 mg capsules) or 100 mg indomethacin (rectal suppository), respectively, 1-2 h before ET. As a control, the third group did not receive any form of treatment before ET. Basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and level 17β-estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, the collected and transferred number of embryos, and the number of grade A embryos obtained were determined in all patients. The implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates of the groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rate per ET and the implantation rate were 35.2% and 12.15% in the piroxicam group, 31.7% and 10.9% in the indomethacin group, and 32.9% and 12.5% in the control, respectively. The miscarriage rates of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 12%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively (P = 0.964). The differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.887). There were also no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.842). These results suggest that NSAID administration before ET has no additional effect on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ali, Muhammad; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Ahmed, Aftab

    2012-03-29

    Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  15. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications. PMID:22458444

  16. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Syed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8 months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%; of which a majority (70.2% returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  17. Determination of correction and conversion factor of exposure rate generated Gamma spectrometer GR-320 to Victoreen data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo-AS; Mappa, Djody-Rachim; Nasrun-Syamsul; Syamsul-Hadi

    2000-01-01

    Exposure rate data of Muria Peninsula were generated from Victoreen-491 measurement and calculation of radioelement content in soil which were measured by Exploranium GR-320, using IAEA formula. However those data are not be comparable so the exposure rate calculated from Gamma Spectrometer data necessarily to be corrected. The correction factor was determinate by measuring the exposure rate of at the NMDC's back yard selected location using Victoreen-491 and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 . Correction factor was created by comparing mean exposure rate data that calculated from 30 data measured by Gamma Spectrometer instrument and to those Victoreen's exposure rate. Conversion factor was gained from comparing of total count data of Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 to Victoreen's exposure rate data. The correction factor of Exploranium GR-320's exposure rate is 0.34 μR/hours, and the conversion factor of total count is 0.0092 μR/hours per c/m. Deviation Victoreen 491 = 4.7 % and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 8.6 %

  18. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding

  19. Dimensions of insight in schizophrenia: Exploratory factor analysis of items from multiple self- and interviewer-rated measures of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsztowicz, Susanna; Schmitz, Norbert; Lepage, Martin

    2018-03-10

    Insight in schizophrenia is regarded as a multidimensional construct that comprises aspects such as awareness of the disorder and recognition of the need for treatment. The proposed number of underlying dimensions of insight is variable in the literature. In an effort to identify a range of existing dimensions of insight, we conducted a factor analysis on combined items from multiple measures of insight. We recruited 165 participants with enduring schizophrenia (treated for >3years). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on itemized scores from two interviewer-rated measures of insight: the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded and the abbreviated Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder; and two self-report measures: the Birchwood Insight Scale and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. A five-factor solution was selected as the best-fitting model, with the following dimensions of insight: 1) awareness of illness and the need for treatment; 2) awareness and attribution of symptoms and consequences; 3) self-certainty; 4) self-reflectiveness for objectivity and fallibility; and 5) self-reflectiveness for errors in reasoning and openness to feedback. Insight in schizophrenia is a multidimensional construct comprised of distinct clinical and cognitive domains of awareness. Multiple measures of insight, both clinician- and self-rated, are needed to capture all of the existing dimensions of insight. Future exploration of associations between the various dimensions and their potential determinants will facilitate the development of clinically useful models of insight and effective interventions to improve outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of Korean energy planning for sustainability considering uncertainties in learning rates and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyok; Koo, Jamin; Lee, Chang Jun; Yoon, En Sup

    2012-01-01

    During the last few decades, energy planning has focused on meeting domestic demand at lower total costs. However, global warming and the shared recognition of it have transformed the problem of energy planning into a more complex task with a greater number of issues to be considered. Since the key issue is to reduce greenhouse effects, governments around the world have begun to make investments in renewable energy systems (e.g., hydro, wind, solar, and/or biomass power). The relatively high costs of renewable energy systems and the uncertain outlook of their rate of diffusion in the market make it difficult to heavily rely on them. The uncertain variations in production cost over time are especially challenging. To handle uncertainties, the concept of the learning rate was adopted in this study so as to compute the costs of energy systems in the future and Monte Carlo simulation was performed. The aim of this study was to optimize plans of conventional and prospective renewable energy systems with respect to production cost. The production cost included capital, fixed, variable, and external costs. For the case study, the energy situation in South Korea was used. The results of the case study where the proposed methodology was applied could provide useful insights economically and strategies of sustainable energy management for ambiguous environments. -- Highlights: ► We propose energy planning method for sustainability. ► We consider uncertainties such as learning rate, fuel prices, and CO 2 prices. ► We consider the possibility of CO 2 trading. ► The proposed method is applied to South Korea case. ► The added capacities of energy systems depend on uncertainties.

  1. Low twinning rate and seasonal effects on twinning in a fertile population, the Hutterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K.

    1993-09-01

    This paper analyzes from the mid 18th century to 1987 the birth records of the “Dariusleut,” one of the three subgroups of the Hutterite population. The aim of this study is to describe several aspects of the twinning rate in a fertile population. The overall rate of twinning was 0.90%:103 twins among all 11492 maternities. The rate peaked at the 7th birth order and at the maternal age of 40 years and over. Until the mid 19th century when the Hutterites lived in Russia, the twinning rate was higher (1.5%), and it decreased during the migration period in the second half of the 19th century (0.7%). After the group had settled in the USA and Canada, the population maintained a twinning rate of 1.0% until 1965. After 1965 the rate decreased to 0.7%, partly due to a decline in fertility among women aged 30 years and over. There was a significant seasonal variation: the twinning rate decreased to 0.5% in May July compared to 1.2% for the other three seasons during the years up to 1965 ( P<0.01), while more recent mothers did not show such a seasonal variation. The incidence of twin births in this population seems to have been influenced by environmental factors, which would change their effect seasonally and secularly.

  2. Effect of Heating Rate on Pyrolysis Behavior and Kinetic Characteristics of Siderite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis characteristics of siderite at different heating rates under the neutral atmosphere were investigated using various tools, including comprehensive thermal analyzer, tube furnace, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS and vibrating specimen magnetometer (VSM measurements. The reaction of siderite pyrolysis followed the one-step reaction under the neutral atmosphere: FeCO3 → Fe3O4 + CO2 + CO. As the increasing of heating rate, the start and end pyrolysis temperatures and temperate where maximum weight loss rate occurred increased, while the total mass loss were essentially the same. Increasing heating rate within a certain range was in favor of shortening the time of each reaction stage, and the maximum conversion rate could be reached with a short time. The most probable mechanism function for non-isothermal pyrolysis of siderite at different heating rates was A1/2 reaction model (nucleation and growth reaction. With increasing heating rate, the corresponding activation energies and the pre-exponential factors increased, from 446.13 to 505.19 kJ∙mol−1, and from 6.67 × 10−18 to 2.40 × 10−21, respectively. All siderite was transformed into magnetite with a porous structure after pyrolysis, and some micro-cracks were formed into the particles. The magnetization intensity and specific susceptibility increased significantly, which created favorable conditions for the further effective concentration of iron ore.

  3. An Effective Approach to Improving Day-Case Rates following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Clarke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is a safe and cost-effective treatment for gallstones. In 2006, our institution recorded an 86% laparoscopic, 10% day-case, and 5% readmission rate. A gallbladder pathway was therefore introduced in 2007 with the aim of increasing daycase rates. Methods. Patients with symptomatic gallstones, proven on ultrasound, were referred to a specialist-led clinic. Those suitable for surgery were consented, preassessed, and provided with a choice of dates. All defaulted to day case unless deemed unsuitable due to comorbidity or social factors. Results. The number of cholecystectomies increased from 464 in 2006 to 578 in 2008. Day-case rates in 2006, 2007, 2008, and June 2009 were 10%, 20%, 30%, and 61%, respectively. Laparoscopic and readmission rates remained unchanged. Conversion rates for elective cholecystectomy fell from 6% in 2006 to 3% in 2009. Conclusions. Development of a gallbladder pathway increased day-case rates sixfold without an associated increase in conversion or readmission rates.

  4. The Pennsylvania certified safety committee program: an evaluation of participation and effects on work injury rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hangsheng; Burns, Rachel M; Schaefer, Agnes G; Ruder, Teague; Nelson, Christopher; Haviland, Amelia M; Gray, Wayne B; Mendeloff, John

    2010-08-01

    Since 1994, Pennsylvania, like several other states, has provided a 5% discount on workers' compensation insurance premiums for firms with a certified joint labor management safety committee. This study explored the factors affecting program participation and evaluated the effect of this program on work injuries. Using Pennsylvania unemployment insurance data (1996-2006), workers' compensation data (1998-2005), and the safety committee audit data (1999-2007), we conducted propensity score matching and regression analysis on the program's impact on injury rates. Larger firms, firms with higher injury rates, firms in high risk industries, and firms without labor unions were more likely to join the safety committee program and less likely to drop out of the program. The injury rates of participants did not decline more than the rates for non-participants; however, rates at participant firms with good compliance dropped more than the rates at participant firms with poor compliance. Firm size and prior injury rates are key predictors of program participation. Firms that complied with the requirement to train their safety committee members did experience reductions in injuries, but non-compliance with that and other requirements was so widespread that no overall impact of the program could be detected. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. 12 CFR 617.7125 - How should a qualified lender determine the effective interest rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effective interest rate? 617.7125 Section 617.7125 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7125 How should a qualified lender determine the effective interest rate? (a) A qualified lender must calculate the effective interest rate on...

  6. LDR brachytherapy: can low dose rate hypersensitivity from the "inverse" dose rate effect cause excessive cell killing to peripherial connective tissues and organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B E; Lucas, A C

    2009-02-01

    Examined here are the possible effects of the "inverse" dose rate effect (IDRE) on low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. The hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radioresistance (HRS/IRR) effect benefits cell killing in radiotherapy, and IDRE and HRS/IRR seem to be generated from the same radioprotective mechanisms. We have computed the IDRE excess cell killing experienced in LDR brachytherapy using permanent seed implants. We conclude, firstly, that IDRE is a dose rate-dependent manifestation of HRS/IRR. Secondly, the presence of HRS/IRR or IDRE in a cell species or tissue must be determined by direct dose-response measurements. Thirdly, a reasonable estimate is that 50-80% of human adjoining connective and organ tissues experience IDRE from permanent implanted LDR brachytherapy. If IDRE occurs for tissues at point A for cervical cancer, the excess cell killing will be about a factor of 3.5-4.0 if the initial dose rate is 50-70 cGy h(-1). It is greater for adjacent tissues at lower dose rates and higher for lower initial dose rates at point A. Finally, higher post-treatment complications are observed in LDR brachytherapy, often for unknown reasons. Some of these are probably a result of IDRE excess cell killing. Measurements of IDRE need be performed for connective and adjacent organ tissues, i.e. bladder, rectum, urinary tract and small bowels. The measured dose rate-dependent dose responses should extended to tissues and organs remain above IDRE thresholds).

  7. Factors Associated with Asthma ED Visit Rates among Medicaid-enrolled Children: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luceta McRoy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is one of the leading causes of emergency department visits and school absenteeism among school-aged children in the United States, but there is significant local-area variation in emergency department visit rates, as well as significant differences across racial-ethnic groups. Analysis: We first calculated emergency department (ED visit rates among Medicaid-enrolled children age 5–12 with asthma using a multi-state dataset. We then performed exploratory factor analysis using over 226 variables to assess whether they clustered around three county-level conceptual factors (socioeconomic status, healthcare capacity, and air quality thought to be associated with variation in asthma ED visit rates. Measured variables (including ED visit rate as the outcome of interest were then standardized and tested in a simple conceptual model through confirmatory factor analysis. Results: County-level (contextual variables did cluster around factors declared a priori in the conceptual model. Structural equation models connecting the ED visit rates to socioeconomic status, air quality, and healthcare system professional capacity factors (consistent with our conceptual framework converged on a solution and achieved a reasonable goodness of fit on confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analysis offers an approach for quantitatively testing conceptual models of local-area variation and racial disparities in asthma-related emergency department use.

  8. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  9. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  10. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  11. Dutch courage? Effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-ratings and observer ratings of foreign language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt; Werthmann, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    A popular belief is that alcohol improves the ability to speak in a foreign language. The effect of acute alcohol consumption on perceived foreign language performance and actual foreign language performance in foreign language learners has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to test the effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-rated and observer-rated verbal foreign language performance in participants who have recently learned this language. Fifty native German speakers who had recently learned Dutch were randomized to receive either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol. Following the experimental manipulation, participants took part in a standardized discussion in Dutch with a blinded experimenter. The discussion was audio-recorded and foreign language skills were subsequently rated by two native Dutch speakers who were blind to the experimental condition (observer-rating). Participants also rated their own individual Dutch language skills during the discussion (self-rating). Participants who consumed alcohol had significantly better observer-ratings for their Dutch language, specifically better pronunciation, compared with those who did not consume alcohol. However, alcohol had no effect on self-ratings of Dutch language skills. Acute alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the pronunciation of a foreign language in people who have recently learned that language.

  12. Business travel and self-rated health, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catherine A; Rundle, Andrew G

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between extent of travel for business and health. Associations between business travel and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed using medical record data from 13,057 patients provided by EHE International, Inc. Compared with light travelers (1 to 6 nights per month), nontravelers were more likely to report poor/fair health (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 1.87) and the odds ratios increased with increasing travel, reaching 2.61 (95% CI: 1.57 to 4.33) among extensive travelers (>20 nights per month). Compared with light travelers, the odds ratios for obesity were highest among nontravelers (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.50) and extensive travelers (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.94). Although the differences were small, nontravelers and extensive travelers had the highest diastolic blood pressure and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Poor self-rated health and obesity are associated with extensive business travel.

  13. Rate of Corneal Collagen Crosslinking Redo in Private Practice: Risk Factors and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Antoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the rate of progression of keratectasia after primary crosslinking (CXL and evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL redo. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the patients who underwent CXL between 2010 and 2013 at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Lebanon. Progression of keratectasia was based on the presence of an increase in maximum keratometry of 1.00 D, a change in the map difference between two consecutive topographies of 1.00 D, a deterioration of visual acuity, or any change in the refraction. Primary and redo CXL were done using the same protocol. Results. Among the 221 eyes of 130 patients who underwent CXL, 7 eyes (3.17% of five patients met the criteria of progression. All patients reported a history of allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing and progressed within 9 to 48 months. No complications were noted and all patients were stable 1 year after CXL redo. Conclusion. Allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing were the only risk factors associated with keratoconus progression after CXL. A close followup is thus mandatory, even years after the procedure. CXL redo seems to be a safe and efficient technique to halt the progression after a primary CXL.

  14. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  15. A Study of the Significant Factors That Affect the Job Placement Rates of Students Who Have Completed a HERO Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Development and Evaluation Associates, Inc., Berkeley, MI.

    A three-year study examined the significant factors that affect the job placement rates of students completing a Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO) program. Other purposes of the study were to develop and pilot test a model that could be used to determine factors related to student placement in a variety of vocational education programs and…

  16. Comparison of electricity prices in major North American cities : rates effective May 1, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the major findings of a comparative evaluation of electricity prices in major North American cities, by customer category, based on rates in effect on May 1, 2001. Besides Hydro-Quebec, the comparison includes 21 utilities, of which 11 serve the major cities across Canada and 10 utilities located in 10 American states. Hydro-Quebec is one of the largest electric utilities in North America with one of the most extensive systems. Of the 190 billion kilowatt-hours delivered annually, 37 billion are exported to neighbouring provinces in Canada and to the United States. 93 per cent of the generating facilities are hydroelectric. The report covers consumption levels, taxes, optional programs, location, time-of-use rates, exchange rates, and other factors that affect electricity prices such as fuel adjustment clauses for utilities that produce electricity in thermal power plants. It was noted that Hydro-Quebec has frozen its rates until April 2002, keeping them at the same level as those set on May 1, 1998. The report showed that Hydro-Quebec has maintained a competitive position at a level similar to or better than previous years. Three of the 11 Canadian utilities implemented rate increases between May 1, 2000 and May 1, 2001, and 2 utilities reduced their rates. Two utilities modified their rate structure following deregulation. During the same time period, 3 of the 10 utilities in the United States increased their rates, and one reduced them. The rates in the United States varied regardless of increases or freezes because many utilities had incorporated adjustment clauses. Quebec residential consumers enjoy the second lowest rates in North America. Only Winnipeg ranked higher. Hydro-Quebec has also remained competitive when it comes to small, medium and large power customers. It ranked fifth for small power customers, third for medium power customers, and third for large power customers. tabs., figs., appendices

  17. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  18. Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershenkov, V.S.; Cherepko, S.V.; Maslov, V.B.; Belyakov, V.V.; Sogoyan, A.V.; Ulimov, N.; Emelianov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

  19. A structural dynamic factor model for the effects of monetary policy estimated by the EM algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse

    This paper applies the maximum likelihood based EM algorithm to a large-dimensional factor analysis of US monetary policy. Specifically, economy-wide effects of shocks to the US federal funds rate are estimated in a structural dynamic factor model in which 100+ US macroeconomic and financial time...... series are driven by the joint dynamics of the federal funds rate and a few correlated dynamic factors. This paper contains a number of methodological contributions to the existing literature on data-rich monetary policy analysis. Firstly, the identification scheme allows for correlated factor dynamics...... as opposed to the orthogonal factors resulting from the popular principal component approach to structural factor models. Correlated factors are economically more sensible and important for a richer monetary policy transmission mechanism. Secondly, I consider both static factor loadings as well as dynamic...

  20. Effect of propranolol on heart rate variability in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Nganou, Chris-Nadège; Ngassam, Eliane; Kuate-Mfeukeu, Liliane; Mba, Camille; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2018-02-22

    We aimed to determine the effect of propanolol on heart rate variability (HRV) in hyperthyroidism before antithyroid treatment. This was a before and after study, on ten patients presenting overt hyperthyroidism naïve to treatment. In each patient, a resting electrocardiogram was done followed by estimation of cardiac autonomic dysfunction during five maneuvers (Ewing battery tests). Long term HRV measurement was done using 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic recording. This automatically provided estimation of HRV using SDNN and RMSSD index, LF, HF, and HF/LF ratio. After baseline investigations, 40 mg of propanolol was given twice a day for 3 days and same parameters were measured after 72 h of treatment. Our patients were aged 40 ± 10 years. Propanolol significantly reduced RR and HR interval (669 ms vs 763 ms and 91 vs 79 bpm; p hyperthyroidism. Trial registration NCT03393728 "Retrospectively registered".

  1. Effects of Rating Purpose and Rater Self-Esteem on Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    examined in a laboratory study, using a 2x2 analysis of variance design. Results indicate that low self - esteem raters assign significantly higher...design. Results indicate that low self - esteem raters assign significantly higher performance ratings when performance appraisal information will be used...studies indicated that individuals low in self - esteem have less self -confidence, feel less competent, and rely more on others’ opinions than do individuals

  2. Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Urszula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health status (SRHS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years. SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy. The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.

  3. Predicting the Gap: Perceptual Congruence between American Principals and Their Teachers' Ratings of Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter T; Goldring, Ellen; Bickman, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which principals' self-ratings of leadership effectiveness coincide with their teachers' perceptions of their leadership effectiveness. Furthermore, we explore several characteristics of teachers and principals in an attempt to identify the factors that may predict congruence in…

  4. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  5. Evaluation of indoor radon equilibrium factor using CFD modeling and resulting annual effective dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2018-04-01

    The equilibrium factor is an important parameter for reasonably estimating the population dose from radon. However, the equilibrium factor value depended mainly on the ventilation rate and the meteorological factors. Therefore, this study focuses on investigating numerically the influence of the ventilation rate, temperature and humidity on equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. The numerical results showed that ventilation rate, temperature and humidity have significant impacts on indoor equilibrium factor. The variations of equilibrium factor with the ventilation, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. Moreover, the committed equivalent doses due to 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of indoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short lived progeny from the inhalation of indoor air by the members of the public was investigated.

  6. Effect of excited states on thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargood, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Values of the ratio of the thermonuclear reaction rate of a reaction, with target nuclei in a thermal distribution of energy states, to the reaction rate with all target nuclei in their ground states are tabulated for neutron, proton and α-particle induced reactions on the naturally occurring nuclei from 20 Ne to 70 Zn, at temperatures of 1, 2, 3.5 and 5x10 9 K. The ratios are determined from reaction rates based on statistical model cross sections

  7. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on induction of myeloid leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the induction of myeloid leukemia and other kinds of neoplasias in C3H male mice irradiated at several dose rate levels. We compared the incidence of neoplasias among these groups, obtained dose and dose rate effectiveness factors (DDREF) for myeloid leukemia. C3H/He male mice were exposed to whole body gamma-ray irradiation at 8 weeks of age. All mice were maintained for their entire life span and teh pathologically examined after their death. Radiation at a high dose-rate of 882 mGy/min (group H), a medium dose-rate of 95.6 mGy/min (group M), and low dose-rates of 0.298 mGy/min (group L-A), 0.067 mGy/min (group L-B) or 0.016 mGy/min (group L-C) were delivered from 137 Cs sources. The mice in group L were irradiated continuously for 22 hours daily up to total doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 Gy over a period of 3 days to 200 days. As for the induction of neoplasias, myeloid leukemia developed significantly more frequently in irradiated groups than in unirradiated groups. The time distribution of mice dying from myeloid leukemia did not show a difference between groups H and L. The incidence of myeloid leukemia showed a greater increase in the high dose-rate groups than in the low and medium dose-rate groups in the dose range over 2 Gy, it also showed significant increases in the groups irradiated with 1 Gy of various dose rate, but the difference between these groups was not clear. These dose effect curves had their highest values on each curve at about 3 Gy. We obtained DDREF values of 2-3 by linear fittings for their dose response curves of dose ranges in which leukemia incidences were increasing. (author)

  8. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  10. Effects of computed tomography contrast medium factors on contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi; Okuda, Itsuko

    2011-01-01

    The various nonionic iodinated contrast media used in contrast computed tomography (CT) studies differ in terms of their composition, characteristics, and iodine concentration (mgI/ml), as well as the volume injected (ml). Compared with ionic iodinated contrast media, nonionic iodinated contrast media are low-osmolar agents, with different agents having different osmotic pressures. Using a custom-made phantom incorporating a semipermeable membrane, the osmotic flow rate (hounsfield unit (HU)/s) could easily be measured based on the observed increase in CT numbers, and the relationship between the osmotic pressure and the osmotic flow rate could be obtained (r 2 =0.84). In addition, taking the effects of patient size into consideration, the levels of contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta (AA) and inferior vena cava (IVC) were compared among four types of CT contrast medium. The results showed differences in contrast enhancement in the IVC during the equilibrium phase depending on the type of contrast medium used. It was found that the factors responsible for the differences observed in enhancement in the IVC were the osmotic flow rate and the volume of the blood flow pathways in the circulatory system. It is therefore considered that the reproducibility of contrast enhancement is likely to be reduced in the examination of parenchymal organs, in which scanning must be performed during the equilibrium phase, even if the amount of iodine injected per unit body weight (mgI/kg) is maintained at a specified level. (author)

  11. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  12. A generalized one-factor term structure model and pricing of interest rate derivative securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, George J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a nonparametric interest rate term structure model and investigate its implications on term structure dynamics and prices of interest rate derivative securities. The nonparametric spot interest rate process is estimated from the observed short-term interest

  13. The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.

  14. [Cataract surgery rate and its impacting factors in Jiangsu Province in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Zhu, Rong-rong; Yang, Mei

    2013-12-17

    To survey the cataract surgery rate (CSR) according to the report data and its influencing factors of Jiangsu Province in 2012 so as to further improve CSR in China. Through government websites in 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capital of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province and 7 counties of Nantong City reported to the Ministry of Health in China were collected to calculate CSR. The relationship between GDP and CSR of Jiangsu Province and Nantong City were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation, and the differences in the proportion of cataract surgery between government and private hospitals were analyzed by Chi-square test. CSR in Jiangsu Province in 2012 was 939 cases per million population per year. Nantong City had the highest CSR (1362 cases per million population per year) and Suqian City the lowest (129 cases per million population per year). The GDP of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province had a positive correlation with CSR (spearman r = 0.59, P = 0.03), but there was no significant correlation with GDP per capital (spearman r = 0.50, P = 0.08). No significant correlation existed between GDP, GDP per capital and CSR of 7 counties of Nantong City (spearman r = -0.04, P = 0.94; spearman r = -0.29, P = 0.53). The proportion of private hospitals of Nantong was 33.3% and surgery cases were 4557 (45.9%). The CSR of Rugao County in 2012 was 3317 cases per million population per year. Socioeconomic level may be related with CSR. Providing village cataract screening services and lowering surgical costs help to boost CSR in China.

  15. Model predictions and analysis of enhanced biological effectiveness at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, D.E.; Sykes, C.E.; Younis, A.-R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A severe challenge to all models purporting to describe the biological effects of ionizing radiation has arisen with the discovery of two phenomena: the anomalous trend with dose rate of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells and the apparent excessive damaging power of electron-capture radionuclides when incorporated into cell nuclei. A new model is proposed which predicts and enables interpretation of these phenomena. Radiation effectiveness is found to be expressible absolutely in terms of the geometrical cross-sectional area of the radiosensitive sites. The duration of the irradiation, the mean free path for ionization, the influence of particles in the slowing-down spectrum perrtaining in the medium and two collective time factors determining the mean repair rate and the mean lifetime of unidentified reactive chemical species [pt

  16. Effect of Modifying Factors on Radiosensitive Biochemical Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romantsev, E. F.; Filippovich, I. V.; Zhulanova, Z. I.; Blokhina, V. D.; Trebenok, Z. A.; Kolesnikov, E. E.; Sheremetyevskaya, T. N.; Nikolsky, A. V.; Zymaleva, O. G. [Institute of Biophysics, USSR Ministry of Health, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1971-03-15

    Some of the radioprotective aminothiols are now routine pharmacopoeial drugs and are used in clinics to decrease the radiation reaction which appears as a side effect during the radiotherapy of cancer. The action of effective modifying agents on radiosensitive biochemical reactions in the organisms of mammals, in principle, cannot be different from the same effects of the protectors on biochemical systems of the human organism. The effect of modifying agents is mediated by biochemical systems. The administration of radioprotective doses of MEA to rats before irradiation results in a significant normalization of the excretion in urine of degradation products of nucleic acids (so-called Dische-positive compounds), the excretion of which sharply rises after irradiation. The curve of the radioprotective effect of MEA (survival rate after administration of radioprotectors at different intervals of time) completely corresponds to curves of the accumulation of MEA which is bound (by mixed disulphide links) to the proteins of liver mitochondria, to proteins of the nuclear-sap, to the hyaloplasm of rat thymus and to the nuclear ribosomes of the spleen. After MEA administration the curve of the biosynthesis of deoxycytidine represents a mirror reflection of the curve of MEA bound to proteins of the thymus hyaloplasm by means of mixed disulphide links. The mechanism of action of such modifying factors as MEA in experiments on mammals is mediated to a great degree through the temporary formation of mixed disulphide links between the aminothiol and the protein component of enzymes in different biochemical systems. (author)

  17. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD. Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of Raisin export was examined using Johansen's and Juselius's cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM.The results showed that in the long-term and short-term there is a significant relationship between Raisin exports and its main variables (weighted average of Gross income of importers, Wholesale Prices, real exchange rate, Value-added of agricultural sector; as according to the theory it has negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. The error correction coefficient sentence ECM (-1 significantly and its sign was negative as expected. The value of this coefficient is equal to the -0/20 and indicates that about 20 percent of Raisin exports imbalance from its long-term value, after of a period will be Elapse.

  18. Effect of different saccharides on growth, sporulation rate and d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MFCS

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... general, high sporulation rate was related with high growth rate and high viable cell count (>1.5 x 1012 cfu/ml). .... The sterile culture medium (180 ml) in a 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flask was ... The column temperature was set at 85°C. A series of ..... inactivation of certain sugar-metabolizing operons, such as lac ...

  19. Ageing effects of polymers at very low dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenion, J.; Armand, X.; Berthet, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Meur, M.

    1987-10-01

    The equipment irradiation dose-rate into the containment is variable from 10 -6 to 10 -4 gray per second for the most exposed materials. During qualification, safety equipments are submitted in France to dose-rates around 0.28 gray per second. This study purpose is to now if a so large irradiation dose-rate increase is reasonable. Three elastomeric materials used in electrical cables, o'rings seals and connectors, are exposed to a very large dose-rates scale between 2.1.10 -4 and 1.4 gray per second, to 49 KGy dose. This work was carried out during 3.5 years. Oxygen consumption measurement of the air in contact with polymer materials, as mechanical properties measurement show that: - at very low dose-rate, oxygen consumption is maximum at the same time (1.4 year) for the three elastomeric samples. Also, mechanical properties simultaneously change with oxygen consumption. At very low dose-rate, for the low irradiation doses, oxygen consumption is at least 10 times more important that it is showed when irradiation is carried out with usual material qualification dose-rate. At very low dose-rate, oxygen consumption decreases when absorbed irradiation dose by samples increases. The polymer samples irradiation dose is not still sufficient (49 KGy) to certainly determine, for the three chosen polymer materials, the reasonable irradiation acceleration boundary during nuclear qualification tests [fr

  20. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, B.; Rowe, R.K.; Unlue, K.

    2009-01-01

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers