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Sample records for rat osteopenia model

  1. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Daniel B; Griesel, Markus H; Brockhusen, Bastian; Tezval, Mohammad; Komrakova, Marina; Menger, Bjoern; Wassmann, Marco; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones.

  2. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α, which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV. Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm. Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones.

  3. Oral administration of kaempferol inhibits bone loss in rat model of ovariectomy-induced osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Beata; Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Nikodem, Anna; Filipiak, Jarosław; Landwójtowicz, Marcin; Sadanowicz, Ewa; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Rzeszutko, Marta; Zduniak, Krzysztof; Piasecki, Tomasz; Kowalski, Przemysław; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Merwid-Ląd, Anna; Trocha, Małgorzata; Sozański, Tomasz; Kwiatkowska, Joanna; Bolanowski, Marek; Szeląg, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures constitute an increasing problem in developing countries. Kaempferol, isolated from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis, is an active flavonoid inhibiting in vitro osteoclast activity. The aim of the presented research was an assessment of kaempferol effect on estrogen-deficiency-induced bone structure disturbances in rats. The study was performed on 24 Wistar female rats divided into 3 groups: SHAM - rats undergoing a "sham" surgery, OVX-C - control group of animals that underwent ovariectomy, OVX-K - rats undergoing ovariectomy and receiving kaempferol for 8 weeks (from day 56 to day 112). In the OVX-K group, contrary to the OVX-C one, there was no significant decrease in femoral bone mineral density (BMD). A significant increase in Young's modulus was observed in the OVX-K group compared to the OVX-C (15.33±2.51GPa vs. 11.14±1.93GPa, p<0.05). A decreased bone turnover was detected in the OVX-K group. Tissue volume ratio (BV/TV) and trabecular bone perimeter were increased in the OVX-K group compared to the OVX-C one (0.241±0.037 vs. 0.170±0.022, p<0.05 and 15.52±2.78mm vs. 9.67±3.07mm, p<0.05, respectively). Kaempferol has a beneficial influence on estrogen-deficiency-induced disturbances of bone structure in rats. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Osteopenia Sheep Model for Orthopaedic Biomaterial Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2009-01-01

    months. This suggests that a prolonged administration of GC is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone.                 In conclusion, after 7 months of GC treatments with restricted diet, the microarchitectural characteristics, mechanical competence, mineralization of the bone tissues...... resemble osteoporosis in humans. This study aimed to validate glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia sheep model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. We hypothesized that a 7-month GC treatment together with restricted diet but without OVX would induce osteopenia. Materials and Methods: Eighteen...... for 7 months. The sheep were housed outdoors in paddocks, and received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus (0.55% calcium and 0.35% phosphorus) and hay. After sacrifice, cancellous bone specimens from the 5th lumbar vertebra, bilateral distal femur, and bilateral proximal tibia, and cortical...

  5. A comparative bear model for immobility-induced osteopenia

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    Milbury, P. E.; Vaughan, M. R.; Farley, S.; Matula, G. J. Jr; Convertino, V. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1998-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are seeking solutions to the human problem of osteopenia, or immobility-induced bone loss. Bears, during winter dormancy, appear uniquely exempted from the debilitating effects of immobility osteopenia. NIH and ESA, Inc. are creating a large database of metabolic information on human ambulatory and bedrest plasma samples for comparison with metabolic data obtained from bear plasma samples collected in different seasons. The database generated from NASA's HR113 human bedrest study showed a clear difference between plasma samples of ambulatory and immobile subjects through cluster analysis using compounds determined by high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical array detection (HPLC-EC). We collected plasma samples from black bears (Ursus americanus) across 4 seasons and from 3 areas and subjected them to similar analysis, with particular attention to compounds that changed significantly in the NASA human study. We found seasonal differences in 28 known compounds and 33 unknown compounds. A final database contained 40 known and 120 unknown peaks that were reliably assayed in all bear and human samples; these were the primary data set for interspecies comparison. Six unidentified compounds changed significantly but differentially in wintering bears and immobile humans. The data are discussed in light of current theories regarding dormancy, starvation, and anabolic metabolism. Work is in progress by ESA Laboratories on a larger database to confirm these findings prior to a chemical isolation and identification effort. This research could lead to new pharmaceuticals or dietary interventions for the treatment of immobility osteopenia.

  6. Treatment with Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract Has Protective Effect on Osteopenia in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous extract from Rhizoma Dioscoreae (RDE on rats with ovariectomy- (OVX- induced osteopenia. Our results show that RDE could inhibit bone loss of OVX rats after a 12-week treatment. The microarray analysis showed that 68 genes were upregulated and that 100 genes were downregulated in femurs of the RDE group rats compared to those in the OVX group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA showed that several downregulated genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Sost, Lrp6, Tcf7l2, and Alpl and the RANKL/RANK signaling pathway (Map2k6 and Nfatc4. These results revealed that the mechanism for an antiosteopenic effect of RDE might lie in the synchronous inhibitory effects on both the bone formation and the bone resorption, which is associated with modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the RANKL/RANK signaling.

  7. Treatment with Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract has protective effect on osteopenia in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Liu, Hong; Pan, Jinghua; Li, Ya'nan; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous extract from Rhizoma Dioscoreae (RDE) on rats with ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced osteopenia. Our results show that RDE could inhibit bone loss of OVX rats after a 12-week treatment. The microarray analysis showed that 68 genes were upregulated and that 100 genes were downregulated in femurs of the RDE group rats compared to those in the OVX group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that several downregulated genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway (Sost, Lrp6, Tcf7l2, and Alpl) and the RANKL/RANK signaling pathway (Map2k6 and Nfatc4). These results revealed that the mechanism for an antiosteopenic effect of RDE might lie in the synchronous inhibitory effects on both the bone formation and the bone resorption, which is associated with modulating the Wnt/ β -catenin signaling and the RANKL/RANK signaling.

  8. Imbalanced Diet Deficient in Calcium and Vitamin D- Induced Juvenile Osteopenia in Rats; the Potential Therapeutic Effect of Egyptian Moghat Roots Water Extract (Glossostemon bruguieri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Doaa A; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; El-Mallawany, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and validate a new juvenile osteopenic (JO) rat model then examine the efficacy of moghat (Glossostemon bruguieri) as an alternative reversal therapy for JO. Phytochemical screening analysis showed that moghat contains 5.8% alkaloids, 1.5% flavonoids and 13.2% total phenols. Juvenile osteopenia was induced in 15 days old Sprague- Dawley female rats by feeding them free Ca and vitamin D synthetic diet for 21 days. Osteopenic rats were either treated with moghat (0.8 g dried plant tissue/Kg body weight, orally), or with a reference nutritional supplements of calcium chloride (14 mg Ca/Kg) and vitamin D3 (7 IU/Kg), for extra 21 days. Both untreated and treated groups were compared to a control group that fed a regular pelleted food. Our results showed that osteopenic rats lost normal bone tissue architecture, 30 % of body mass, 54 % of bone mass and finally 93% of bone calcium mass. Furthermore, these rats showed a markedly increase in serum phosphate, PTH, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase activities and creatinine level as compared to the control group. Moghat administration was successfully reversed osteopenia by normalizing body and bone masses to the reference ranges, increased the bone calcium mass by 17 fold without any detectable side effects on liver and kidney physiological performance. Therefore, moghat could be considered as potent safe -JO- reversal extract.

  9. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...... osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. METHODS: Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC......-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium...

  10. [Role of growth hormone underproduction and support load deficit in development of muscle atrophy and osteopenia in tail-suspended rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Durnova, G N; Ili'ina-Kakueva, E I; Loginov, V I

    1999-01-01

    In a 20-day experiment with tail-suspended male rats histological and histomorphometric techniques were used to study the effects of growth hormone, thyroxin, and graded support loads on the progress of atrophy in soleus and gastrocnemius m.m., tibial metaphyses spongiosis, and growth of tibiae. Daily injections of growth hormone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of the body mass were found to restore the longitudinal growth of tibiae and to suppress osteopenia in the spongiosis of metaphyses; however, they did not have any noteworthy effect on the muscular atrophy in the suspended rats. Support loading of the hind limbs for 2 hours a day in parallel to the treatment with growth hormone and thyroxin (0.02 mg/kg of the body mass per a day) suppressed the atrophy in soleus m. but not in gastrocnemius m. They were not able to oppose to osteoporosis in tibial metaphyses spongiosis; tibial growth was not normalized. Thyroxin did not appear to markedly influence muscle and bone atrophies; moreover, it made hypofunctioning of the thyroid more intense and, when combined with the growth hormone, masked the positive effect of the latter on the rats' bones.

  11. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica; Shrivastava, Richa; Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-01-01

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis

  12. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute - CDRI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Lucknow 226021 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Mandalapu, Dhanaraju [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Sharma, Vishnu Lal [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Division of Biochemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Bhadauria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K. [Department of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast

  13. Assessment of vertebral osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroelner, B.; Berthelsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of radiographic morphology and dual-photon ( 153 Gd) absorptiometry was carried out in 132 women. Films of the lumbar spine were graded for osteopenia, spondylosis, and calcification of the abdominal aorta according to definite morphologic criteria. The radiographic grade of osteopenia and the bone mineral content of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar vertebrae showed a highly significant inverse correlation. However, the mineral content at each radiographic grade of osteopenia differed considerably. Disproportionately high levels occurred in patients with spondylosis and severe calcification of the abdominal aorta. Spinal radiography and dual-photon absorptiometry must be regarded as complementary rather than alternative diagnostic procedures in clinical practice. (Auth.)

  14. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter; Schwarz, Peter; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-02-15

    Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus during experiment. After killing the animals, cancellous bone specimens from the vertebra, femurs, and tibias were micro-CT scanned and tested mechanically. Serum biomarkers were determined. In lumbar vertebra, the GC treatment resulted in significant decrease of cancellous bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, and bone strength. However, the microarchitecture and bone strength of GC-2 recovered to a similar level of the controls. A similar trend of microarchitectural changes was also observed in the distal femur and proximal tibia of both GC treated sheep. The bone formation marker serum-osteocalcin was largely reduced in GC-1 compared to the controls, but recovered with a rebound increase at month 10 in GC-2. The current investigation demonstrates that the changes in microarchitecture and mechanical properties were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term GC treatment. A prolonged GC treatment is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone. This model resembles long-term glucocorticoid treated osteoporotic model, and is useful in preclinical studies.

  15. Effects of swimming training and free mobilization on bone mineral densities of rats with the immobilization-induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karatosun, H.; Erdogan, A.; Akgun, C.; Cetin, C.; Yeldiz, M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the possible effects of regular swimming exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with free activity after cast immobilization of rats. We carried out the study from April 2005 to June 2005 at the Department of Sports Medicine, Medical School of Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. The study included a total of 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were randomized to control (n = 6), swimming training (ST) n = 9, and free mobilization (FM) n = 9 groups. We measured Bone mineral densities of femur and vertebra of all rats with a total body scanner using software specifically designed for small animals, before study started and at weeks 3 and 7. Timepoints corresponded to basal, after cast removal (ACIM), and after 3 weeks of free mobilization (AFM) or swimming training (AST). We immobilized the right hindlimb of each ST and FM animal with a cast while the left hindlimbs were kept free. After 3 weeks, the casts were removed. Then we allowed the rats to move freely in their cage for one week, after which the animals in ST group started to swim for 5 days a week for 3 weeks for 30 minutes per day. The group FM rats moved freely in the cage. Bone mineral density of the femur and vertebra after cast immobilization was significantly decreased compared with both their basal and age-matched control group. After mobilization, significant increases occurred in both groups according to ACIM. Similar but milder changes were observed in free limbs femur BMD of rats. Interestingly, vertebra BMD of swimming group was also higher than its age-matched control group (p<0.05). Our study showed that swimming exercise had a significant rehabilitative effect on BMD loss associated with immobilization. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of swimming on other bone properties. (author)

  16. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

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    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  17. Vitex agnus castus as prophylaxis for osteopenia after orchidectomy in rats compared with estradiol and testosterone supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehmisch, S; Boeckhoff, J; Wille, J; Seidlova-Wuttke, D; Rack, T; Tezval, M; Wuttke, W; Stuermer, K M; Stuermer, E K

    2009-06-01

    Osteoporosis research undertaken in males is rare and there are only a few therapeutic options. Phytoestrogens might be a safe alternative for prophylaxis. Sixty 3-month-old male rats were orchidectomized and divided into five groups. The groups either received soy-free food (C), estradiol (E), testosterone (T) or Vitex agnus castus in different concentrations (AC high/AC low) for 12 weeks. The tibia metaphysis was tested biomechanically and histomorphometrically. The AC high group reached 87% of the biomechanical values of the estradiol group and was significantly superior to the control group. Testosterone supplementation resulted in poor biomechanical properties. The cortical bone parameters of the AC group were similar to the control group, while supplementation with estradiol and testosterone demonstrated a reduction of cortical bone. The AC high group reached 88.4% of trabecular bone area, 80.7% of trabecular number and 66.9% of the number of trabecular nodes compared with estradiol supplementation. Vitex agnus castus demonstrated osteoprotective effects in males. It preserves the cortical as well as the trabecular bone and might be a safe alternative for HRT. Testosterone supplementation has positive effects on trabecular bone, which are concurrently counteracted by the loss of cortical bone. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A soluble activin type IIA receptor mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength and cancellous bone mass in a mouse model of disuse osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodberg, Andreas; Eijken, Marco; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Okkels, Mette Wendelboe; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Brüel, Annemarie

    2018-05-01

    Disuse causes a rapid and substantial bone loss distinct in its pathophysiology from the bone loss associated with cancers, age, and menopause. While inhibitors of the activin-receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have been shown to prevent ovariectomy- and cancer-induced bone loss, their application in a model of disuse osteopenia remains to be tested. Here, we show that a soluble activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA-mFc) increases diaphyseal bone strength and cancellous bone mass, and mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength in the Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-model of disuse osteopenia in female C57BL/6J mice. We show that ActRIIA-mFc treatment preferentially stimulates a dual-effect (anabolic-antiresorptive) on the periosteal envelope of diaphyseal bone, demonstrating in detail the effects of ActRIIA-mFc on cortical bone. These observations constitute a previously undescribed feature of IASPs that mediates at least part of their ability to mitigate detrimental effects of unloading on bone tissue. The study findings support the application of IASPs as a strategy to combat bone loss during disuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity: Effects on the mandibular incisors of suspended rats (PULEH model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D. J.; Winter, F.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a hypogravity simulating model on the rate of mandibular incisor formation, dentinogenesis and, amelogenesis in laboratory rats was studied. The model is the partial unloading by elevating the hindquarters. In this system, rat hindquarters are elevated 30 to 40 deg from the cage floors to completely unload the hindlimbs, but the animals are free to move about using their forelimbs. This model replicates the fluid sift changes which occur during the weightlessness of spaceflight and produces an osteopenia in the weight bearing skeletons. The histogenesis and/or mineralization rates of the mandibular incisor during the first 19d of PULEH in young growing rats are recorded.

  20. Efficacy of Static Magnetic Field for Locomotor Activity of Experimental Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of applying a static magnetic field (SMF for increasing bone mineral density (BMD, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, the metabolism measuring system, and histological examination of bone tissue in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model. Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160–180 g were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group were exposed to SMF for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats in the OVX-D group were not exposed to SMF as a control. The rats in the normal group received neither ovariectomy nor exposure to SMF. Twelve-week exposure to SMF in the OVX-M group inhibited the reduction in BMD that was observed in the OVX-D group. Moreover, in the OVX rats, before exposure to SMF, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After exposure of OVX rats to SMF, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the normal group. In the OVX-M group, the continuity of the trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher than the respective parameters in the OVX-D group. These results demonstrate that exposure to SMF increased the level of locomotor activity in OVX rats, thereby increasing BMD.

  1. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Ya; Hayami Tadashi; Pickarski Maureen; Duong Le T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the g...

  2. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  3. Effects of combined therapy of alendronate and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on metaphyseal bone repair after osteotomy in the proximal tibia of glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawano

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: ALN monotherapy and combined ALN and LUPUS treatment augmented BMD and stimulated cancellous bone repair with increased Runx2 expression at the osteotomy site in GIO rats. However, the combined treatment had no additional effect on cancellous bone healing compared to ALN monotherapy.

  4. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  5. Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  6. Evaluating painful osteopenia in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, M.A.; De Smet, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Osteopenia is a frequent finding on radiographs of elderly patients. When the exam is performed for skeletal pain, this finding may be significant. The differential diagnosis for osteopenia is extensive, but individualizing the patient work-up begins with a careful clinical history and laboratory studies. Appropriate radiographic exams can then be requested. A plain radiograph is always the starting point, followed by--as indicated--a nuclear bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Osteoporotic Fractures in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Park, Hae-Young; Kim, Ye Jee; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kang, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in Korea. Methods A Markov cohort simulation was conducted for lifetime with a hypothetical cohort of postmenopausal women with osteopenia and without prior fractures. They were assumed to receive calcium/vitamin D supplements only or drug therapy (i.e., raloxifene or risedronate) along with calcium/vitamin D for 5 years. The Markov model includes fracture-spec...

  8. Caffeine is a risk factor for osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ebtihal; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Moffatt, Michael; Narvey, Michael; Reed, Martin; Jiang, Depeng

    2018-01-22

    Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization. The cohort included 109 infants. 51% had osteopenia of prematurity and 8% had spontaneous rib fractures. Using the generalized linear mixed model, caffeine dose and duration of caffeine therapy showed a strong association with osteopenia of prematurity. Steroids and vitamin D were also significantly correlated with osteopenia of prematurity while diuretic use did not show a statistically significant effect. The cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine, as well as steroid are associated with osteopenia of prematurity in this cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the lowest dose of caffeine needed to treat effectively apnea of prematurity.

  9. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. The double cortical line: a sign of osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The double cortical line is a radiographic sign of osteopenia which results from intracortical resorption of bone. This sign is frequently seen in humans with osteopenia but has received minimal attention in the veterinary literature. This report describes the double cortical line in cases of senile osteopenia, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, suspected renal secondary hyperparathyroidism and in the acetabulum following triple pelvic osteotomy for hip dysplasia

  11. Effect of excess dietary salt on calcium metabolism and bone mineral in a spaceflight rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Fung, Paul; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of salt promote urinary calcium (UCa) loss and have the potential to cause bone mineral deficits if intestinal Ca absorption does not compensate for these losses. To determine the effect of excess dietary salt on the osteopenia that follows skeletal unloading, we used a spaceflight model that unloads the hindlimbs of 200-g rats by tail suspension (S). Rats were studied for 2 wk on diets containing high salt (4 and 8%) and normal calcium (0.45%) and for 4 wk on diets containing 8% salt (HiNa) and 0.2% Ca (LoCa). Final body weights were 9-11% lower in S than in control rats (C) in both experiments, reflecting lower growth rates in S than in C during pair feeding. UCa represented 12% of dietary Ca on HiNA diets and was twofold higher in S than in C transiently during unloading. Net intestinal Ca absorption was consistently 11-18% lower in S than in C. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was unaffected by either LoCa or HiNa diets in S but was increased by LoCa and HiNa diets in C. Despite depressed intestinal Ca absoption in S and a sluggish response of the Ca endocrine system to HiNa diets, UCa loss did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unloading. Although any deficit in bone mineral content from HiNa diets may have been too small to detect or the duration of the study too short to manifest, there were clear differences in Ca metabolism from control levels in the response of the spaceflight model to HiNa diets, indicated by depression of intestinal Ca absorption and its regulatory hormone.

  12. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC......, osteocalcin was significantly reduced after 7 months but a rebound phenomenon was observed 3 months after cessation of GC. In conclusion, this study has validated an osteopenia sheep model. Bone quality was significantly reduced following a 7 months GC-treatment and recovered after further 3 month observation...

  13. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  14. Bone mineral density changes after ovariectomy in rats as an osteopenic model : stepwise description of double dorso-lateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Bae; Lee, Yoon Jin; Chung, Chun Kee

    2010-10-01

    This study describes a method for inducing osteopenia using bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), which causes significant changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. Twenty-five 10-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were used. Five rats were euthanized after two weeks, and BMD was measured in their femora. The other 20 rats were assigned to one of two groups : a sham group (n = 10), which underwent a sham operation, and an OVX group (n = 10), which underwent bilateral OVX at 12 weeks of age. After six weeks, five rats from each group were euthanized, and BMD was measured in their femora. The same procedures were performed in the remaining rats form each group eight weeks later. The femur BMD was significantly lower in the six-week OVX group than in the six-week sham group, and in the eight-week OVX group than in the eight-week sham group. Bilateral OVX is a safe method for creating an osteopenic rat model. The significant decrease in BMD appears six weeks after bilateral OVX.

  15. Behavioral, medical imaging and histopathological features of a new rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Doré-Savard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical bone cancer pain models mimicking the human condition are required to respond to clinical realities. Breast or prostate cancer patients coping with bone metastases experience intractable pain, which affects their quality of life. Advanced monitoring is thus required to clarify bone cancer pain mechanisms and refine treatments. In our model of rat femoral mammary carcinoma MRMT-1 cell implantation, pain onset and tumor growth were monitored for 21 days. The surgical procedure performed without arthrotomy allowed recording of incidental pain in free-moving rats. Along with the gradual development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, behavioral signs of ambulatory pain were detected at day 14 by using a dynamic weight-bearing apparatus. Osteopenia was revealed from day 14 concomitantly with disorganization of the trabecular architecture (µCT. Bone metastases were visualized as early as day 8 by MRI (T(1-Gd-DTPA before pain detection. PET (Na(18F co-registration revealed intra-osseous activity, as determined by anatomical superimposition over MRI in accordance with osteoclastic hyperactivity (TRAP staining. Pain and bone destruction were aggravated with time. Bone remodeling was accompanied by c-Fos (spinal and ATF3 (DRG neuronal activation, sustained by astrocyte (GFAP and microglia (Iba1 reactivity in lumbar spinal cord. Our animal model demonstrates the importance of simultaneously recording pain and tumor progression and will allow us to better characterize therapeutic strategies in the future.

  16. Notch Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation and Causes Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Stefano; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Durant, Deena; Radtke, Freddy; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Notch receptors are determinants of cell fate decisions. To define the role of Notch in the adult skeleton, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) under the control of the type I collagen promoter. First-generation transgenics were small and osteopenic. Bone histomorphometry revealed that NICD caused a decrease in bone volume, secondary to a reduction in trabecular number; osteoblast and osteoclast number were decreased. Low fertility of founder mice and lethality of young pups did not allow the complete establishment of transgenic lines. To characterize the effect of Notch overexpression in vitro, NICD was induced in osteoblasts and stromal cells from Rosanotch mice, in which a STOP cassette flanked by loxP sites is upstream of NICD, by transduction with an adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad-CMV-Cre). NICD impaired osteoblastogenesis and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To determine the effects of notch1 deletion in vivo, mice in which notch1 was flanked by loxP sequences (notch1loxP/loxP) were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Conditional null notch1 mice had no obvious skeletal phenotype, possibly because of rescue by notch2; however, 1-month-old females exhibited a modest increase in osteoclast surface and eroded surface. Osteoblasts from notch1loxP/loxP mice, transduced with Ad-CMV-Cre and transfected with Notch2 small interfering RNA, displayed increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, Notch signaling in osteoblasts causes osteopenia and impairs osteo-blastogenesis by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:18420737

  17. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Assessment by radiogrammetric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiktas, M.; Aikimbaev, K.S.; Soyupak, S.; Binokay, F.; Kozanoglu, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the medial cortical thickness ratio to the width of the second metacarpal bone at the midshaft (MCR) in discriminating patients as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic. Material and Methods: MCR was calculated from radiographs of 120 postmenopausal women. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the mineral density was measured in the lumbar spine, the wrist and the femoral neck. Patients were grouped in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of WHO on the basis of t-scores. MCR values were compared with t-scores and the ability of the MCR technique in discriminating the patient groups was evaluated. Results: Analysis of radiogrammetric data revealed significant differences in MCR value between the 3 groups. The MCR was lower in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia compared with the normal group. The mean value of MCR was also slightly lower in patients with osteoporosis than in those with osteopenia. Accuracy assessment (ROC analysis) of MCR in the discrimination of patients with osteoporosis showed that test accuracy was acceptable, but less accurate than spinal, wrist and femoral neck t-scores. Compared with t-scores, this test was found to fairly discriminate those with and without osteopenia. Conclusion: The MCR method can discriminate patients as osteoporotic or normal. However, it seems that the MCR method should not be used for decisions concerning treatment of osteoporosis because of its low accuracy and thereby a risk for misclassification. Bone mineral density osteoporosis osteopenia radiogrammetry

  18. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Liu, Yao; Liu, Yitong; Chen, Hui; Shi, Songtao; Liu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed, resulting in a staggering economic cost in different social and cultural settings. Types of alcohol consumption vary from light occasional to heavy, binge drinking, and chronic alcohol abuse at all ages. In general, heavy alcohol consumption is widely recognized as a major epidemiological risk factor for chronic diseases and is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Indeed, recent findings demonstrate that alcohol has a dose-dependent toxic effect in promoting imbalanced bone remodeling. This imbalance eventually results in osteopenia, an established risk factor for osteoporosis. Decreased bone mass and strength are major hallmarks of osteopenia, which is predominantly attributed not only to inhibition of bone synthesis but also to increased bone resorption through direct and indirect pathways. In this review, we present knowledge to elucidate the epidemiology, potential pathogenesis, and major molecular mechanisms and cellular effects that underlie alcoholism-induced bone loss in osteopenia. Novel therapeutic targets for correcting alcohol-induced osteopenia are also reviewed, such as modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and Wnt and mTOR signaling and the application of new drugs.

  19. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Assessment by radiogrammetric measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, M.; Aikimbaev, K.S.; Soyupak, S.; Binokay, F. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Kozanoglu, E. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the medial cortical thickness ratio to the width of the second metacarpal bone at the midshaft (MCR) in discriminating patients as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic. Material and Methods: MCR was calculated from radiographs of 120 postmenopausal women. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the mineral density was measured in the lumbar spine, the wrist and the femoral neck. Patients were grouped in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of WHO on the basis of t-scores. MCR values were compared with t-scores and the ability of the MCR technique in discriminating the patient groups was evaluated. Results: Analysis of radiogrammetric data revealed significant differences in MCR value between the 3 groups. The MCR was lower in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia compared with the normal group. The mean value of MCR was also slightly lower in patients with osteoporosis than in those with osteopenia. Accuracy assessment (ROC analysis) of MCR in the discrimination of patients with osteoporosis showed that test accuracy was acceptable, but less accurate than spinal, wrist and femoral neck t-scores. Compared with t-scores, this test was found to fairly discriminate those with and without osteopenia. Conclusion: The MCR method can discriminate patients as osteoporotic or normal. However, it seems that the MCR method should not be used for decisions concerning treatment of osteoporosis because of its low accuracy and thereby a risk for misclassification. Bone mineral density osteoporosis osteopenia radiogrammetry.

  20. Osteopenia and bone fractures in a man with anorexia nervosa and hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigotti, N.A.; Neer, R.M.; Jameson, L.

    1986-01-01

    Women with anorexia nervosa have reduced skeletal mass. Both anorexia and osteopenia are less common in men. We describe a 22-year-old man with anorexia nervosa and severe osteopenia involving both cortical and trabecular bone who developed a pelvic fracture and multiple vertebral compression fractures. He was found to have secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that was reversible with weight gain. This case illustrates the need to consider osteopenia as a potential complication of anorexia nervosa in males as well as females

  1. Osteopenia and bone fractures in a man with anorexia nervosa and hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigotti, N.A.; Neer, R.M.; Jameson, L.

    1986-07-18

    Women with anorexia nervosa have reduced skeletal mass. Both anorexia and osteopenia are less common in men. We describe a 22-year-old man with anorexia nervosa and severe osteopenia involving both cortical and trabecular bone who developed a pelvic fracture and multiple vertebral compression fractures. He was found to have secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that was reversible with weight gain. This case illustrates the need to consider osteopenia as a potential complication of anorexia nervosa in males as well as females.

  2. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  3. Limitations of quantitative CT in corticosteroid induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Kalef-Ezra, J.; Glaros, D.; Ioannina Univ.

    1991-01-01

    Single energy spectrum quantitative CT (SES-QCT) was applied for the assessment of the trabecular bone mineral status in patients under long-term corticosteroid treatment. Seventeen renal graft recipients (RGR) and 12 patients receiving corticosteroid treatment for collagen disease were studied. A reduction of about 40% in the spinal trabecular bone density relative to matched controls was found, associated with the corticosteroid administration. Repeated measurements showed significant reduction in density 4 months after transplantation, and an increase in density after graft rejection. Radiologic or clinical evidence of osteopenia in the spine was not found. Other noninvasive techniques, applied in the upper extremities of the RGR, showed only minor bone reduction compared to controls. The findings of the present study suggest that adipose tissue deposition in the spinal trabeculae can introduce errors in the measurements. Therefore, SES-QCT should not be applied during corticosteroid therapy. (orig.)

  4. The association of osteopenia with levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2014-06-01

    To determine the association of osteopenia with levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR values in postmenopausal women. Methods One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, glucose and insulin levels were measured. HOMA-IR was calculated. Bone mineral density was measured with a dual X-ray absorptiometer. There was no difference in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and HOMA-IR values between the two groups. A weak positive correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteopenia was detected. Insulin resistance had a weak negative association with osteopenia. The correlations between osteopenia and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and HOMA-IR values were weak among early postmenopausal women.

  5. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-05-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes.

  6. [Establishment of rat model of psychical erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-lin; Wang, Shu-ren; Duan, Jin

    2006-01-01

    To set up a method of establishing the animal model of psychical erectile dysfunction with emotional stress. All thirty-six male rats with normal sexual function were divided into three groups, i. e. normal group, model group and demasculinized group randomly according to their weights. The rats in the model group were suspended upside down in midair over the water and irritated repeatedly. Two weeks later, the sexual abilities of all rats, i. e. the times of mounting and intromitting the estrus female rats, the latent period of mounting, intromission and ejaculation, were recorded, and the number of rats that had sexual activities was also counted. And the hemorheology indices of the rats were measured. Compared with the normal rats, the latency of mounting [(152.5 +/- 24.6) s vs (42.4 +/- 9.6) s] and intromission [(437.0 +/- 67.7) s vs (130.8 +/- 39.1) s] of the model rats were longer (P 0.05). The hemorheology indices, e. g. blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct) and red cell aggregation (RCA), of the model rats was significant higher than that of the normal and demasculinized rats (P erectile dysfunction can be made ideally with psychical stress.

  7. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  8. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  9. Diversity analysis of gut microbiota in osteoporosis and osteopenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP patients, osteopenia (ON patients and normal controls (NC. We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria constituted the four dominant phyla in all samples. Proportion of Firmicutes was significantly higher and Bacteroidetes was significantly lower in OP samples than that in NC samples (p < 0.05, Gemmatimonadetes and Chloroflexi were significantly different between OP and NC group as well as between ON and NC group (p < 0.01. A total of 21 genera with proportions above 1% were detected and Bacteroides accounted for the largest proportion in all samples. The Blautia, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcaceae genera differed significantly between the OP and NC group (p < 0.05. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA results showed one phylum community and seven phylum communities were enriched in ON and OP, respectively. Thirty-five genus communities, five genus communities and two genus communities were enriched in OP, ON and NC, respectively. The results of this study indicate that gut microbiota may be a critical factor in osteoporosis development, which can further help us search for novel biomarkers of gut microbiota in OP and understand the interaction between gut microbiota and bone health.

  10. Diversity analysis of gut microbiota in osteoporosis and osteopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihan; Wang, Yangyang; Gao, Wenjie; Wang, Biao; Zhao, Heping; Zeng, Yuhong; Ji, Yanhong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP) patients, osteopenia (ON) patients and normal controls (NC). We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria constituted the four dominant phyla in all samples. Proportion of Firmicutes was significantly higher and Bacteroidetes was significantly lower in OP samples than that in NC samples ( p  < 0.05), Gemmatimonadetes and Chloroflexi were significantly different between OP and NC group as well as between ON and NC group ( p  < 0.01). A total of 21 genera with proportions above 1% were detected and Bacteroides accounted for the largest proportion in all samples. The Blautia, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcaceae genera differed significantly between the OP and NC group ( p  < 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) results showed one phylum community and seven phylum communities were enriched in ON and OP, respectively. Thirty-five genus communities, five genus communities and two genus communities were enriched in OP, ON and NC, respectively. The results of this study indicate that gut microbiota may be a critical factor in osteoporosis development, which can further help us search for novel biomarkers of gut microbiota in OP and understand the interaction between gut microbiota and bone health.

  11. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Paul, Rantu; Ghosh, Malabika; Dey, Ratna; Dey, Rana; Barooah, Nirjoo; Islam, Saidul; Acharya, Dipabali; Nag, Saikat; Bardhan, Sujan

    2011-07-01

    Reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) is a known and established phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there have been no data regarding osteoporosis/osteopenia in COPD patients in India. To look for the degree and frequency of osteoporosis/osteopenia in our OPD patients being diagnosed as COPD. Thirty-seven randomly selected patients with COPD were assessed for BMD with commercially available ultrasound bone densitometer (HOLOGIC SAHARA) in a pulmonary OPD. Some cofactors for reduced BMD were also noted. Out of the 37 COPD (all belonging to the GOLD III/IV category) patients studied, the BMD was found to be normal in 10 (27%) patients, while 27 (73%) patients were found to have osteopenia/osteoporosis [19 (51.35%) and 8 (21.62%) patients having osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively]. Frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be very high (73%) in our population of advanced COPD. The data suggest a need for further in-depth study regarding the issue.

  12. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Bhattacharyya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of bone mineral density (BMD is a known and established phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, there have been no data regarding osteoporosis/osteopenia in COPD patients in India. Aim: To look for the degree and frequency of osteoporosis/osteopenia in our OPD patients being diagnosed as COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven randomly selected patients with COPD were assessed for BMD with commercially available ultrasound bone densitometer (HOLOGIC SAHARA in a pulmonary OPD. Some cofactors for reduced BMD were also noted. Results: Out of the 37 COPD (all belonging to the GOLD III/IV category patients studied, the BMD was found to be normal in 10 (27% patients, while 27 (73% patients were found to have osteopenia/osteoporosis [19 (51.35% and 8 (21.62% patients having osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively]. Conclusion: Frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be very high (73% in our population of advanced COPD. The data suggest a need for further in-depth study regarding the issue.

  13. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  14. Thrombolytic and anticoagulation treatment in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Meden, P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilateral...... alone or combined with rt-PA did not significantly increase mortality or tendency for hemorrhage.......OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilaterally...

  15. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... time-points graft location could not be further verified. Measures for graft size and ventricle size obtained from MR images highly correlated with measures obtained from histologically processed sections (R = 0.8, P fetal rat lateral ganglionic...

  16. Assessment of vertebral osteopenia. Comparison of spinal radiography and dual-photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroelner, B.; Berthelsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P. (Frederiksborg County Hospital, Hilleroed, Denmark)

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of radiographic morphology and dual-photon (/sup 153/Gd) absorptiometry was carried out in 132 women. Films of the lumbar spine were graded for osteopenia, spondylosis, and calcification of the abdominal aorta according to definite morphologic criteria. The radiographic grade of osteopenia and the bone mineral content of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar vertebrae showed a highly significant inverse correlation. However, the mineral content at each radiographic grade of osteopenia differed considerably. Disproportionately high levels occurred in patients with spondylosis and severe calcification of the abdominal aorta. Spinal radiography and dual-photon absorptiometry must be regarded as complementary rather than alternative diagnostic procedures in clinical practice.

  17. Оptimization of pharmacotherapy of osteopenia in children with chronic pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Osipova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research wras definition of frequency of osteopenia development in children with chronic pyelonephritis and optimization of pharmacological correction of revealed disorders. 121 children with chronic pyelonephritis and normal glomerular filtration rate were included in the investigation. Mineral density of bone tissue, biochemical parameters of bone remodeling, cytokine profiles were examined. 3 varients of therapy were used. Control period lasted 12 months. Clinical predictors of osteopenia were indicated. The increased biochemical parameters of bone resorption, IL-6, IL-4, OPG were revealed in chidren with chronic pyelonephritis, the indices were higher in case of osteopenia. The article concluded that the most effective treatment scheme included the use of 3 medicines with different effects

  18. Time of Progression to Osteopenia/Osteoporosis in Chronically HIV-Infected Patients: Screening DXA Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, Eugenia; Bonjoch, Anna; Gómez-Mateu, Moisés; Estany, Carla; Puig, Jordi; Perez-Alvarez, Nuria; Rosales, Joaquin; di Gregorio, Silvana; del Rio, Luis; Gómez, Guadalupe; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Background Algorithms for bone mineral density (BMD) management in HIV-infected patients are lacking. Our objective was to assess how often a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan should be performed by assessing time of progression to osteopenia/osteoporosis. Methods All DXA scans performed between 2000 and 2009 from HIV-infected patients with at least two DXA were included. Time to an event (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Strata (tertiles) were defined using baseline minimum T scores. Differences between strata in time to an event were compared with the log-rank test. Results Of 391 patients (1,639 DXAs), 49.6% had osteopenia and 21.7% osteoporosis at their first DXA scan. Of the 112 (28.6%) with normal BMD, 35.7% progressed to osteopenia; median progression time was 6.7 years. These patients were stratified: “low-risk" (baseline minimum T score >−0.2 SD), “middle-risk" (between −0.2 and −0.6 SD), and “high-risk" (from −0.6 to −1 SD); median progression time to osteopenia was 8.7, >7.2, and 1.7 years, respectively (ppatients with osteopenia, 23.7% progressed to osteoporosis; median progression time was >8.5 years. Progression time was >8.2 years in “low-risk" tertile (T score between −1.1 and −1.6 SD), >8.5 years in “middle-risk" (between −1.6 and −2), and 3.2 years in “high-risk" (from −2 to −2.4) (ppatients with bone demineralization could reduce fracture–related morbidity/mortality. PMID:23056229

  19. Immobilization induced osteopenia is strain specific in mice

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    Andreas Lodberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization causes rapid and massive bone loss. By comparing Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-induced bone loss in mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds we investigated whether the genetic background had an influence on the severity of the osteopenia. Secondly, we investigated whether BTX had systemic effects on bone. Female mice from four inbred mouse strains (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6 J, DBA/2 J, and C3H/HeN were injected unilaterally with BTX (n = 10/group or unilaterally with saline (n = 10/group. Mice were euthanized after 21 days, and the bone properties evaluated using μCT, DXA, bone histomorphometry, and mechanical testing. BTX resulted in substantially lower trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV and trabecular thickness in all mouse strains. The deterioration of BV/TV was significantly greater in C57BL/6 J (−57% and DBA/2 J (−60% than in BALB/cJ (−45% and C3H/HeN (−34% mice. The loss of femoral neck fracture strength was significantly greater in C57BL/6 J (−47% and DBA/2 J (−45% than in C3H (−25% mice and likewise the loss of mid-femoral fracture strength was greater in C57BL/6 J (−17%, DBA/2 J (−12%, and BALB/cJ (−9% than in C3H/HeN (−1% mice, which were unaffected. Using high resolution μCT we found no evidence of a systemic effect on any of the microstructural parameters of the contralateral limb. Likewise, there was no evidence of a systemic effect on the bone strength in any mouse strain. We did, however, find a small systemic effect on aBMD in DBA/2 J and C3H/HeN mice. The present study shows that BTX-induced immobilization causes the greatest loss of cortical and trabecular bone in C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J mice. A smaller loss of bone microstructure and fracture strength was seen in BALB/cJ mice, while the bone microstructure and fracture strength of C3H/HeN mice were markedly less affected. This indicates that BTX-induced loss of bone is mouse strain dependent. We found only minimal systemic

  20. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickarski, Maureen; Hayami, Tadashi; Zhuo, Ya; Duong, Le T

    2011-08-24

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of OA progression. The findings here support genome-wide profiling

  1. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Ya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Results Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. Conclusions In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of

  2. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  3. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  4. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Grote (Floor); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); D. Mul (Dick); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. ten Cate (Rebecca); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); W.H.J. van Luijk (Wilma); C.J.A. Jansen-Van Wijngaarden (C. J A); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims:

  5. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, FK; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Mul, D; Hop, WCJ; ten Cate, R; Oostdijk, W; Van Luijk, W; Jansen-van Wijngaarden, CJA; Keizer-Schrama, SMPFD

    Background: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims: To study the

  6. Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Tariq Abdul Razak ...

  7. Dietary models for inducing hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Leite Matos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at finding a dietetical model capable of promoting the highest hypercholesterolemia without affecting the development of the rats. Sixty female Fisher rats were divided into five groups. The first one was fed a control diet; the remaining four were fed hypercholesterolemic diets with cholesterol and different contents of soybean oil, starch, casein, micronutrients and fiber and, consequently, different caloric values. After eight weeks animals were evaluated in relation to growth, fecal excretion, liver weight and fat, cholesterol and its fractions, serum biochemical parameters and sistolic pressure and compared with controls. The best result was obtained with the diet containing 25 % soybean oil, 1.0 % cholesterol, 13 % fiber and 4,538.4 Kcal/Kg, since it promoted an increase in LDL-cholesterol, a decrease in the HDL fraction and affected less the hepatic function of the animals.Modelos animais têm sido usados para investigar a relação entre desordens no metabolismo do colesterol e a aterogênese. A estratégia utilizada a fim de induzir hipercolesterolemia (dietas com alto teor de gordura e com colesterol adicionado leva à redução de sua ingestão pelos animais, o que induz desnutrição. O presente trabalho objetivou encontrar um modelo dietético capaz de promover a maior hipercolesterolemia, sem afetar o desenvolvimento dos animais. Sessenta ratas Fisher foram divididas em cinco grupos. O primeiro foi alimentado com uma dieta controle; os quatros restantes receberam dietas hipercolesterolêmicas, com colesterol e diferentes teores de óleo de soja, amido, caseína, micronutrientes e fibra e, conseqüentemente, diferentes valores calóricos. Após oito semanas os animais foram avaliados em relação ao crescimento, excreção fecal, peso e teor de gordura do fígado, colesterol e suas frações, parâmetros bioquímicos séricos e pressão sistólica. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a dieta contendo 25

  8. The relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Articles in the literature describing the association between body composition and osteoporosis in subjects with poliomyelitis are scarce. To assess the relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous polio. After excluding postmenopausal women, 44 polio (mean age ± standard deviation, 46.1 ± 3.3 years) and 44 able-bodied control volunteers (47.0 ± 4.0 years) participated in the study. Each participant's femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) and whole body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. With local reference BMD values of normal young adults installed in the instrument, we obtained T-score values that depended on each FNBMD value. A T-score value of ≤-1.0 indicated decreased T-score, including osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and osteopenia (-1.0 to -2.5). This study conducted logistic regression analyses to find factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on the FNBMD T-score values, 60.0% of middle-aged men with polio had osteoporosis. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, total lean tissue mass (Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.74 [0.56-0.99], P < 0.05) and male gender (947.16 [6.02-148,926.16], P < 0.01) were important factors associated with decreased T-score in polio group. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common medical problem for middle-aged men with polio. Reduced total lean tissue mass seems to be one of the important factors associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia among subjects with polio. Further research for a clinical tool to assess lean tissue mass for subjects with polio is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time of progression to osteopenia/osteoporosis in chronically HIV-infected patients: screening DXA scan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Negredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algorithms for bone mineral density (BMD management in HIV-infected patients are lacking. Our objective was to assess how often a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan should be performed by assessing time of progression to osteopenia/osteoporosis. METHODS: All DXA scans performed between 2000 and 2009 from HIV-infected patients with at least two DXA were included. Time to an event (osteopenia and osteoporosis was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Strata (tertiles were defined using baseline minimum T scores. Differences between strata in time to an event were compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: Of 391 patients (1,639 DXAs, 49.6% had osteopenia and 21.7% osteoporosis at their first DXA scan. Of the 112 (28.6% with normal BMD, 35.7% progressed to osteopenia; median progression time was 6.7 years. These patients were stratified: "low-risk" (baseline minimum T score >-0.2 SD, "middle-risk" (between -0.2 and -0.6 SD, and "high-risk" (from -0.6 to -1 SD; median progression time to osteopenia was 8.7, >7.2, and 1.7 years, respectively (p8.5 years. Progression time was >8.2 years in "low-risk" tertile (T score between -1.1 and -1.6 SD, >8.5 years in "middle-risk" (between -1.6 and -2, and 3.2 years in "high-risk" (from -2 to -2.4 (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may help to define the BMD testing interval. The lowest T score tertiles would suggest recommending a subsequent DXA in 1-2 years; in the highest tertiles, ≥6 years. Early intervention in patients with bone demineralization could reduce fracture-related morbidity/mortality.

  10. Weak cation exchange magnetic beads coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in screening serum protein markers in osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Tao; Liang, Bo-Cheng; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Li, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Wen; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of osteopenia from ten postmenopausal women and ten postmenopausal women without osteopenia as control group, to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. Proteins were extracted from serum samples by weak cation exchange magnetic beads technology, and mass spectra acquisition was done by MALDI-TOF-MS. The visualization and comparison of data sets, statistical peak evaluation, model recognition, and discovery of biomarker candidates were handled by the proteinchip data analysis system software(ZJU-PDAS). The diagnostic models were established using genetic arithmetic based support vector machine (SVM). The SVM result with the highest Youden Index was selected as the model. Combinatorial Peaks having the highest accuracy in distinguishing different samples were selected as potential biomarker. From the two group serum samples, a total of 133 differential features were selected. Ten features with significant intensity differences were screened. In the pair-wise comparisons, processing of MALDI-TOF spectra resulted in the identification of ten differential features between postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. The difference of features by Youden index showed that the highest features had a mass to charge ratio of 1699 and 3038 Da. A diagnosis model was established with these two peaks as the candidate marker, and the specificity of the model is 100 %, the sensitivity was 90 % by leave-one-out cross validation test. The two groups of specimens in SVM results on the scatter plot could be clearly distinguished. The peak

  11. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  14. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Carusillo Theriault

    Full Text Available In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter.Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS at embryonic day (E 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks.mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2 and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9 for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls.In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development.

  15. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  16. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Acer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1. From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2, 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3, and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05. The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05, whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001. Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  17. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  18. Clinical study on osteopenia, serum sexual hormones and BGP level in the menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Guo Hui; Duan Liusheng

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of osteogenesis and osteopenia of the menopausal women, serum [Ca 2+ ], [P 3+ ], AKP, sexual hormones and BGP level were investigated. The blood samples were taken from 177 female individuals who were divided into 5 groups based on different ages of menopause. Serum estradiol, testosterone and BGP were measured by RIA. Serum LH, FSH and PRL were determined by IRMA. Serum [Ca 2+ ], [P 3+ ], AKP were determined by biochemistry analytical methods. Results showed that serum E 2 and T levels in the menopausal women were lower than those in the normal, E 2 decreased significantly. Meanwhile, serum PRL level was only a little lower, but the menopausal female had the higher levels of LH and FSH. Conclusion: the most important cause of osteopenia for the menopausal women is the deficiency of estrogen and degeneration of ovarian function

  19. Prevalence and predictive factors for regional osteopenia in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, S; Thomas, E; Pitts, S; Gross, E; Mickley, D; Miller, K; Herzog, D; Klibanski, A

    2000-11-21

    Anorexia nervosa is highly prevalent among young women. To determine prevalence and predictive factors for regional bone loss. Prospective cohort analysis. University hospital. 130 women with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of osteopenia (-1.0 SD >/= T-score > -2.5 SD) and osteoporosis (T-score anorexia nervosa. Weight, but not estrogen use, is a significant predictor of BMD in this population at all skeletal sites.

  20. Gut Microbial Diversity in Rat Model Induced by Rhubarb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Rhubarb is often used to establish chronic diarrhea and spleen (Pi)-deficiency syndrome animal models in China. In this study, we utilized the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method to detect changes in bacterial diversity in feces and the bowel mucosa associated with this model. Total microbial genomic DNA from the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum), cecum, and feces of normal and rhubarb-exposed rats were used as templates for the ERIC-PCR analysis. We found that the fecal microbial composition did not correspond to the bowel bacteria mix. More bacterial diversity was observed in the ileum of rhubarb-exposed rats (Panalysis with the SPSS software, the Canonical Discriminant Function Formulae for model rats was established. PMID:25048267

  1. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Brca2 was tested in various tumor inducing experimental settings [49,52] * activated form Hs = Homo sapiens ; Rn = Rattus norvegicus; MMTV...sequencing gDNA from a wild-type 2 SD rat over a region of intron 21 that contains the splicing branch site 2 (underlined). ( el The same sequence from the...from the El pups at 1 week of age for macromolecule isolation. We also visually checked all Fk pups for gross abnormalities in physi- cal

  2. Persistent estrus rat models of polycystic ovary disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna B

    2005-10-01

    To critically review published articles on polycystic ovary (PCO) disease in rat models, with a focus on delineating its pathophysiology. Review of the English-language literature published from 1966 to March 2005 was performed through PubMed search. Keywords or phrases used were persistent estrus, chronic anovulation, polycystic ovary, polycystic ovary disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Articles were also located via bibliographies of published literature. University Health Sciences Center. Articles on persistent estrus and PCO in rats were selected and reviewed regarding the methods for induction of PCO disease. Changes in the reproductive cycle, ovarian morphology, hormonal parameters, and factors associated with the development of PCO disease in rat models were analyzed. Principal methods for inducing PCO in the rat include exposure to constant light, anterior hypothalamic and amygdaloidal lesions, and the use of androgens, estrogens, antiprogestin, and mifepristone. The validated rat PCO models provide useful information on morphologic and hormonal disturbances in the pathogenesis of chronic anovulation in this condition. These studies have aimed to replicate the morphologic and hormonal characteristics observed in the human PCO syndrome. The implications of these studies to human condition are discussed.

  3. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...

  4. Morphofunctional analysis of experimental model of esophageal achalasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, A G; Raginov, I S; Burmistrov, M V; Chelyshev, Y A; Khasanov, R Sh; Moroshek, A A; Grigoriev, P N; Zefirov, A L; Mukhamedyarov, M A

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a detailed analysis of rat model of esophageal achalasia previously developed by us. Manifest morphological and functional disorders were observed in experimental achalasia: hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium, reduced number of nerve fibers, excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue in the esophageal wall, high contractile activity of the lower esophageal sphincter, and reduced motility of the longitudinal muscle layer. Changes in rat esophagus observed in experimental achalasia largely correlate with those in esophageal achalasia in humans. Hence, our experimental model can be used for the development of new methods of disease treatment.

  5. Simvastatin Exposure and Rotator Cuff Repair in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Ehteshami, John R; Dines, Joshua S; Drakos, Mark C; Behrens, Steve B; Doty, Stephen; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-03-01

    Simvastatin is a common medication prescribed for hypercholesterolemia that accelerates local bone formation. It is unclear whether simvastatin can accelerate healing at the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair. This study was conducted to investigate whether local and systemic administration of simvastatin increased tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff as detected by maximum load to failure in a controlled animal-based model. Supraspinatus tendon repair was performed on 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats had a polylactic acid membrane overlying the repair site. Of these, 30 contained simvastatin and 30 did not contain medication. Sixty rats underwent repair without a polylactic acid membrane. Of these, 30 received oral simvastatin (25 mg/kg/d) and 30 received a regular diet. At 4 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis. At 8 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis and the remaining 20 rats were killed for biomechanical analysis. One rat that received oral simvastatin died of muscle necrosis. Average maximum load to failure was 35.2±6.2 N for those receiving oral simvastatin, 36.8±9.0 N for oral control subjects, 39.5±12.8 N for those receiving local simvastatin, and 39.1±9.3 N for control subjects with a polylactic acid membrane. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the 4 groups (P>.05). Qualitative histologic findings showed that all groups showed increased collagen formation and organization at 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks, with no differences between the 4 groups at each time point. The use of systemic and local simvastatin offered no benefit over control groups. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e288-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  7. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis animal model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objective: Established preclinical disease models are essential for not only studying aetiology and/or pathophysiology of the relevant diseases but more importantly also for testing prevention and/or treatment concept(s. The present study proposed and established a detailed induction and assessment protocol for a unique and cost-effective preclinical steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON in rats with pulsed injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Methods: Sixteen 24-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were used to induce SAON by one intravenous injection of LPS (0.2 mg/kg and three intraperitoneal injections of MPS (100 mg/kg with a time interval of 24 hour, and then, MPS (40 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected three times a week from week 2 until sacrifice. Additional 12 rats were used as normal controls. Two and six weeks after induction, animals were scanned by metabolic dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of tissue composition; serum was collected for bone turnover markers, Microfil perfusion was performed for angiography, the liver was collected for histopathology and bilateral femora and bilateral tibiae were collected for histological examination. Results: Three rats died after LPS injection, i.e., with 15.8% (3/19 mortality. Histological evaluation showed 100% incidence of SAON at week 2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry showed significantly higher fat percent and lower lean mass in SAON group at week 6. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT showed significant bone degradation at proximal tibia 6 weeks after SAON induction. Angiography illustrated significantly less blood vessels in the proximal tibia and significantly more leakage particles in the distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. Serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen and osteocalcin were significantly lower at both 2 and 6 weeks after SAON induction, and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide was significantly

  8. Quantitative assessment of metabolic bone disease in rat models by dual tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Fumishige; Seto, Hikaru

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of radionuclide techniques for early differential diagnosis of metabolic bone disease has been controversial. We tried to develop a new method to distinguish alterations in bone metabolism prior to radiologic changes, measuring 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) and femoral uptake of two radiopharmaceuticals (/sup 47/Ca-chloride, /sup 99m/Tc-MDT). Control normal (C), osteoporosis (P), osteomalacia (M) and steroid-induced osteoporosis (S) were produced in 60 eight-week old Wistar male rats by means of dietary manipulation and steroid administration. Fine detail radiographs of the femurs and bone specimens were obtained over six weeks at two week intervals. Good correlation between WBR and femoral uptake of /sup 47/Ca was noted (r=0.86, p<0.01). WBR ratios of /sup 47/Ca were significantly higher in the M and S groups and were lower in the P group when compared to the C group throughout the study. WBR ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP were significantly higher in the M group and were lower in the S group from the 2nd week. Fine detail radiographs analyzed by microdensitometry revealed significant osteopenia in the S, M and P groups from the 4th week. The dual tracer method was found to distinguish alterations in bone metabolism in the groups examined prior to detectable radiologic changes. (author).

  9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Terbinafine in Rats and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Yeganeh, Mahboubeh; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model capable of describing and predicting terbinafine concentrations in plasma and tissues in rats and humans. A PB-PK model consisting of 12 tissue and 2 blood compartments was developed using concentration-time data for tissues from rats (n = 33) after intravenous bolus administration of terbinafine (6 mg/kg of body weight). It was assumed that all tissues except skin and testis tissues were well-stirred compartments with perfusion rate limitations. The uptake of terbinafine into skin and testis tissues was described by a PB-PK model which incorporates a membrane permeability rate limitation. The concentration-time data for terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were predicted by use of a scaled-up PB-PK model, which took oral absorption into consideration. The predictions obtained from the global PB-PK model for the concentration-time profile of terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were in close agreement with the observed concentration data for rats. The scaled-up PB-PK model provided an excellent prediction of published terbinafine concentration-time data obtained after the administration of single and multiple oral doses in humans. The estimated volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) obtained from the PB-PK model agreed with the reported value of 11 liters/kg. The apparent volume of distribution of terbinafine in skin and adipose tissues accounted for 41 and 52%, respectively, of the Vss for humans, indicating that uptake into and redistribution from these tissues dominate the pharmacokinetic profile of terbinafine. The PB-PK model developed in this study was capable of accurately predicting the plasma and tissue terbinafine concentrations in both rats and humans and provides insight into the physiological factors that determine terbinafine disposition. PMID:12069977

  10. Establishment of an induced rat model of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dan; Wu Beihai; Yang Hongsheng; Song Guangyi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a convenient and practical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) model induced by crocidolite in Da Yao, which has a high induction rate and can be used for imaging and multiple experimental studies and is similar to human MPM. Methods 40 mg of crocidolite suspension was injected into the right chest cavity in 100 Wistar rats in the test group, while same amount of sterilized saline water was injected in 20 rats in the control group. The animals were observed daily , and weighted once a month. CT scanning was performed regularly. When the rats were dead or dying, they were dissected immediately and pathological changes were recorded after CT examination. The experiment lasted for 2 years. Results: The overall induction rate was 71.6%. The survival time of the first MPM rat was 285 days. The mean living span of rats with MPM was (469 ± 21) days. The pathological features of the induced MPMs were multiple morphologically and there were some CT features in different periods. CT imaging could show some MPM features and find the tumour earlier. Conclusion: The cause, positions, tissues and clinical condition of induced tumors were the same as humans. The model had a higher similarity with human MPM in differentiation degree and histological type, and the model can be used to study the mechanism of MPM, to discuss the measures of prevention, and to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Multi-morphology of the history from the induced tumors could make up the shortage, which was the difficulty in getting all periods of tissue samples in clinical research and being used in imaging and many kinds of researches. It was a valuable animal model to study MPM. (authors)

  11. Acoustic noise improves motor learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Eckernäs, Daniel; Holmblad, Olof; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of ADHD displays impaired motor learning. We used this characteristic to study if the recently described acoustic noise benefit in learning in children with ADHD is also observed in the SH rat model. SH rats and a Wistar control strain were trained in skilled reach and rotarod running under either ambient noise or in 75 dBA white noise. In other animals the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on motor learning was assessed with the same paradigms. To determine if acoustic noise influenced spontaneous motor activity, the effect of acoustic noise was also determined in the open field activity paradigm. We confirm impaired motor learning in the SH rat compared to Wistar SCA controls. Acoustic noise restored motor learning in SH rats learning the Montoya reach test and the rotarod test, but had no influence on learning in Wistar rats. Noise had no effect on open field activity in SH rats, but increased corner time in Wistar. MPH completely restored rotarod learning and performance but did not improve skilled reach in the SH rat. It is suggested that the acoustic noise benefit previously reported in children with ADHD is shared by the SH rat model of ADHD, and the effect is in the same range as that of stimulant treatment. Acoustic noise may be useful as a non-pharmacological alternative to stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction Regresses Endometriotic Lesions in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current therapies for endometriosis are restricted by various side effects and treatment outcome has been less than satisfactory. Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction (SZD, a classic traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM prescription for dysmenorrhea, has been widely used in clinical practice by TCM doctors to relieve symptoms of endometriosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SZD on a rat model of endometriosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats with regular estrous cycles went through autotransplantation operation to establish endometriosis model. Then 38 rats with successful ectopic implants were randomized into two groups: vehicle- and SZD-treated groups. The latter were administered SZD through oral gavage for 4 weeks. By the end of the treatment period, the volume of the endometriotic lesions was measured, the histopathological properties of the ectopic endometrium were evaluated, and levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, CD34, and hypoxia inducible factor- (HIF- 1α in the ectopic endometrium were detected with immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate (dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay. In this study, SZD significantly reduced the size of ectopic lesions in rats with endometriosis, inhibited cell proliferation, increased cell apoptosis, and reduced microvessel density and HIF-1α expression. It suggested that SZD could be an effective therapy for the treatment and prevention of endometriosis recurrence.

  13. [Clinical application of alendronate for osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Shen, Fei-Xia; Zheng, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Hai-Ling

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism. From April 2008 to November 2009, 27 patients with hyperthyroidism with osteoporosis/ osteopenia measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included in this study, and then they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) by simple random sampling. Group A consisted of 14 patients treated with antithyroid drug and caltrate D, the antithyroid drug change with thyroid function, and caltrate D 600 mg per day. Group B consisted of 13 patients treated with antithyroid drug, caltrate D and alendronate, antithyroid drug and caltrate D the same as group A, and alendronate 70 mg weekly. Meanwhile, 21 healthy voluntary adults were chosen as control group. And compared with the control group which was treated with nothing. Followed-up for one year, the bone mineral density (including T-score, Z-score, BMD) in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and distal radius (DR) and general information, were compared before and after treatment. BMD at FN and DR were significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group A (P = 0.000); T-score, Z-score, and BMD at the LS, FN and DR were all significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group B (P hyperthyroidism and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Compared with anti-thyroid drugs alone, treatment with alendronate can obtain more clinical effect and also very safety.

  14. Distinct mechanisms are responsible for osteopenia and growth retardation in OASIS-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Hino, Shin-Ichiro; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Wanaka, Akio; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), which is a new type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the CREB/ATF family that contains a transmembrane domain and is processed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to ER stress. OASIS is selectively expressed in certain types of cells such as astrocytes and osteoblasts. We have previously demonstrated that OASIS activates transcription of the type I collagen gene Col1a1 and contributes to the secretion of bone matrix proteins in osteoblasts, and that OASIS-/- mice exhibit osteopenia and growth retardation. In the present study, we examined whether osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice is rescued by OASIS introduction into osteoblasts. We generated OASIS-/- mice that specifically expressed OASIS in osteoblasts using a 2.3-kb osteoblast-specific type I collagen promoter (OASIS-/-;Tg mice). Histological analysis of OASIS-/-;Tg mice revealed that osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice was rescued by osteoblast-specific expression of the OASIS transgene. The decreased expression levels of type I collagen mRNAs in the bone tissues of OASIS-/- mice were recovered by the OASIS transgene accompanied by the rescue of an abnormal expansion of the rough ER in OASIS-/- osteoblasts. In contrast, growth retardation in OASIS-/- mice did not improve in OASIS-/-;Tg mice. Interestingly, the serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were downregulated in OASIS-/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice. These decreased GH and IGF-1 levels in OASIS-/- mice did not change when OASIS was introduced into osteoblasts. Taken together, these results indicate that OASIS regulates skeletal development by osteoblast-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a frozen shoulder model using immobilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Hwan; Lee, Kil-Ho; Lho, Yun-Mee; Ha, Eunyoung; Hwang, Ilseon; Song, Kwang-Soon; Cho, Chul-Hyun

    2016-12-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate serial changes for histology of joint capsule and range of motion of the glenohumeral joint after immobilization in rats. We hypothesized that a rat shoulder contracture model using immobilization would be capable of producing effects on the glenohumeral joint similar to those seen in patients with frozen shoulder. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control group (n = 8) and seven immobilization groups (n = 8 per group) that were immobilized with molding plaster for 3 days, or for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks. At each time point, eight rats were euthanized for histologic evaluation of the axillary recess and for measurement of the abduction angle. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was found in the synovial tissue until 2 weeks after immobilization. However, inflammatory cells were diminished and fibrosis was dominantly observed in the synovium and subsynovial tissue 3 weeks after immobilization. From 1 week after immobilization, the abduction angle of all immobilization groups at each time point was significantly lower than that of the control group. Our study demonstrated that a rat frozen shoulder model using immobilization generates the pathophysiologic process of inflammation leading to fibrosis on the glenohumeral joint similar to that seen in patients with frozen shoulder. This model was attained within 3 weeks after immobilization. It may serve as a useful tool to investigate pathogenesis at the molecular level and identify potential target genes that are involved in the development of frozen shoulder.

  16. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  17. Factores de riesgo asociados a osteopenia del prematuro en una terapia intensiva neonatal de referencia

    OpenAIRE

    MP Ríos-Moreno; MP Salinas-López ,; NB Pérez-Ornelas ,; TL Barajas-Serrano; JC Barrera-de León

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la enfermedad ósea metabólica del prematuro resulta de la desmineralización ósea. Existen factores que deben vigilarse con la finalidad de realizar diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano. OBJETIVO: determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a osteopenia en prematuros. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: estudio transversal comparativo de octubre del 2011 a octubre del 2013. Se incluyeron 120 prematuros < 37 semanas gestacionales, ≤ 1,500 gramos al nacer y ≥ 21 días. Diagnóstico de la enf...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for osteopenia/osteoporosis in an HIV-infected male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Janez; Ul, Katja; Volcansek, Gabriele; Gorensek, Samo; Pfeifer, Misa; Karner, Primoz; Prezelj, Janez; Vidmar, Gaj; Vidmar, Ludvik

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our investigation was to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in men with HIV/AIDS and evaluate the role of antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV and other risk factors in reducing bone mineral density (BMD). All known Slovenian HIV-infected ART-naïve and treated males (infected or treated > 12 months) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected on age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, family history of hip fracture, duration of infection, duration of ART, smoking, alcohol, exercise, viral load and CD4+ cells. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 96 patients (out of 133 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria) were assessed and allocated into three groups: group A (n = 24), ART-naïve; group B1 (n = 37), treated with non-protease-inhibitor (PI) containing ART; and group B2 (n = 35), treated with PI-containing ART. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 57/96 (59%): osteopenia 45/96 (47%) and osteoporosis 12/96 (12%). Significantly lower BMD was detected in group A (P = 0.020). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed ART to be an independent negative predictor for reduced BMD (P = 0.037; OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.93). Vitamin D(3) deficiency was detected in 79 (82%) of the patients. The study group represented 72% of the national HIV-infected male population; this proportion being higher than in any other study reported to date. The prevalence of reduced BMD was notably higher than the national prevalence among men of comparable age. There was no association between reduced BMD and any specific ART. According to our results, absence of ART was confirmed as an independent predictor of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Targeted screening and early treatment present a reasonable strategy for preventing reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients, but correcting vitamin D(3) levels could also be an important component.

  19. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  20. Prevention of injury by resveratrol in a rat model of adenine-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorous, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in rat urine samples after 2 months of adenine ... parathyroid hormone, phosphorous and FGF-23 levels (p < 0.002). In rats ... cartilage degradation in animal models of arthritis. [11].

  1. Protective effects of Naringin in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generation and downregulating inflammatory markers in an SCI rat model. Keywords: Naringin ... intestinal microflora to yield a metabolite called naringenin ... disease (PD). Moreover .... CAT was significantly reduced in SCII rats compared ...

  2. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; p<0.01), which demonstrated that Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient and reliable technique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat

  3. Creation of Consistent Burn Wounds: A Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Zhengyang Cai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn infliction techniques are poorly described in rat models. An accurate study can only be achieved with wounds that are uniform in size and depth. We describe a simple reproducible method for creating consistent burn wounds in rats. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and dorsum shaved. A 100 g cylindrical stainless-steel rod (1 cm diameter was heated to 100℃ in boiling water. Temperature was monitored using a thermocouple. We performed two consecutive toe-pinch tests on different limbs to assess the depth of sedation. Burn infliction was limited to the loin. The skin was pulled upwards, away from the underlying viscera, creating a flat surface. The rod rested on its own weight for 5, 10, and 20 seconds at three different sites on each rat. Wounds were evaluated for size, morphology and depth. Results Average wound size was 0.9957 cm2 (standard deviation [SD] 0.1845 (n=30. Wounds created with duration of 5 seconds were pale, with an indistinct margin of erythema. Wounds of 10 and 20 seconds were well-defined, uniformly brown with a rim of erythema. Average depths of tissue damage were 1.30 mm (SD 0.424, 2.35 mm (SD 0.071, and 2.60 mm (SD 0.283 for duration of 5, 10, 20 seconds respectively. Burn duration of 5 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage. Burn duration of 10 seconds and 20 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage, involving subjacent skeletal muscle. Conclusions This is a simple reproducible method for creating burn wounds consistent in size and depth in a rat burn model.

  4. induced cerebral injury in a rat model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There was a significant decrease in neurological deficit, brain oedema, and volume of ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or .... Moreover, the percentage of infarct volume was.

  5. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-01-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and dive...

  6. Which Clinical Guidelines Should Be Implemented for Management of Osteopenia in Primary Care? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turia Hollingsworth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature review was conducted to determine clinical guidelines for osteopenia management of immunocompetent patients in the primary care setting. It was concluded that pharmacological treatment should be offered to patients with osteopenia if they are considered high risk, which can be determined by utilizing the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® to evaluate 10-year risk. Patients with a calculated hip fracture probability of at least 3% or those with probability of 20% or more for all osteoporotic fractures may be offered bisphosphonate therapy.

  7. Frequency of osteopenia and associated risk factors among young female students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.R.; Ahmed, S.I.; Khan, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the frequency of osteopenia and associated risk factors among young female students. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from August 2011 to January 2012, and comprised young female students. Convenient sampling method was used. Age, residence, sun exposure, menstrual status, level of physical activity, exercise, vitamin D, calcium intake were variables of interest. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was used to measure bone mineral density on the lumbar spine, hip, femur and distal forearm. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 100(76.9%) students were included in this study. The age range was 20-30 years. Overall,70(70%)participants were osteopenic, while 30(30%) were normal. Age<25 years, living with less exposure to sun, less physical activity and diet low in calcium and vitamin D were common risk factors. Conclusion: The frequency of osteopenia was significantly high among young female students. (author)

  8. The concentration of kynurenine in rat model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mroczko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the immune system activation. Evidence is accumulating about the role of kynurenine pathway in the immune system regulation. The kynurenine pathway includes several metabolites of tryptophan, among others kynurenine (KYN. To study the immunological system regulation in asthma a simple and sensitive models of asthma are required. In the present study we induced rat model of asthma using ovalbumin (OVA sensitization followed by challenge with OVA. The development of asthma has been confirmed by plasma total IgE measurement and the histological examination. The concentration of KYN has been determined in plasma, lungs and liver by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In OVA sensitized rats the concentration of total IgE was statistically significantly increased as compared to VEH sensitized control groups (437.6 +/- 97.7 kU/l vs 159.2 +/- 22.7 kU/l, respectively; p< 0.01. In asthmatic animals, the number of eosinophils, neutrophils and mast cells increased considerably, and epithelial lesion and the increase in airway epithelium goblet cells and edema of bronchial mucosa were present. We did not observe any significant changes in the concentration of KYN in plasma, lungs or liver between studied groups. In conclusion, the concentration of KYN remains unchanged in asthmatic animals as compared to control groups. Further studies using rat model of asthma are warranted to establish the role of kynurenine pathway regulation in asthma.

  9. Aerosol Infection Model of Tuberculosis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshagiri Gaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  10. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Antero; Simão, Antônio Felipe Leite; Miranda, Samuel de Paula; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Bezerra, Nilfácio Prado; Almeida, Paulo Roberto Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing. Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 +/- 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. The tumor take rate was 94.7% for implants with 4 x 10(5) tumor cells, HRCT and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.953; p<0.0001), the median time of survival was 11 days, and surgical mortality was 4.8%. The present rat lung tumor model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. HRCT was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  11. The Fischer 344 rat as a model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syka, Josef

    2010-06-01

    Due to the rising number of the aged human population all over the world, presbycusis is a phenomenon that deserves the increasing attention of the medical community as regards to prevention and treatment. This requires finding appropriate animal models for human presbycusis that will be useful in future experiments. Among the available rat strains, the Fischer 344 (F344) strain promises to serve as a model producing prompt and profound presbycusis. Hearing thresholds begin to increase in this strain during the first year of life; toward the end of the second year, the thresholds are very high. The threshold shifts progress independently in both ears. The rapid deterioration of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, with the majority of outer hair cells (OHC) being present and morphologically intact, is apparently produced by the disruption of prestin. The age-related changes within inner ear function are accompanied by deterioration of acoustical signal processing within central auditory system, mainly due to impaired GABA inhibition. The loss of GABA inhibition in old animals is expressed primarily in the inferior colliculus but is also present in the cochlear nuclei and the auditory cortex. Sound-evoked behavioral reactions are also impaired in old F344 rats. Taken together, the described characteristics of the aging F344 rat auditory system supports the idea that this strain may serve as a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of presbycusis, its prevention and treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Campetelli, German; Basualdo, Marta; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization there are over 220 million people in the world with diabetes and 3.4 million people died in 2004 as a consequence of this pathology. Development of an artificial pancreas would allow to restore control of blood glucose by coupling an infusion pump to a continuous glucose sensor in the blood. The design of such a device requires the development and application of mathematical models which represent the gluco-regulatory system. Models developed by other research groups describe very well the gluco-regulatory system but have a large number of mathematical equations and require complex methodologies for the estimation of its parameters. In this work we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy rats. The proposed model consists of three differential equations and 8 parameters that describe the variation of: blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration and amount of glucose in the intestine. All parameters were obtained by setting functions to the values of glucose and insulin in blood obtained after oral glucose administration. In vivo and in silico validations were performed. Additionally, a qualitative analysis has been done to verify the aforementioned model. We have shown that this model has a single, biologically consistent equilibrium point. This model is a first step in the development of a mathematical model for the type I diabetic rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.M. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  14. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model

  15. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.M. Dias

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  16. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  17. A rat model for embolic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Aalbæk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    have recently shown that sepsis is a common cause of microabscesses in the brain, and that S. aureus is one of the most common organisms isolated from these abscesses. This raises the question whether the blood-brain barrier truly makes the brain an immune-privileged organ or not. This makes the brain...... a most interesting organ in sepsis patients. However, symptoms of brain infection may be confused with systemic responses and gross neuropathologic lesions may be absent. Brain infection in sepsis patients is therefore prone to misclassification or diagnostic delay, and when the diagnosis is made...... it is difficult to obtain tissue for further examination. This puts a hard demand on animal models of brain lesions in sepsis. We hereby present a novel animal model of embolic encephalitis. Our model introduces bacteria by an embolus to an area of brain necrosis and damage to the blood-brain...

  18. Modeling the mechanical properties of liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Song, Liang

    2016-06-14

    The progression of liver fibrosis changes the biomechanical properties of liver tissue. This study characterized and compared different liver fibrosis stages in rats in terms of viscoelasticity. Three viscoelastic models, the Voigt, Maxwell, and Zener models, were applied to experimental data from rheometer tests and then the elasticity and viscosity were estimated for each fibrosis stage. The study found that both elasticity and viscosity are correlated with the various stages of liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the Zener model is the optimal model for describing the mechanical properties of each fibrosis stage, but there is no significant difference between the Zener and Voigt models in their performance on liver fibrosis staging. Therefore the Voigt model can still be effectively used for liver fibrosis grading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Rat Model for Muscle Regeneration in the Soft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Helmich, Maria P. A. C.; Ulrich, Dietmar J. O.; Von den Hoff, Johannes W.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. Despite successful surgical repositioning of the muscles, optimal function is often not achieved. Scar formation and defective regeneration may hamper the functional recovery of the muscles after cleft palate repair. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate in rats, and to establish an in vivo model for muscle regeneration after surgical injury. Methods Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 (n = 4) and 2 (n = 2) were used to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate, respectively. Group 3 (n = 6) was used for surgical wounding of the soft palate, and group 4 (n = 2) was used as unwounded control group. The wounds (1 mm) were evaluated by (immuno)histochemistry (AZAN staining, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG, MyHC, and ASMA) after 7 days. Results The present study shows that the anatomy and histology of the soft palate muscles of the rat is largely comparable with that in humans. All wounds showed clinical evidence of healing after 7 days. AZAN staining demonstrated extensive collagen deposition in the wound area, and initial regeneration of muscle fibers and salivary glands. Proliferating and differentiating satellite cells were identified in the wound area by antibody staining. Conclusions This model is the first, suitable for studying muscle regeneration in the rat soft palate, and allows the development of novel adjuvant strategies to promote muscle regeneration after cleft palate surgery. PMID:23554995

  20. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  1. [Establishment of rat model with diabetes mellitus and concomitant periodontitis and the carotid artery lesions in the model rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X Y; Wang, C; Liu, X; Li, H; Gao, J H; Ge, X J

    2017-12-09

    Objectives: To establish SD rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant chronic periodontitis (CP) and to evaluate the influence of periodontitis on the vascular lesions of type 2 diabetes rats. Methods: Totally 241 clean level SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, group A (normal control, NC, n= 27), group B (DM, n= 34), group C (CP, n= 90) and group D (DM+CP, n= 90). The rats of DM group were fed with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 8 to 10 weeks, and then were multiply injected with small dose streptozotocin under the condition of ice bath. Blood sugar levels after the injection were dynamically monitored at 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. The CP model was established by means of ligation. Bilateral maxillary first and second molars were selected and ligated using 0.2 mm orthodontic wires binding with 4-0 surgical suture soaked with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) suspension. After a period of 14 weeks, all the rats were put to death. Maxillary samples were subjected to methylene blue staining to observe alveolar bone loss. Bilateral carotid artery specimens were collected. The left carotid artery specimens were used to detect the prevalence of Pg using quantitative real-time PCR. The right carotid artery specimens were used to observe pathological changes. Results: Blood sugar levels of rats in group B and D increased and changed sharply after Streptozotocin injection with in 1 week. Symptoms of 'more drink, more food and body weight loss' appeared. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) was more than 7.8 mmol/L and (or) the random blood glucose (RBG) was more than 17.8 mmol/L. Both FBG and RBG became stable after 2 to 3 weeks. Levels of HbA1C in group B and D ([7.32±0.45]%, [9.41±0.45]%) were significantly higher than that of group A ([4.02±0.45]%) ( Pdiabetes vascular lesions.

  2. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia

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    Fujiwara S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia.Materials and methods: Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain. Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis.Results: Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications, but not the hip region (eight publications, a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications, decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications, improved hip structural geometry (two publications, improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications, a low incidence of hot flushes

  3. Preemptive analgesic effects of midazolam and diclofenac in rat model

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    Antigona Hasani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the preemptive analgesic effects of intraperitoneally administrated midazolam and diclofenac, before acute and inflammatory induced pain in rat model.One hundred twenty-eight (n=8 in each group male Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. Paw movements in response to thermal stimulation or paw flinching in response to formalin injection were compared after midazolam (0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal administration. Saline was used as a control.Preemptive analgesic effect was significant in both tests when diclofenac and midazolam was administrated before the pain stimuli (p<0.01 and p<0.001. Intraperitoneal injection of midazolam in doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, increase the response time in hot plate test and decrease the number of flinches in formalin test (p<0.01 vs. p<0.001. ED50 of midazolam (with diclofenac in hot plate test was 2.02 mg/kg (CI95% =-3.47-5.03 mg; and, 0.9 mg/kg (CI95% =-0.87-4.09 mg in phase I and 0.7 mg/kg (CI95% = 0.48-6.63 mg in phase II, in formalin test.Intraperitoneally administered midazolam and diclofenac had preemptive analgesic effects on acute thermal, and inflammatory induced pain in rats.

  4. Animal model of rapid crystalloid infusion in rats

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    Flavio Stillitano Orgaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an animal model of rapid intravenous infusion with different volumes of crystalloid and discuss the clinical findings. METHODS: Fifty six male Wistar rats were used, divided randomly in seven groups (n = 8. The rats of groups 1 to 6 received lactated Ringer´s solution intravenously, in the rate of 25 ml/min, with different volumes proportional to blood volume (BV. The rats of group 0 were submitted to the same procedure, but did not receive the fluid (control group. The data included respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 in two times (before and after the infusion, and upshots (respiratory arrest and death. Dunnett´s test and ANOVA were used. RESULTS: The clinical signs significantly changed in the 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. The respiratory arrest was observed in the 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups, but death was present only in 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. CONCLUSIONS: The infusion of crystalloid in the same volume of blood volume did not cause significant variation in respiratory and heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen and did not induce respiratory arrest. The infusion of a volume of 3 fold blood volume was lethal to all animals.

  5. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

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    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  6. Comparison of two models of inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cristina Sorina; Magdas, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu Alexandru; Crăciun, Elena Cristina; Deak, Georgiana; Magdaş, Virginia Ana; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2018-03-26

    There is a need for experimental animal models for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but no proposed model has been unanimously accepted. The aim of this study was to develop 2 affordable models of IBD in rats and to compare them. We produced IBD in rats using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The requirements for experimental models were: a predictable clinical course, histopathology and inflammation similar to human ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The effect of acute administration of DSS and TNBS on oxidative stress (as measured by the assessment of glutathione peroxidase - GPx) was verified. The activity of whole blood GPx was measured using a commercially available Randox kit (Crumlin, UK). The administration of DSS increased GPx activity compared to the control and TNBS-treated groups, but not to a statistically significant degree. Histological examination of the colonic mucosa following the administration of DSS showed multifocal erosions with minimal to mild inflammatory infiltrate, mainly by polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), lymphocytes and plasma cells. For TNBS-induced colitis, the histological changes manifested as multifocal areas of ulcerative colitis with mild to severe inflammatory infiltrate. Whole blood GPx values displayed a direct dependence on the chemical agent used. Our results show a correlation between histopathology, proinflammatory state and oxidative stress. The experimental DSSor TNBS-induced bowel inflammation used in this study corresponds to human IBD and is reproducible with characteristics indicative of acute inflammation in the case of the protocols mentioned.

  7. Evaluation of periodontal condition of menopause women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and comparison with control group

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    Khorsand A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several risk factors directly affect the development of periodontal diseases. Also some systemic diseases act indirectly as predisposing and aggrevating factors. Osteoporosis is one of these factors and one of its main causes is lack of physical activity in postmenopause period. The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing in our country. The goal of this study was to evaluate the periodontal condition of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital in 2003 and compare to control group. Materials and Methods: In this case control study based on BMD (Bone Mineral Density measurement of back and thigh using DEXA method, 60 patients referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital, were randomly selected. Cases were divided into three groups, 20 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 20 normal cases. Periodontal indices consisting of plaque index (PI, tooth loss (TL, gingival recession (GR, probing pocket depth (PPD and papilla bleeding index (PBI were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: PBI, PI and TL were significantly higher in osteoporotic group than osteopenic and normal group. PPD was not different in the three groups. Due to the low prevalence of recession in our study, this parameter was not included in the statistical analysis. Conclusion: It seems that osteoporosis does not increase the incidence of periodontal diseases because it affects bone quality rather than quantity. In osteoporosis calcium deficiency and increasing age lead to decreased physical activity and ultimately affect the patient's oral hygiene performance. Thus, periodontal manifestations are presented as gingival bleeding and gingivitis.

  8. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  9. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions.

  10. Vascularized anal autotransplantation model in rats: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, J; Mihara, M; Narushima, M; Iida, T; Sato, T; Koshima, I

    2011-11-01

    Ostomy has served as an effective surgery for various anorectal disfunctions. However, it must also be noted that those patients suffered greatly from stresses caused by their stoma. Many alternative therapies have been developed, but none have solved this critical issue. Meanwhile, due to the improvements in operative methods and immunosuppressive therapy, allotranplantation has gained great popularity in recent years. Therefore, we began development of an anal transplantation model. The operation was performed in six adult Wistar rats that were divided into two groups. Group 1 underwent vascular anastomoses, while group 2 did not Group 1 grafts survived, fully recovering anal function. However, many of the group 2 grafts did not survive; those that did survive showed major defects in their anus, never recovering anal function. We succeeded in establishing the rat anal transplantation model utilizing super-microsurgery. While research in anal transplantation was behind compared to that in other fields, we hope that this model will bring significant possibilities for the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

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    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  12. A novel model for NSAID induced gastroenteropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra Pratap; Borse, Swapnil P; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Progress in management of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastrointestinal toxicity requires the availability of appropriate experimental animal models that are as close to humans as feasible. Our objective was to develop a rat model for NSAID-induced gastroenteropathy and also to simulate the common clinical scenario of co-administration of NSAID and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to explore if PPI contribute to exacerbation of NSAID-enteropathy. Rats were treated twice daily with pantoprazole sodium (PTZ; 10mg/kg peroral) or vehicle for a total of 10days. In some experiments, Diclofenac sodium (DCF; 9mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally twice daily for the final 5days of PTZ/vehicle administration. After the last dose on 9th day, rats in all the groups were fasted but water was provided ad libitum. 12h after the last dose on 10th day, rats in all the groups were euthanized and their gastrointestinal tracts were assessed for haemorrhagic lesions, lipid peroxidation, intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal luminal pH alterations. Changes in haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum levels of albumin, total protein, ALT and bilirubin were calculated. The macroscopic and histological evidence suggested that administration of DCF resulted in significant gastroenteropathic damage and co-administration of PTZ resulted in significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy, while attenuation of NSAID induced gastropathy was observed. Our results were further supported by the significant decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels and serum levels of albumin and total proteins, an increase in oxidative stress and intestinal permeability with the use of DCF either alone or in combination with PTZ. This model was developed to simulate the human clinical situation during NSAID therapy and indeed the present DCF regimen caused both gastric and small bowel alterations, such as multiple erosive lesions, together with a decrease in haemoglobin, haematocrit

  13. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

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    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  14. Microsurgical Bypass Training Rat Model: Part 2-Anastomosis Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Yousef, Sonia; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau

    2017-11-01

    Mastery of microsurgical anastomosis is key to achieving good outcomes in cerebrovascular bypass procedures. Animal models (especially rodents) provide an optimal preclinical bypass training platform. However, the existing models for practicing different anastomosis configurations have several limitations. We sought to optimize the use of the rat's abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIA) for practicing the 3 main anastomosis configurations commonly used in cerebrovascular surgery. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia. The abdominal aorta and the CIAs were exposed. The distances between the major branches of the aorta were measured to find the optimal location for an end-to-end anastomosis. Also, the feasibility of performing side-to-side and end-to-side anastomoses between the CIAs was assessed. All bypass configurations could be performed between the left renal artery and the CIA bifurcation. The longest segments of the aorta without major branches were 1) between the left renal and left iliolumbar arteries (16.9 mm ± 4.6), and 2) between the right iliolumbar artery and the aortic bifurcation (9.7 mm ± 4.7). The CIAs could be juxtaposed for an average length of 7.6 mm ± 1.3, for a side-to-side anastomosis. The left CIA could be successfully reimplanted on to the right CIA at an average distance of 9.1 mm ± 1.6 from the aortic bifurcation. Our results show that rat's abdominal aorta and CIAs may be effectively used for all the anastomosis configurations used in cerebral revascularization procedures. We also provide technical nuances and anatomic descriptions to plan for practicing each bypass configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The physiological response of obese rat model with rambutan peel extract treatment

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    Sri Rahayu Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body weight gain, expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1 receptor on obese rat model treated with rambutan peel extract (RPE as a physiological response. Methods: Normal and obese rat feed with normal and high calorie diet around 1 2 weeks and continued to treat with ellagic acid, RPE 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg body weight respectively. Physiological responses observed were weight gain and expression of Igf-1 with its receptor. Body weight of rat was weighed once per week. Expression of Igf-1 and igf-1R observed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The intensity of Igf-1 and Igf-1R expression was analysis using FSX-BSW software. Results: The lowest weight gain was obtained on obese rat model treated with RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. The expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R were reduced on obese rat model treated with RPE compared with obese rat model of non treatment (P<0.05. The low expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R was found on obese rat model treated with ellagic acid and RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: The RPE was effecting to the physiological response on obese rat model. The RPE 30 mg/kg body weight inhibited body weight gain and decreased the expression of Igf-1 and Igf- 1R of obese rat model.

  16. Bone mineral content in the senescent rat femur: an assessment using single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebzak, G.M.; Smith, R.; Howe, J.C.; Sacktor, B.

    1988-01-01

    The single photon absorptiometry technique was evaluated for measuring bone mineral content (BMC) of the excised femurs of the rat, and the system was used to examine the changes in cortical and trabecular bone from young adult (6 mo), mature adult (12 mo), and senescent (24 mo) male and female animals. BMC of the femur midshaft, representing cortical bone, apparently increased progressively with advancing age. The width of the femur at the scan site also increased with age. Normalizing the midshaft BMC by width partially compensated for the age-associated increase. However, when bone mineral values were normalized by the cortical area at the scan site, to take into account the geometric differences in the femurs of different aged animals, maximum bone densities were found in the mature adult and these values decreased slightly in the femurs from senescent rats. In contrast, the BMC of the femur distal metaphysis, representing trabecular bone, decreased markedly in the aged rat. The loss of trabecular bone was also evident from morphological examination of the distal metaphysis. These findings indicated that bone mineral loss with age was site specific in the rat femur. These studies provided additional evidence that the rat might serve as a useful animal model for specific experiments related to the pathogenesis of age-associated osteopenia

  17. A rat model of concurrent combined injuries (polytrauma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akscyn, Robert M; Franklin, J Lee; Gavrikova, Tatyana A; Schwacha, Martin G; Messina, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    Polytrauma, a combination of injuries to more than one body part or organ system, is common in modern warfare and in automobile and industrial accidents. The combination of injuries can include burn injury, fracture, hemorrhage, trauma to the extremities, and trauma to specific organ systems. To investigate the effects of combined injuries, we have developed a new and highly reproducible model of polytrauma. This model combines burn injury with soft tissue and gastrointestinal (GI) tract trauma. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a 15-20% total body surface area scald burn, or a single puncture of the cecum with a G30 needle, or the combination of both injuries (polytrauma). Unlike many ‘double hit’ models, the injuries in our model were performed simultaneously. We asked whether multiple minor injuries, when combined, would result in a distinct phenotype, different from single minor injuries or a more severe single injury. There were differences between the single injuries and polytrauma in the maintenance of blood glucose, body temperature, body weight, hepatic mRNA and circulating levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and hepatic ER-stress. It has been suggested that models utilizing combinatorial injuries may be needed to more accurately model the human condition. We believe our model is ideal for studying the complex sequelae of polytrauma, which differs from single injuries. Insights gained from this model may suggest better treatment options to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26884923

  18. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model for the Thyroid Hormones in the Pregnant Rat and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A developmental PBPK model is constructed to quantitatively describe the tissue economy of the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the rat. The model is also used to link maternal (THs) to rat fetal tissues via placental transfer. THs are importan...

  19. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecuti...

  20. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ... Keywords: Mineral elements, Alkaline phosphatase, Isoflavones, Bone loss, Notch pathway. This is an Open .... incubated for 3 h in 5% non-fat-milk blocking solution at ..... protect against osteopenia in ovariectomised rats.

  1. Establishment of a rat model of early-stage liver failure and Th17/Treg imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    LI Dong; LU Zhonghua; GAN Jianhe

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the methods for establishing a rat model of early-stage liver failure and the changes in Th17, Treg, and Th17/Treg after dexamethasone and thymosin interventions. MethodsA total of 64 rats were randomly divided into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group and endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) combination group to establish the rat model of early-stage liver failure. The activities of the rats and changes in liver function and whole blood Th17 and ...

  2. Curative effect of sesame oil in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Chien, Se-Ping; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes a progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. We investigated the curative effect of sesame oil, a natural, nutrient-rich, potent antioxidant, in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease was induced by subcutaneously injecting uni-nephrectomized rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and 1% NaCl [DOCA/salt] in drinking water. Four weeks later, the rats were gavaged with sesame oil (0.5 or 1 mL/kg per day) for 7 days. Renal injury, histopathological changes, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation, Nrf2, osteopontin expression, and collagen were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urine volume, and albuminuria were significantly higher in the DOCA/salt treated rats than in control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased these four tested parameters in DOCA/salt treated rats. In addition, creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression were significantly decreased in the DOCA/salt treated rats compared to control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite level, lipid peroxidation, osteopontin, and renal collagen deposition, but increased creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression in DOCA/salt treated rats. We conclude that supplementation of sesame oil mitigates DOCA/salt induced chronic kidney disease in rats by activating Nrf2 and attenuating osteopontin expression and inhibiting renal fibrosis in rats. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis: identifying and characterising polymorphisms using rat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder characterised by erosive inflammation of the articular cartilage and by destruction of the synovial joints. It is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, and, currently, there is no preventative treatment or cure for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified ∼100 new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to the already known locus within the major histocompatibility complex II region. However, together, these loci account for only a modest fraction of the genetic variance associated with this disease and very little is known about the pathogenic roles of most of the risk loci identified. Here, we discuss how rat models of rheumatoid arthritis are being used to detect quantitative trait loci that regulate different arthritic traits by genetic linkage analysis and to positionally clone the underlying causative genes using congenic strains. By isolating specific loci on a fixed genetic background, congenic strains overcome the challenges of genetic heterogeneity and environmental interactions associated with human studies. Most importantly, congenic strains allow functional experimental studies be performed to investigate the pathological consequences of natural genetic polymorphisms, as illustrated by the discovery of several major disease genes that contribute to arthritis in rats. We discuss how these advances have provided new biological insights into arthritis in humans. PMID:27736747

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of traumatic brain in SD rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke; Li Yangbin; Li Zhiming; Huang Yong; Li Bin; Lu Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value and prospect of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in early diagnosis of traumatic brain with traumatic brain model in SD rats. Methods: Traumatic brain modal was established in 40 male SD rats utilizing a weigh-drop device, and MRS was performed before trauma and 4,8,24 and 48 hours after trauma. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Ct) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were calculated and compared with pathological findings respectively. Results: Axonal changes were confirmed in microscopic study 4 hours after injury. The ratio of NAA/Ct decreased distinctly at 4 hours after trauma, followed by a steadily recover at 8 hours, and no significant change from 24h to 48h. There was no significant change in the ratio of Cho/Cr before and after trauma. Conclusion: MRS can be used to monitor the metabolic changes of brain non-invasively. MRS could play a positive role in early diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of traumatic brain. (authors)

  5. A new model of progressive pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, J.A.; Gelzleichter, T.R.; Pinkerton, K.E.; Walker, R.M.; Witschi, H. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h daily to 0.8 ppm of ozone and 14.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Approximately 7 to 10 wk after the initiation of exposure, animals began to demonstrate respiratory insufficiency and severe weight loss. About half of the rats died between Days 55 and 78 of exposure; no overt ill effects were observed in animals exposed to filtered air, to ozone alone, or to nitrogen dioxide. Biochemical findings in animals exposed to ozone and nitrogen dioxide included increased lung content of DNA, protein, collagen, and elastin, which was about 300% higher than the control values. The collagen-specific crosslink hydroxy-pyridinium, a biomarker for mature collagen in the lung, was decreased by about 40%. These results are consistent with extensive breakdown and remodeling of the lung parenchyma and its associated vasculature. Histopathologic evaluation showed severe fibrosis, alveolar collapse, honeycombing, macrophage and mast cell accumulation, vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy, and other indications of severe progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and end-stage lung disease. This unique animal model of progressive pulmonary fibrosis resembles the final stages of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and should facilitate studying underlying mechanisms and potential therapy of progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Wendan decoction improves learning and memory deficits in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yang; Changchun Cai; Xiaojin Yang; Yanping Yang; Zhigang Zhou; Jianhua Liu; Heping Ye; Hongjiao Wan

    2012-01-01

    An experimental model of schizophrenia was established using dizocilpine (MK-801). Rats were intragastrically administered with Wendan decoction or clozapine for 21 days prior to establishing the model. The results revealed that the latency of schizophrenia model rats to escape from the hidden platform in the Morris water maze was significantly shortened after administration of Wendan decoction or clozapine. In addition, the treated rats crossed the platform significantly more times than the untreated model rats. Moreover, the rate of successful long-term potentiation induction in the Wendan decoction group and clozapine group were also obviously increased compared with the model group, and the population spike peak latency was significantly shortened. These experimental findings suggest that Wendan decoction can improve the learning and memory ability of schizophrenic rats to the same extent as clozapine treatment.

  7. Characterization of the Prediabetic State in a Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes, the ZFDM Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheni, Ghupurjan; Yokoi, Norihide; Beppu, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Takuro; Hidaka, Shihomi; Kawabata, Ayako; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Hoshino, Masayuki; Seino, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    We recently established a novel animal model of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D), the Zucker fatty diabetes mellitus (ZFDM) rat strain harboring the fatty mutation (fa) in the leptin receptor gene. Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6-8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin GLP-1 were retained. At 10-12 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited marked glucose intolerance as well as severe insulin resistance similar to that at the earlier age. In the pancreatic islets, the insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation was maintained but the response to the incretin was diminished. In nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF) rats, the insulin secretory responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin in the pancreatic islets were similar to those of ZFDM rats. As islet architecture was destroyed with age in ZFDM rats, a combination of severe insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretory response to incretin, and intrinsic fragility of the islets may cause the development of T2D in this strain.

  8. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  9. Bioburden Increases Heterotopic Ossification Formation in an Established Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Gabriel J; Qureshi, Ammar T; Hope, Donald N; Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Potter, Benjamin K; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) develops in a majority of combat-related amputations wherein early bacterial colonization has been considered a potential early risk factor. Our group has recently developed a small animal model of trauma-induced HO that incorporates many of the multifaceted injury patterns of combat trauma in the absence of bacterial contamination and subsequent wound colonization. We sought to determine if (1) the presence of bioburden (Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) increases the magnitude of ectopic bone formation in traumatized muscle after amputation; and (2) what persistent effects bacterial contamination has on late microbial flora within the amputation site. Using a blast-related HO model, we exposed 48 rats to blast overpressure, femur fracture, crush injury, and subsequent immediate transfemoral amputation through the zone of injury. Control injured rats (n = 8) were inoculated beneath the myodesis with phosphate-buffered saline not containing bacteria (vehicle) and treatment rats were inoculated with 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units of A baumannii (n = 20) or MRSA (n = 20). All animals formed HO. Heterotopic ossification was determined by quantitative volumetric measurements of ectopic bone at 12-weeks postinjury using micro-CT and qualitative histomorphometry for assessment of new bone formation in the residual limb. Bone marrow and muscle tissue biopsies were collected from the residual limb at 12 weeks to quantitatively measure the bioburden load and to qualitatively determine the species-level identification of the bacterial flora. At 12 weeks, we observed a greater volume of HO in rats infected with MRSA (68.9 ± 8.6 mm(3); 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.52-85.55) when compared with A baumannii (20.9 ± 3.7 mm(3); 95% CI, 13.61-28.14; p infection but were positive for other strains of bacteria (1.33 × 10(2) ± 0.89 × 10(2); 95% CI, -0.42 × 10(2)-3.08 × 10(2) and 1.25 × 10(6) ± 0

  10. Effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyturk, Mujde; Saygili, Saba Mukaddes; Baskin, Huseyin; Sagol, Ozgul; Yilmaz, Osman; Saygili, Fatih; Akpinar, Hale

    2012-11-28

    To investigate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) in an experimental rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Thirty-two Wistar albino female rats were categorized into five groups. On the first day of the study, 50 mg TNBS was administered via a rectal catheter in order to induce colitis in all rats, except those in the control group. For 14 d, the rats were fed a standard diet, without the administration of any additional supplements to either the control or TNBS groups, in addition to 1 mg/kg per day S. boulardii to the S. boulardii group, 1 mg/kg per day methyl prednisolone (MP) to the MP group. The animals in the S. boulardii + MP group were coadministered these doses of S. boulardii and MP. During the study, weight loss, stool consistency, and the presence of obvious blood in the stool were evaluated, and the disease activity index (DAI) for colitis was recorded. The intestines were examined and colitis was macro- and microscopically scored. The serum and tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined, and fungemia was evaluated in the blood samples. The mean DAI scores for the MP and S. boulardii + MP groups was significantly lower than the TNBS group (3.69 ± 0.61 vs 4.46 ± 0.34, P = 0.018 and 3.77 ± 0.73 vs 4.46 ± 0.34, P = 0.025, respectively). While no significant differences between the TNBS and the S. boulardii or MP groups could be determined in terms of serum NO levels, the level of serum NO in the S. boulardii + MP group was significantly higher than in the TNBS and S. boulardii groups (8.12 ± 4.25 μmol/L vs 3.18 ± 1.19 μmol/L, P = 0.013; 8.12 ± 4.25 μmol/L vs 3.47 ± 1.66 μmol/L, P = 0.012, respectively). The tissue NO levels in the S. boulardii, MP and S. boulardii + MP groups were significantly lower than the TNBS group (16.62 ± 2.27 μmol/L vs 29.72 ± 6.10 μmol/L, P = 0.002; 14.66 ± 5.18 μmol/L vs 29.72 ± 6.10 μmol/L, P = 0.003; 11.95 ± 2

  11. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  12. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Valentinuzzi, Maria Cecilia; Grenon, Miram; Abraham, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: jsan@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Valentinuzzi, Maria Cecilia [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Grenon, Miram [Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Abraham, Jose [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  14. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  15. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  16. Efficacy of integrative medicine in deficiency of both qi and yin in the rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: A rat model of T2DM with both qi and yin deficiency was successfully replicated. CHF appeared to be more efficacious than IM and PIO in the rat model of qi and yin deficiency pattern of T2DM, though IM and PIO were each found to have their merits and drawbacks in attenuating T2DM indicators in the rat model.

  17. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  18. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (ppilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (ppilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (ppilates group (ppilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.

  19. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  20. Cyclosporin safety in a simplified rat brain tumor implantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate. This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08±6.7 mm³ on the 7th day and 67.25±19.8 mm³ on 9th day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.

  1. Monte Carlo-based dose reconstruction in a rat model for scattered ionizing radiation investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Anna; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-09-01

    In radiation biology, rats are often irradiated, but the precise dose distributions are often lacking, particularly in areas that receive scatter radiation. We used a non-dedicated set of resources to calculate detailed dose distributions, including doses to peripheral organs well outside of the primary field, in common rat exposure settings. We conducted a detailed dose reconstruction in a rat through an analog to the conventional human treatment planning process. The process consisted of: (i) Characterizing source properties of an X-ray irradiator system, (ii) acquiring a computed tomography (CT) scan of a rat model, and (iii) using a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine to generate the dose distribution within the rat model. We considered cranial and liver irradiation scenarios where the rest of the body was protected by a lead shield. Organs of interest were the brain, liver and gonads. The study also included paired scenarios where the dose to adjacent, shielded rats was determined as a potential control for analysis of bystander effects. We established the precise doses and dose distributions delivered to the peripheral organs in single and paired rats. Mean doses to non-targeted organs in irradiated rats ranged from 0.03-0.1% of the reference platform dose. Mean doses to the adjacent rat peripheral organs were consistent to within 10% those of the directly irradiated rat. This work provided details of dose distributions in rat models under common irradiation conditions and established an effective scenario for delivering only scattered radiation consistent with that in a directly irradiated rat.

  2. Effects of Hot Water Extracts from Polygonum multiflorum on Ovariectomy Induced Osteopenia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum (PM, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat various diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. However, the influence of PM on osteoporosis in animals is unclear. The present study investigated the antiosteoporotic effect of PM on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. Twenty-five female C3H/HeN mice were divided into five groups of five mice as follows. Sham-operated control mice received daily oral gavage of an equal volume of water, and OVX mice received daily oral gavage of water or an injection of β-estradiol or PM for 6 weeks. Administration of PM significantly suppressed body weight and organs weight and increased weight and length of bone compared with the OVX group. Treatment with PM reversed osteopenia in OVX mice, thereby improving the bone morphometric parameters. Moreover, histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that PM inhibited OVX-induced bone loss. Serum estradiol and bone alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly decreased in the OVX group, with the levels increasing with PM treatment. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by PM in OVX mice. These results suggest that PM is effective in preventing bone loss in OVX mice.

  3. Smad6/Smurf1 overexpression in cartilage delays chondrocyte hypertrophy and causes dwarfism with osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiki, Mitsuru; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mina; Hayashi, Makoto; Murai, Junko; Myoui, Akira; Ochi, Takahiro; Miyazono, Kohei; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2004-01-01

    Biochemical experiments have shown that Smad6 and Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) block the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, their in vivo functions are largely unknown. Here, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Smad6 in chondrocytes. Smad6 transgenic mice showed postnatal dwarfism with osteopenia and inhibition of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in chondrocytes. Endochondral ossification during development in these mice was associated with almost normal chondrocyte proliferation, significantly delayed chondrocyte hypertrophy, and thin trabecular bone. The reduced population of hypertrophic chondrocytes after birth seemed to be related to impaired bone growth and formation. Organ culture of cartilage rudiments showed that chondrocyte hypertrophy induced by BMP2 was inhibited in cartilage prepared from Smad6 transgenic mice. We then generated transgenic mice overexpressing Smurf1 in chondrocytes. Abnormalities were undetectable in Smurf1 transgenic mice. Mating Smad6 and Smurf1 transgenic mice produced double-transgenic pups with more delayed endochondral ossification than Smad6 transgenic mice. These results provided evidence that Smurf1 supports Smad6 function in vivo. PMID:15123739

  4. Evaluation of central skeleton, neutron activation analysis for the routine diagnosis of osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.E.; McNeill, K.G.; Patt, N.; Mueller, C.; Chow, R.

    1986-01-01

    At Toronto, NAA is used to quantitate the total bone mineral in the central third of the skeleton and results are expressed as fractions of the mean values for normal young adults ( 10% or wedging with anterior/posterior vertebral heights (A/P ratio) < 0.67 for thoracic and < 0.75 for lumbar vertebrae. The 127 patients without fractures had a mean CaBI = 0.81 +/- 0.13 with low CaBI values (< 0.75) in 24% of cases. The 54 patients with fractures had a mean CaBI = 0.67 +/- 0.12 with CaBI < 0.75 in 80%. Thus, the authors CaBI gives useful separation between these two groups. Furthermore, 10 of the 11 fracture patients with normal CaBI values had only one thoracic fracture and this isolated deformity may not necessarily reflect significant osteopenia: 97% of patients with multiple fractures had CaBI < 0.75. Results by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) correlate significant (r = 0.73) to CaBI values but with a large s Σ Σ (+/- 13.5%) so that the value by one procedure may not predict reliably that of the other

  5. Persistent osteopenia in ballet dancers with amenorrhea and delayed menarche despite hormone therapy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Fox, Richard P; Holderness, Claire C; Hyle, Emily P; Hamilton, William G; Hamilton, Linda

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the role of estrogen deprivation and replacement in amenorrheic and nonamenorrheic dancers on hormone therapy and calcium. Clinical, placebo-controlled, randomized trial study.Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-five dancers (mean age: 22.0 +/- 4.6, age at menarche: 14.7 +/- 2.3 years), including 24 amenorrheics. Amenorrheics were randomized in a controlled trial to receive placebo or Premarin, 0.625 mg for 25 days monthly, with Provera, 10 mg, for 10 of these 25 days (hormone therapy) for 2 years. These women were compared to normally menstruating controls. The study participants also received 1250 mg of calcium per day. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the foot, wrist, and lumbar spine. Our overall results showed no difference in BMD between the treated or placebo groups, indicating that hormone therapy did not change or normalize BMD when compared to normals. Five patients (all on placebo) who resumed menses during the study showed an increase in BMD without normalization. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than hypoestrogenism may be involved with the osteopenia associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  6. Evaluation of Lercanidipine in Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Rat: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Lekha; Hota, Debasish; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the antinociceptive effect of lercanidipine in paclitaxel-induced neuropathy model in rat. Materials and Methods. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups of six rats in each group as follows: Gr I: 0.9% NaCl, Gr II: paclitaxel + 0.9% NaCl, Gr III: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 0.5 μg/kg, Gr IV: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 1 μg/kg, and Gr V: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 2.5 μg/kg. Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rat was produced by single intraperitoneal (i....

  7. An automatic rat brain extraction method based on a deformable surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Zara, Jason M

    2013-08-15

    The extraction of the brain from the skull in medical images is a necessary first step before image registration or segmentation. While pre-clinical MR imaging studies on small animals, such as rats, are increasing, fully automatic imaging processing techniques specific to small animal studies remain lacking. In this paper, we present an automatic rat brain extraction method, the Rat Brain Deformable model method (RBD), which adapts the popular human brain extraction tool (BET) through the incorporation of information on the brain geometry and MR image characteristics of the rat brain. The robustness of the method was demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images of 64 rats and compared with other brain extraction methods (BET, PCNN, PCNN-3D). The results demonstrate that RBD reliably extracts the rat brain with high accuracy (>92% volume overlap) and is robust against signal inhomogeneity in the images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  9. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  10. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  11. A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE INDUCED BY ISOPROTERENOL AND A HIGH SALT DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4wk) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats caused cardiac injury with minimal hypertrophy. O...

  12. Bladder overdistension with polyuria in a hypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez Flores, Monica; Mossa, Abubakr H; Cammisotto, Philippe; Campeau, Lysanne

    2018-03-31

    Polyuria can lead to progressive chronic bladder overdistension. The impact of polyuria on the bladder has been extensively studied in settings of either diabetes or sucrose diuresis in animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the outcomes of polyuria in a hypertension setting. Male Dahl/SS rats, a hypertension model, received a high-salt or normal diet for 6 weeks. Twenty-four-hour water intake, micturition patterns, and blood pressures were recorded biweekly. Conscious cystometry was carried out at the end of this period. Bladders were collected to measure contractile force and for histological analysis. Paired t-tests were used to compare changes between Week 0 and Week 6 within each group. Unpaired t-tests were used for comparisons between groups for all parameters at Week 6. Six weeks of high-salt diet significantly increased water intake and total urine. Blood pressures and volume of urine per micturition was higher in rats on high-salt diet. Bladder overdistension in the high-salt diet group was confirmed by cystometry, shown by a significantly higher bladder capacity, and compliance. No difference in detrusor contractility was observed between both groups. Collagen content was significantly higher in the lamina propria of the high-salt group compared to the normal group, while the opposite was observed in the muscularis. Polyuria, in a hypertension context, leads to changes in bladder morphology and function. These findings help clarify the deleterious clinical impact of polyuria on voiding function, highlighting the variable consequences of bladder overdistension according to the underlying pathology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The characterization of obese polycystic ovary syndrome rat model suitable for exercise intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyan Wu

    Full Text Available To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rat model suitable for exercise intervention.Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24, PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6, and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6. Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6, sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6, exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin (FINS, estrogen (E2, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0.Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1, 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2, FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO.By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention.

  14. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Silva, Bárbara Soares da; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and...

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Uveitis Models in Lewis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, Kathryn L; Rotkis, Lauren; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation generates changes in the protein constituents of the aqueous humor. Proteins that change in multiple models of uveitis may be good biomarkers of disease or targets for therapeutic intervention. The present study was conducted to identify differentially-expressed proteins in the inflamed aqueous humor. Two models of uveitis were induced in Lewis rats: experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU). Differential gel electrophoresis was used to compare naïve and inflamed aqueous humor. Differentially-expressed proteins were separated by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and excised for identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Expression of select proteins was verified by Western blot analysis in both the aqueous and vitreous. The inflamed aqueous from both models demonstrated an increase in total protein concentration when compared to naïve aqueous. Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, was increased in the aqueous in both PMU and EAU. In the vitreous, S100A8 and S100A9 were preferentially elevated in PMU. Apolipoprotein E was elevated in the aqueous of both uveitis models but was preferentially elevated in EAU. Beta-B2-crystallin levels decreased in the aqueous and vitreous of EAU but not PMU. The proinflammatory molecules S100A8 and S100A9 were elevated in both models of uveitis but may play a more significant role in PMU than EAU. The neuroprotective protein β-B2-crystallin was found to decline in EAU. Therapies to modulate these proteins in vivo may be good targets in the treatment of ocular inflammation.

  16. Heterogeneous stock rat: a unique animal model for mapping genes influencing bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Koller, Daniel L; Sun, Qiwei; Roeder, Ryan K; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; López-Aumatell, Regina; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont, Carme; Díaz, Sira; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Whitley, Adam; Strid, Pernilla; Diez, Margarita; Johannesson, Martina; Flint, Jonathan; Econs, Michael J; Turner, Charles H; Foroud, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that skeletal mass, structure and biomechanical properties vary considerably among 11 different inbred rat strains. Subsequently, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in four inbred rat strains (F344, LEW, COP and DA) for different bone phenotypes and identified several candidate genes influencing various bone traits. The standard approach to narrowing QTL intervals down to a few candidate genes typically employs the generation of congenic lines, which is time consuming and often not successful. A potential alternative approach is to use a highly genetically informative animal model resource capable of delivering very high resolution gene mapping such as Heterogeneous stock (HS) rat. HS rat was derived from eight inbred progenitors: ACI/N, BN/SsN, BUF/N, F344/N, M520/N, MR/N, WKY/N and WN/N. The genetic recombination pattern generated across 50 generations in these rats has been shown to deliver ultra-high even gene-level resolution for complex genetic studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of the HS rat model for fine mapping and identification of genes underlying bone fragility phenotypes. We compared bone geometry, density and strength phenotypes at multiple skeletal sites in HS rats with those obtained from five of the eight progenitor inbred strains. In addition, we estimated the heritability for different bone phenotypes in these rats and employed principal component analysis to explore relationships among bone phenotypes in the HS rats. Our study demonstrates that significant variability exists for different skeletal phenotypes in HS rats compared with their inbred progenitors. In addition, we estimated high heritability for several bone phenotypes and biologically interpretable factors explaining significant overall variability, suggesting that the HS rat model could be a unique genetic resource for rapid and efficient discovery of the genetic determinants of bone fragility. Copyright

  17. Combination of hindlimb suspension and immobilization by casting exaggerates sarcopenia by stimulating autophagy but does not worsen osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speacht, Toni L; Krause, Andrew R; Steiner, Jennifer L; Lang, Charles H; Donahue, Henry J

    2018-05-01

    Astronauts in space experience a unique environment that causes the concomitant loss of bone and muscle. However, the interaction between these tissues and how osteopenia and sarcopenia affect each other is unclear. We explored this relationship by exaggerating unloading-induced muscle loss using a unilateral casting model in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (HLS). Five-month-old, male C57Bl/6J mice subjected to HLS for 2 weeks displayed a significant decrease in gastrocnemius and quadriceps weight (-9-10%), with a two-fold greater decrease in muscle mass observed in the HLS + casted limb. However, muscle from casted limbs had a higher rate of protein synthesis (+16%), compared to HLS alone, with coordinated increases in S6K1 (+50%) and 4E-BP1 (+110%) phosphorylation. Increased protein content for surrogate markers of autophagy, including LC3-II (+75%), Atg7 (+10%), and Atg5-12 complex (+20%) was only detected in muscle from the casted limb. In proximal tibias, HLS resulted in significant decreases in bone volume fraction (-24% vs -8%), trabecular number (-6% vs +0.3%), trabecular thickness (-10% vs -2%), and trabecular spacing (+8.4% vs +2%) compared to ground controls. There was no further bone loss in casted limbs compared to HLS alone. In tibia midshafts, HLS resulted in decreased total area (-2% vs +1%) and increased bone mineral density (+1% vs -0.3%) compared to ground controls. Cortical bone from casted limbs showed an increase in cortical thickness (+9% vs +2%) and cortical area/total area (+1% vs -0.6%) compared to HLS alone. Our results suggest that casting exacerbates unloading-induced muscle loss via activation of autophagy. Casting did not exacerbate bone loss suggesting that the unloading-induced loss of muscle and bone can be temporally dissociated and the effect of reduced muscle activity plays a relatively minor role compared to reduced load bearing on trabecular bone structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.

  19. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  20. Induced hypothermia is protective in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia associated with increased adenosine triphosphate availability and turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Aslami, Hamid; Kuipers, Maria T.; Horn, Janneke; Vroom, Margreeth B.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of induced hypothermia on bacterial growth, lung injury, and mitochondrial function in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumosepsis. Design: Animal study. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Subjects were

  1. The Influence of a High Salt Diet on a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4 weeks) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion exacerbated cardiomyopathy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats. Others have shown...

  2. A Novel Newborn Rat Kernicterus Model Created by Injecting a Bilirubin Solution into the Cisterna Magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sijie; Hu, Ying; Gu, Xianfang; Si, Feifei; Hua, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Kernicterus still occurs around the world; however, the mechanism of bilirubin neurotoxicity remains unclear, and effective treatment strategies are lacking. To solve these problems, several kernicterus (or acute bilirubin encephalopathy) animal models have been established, but these models are difficult and expensive. Therefore, the present study was performed to establish a novel kernicterus model that is simple and affordable by injecting unconjugated bilirubin solution into the cisterna magna (CM) of ordinary newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods On postnatal day 5, SD rat pups were randomly divided into bilirubin and control groups. Then, either bilirubin solution or ddH2O (pH = 8.5) was injected into the CM at 10 µg/g (bodyweight). For model characterization, neurobehavioral outcomes were observed, mortality was calculated, and bodyweight was recorded after bilirubin injection and weaning. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected by H&E staining, TUNEL, flow cytometry and Western blotting. When the rats were 28 days old, learning and memory ability were evaluated using the Morris water maze test. Results The bilirubin-treated rats showed apparently abnormal neurological manifestations, such as clenched fists, opisthotonos and torsion spasms. Bodyweight gain in the bilirubin-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the controls (Pbilirubin-treated rats were both dramatically higher than those of the controls (P = 0.004 and 0.017, respectively). Apoptosis and necrosis in the hippocampal nerve cells in the bilirubin-treated rats were observed. The bilirubin-treated rats performed worse than the controls on the Morris water maze test. Conclusion By injecting bilirubin into the CM, we successfully created a new kernicterus model using ordinary SD rats; the model mimics both the acute clinical manifestations and the chronic sequelae. In particular, CM injection is easy to perform; thus, more stable models for follow-up study are

  3. Nutritional support contributes to recuperation in a rat model of aplastic anemia by enhancing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Lifen; Liu, Bing; Shan, Yujia; Li, Yang; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2018-02-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease that leads to hematopoietic disorder and peripheral blood pancytopenia. We investigated whether nutritional support is helpful to AA recovery. We established a rat model with AA. A nutrient mixture was administered to rats with AA through different dose gavage once per day for 55 d. Animals in this study were assigned to one of five groups: normal control (NC; group includes normal rats); AA (rats with AA); high dose (AA + nutritional mixture, 2266.95 mg/kg/d); medium dose (1511.3 mg/kg/d); and low dose (1057.91 mg/kg/d). The effects of nutrition administration on general status and mitochondrial function of rats with AA were evaluated. The nutrient mixture with which the rats were supplemented significantly improved weight, peripheral blood parameters, and histologic parameters of rats with AA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that the number of mitochondria in the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain was increased after supplementation by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Nutrient administration also improved mitochondrial DNA content, adenosine triphosphate content, and membrane potential but inhibited oxidative stress, thus, repairing the mitochondrial dysfunction of the rats with AA. Taken together, nutrition supplements may contribute to the improvement of mitochondrial function and play an important role in the recuperation of rats with AA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  5. Aging aggravates long-term renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianlin; Fan, Min; He, Xiaozhou; Liu, Jipu; Qin, Jiandi; Ye, Jianan

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been considered as the major cause of acute kidney injury and can result in poor long-term graft function. Functional recovery after IRI is impaired in the elderly. In the present study, we aimed to compare kidney morphology, function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and development of renal fibrosis in young and aged rats after renal IRI. Rat models of warm renal IRI were established by clamping left pedicles for 45 min after right nephrectomy, then the clamp was removed, and kidneys were reperfused for up to 12 wk. Biochemical and histologic renal damage were assessed at 12 wk after reperfusion. The immunohistochemical staining of monocyte macrophage antigen-1 (ED-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and messenger RNA level of TGF-β1 in the kidney were analyzed. Renal IRI caused significant increases of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels and a decrease of superoxide dismutase activity in young and aged IRI rats; however, these changes were more obvious in the aged rats. IRI resulted in severe inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with decreased creatinine (Cr) clearance and increased histologic damage in aged rats compared with young rats. Moreover, we measured the ratio of Cr clearance between young and aged IRI rats. It demonstrated that aged IRI rats did have poor Cr clearance compared with the young IRI rats. ED-1 and TGF-β1 expression levels in the kidney were significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats after IRI. Aged rats are more susceptible to IRI-induced renal failure, which may associate with the increased oxidative stress, increased histologic damage, and increased inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory response should improve the kidney recovery after IRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations of the tunica vasculosa lentis in the rat model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Tara L; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Munro, Robert J; Beck, Susanne C; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Seide, Christina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B; Seeliger, Mathias W; Akula, James D

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between retinal and tunica vasculosa lentis (TVL) disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Although the clinical hallmark of ROP is abnormal retinal blood vessels, the vessels of the anterior segment, including the TVL, are also altered. ROP was induced in Long-Evans pigmented and Sprague Dawley albino rats; room-air-reared (RAR) rats served as controls. Then, fluorescein angiographic images of the TVL and retinal vessels were serially obtained with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope near the height of retinal vascular disease, ~20 days of age, and again at 30 and 64 days of age. Additionally, electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained prior to the first imaging session. The TVL images were analyzed for percent coverage of the posterior lens. The tortuosity of the retinal arterioles was determined using Retinal Image multiScale Analysis (Gelman et al. in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4734-4738, 2005). In the youngest ROP rats, the TVL was dense, while in RAR rats, it was relatively sparse. By 30 days, the TVL in RAR rats had almost fully regressed, while in ROP rats, it was still pronounced. By the final test age, the TVL had completely regressed in both ROP and RAR rats. In parallel, the tortuous retinal arterioles in ROP rats resolved with increasing age. ERG components indicating postreceptoral dysfunction, the b-wave, and oscillatory potentials were attenuated in ROP rats. These findings underscore the retinal vascular abnormalities and, for the first time, show abnormal anterior segment vasculature in the rat model of ROP. There is delayed regression of the TVL in the rat model of ROP. This demonstrates that ROP is a disease of the whole eye.

  7. Spatial modeling of rat bites and prediction of rat infestation in Peshawar valley using binomial kriging with logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Saleem

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we propose to develop a geostatistical computational framework to model the distribution of rat bite infestation of epidemic proportion in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. Two species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are suspected to spread the infestation. The framework combines strengths of maximum entropy algorithm and binomial kriging with logistic regression to spatially model the distribution of infestation and to determine the individual role of environmental predictors in modeling the distribution trends. Our results demonstrate the significance of a number of social and environmental factors in rat infestations such as (I) high human population density; (II) greater dispersal ability of rodents due to the availability of better connectivity routes such as roads, and (III) temperature and precipitation influencing rodent fecundity and life cycle.

  8. Improvement of insulin secretion in rat models of diabetes after ACEI/ARB therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jingyan; Li Fengying; Liu Yun; Long Hongmei; Li Weiyi; Wang Xiao; Zhang Hongli; Li Guo; Luo Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of ACEI/ARB therapy on the secretion of insulin and glucagon as well as serum lipid peroxidation marker 8-iso PGF-2α levels in streptozoticin (STZ) induced diabetic rat models.Methods Twenty-four rat models of STZ induced diabetes were prepared (random blood sugar>16.7 mmol/L). Of which, 8 models were fed enalaprial 5mg/kg/d, 8 models were fed losartan 10μg/kg/d and 8 models left unterated. Fasting serum insulin,glucagon (with RIA) and 8-iso PGF-2α (with ELISA) levels were measured in these models and 8 control rats three weeks later. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed in 12 rats (3 animals in each group) six weeks later. Results: Serum levels of insulin in the treated models were higher than those in the non-treated models but without significance (P>0.05). Serum levels of glucagon and 8-iso PGF-2α levels in the treated models were significantly lower than those in the non-treated models (P 6 x ) in the treated models. Conclusion: ACEI/ARB treatment could improve the secretion of insulin in rat models of diabetes, which might be beneficial for controlling the progression of the disease. This phenomenon is consistent with the result of clinical study. (authors)

  9. Decreased Bone Formation and Osteopenia in Lamin A/C-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christopher; McCorquodale, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus; Fatkin, Diane; Duque, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone cellularity with characteristically low levels of osteoblastogenesis. The mechanisms that explain these changes remain unclear. Although recent in vitro evidence has suggested a new role for proteins of the nuclear envelope in osteoblastogenesis, the role of these proteins in bone cells differentiation and bone metabolism in vivo remains unknown. In this study, we used the lamin A/C null (Lmna −/−) mice to identify the role of lamin A/C in bone turnover and bone structure in vivo. At three weeks of age, histological and micro computed tomography measurements of femurs in Lmna −/− mice revealed a significant decrease in bone mass and microarchitecture in Lmna −/− mice as compared with their wild type littermates. Furthermore, quantification of cell numbers after normalization with bone surface revealed a significant reduction in osteoblast and osteocyte numbers in Lmna −/− mice compared with their WT littermates. In addition, Lmna −/− mice have significantly lower osteoclast number, which show aberrant changes in their shape and size. Finally, mechanistic analysis demonstrated that absence of lamin A/C is associated with increase expression of MAN-1 a protein of the nuclear envelope closely regulated by lamin A/C, which also colocalizes with Runx2 thus affecting its capacity as osteogenic transcription factor. In summary, these data clearly indicate that the presence of lamin A/C is necessary for normal bone turnover in vivo and that absence of lamin A/C induces low bone turnover osteopenia resembling the cellular changes of age-related bone loss. PMID:21547077

  10. Factores de riesgo asociados a osteopenia del prematuro en una terapia intensiva neonatal de referencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Ríos-Moreno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la enfermedad ósea metabólica del prematuro resulta de la desmineralización ósea. Existen factores que deben vigilarse con la finalidad de realizar diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano. OBJETIVO: determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a osteopenia en prematuros. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: estudio transversal comparativo de octubre del 2011 a octubre del 2013. Se incluyeron 120 prematuros 900 UI/L. Factores de riesgo determinados con razón de momios (OR. Estadística inferencial con c2 y t de Student. RESULTADOS: se diagnosticó enfermedad ósea metabólica en 58 prematuros (48%, peso 1067 ± 216 gramos, edad gestacional 28 ± 1.6 semanas, edad postnatal 41 ± 15.5 días. Género masculino 32 (55%. Factores de riesgo: peso < 1,000 gramos OR 4.64, (2.13-10.10, displasia broncopulmonar moderada o severa OR 3.13 (1.44-6.81, tres o más eventos de sepsis OR 3.43 (1.62 7.28, sedación prolongada OR 4.09 (1.06-15.73 y corticoide prolongado OR 9.54 (2.06-44.16.  CONCLUSIONES: nuestros resultados muestran que los factores de riesgo para enfermedad ósea metabólica del prematuro fueron peso al nacer menor de 1,000 gramos, displasia broncopulmonar moderada o severa, tres o más eventos de sepsis, sedación y corticoides durante tiempo prolongado.

  11. The JCR:LA-cp rat: a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Chilian, William M; Bennett, Martin R; Figg, Nichola; Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Although there are multiple rodent models of the metabolic syndrome, very few develop vascular complications. In contrast, the JCR:LA-cp rat develops both metabolic syndrome and early atherosclerosis in predisposed areas. However, the pathology of the normal vessel wall has not been described. We examined JCR:LA control (+/+) or cp/cp rats fed normal chow diet for 6 or 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats developed multiple features of advanced cystic medial necrosis including "cysts," increased collagen formation and proteoglycan deposition around cysts, apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, and spotty medial calcification. These appearances began within 6 mo and were extensive by 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats had reduced medial cellularity, increased medial thickness, and vessel hypoxia that was most marked in the adventitia. In conclusion, the normal chow-fed JCR:LA-cp rat represents a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis, associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and vessel hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Triggers for cystic medial necrosis (CMN) have been difficult to study due to lack of animal models to recapitulate the pathologies seen in humans. Our study is the first description of CMN in the rat. Thus the JCR:LA-cp rat represents a useful model to investigate the underlying molecular changes leading to the development of CMN. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Rat Carcinogenesis and Assessing the Role Mutagens Play in Model Predictivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquer, C. Alex; Batey, Kaylind; Qamar, Shahid; Cunningham, Albert R.; Cunningham, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that fragment based cat-SAR carcinogenesis models consisting solely of mutagenic or non-mutagenic carcinogens varied greatly in terms of their predictive accuracy. This led us to investigate how well the rat cancer cat-SAR model predicted mutagens and non-mutagens in their learning set. Four rat cancer cat-SAR models were developed: Complete Rat, Transgender Rat, Male Rat, and Female Rat, with leave-one-out (LOO) validation concordance values of 69%, 74%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The mutagenic carcinogens produced concordance values in the range of 69–76% as compared to only 47–53% for non-mutagenic carcinogens. As a surrogate for mutagenicity comparisons between single site and multiple site carcinogen SAR models was analyzed. The LOO concordance values for models consisting of 1-site, 2-site, and 4+-site carcinogens were 66%, 71%, and 79%, respectively. As expected, the proportion of mutagens to non-mutagens also increased, rising from 54% for 1-site to 80% for 4+-site carcinogens. This study demonstrates that mutagenic chemicals, in both SAR learning sets and test sets, are influential in assessing model accuracy. This suggests that SAR models for carcinogens may require a two-step process in which mutagenicity is first determined before carcinogenicity can be accurately predicted. PMID:24697549

  14. A novel experimental model of erectile dysfunction in rats with heart failure using volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Henrique; Veiga, Frederico José Reis; Mora, Aline Gonçalves; Heck, Rodrigo Sader; De Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Gambero, Alessandra; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; Antunes, Edson; Gardner, Jason D; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Claudino, Mário Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) display erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the pathophysiology of ED during HF remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to characterize the aortocaval fistula (ACF) rat model associated with HF as a novel experimental model of ED. We have undertaken molecular and functional studies to evaluate the alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, autonomic nervous system and oxidative stress in the penis. Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Intracavernosal pressure in anesthetized rats was evaluated. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine) and relaxant agents (sodium nitroprusside; SNP), as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in the cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) strips from sham and HF rats. Protein expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and phosphodiestarese-5 in CSM were evaluated, as well as NOX2 (gp91phox) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression. SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were also performed in plasma. HF rats display erectile dysfunction represented by decreased ICP responses compared to sham rats. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS were greater in CSM from the HF group. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in CSM from HF rats. Nitrergic response induced by EFS were decreased in the cavernosal tissue, along with lower eNOS, nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 protein expressions. An increase of NOX2 and SOD mRNA expression in CSM and plasma TBARs of HF group were detected. Plasma SOD activity was decreased in HF rats. ED in HF rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to eNOS/nNOS dowregulation and NOX2 upregulation, as well as hypercontractility of the penis. This rat model of ACF could be a useful tool to evaluate the molecular alterations of ED associated with HF.

  15. WNIN/GR-Ob - an insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harishankar, N; Vajreswari, A; Giridharan, N V

    2011-09-01

    WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. The data presented here pertain to its obese nature along with IGT trait as evidenced by physical, physiological and biochemical parameters. The study also explains its existence, in three phenotypes: homozygous lean (+/+), heterozygous carrier (+/-) and homozygous obese (-/-). Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. Twelve adult rats from each phenotype were taken for body composition measurement by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC); 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters. Physiological indices of insulin resistance were calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also by studying U¹⁴C 2-deoxy glucose uptake (2DG). WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth, hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyurea, glycosuria, and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats. These mutants, at 50 days of age displayed abnormal response to glucose load (IGT), hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats. Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical indices. These indices varied among the three phenotypes, being lowest in lean, highest in obese and intermediate in carrier phenotypes thereby suggesting that obesity is inherited as autosomal incomplete dominant trait in this strain. This mutant obese rat model is easy to

  16. Dynamics of myelin content decrease in the rat stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A.; Khodanovich, M.; Atochin, D.; Mustafina, L.; Yarnykh, V.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of studies were usually focused on neuronal death after brain ischemia; however, stroke affects all cell types including oligodendrocytes that form myelin sheath in the CNS. Our study is focused on the changes of myelin content in the ischemic core and neighbor structures in early terms (1, 3 and 10 days) after stroke. Stroke was modeled with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in 15 male rats that were divided into three groups by time points after operation. Brain sections were histologically stained with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) for myelin quantification. The significant demyelination was found in the ischemic core, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, whereas myelin content was increased in caudoputamen, internal capsule and piriform cortex compared with the contralateral hemisphere. The motor cortex showed a significant increase of myelin content on the 1st day and a significant decrease on the 3rd and 10th days after MCAo. These results suggest that stroke influences myelination not only in the ischemic core but also in distant structures.

  17. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  18. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  19. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    OpenAIRE

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  20. In vivo Dentin Caries Model using Rat Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HIGASHI; Junji, TAGAMI; Nobuhiro, HANADA; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Oral Science The National Institute of Infectious Diseases(NIID)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental dentinal caries was induced in rat molars which were inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans and maintained on a carionenic diet 2000. After 30 days on the diet, the rats were sacrificed. The caries lesions were confirmed with a caries detector, then nanohardness determination of caries dentin were measured with nanoindentation. After hardness measurement, the lesion was examined by SEM and EDS. Dentin caries in sixteen fissures was induced among 20 fissures in the mandibular...

  1. Autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we have sought to isolate in vitro, from acutely diabetic BB rats, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which exhibit specific cytotoxicity toward islet cells. Thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) from acutely diabetic BB rats cultured with irradiated MHC matched (RT1.u) islet cells and dendritic cells in vitro were shown to be specifically cytotoxic to MHC matched and mismatched allogeneic (RT1.1) and xenogeneic (hamster) islet target cells in a 3 H-leucine release assay. Two cell lines (V1A8 and V1D11) derived from the TDL culture showed similar patterns of non-MHC restricted islet cell killing which could be blocked by islet cells and cultured rat insulinoma cells (RIN5mF) but not by non-islet cells of various tissue origins. Both V1A8 and V1D11 were not cytotoxic to Natural Killer (NK) sensitive target cells, G1TC and YAC-1. Conventional surface markers for rat helper and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells were not detectable on either cell lines. The V1D11 cell line was positive for W 3/13 (rat T/NK marker) on OX-19 (rat T/macrophage marker), whereas the V1A8 cell line was only positive for W 3/13

  2. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics......, and compared it to human NCIPH. METHODS: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one...... in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. DISCUSSION: This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies....

  3. Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Narin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally. Post TPM treatment, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced and reduced glutathione levels were increased, while immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 was diminished in SCI rats. In addition, TPM treatment improved the functional recovery of SCI rats. This study suggests that administration of TPM exerts neuroprotective effects on SCI.

  4. Establishment of SHG-44 human glioma model in brain of wistar rat with stereotactic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xinyu; Luo Yi'nan; Fu Shuanglin; Wang Zhanfeng; Bie Li; Cui Jiale

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish solid intracerebral human glioma model in Wistar rat with xenograft methods. Methods: The SHG-44 cells were injected into brain right caudate nucleus of previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rats with stereotactic technique. The MRI scans were performed at 1 week and 2 weeks later after implantation. After 2 weeks the rats were killed and pathological examination and immunohistologic stain for human GFAP were used. Results: The MRI scan after 1 week of implantation showed the glioma was growing, pathological histochemical examination demonstrated the tumor was glioma. Human GFAP stain was positive. The growth rate of glioma model was about 60%. Conclusion: Solid intracerebral human glioma model in previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rat is successfully established

  5. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, A; Thygesen, P; Agersø, H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a mechanistic mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) (PKPD) model for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in hypophysectomized rats and to predict the human PKPD relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A non-linear mixed-effects model...... was developed from experimental PKPD studies of rhGH and effects of long-term treatment as measured by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bodyweight gain in rats. Modelled parameter values were scaled to human values using the allometric approach with fixed exponents for PKs and unscaled for PDs...... s.c. administration was over predicted. After correction of the human s.c. absorption model, the induction model for IGF-1 well described the human PKPD data. CONCLUSIONS: A translational mechanistic PKPD model for rhGH was successfully developed from experimental rat data. The model links...

  6. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  7. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (pemphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (pemphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with ppulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  8. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  9. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  10. Comparison of blood biochemics between acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and simple acute myocardial infarction models in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shaochun; Yu Xiaofeng; Wang Jia; Zhou Jinying; Xie Haolin; Sui Dayun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To construct the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and study the difference on blood biochemics between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, acute blood stasis model group, acute myocardial infarction sham operation group, acute myocardial infarction model group and of acute myocardial infarction model with blood stasis group. The acute myocardial infarction models under the status of the acute blood stasis in rats were set up. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were detected, the activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of prostacycline (PGI2), thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) and endothelin (ET) in plasma were determined. Results: There were not obvious differences in MDA, SOD, GSH-Px and FFA between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis in rats and the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, and the increase extents of TXA 2 , ET and TNF-α in the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis were higher than those in the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, are significant when the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models are compared. The results show that it is defective to evaluate pharmacodynamics of traditional Chinese drug with only simple acute myocardial infarction models. (authors)

  11. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhlen, Rachel L.; Willbrand, Dana M.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D.; Sauter, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5–7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic resonan...

  12. Cardiovascular disease-related parameters and oxidative stress in SHROB rats, a model for metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Molinar-Toribio

    Full Text Available SHROB rats have been suggested as a model for metabolic syndrome (MetS as a situation prior to the onset of CVD or type-2 diabetes, but information on descriptive biochemical parameters for this model is limited. Here, we extensively evaluate parameters related to CVD and oxidative stress (OS in SHROB rats. SHROB rats were monitored for 15 weeks and compared to a control group of Wistar rats. Body weight was recorded weekly. At the end of the study, parameters related to CVD and OS were evaluated in plasma, urine and different organs. SHROB rats presented statistically significant differences from Wistar rats in CVD risk factors: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA1, apoB100, abdominal fat, insulin, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, ICAM-1 and PAI-1. In adipose tissue, liver and brain, the endogenous antioxidant systems were activated, yet there was no significant oxidative damage to lipids (MDA or proteins (carbonylation. We conclude that SHROB rats present significant alterations in parameters related to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombotic activity, insulin resistance and OS measured in plasma as well as enhanced redox defence systems in vital organs that will be useful as markers of MetS and CVD for nutrition interventions.

  13. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, Joseph U; Holdsworth, David W [Pre-Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON N6A 5K8 (Canada); Sampaio, Arthur V; Underhill, T Michael [Laboratory of Molecular Skeletogenesis, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Welch, Ian [Animal Care and Veterinary Services, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A [CIHR Group in Skeletal Development and Remodelling, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: jumoh@imaging.robarts.ca, E-mail: asampaio@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: tunderhi@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: iwelch@uwo.ca, E-mail: vasek.pitelka@schulich.uwo.ca, E-mail: hagoldbe@uwo.ca, E-mail: david.holdsworth@imaging.robarts.ca

    2009-04-07

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 {mu}m. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 {+-} 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in treated rats (11.29 {+-} 1.01 mg). Linear regression between the BMC and bone fractional area, from 20 rats, showed a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.70, p < 0.0001), indicating that the BMC can be used, in place of previous destructive analysis techniques, to characterize bone growth. The high precision (2.5%) of the micro-CT methodology indicates its utility in detecting small BMC changes in animals.

  14. Volumetric abnormalities of the brain in a rat model of recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhihua; Tang, Wenjing; Zhao, Dengfa; Hu, Guanqun; Li, Ruisheng; Yu, Shengyuan

    2018-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry is used to detect structural brain changes in patients with migraine. However, the relevance of migraine and structural changes is not clear. This study investigated structural brain abnormalities based on voxel-based morphometry using a rat model of recurrent headache. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup through supradural catheters in conscious male rats. Rats were subgrouped according to the frequency and duration of the inflammatory soup infusion. Tactile sensory testing was conducted prior to infusion of the inflammatory soup or saline. The periorbital tactile thresholds in the high-frequency inflammatory soup stimulation group declined persistently from day 5. Increased white matter volume was observed in the rats three weeks after inflammatory soup stimulation, brainstem in the in the low-frequency inflammatory soup-infusion group and cortex in the high-frequency inflammatory soup-infusion group. After six weeks' stimulation, rats showed gray matter volume changes. The brain structural abnormalities recovered after the stimulation was stopped in the low-frequency inflammatory soup-infused rats and persisted even after the high-frequency inflammatory soup stimulus stopped. The changes of voxel-based morphometry in migraineurs may be the result of recurrent headache. Cognition, memory, and learning may play an important role in the chronification of migraines. Reducing migraine attacks has the promise of preventing chronicity of migraine.

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of diclofenac in normal and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Pei; Guo, Hai-fang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of diclofenac in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rats using prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a biomarker. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was investigated using 20-day-old arthritic rats. PGE2 level in the rats was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to illustrate the relationship between the plasma concentration of diclofenac and the inhibition of PGE2 production. The inhibition of diclofenac on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PGE2 production in blood cells was investigated in vitro. Results: Similar pharmacokinetic behavior of diclofenac was found both in normal and FCA-induced arthritic rats. Diclofenac significantly decreased the plasma levels of PGE2 in both normal and arthritic rats. The inhibitory effect on PGE2 levels in the plasma was in proportion to the plasma concentration of diclofenac. No delay in the onset of inhibition was observed, suggesting that the effect compartment was located in the central compartment. An inhibitory effect sigmoid Imax model was selected to characterize the relationship between the plasma concentration of diclofenac and the inhibition of PGE2 production in vivo. The Imax model was also used to illustrate the inhibition of diclofenac on LPS-induced PGE2 production in blood cells in vitro. Conclusion: Arthritis induced by FCA does not alter the pharmacokinetic behaviors of diclofenac in rats, but the pharmacodynamics of diclofenac is slightly affected. A PK-PD model characterizing an inhibitory effect sigmoid Imax can be used to fit the relationship between the plasma PGE2 and diclofenac levels in both normal rats and FCA-induced arthritic rats. PMID:22842736

  16. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  17. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 106 live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Materials and methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fu...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  19. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated, the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  20. Postictal in situ MRS brain lactate in the rat kindling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, B M; Najm, I M; Wang, Y; Lüders, H O; Ng, T C

    1999-12-10

    To determine the temporal and spatial extent of the lactate (Lact) changes as correlated with seizure characteristics and EEG changes in the rat kindling model. Prior studies using MRS have detected cerebral Lact postictally in animal models of seizures and in patients with intractable focal epilepsy. We performed MRS in sham control rats (n = 4) and in rats stimulated in the right hippocampus at two different stages of the kindling and at three time points after the seizures: 3 hours (n = 4 and 2). Lact/creatine (Cr) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr ratios were measured in six contiguous voxels (three left, three right) covering the hippocampi, anterior and posterior regions, and compared with EEG and ictal behavior. Lact/Cr ratios were measured at a very low level in the sham control rats and in the >3-hour group. In the epilepsy.

  1. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials. PMID:27736748

  2. A novel knee prosthesis model of implant-related osteo- myelitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Niels H.; Jensen, Nina Vendel; Nürnberg, Birgit Meinecke

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of animal models of osteomyelitis. Very few of these have been prosthesis models that imitate human conditions. We have developed a new rat model of implant-related osteomyelitis that mimics human osteomyelitis, to investigate the pathology of infection after...

  3. Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah Juel

    2010-01-01

    , namely the selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rat strains. We show that they constitute useful models of the human obesity syndrome. DIO and DR rats were fed either a high-energy (HE) or a standard chow (Chow) diet from weaning to 9 months of age. Metabolic characterization......, the results underscore the effectiveness of GLP-1 mimetics both as anti-diabetes and anti-obesity agents....

  4. Abnormal air righting behaviour in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Dommett, Eleanor J; Rostron, Claire L

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most commonly used model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), displaying the main symptoms of the disorder which are responsive to psychostimulant treatments. Research to date has focused on behavioural tests investigating functioning of the striatum or prefrontal cortex in these rats. However, there is now evidence that the superior colliculus, a structure associated with head and eye movements, may also be dysfunctional in ADHD....

  5. Comparative analysis on arthroscopic sutures of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries in relation to the degree of osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries, according to the patient's degree of osteopenia.METHOD: 138 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. Those operated from October 2008 onwards formed a prospective cohort, while the remainder formed a retrospective cohort. Also from October 2008 onwards, bone densitometry evaluation was requested at the time of the surgical treatment. For the patients operated before this date, densitometry examinations performed up to two years before or after the surgical treatment were investigated. The patients were divided into three groups. Those with osteoporosis formed group 1 (n = 16; those with osteopenia, group 2 (n = 33; and normal individuals, group 3 (n = 55.RESULTS: In analyzing the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA scores of group 3 and comparing them with group 2, no statistically significant difference was seen (p = 0.070. Analysis on group 3 in comparison with group 1 showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027.CONCLUSION: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries seem to be influenced by the patient's bone mineral density, as assessed using bone densitometry.

  6. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    that the free portion of the endometrium was directed towards the lumen of the abdominal cavity. After 21 days the animals were again operated to observe the size of the implants and to remove the ectopic endometrium for microscopic analysis. Results: we macroscopically observed a significant growth of the endometrial implants. Microscopic examination showed presence of glandular epithelium and stroma similar to topic epithelium. Conclusion: this model reproduces endometriosis in the female rat allowing a better study of this pathology, mainly the action of drugs on these implants.

  7. A disposition kinetic study of Tramadol in bile duct ligated rats in perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Zohre; Mohammadi, Saeid; Nezami, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ardakani, Yalda Hosseinzadeh; Lavasani, Hoda; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug and is used to treat chronic pain. In this study, the effects of Bile Duct Ligation (BDL) on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in a liver recirculating perfusion system of male rats were used. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham and two weeks BDL and four weeks BDL. Serum levels of liver enzymes were measured before perfusion and the pharmacokinetics of tramadol was evaluated by using liver recirculating perfusion system. Tramadol and metabolites concentrations were determined by HPLC-FL. The sharp increase in liver enzymes level in both BDL groups was observed and significant changes were also observed in liver weight and volume. Tramadol metabolites concentration significantly decreased compared with the control and sham group (Pbile duct diseases and the dose of tramadol should be accordingly adjusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of dystrophin deficient rats: a new model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Thibaut; Lafoux, Aude; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD.

  9. Changes of cerebral contents of neuropeptides in rat models of multiple ischemic dementia (MID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Guo Jingcai; Song Changyi; Wang Shejiao; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of cerebral contents of the neuropeptides somatostatin (SS), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and substance P in rat models of MID. Methods: The rat models consisted of 15 rats undergoing intracarotid injection of autogenous thrombus powder. Another group of 15 rats undergoing sham operation served as controls. Learning and memory ability in these rats was assessed with daily passive avoidance task testing for 10 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on 30d and contents of the neuropeptides in tissue homogenate from different areas of brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and corpus striatum) were measured with (RIA). Results: On the first day of passive avoidance task testing, the frequency of errors in the MID group and the control group was about the same. From the third day on, the frequency of errors in the MID group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The neuropeptides contents of all these cerebral areas in the MID group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) with the only exception of the contents of substance P in thalamus (no significant difference between the contents in the two groups). Conclusion: The impairment of learning and memory in rat models with MID was possibly related to the lowered contents of SS, AVP and substance P in the brain tissue. (authors)

  10. Additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells and defibrotide in an arterial rat thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilli, Dilek; Kılıç, Emine; Yumuşak, Nihat; Beken, Serdar; Uçkan Çetinkaya, Duygu; Karabulut, Ramazan; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegu L

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and defibrotide (DFT) in a rat model of femoral arterial thrombosis. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were included. An arterial thrombosis model by ferric chloride (FeCl3) was developed in the left femoral artery. The rats were equally assigned to 5 groups: Group 1-Sham-operated (without arterial injury); Group 2-Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected; Group 3-MSC; Group 4-DFT; Group 5-MSC + DFT. All had two intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml: the 1st injection was 4 h after the procedure and the 2nd one 48 h after the 1st injection. The rats were sacrificed 7 days after the 2nd injection. Although the use of human bone marrow-derived (hBM) hBM-MSC or DFT alone enabled partial resolution of the thrombus, combining them resulted in near-complete resolution. Neovascularization was two-fold better in hBM-MSC + DFT treated rats (11.6 ± 2.4 channels) compared with the hBM-MSC (3.8 ± 2.7 channels) and DFT groups (5.5 ± 1.8 channels) (P < 0.0001 and P= 0.002, respectively). The combined use of hBM-MSC and DFT in a rat model of arterial thrombosis showed additive effect resulting in near-complete resolution of the thrombus.

  11. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  12. [Study on the oxidative stress in the ovaries of a rat model of polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Wu, Dong-bo; Zhang, Lan-lan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    To establish a pathological animal model of polycystic ovary (PCO) by letrozole in rats. Investigate whether PCO were mediated by the effect of oxidative stress by measuring oxidative stress levels in this cohort of rats with PCO, and proceed a new way of treatment for polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS). 90 SD female rats aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, including a control group of 45 rats that received vehicle only [19% aqueous solution of carboxmethlycellulose (CMC), 1 mL/d] once daily orally (p.o.), and an experimental group of 45 rats, which were administered letrozole at concentrations of 1 mg/kg p.o. dissolved in 1% CMC (1 mL/d) once daily. The treatment period was 28 d. During this period, vaginal smears were collected daily for estrus cycle determination and body masses were measured every 7 d. On the day subsequent to the last letrozole dose administration, rats were killed; Uteri and ovaries were then excised and weighed for the calculation of organ indexes. Serum hormone levels, SHBG and histologic changes in the ovaries were examined. Then testosterone free index (FAD) was calculated. Oxidant status was evaluated by determination of ovarian total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, while antioxidant status was evaluated by determination of total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration. Vaginal smear test showed the estrus cycle began to disappear from day 12 to day 15. A statistically significant difference in growth curves, ovarian weights, uterine weights and organ indexes between the groups were also observed. In rats with PCO serum testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations and free androgen index (FADI) were significantly increased compared with the control group (rats without PCO). However, rats with PCO had decreased levels of estrogen (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and progesterone (P) compared

  13. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  14. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  15. The F8(-/-) rat as a model of hemophilic arthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kristine Rothaus; Roepstorff, K.; Wiinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    . Methods Wild-type and F8(-/-) rats were treated with vehicle or recombinant human factor VIII (rhFVIII) prior to a needle-induced joint bleed. Joint swelling was measured prior to injury, the following 7 days and upon euthanasia. Histologic sections of the joint were stained, and athropathic changes...

  16. Opioid Receptors Blockade Modulates Apoptosis in a Rat Model of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammation characterized by replacement of liver tissue by ... Materials and Methods: Cirrhosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation .... treated with deoxyribonucleic acid labeling solution containing ... binding was inhibited using non-immune serum. .... studies considering the increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α.

  17. The Fischer 344 rat as a model of presbycusis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 264, 1-2 (2010), s. 70-78 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Rat * Fischer 344 * Presbycusis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.428, year: 2010

  18. Cellular Biochemistry and Cytogenetics in a Rat Lung Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    lung tumor system the specific aims are: 1. To conduct studies of the effect of 3-methylchlanthrene (MCA) on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in...alkylation of nucleic acids of the rat by N-methyl-N- nitrosourea , dimethylnitrosamine, dimethylsulfate, and methylmethanesulfonate. Biochem. J. 110:39-47

  19. Neuroprotective effect corilagin in spinal cord injury rat model by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neurological functions get altered in a patient suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of corilagin in spinal cord injury rats by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Materials and method: Spinal cord injury was ...

  20. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  1. Neuromyelitis optica study model based on chronic infusion of autoantibodies in rat cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignier, R; Ruiz, A; Cavagna, S; Nicole, A; Watrin, C; Touret, M; Parrot, S; Malleret, G; Peyron, C; Benetollo, C; Auvergnon, N; Vukusic, S; Giraudon, P

    2016-05-18

    Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune astrocytopathy, associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal injury. Several studies confirmed that autoantibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) are relevant in the pathogenesis of NMO, mainly through complement-dependent toxicity leading to astrocyte death. However, the effect of the autoantibody per se and the exact role of intrathecal AQP4-IgG are still controversial. To explore the intrinsic effect of intrathecal AQP4-IgG, independent from additional inflammatory effector mechanisms, and to evaluate its clinical impact, we developed a new animal model, based on a prolonged infusion of purified immunoglobulins from NMO patient (IgG(AQP4+), NMO-rat) and healthy individual as control (Control-rat) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of live rats. We showed that CSF infusion of purified immunoglobulins led to diffusion in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves, the targeted structures in NMO. This was associated with astrocyte alteration in NMO-rats characterized by loss of aquaporin-4 expression in the spinal cord and the optic nerves compared to the Control-rats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). In addition, glutamate uptake tested on vigil rats was dramatically reduced in NMO-rats (p = 0.001) suggesting that astrocytopathy occurred in response to AQP4-IgG diffusion. In parallel, myelin was altered, as shown by the decrease of myelin basic protein staining by up to 46 and 22 % in the gray and white matter of the NMO-rats spinal cord, respectively (p = 0.03). Loss of neurofilament positive axons in NMO-rats (p = 0.003) revealed alteration of axonal integrity. Then, we investigated the clinical consequences of such alterations on the motor behavior of the NMO-rats. In a rotarod test, NMO-rats performance was lower compared to the controls (p = 0.0182). AQP4 expression, and myelin and axonal integrity were preserved in AQP4-Ig

  2. Radiation-induced hydronephrosis in the rat: a new experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental model for investigating the effects of localized X-irradiation on a single ureter or the bladder trigone in rats is described. Obstruction of the urinary tract in the irradiated region gives rise to hydroureter and hydronephrosis and the development of these, as detected urographically, gives a clear-cut end point. After irradiation of the ureter with a single dose of 37.4 gy many rats died of gut lesions but after 23.4 Gy only one such death occurred while 14 of 16 rats developed hydronephrosis. Irradiation of the bladder trigone was not associated with intercurrent deaths, even after 40 Gy, and after 25 Gy 9 of 11 rats developed hydronephrosis. (author)

  3. Resveratrol Reduces the Incidence of Portal Vein System Thrombosis after Splenectomy in a Rat Fibrosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Xue, Wanli; Ma, Zhenhua; Bai, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the preventive effect of resveratrol (RES) on the formation of portal vein system thrombosis (PVST) in a rat fibrosis model. Methods. A total of 64 male SD rats, weighing 200–300 g, were divided into five groups: Sham operation, Splenectomy I, Splenectomy II, RES, and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), with the former two groups as nonfibrosis controls. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical assays. Platelet apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. All rats were euthanized for PVST detection one week after operation. Results. No PVST occurred in nonfibrosis controls. Compared to Splenectomy II, the incidences of PVST in RES and LMWH groups were significantly decreased (both p Splenectomy II (all p splenectomy in cirrhotic rat. Regulation of platelet function and induction of platelet apoptosis might be the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27433290

  4. Effect of sodium aescinate treatment on PCOS rat model with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Hu, L M; Wang, Y F; Yang, H Y; Huang, X Y; Zhou, W; Sun, H X

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that insulin resistance may contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the specific mechanism is still unclear. To investigate the effect of sodium aescinate (SA) on PCOS-IR rat models. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the five groups: un-treated rats (n = 12), PCOS-IR group (n = 12), PCOS-IR group plus 50 mg/kg SA (n = 12), PCOS-IR group plus 10 mg/kg SA (n = 12), PCOS-IR group plus 150 mg/kg metformin (n = 12). On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and H(and)E staining was performed for histopathologic examination of the ovaries; moreover, the serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and luteotropic hormone (LH) were measured, and the expression as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and Gsk-3β were examined using western blot assay. High dosage of SA treatment improved the morphological features of the ovaries in PCOS rats, and also induced significant decrease in serum expression of testosterone and LH/FSH ratio and significant decrease in the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-Gsk-3β. Our results demonstrated that SA treatment could alleviate the symptom of PCOS in rat model through regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3-β pathway (Fig. 4, Ref. 22).

  5. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weckbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT, closed head injury (CHI, or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT or to the following combination of injuries: (1 ChT; (2 ChT + Fx + STT; (3 ChT + CHI; (4 CHI; (5 polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT. Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma.

  6. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumüller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT + Fx + STT; (3) ChT + CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma. PMID:22481866

  7. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {<=} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {<=} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {<=} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes.

  8. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes

  9. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Generation of muscular dystrophy model rats with a CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Tsuboi, Masaya; Tanihata, Jun; Teramoto, Naomi; Takeuchi, Shiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-07-09

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene encoding Dystrophin. DMD model animals, such as mdx mice and canine X-linked muscular dystrophy dogs, have been widely utilized in the development of a treatment for DMD. Here, we demonstrate the generation of Dmd-mutated rats using a clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system, an RNA-based genome engineering technique that is also adaptive to rats. We simultaneously targeted two exons in the rat Dmd gene, which resulted in the absence of Dystrophin expression in the F0 generation. Dmd-mutated rats exhibited a decline in muscle strength, and the emergence of degenerative/regenerative phenotypes in the skeletal muscle, heart, and diaphragm. These mutations were heritable by the next generation, and F1 male rats exhibited similar phenotypes in their skeletal muscles. These model rats should prove to be useful for developing therapeutic methods to treat DMD.

  11. Step training in a rat model for complex aneurysmal vascular microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microsurgery training is a key step for the young neurosurgeons. Both in vascular and peripheral nerve pathology, microsurgical techniques are useful tools for the proper treatment. Many training models have been described, including ex vivo (chicken wings and in vivo (rat, rabbit ones. Complex microsurgery training include termino-terminal vessel anastomosis and nerve repair. The aim of this study was to describe a reproducible complex microsurgery training model in rats. Materials and methods: The experimental animals were Brown Norway male rats between 10-16 weeks (average 13 and weighing between 250-400g (average 320g. We performed n=10 rat hind limb replantations. The surgical steps and preoperative management are carefully described. We evaluated the vascular patency by clinical assessment-color, temperature, capillary refill. The rats were daily inspected for any signs of infections. The nerve regeneration was assessed by foot print method. Results: There were no case of vascular compromise or autophagia. All rats had long term survival (>90 days. The nerve regeneration was clinically completed at 6 months postoperative. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, and ischemia time was 25 minutes.

  12. An animal model to study lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction: the hyperlipidaemic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nadeem U; Phonsombat, Surat; Bochinski, Derek; Carrion, Rafael E; Nunes, Lora; Lue, Tom F

    2007-09-01

    To present evidence that rats fed a high-fat diet could serve as a useful animal model to study both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between LUTS and ED but the physiological basis behind this relationship is unknown. In all, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: nine controls were fed a 'normal' diet and 15 were fed a high-fat diet (hyperlipidaemic rats). After 6 months all the rats had bladder and erectile functions evaluated using awake cystometry and cavernosal nerve electrostimulation, respectively. After the functional studies were completed, the penis, prostate and bladder were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. The hyperlipidaemic rats had significantly higher serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than the controls (P enlargement, bladder overactivity, and ED. This rat model could be a useful research tool for understanding the common causes of LUTS and ED, as well as facilitating the development of preventive measures and better therapies to treat both conditions.

  13. Ocular changes in TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Svendsen, Clive N; Cohen, Robert M; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, vision disturbances have been reported in early stage of AD, well before the diagnosis is clearly established. To further investigate ocular abnormalities, a novel AD transgenic rat model was analyzed. Transgenic (Tg) rats (TgF344-AD) heterozygous for human mutant APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and age-matched wild type (WT) rats, as well as 20 human postmortem retinal samples from both AD and healthy donors were used. Visual function in the rodent was analyzed using the optokinetic response and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus. Immunohistochemistry on retinal and brain sections was used to detect various markers including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. As expected, Aβ plaques were detected in the hippocampus, cortex, and retina of Tg rats. Plaque-like structures were also found in two AD human whole-mount retinas. The choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in both Tg rat and in AD human eyes when compared with age-matched controls. Tg rat eyes also showed hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and upregulation of complement factor C3. Although visual acuity was lower in Tg than in WT rats, there was no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell number and retinal vasculature. In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was observed further in human AD retina. Along with Ab deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance and mechanisms of these pathological changes [corrected].

  14. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  15. [Experimental study on establishment of a simple model of rats crush injury-crush syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuehong; Xu, Wei; Qin, Tingwu; Zhao, Luping; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To establish a repeatable, simple, and effective model of rat crush injury and crush syndrome. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats (2-month-old, (CS) so as to lay a foundation for further study on CS. weighing 160-180 g) were divided randomly into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=36). The rats of the experimental group were used to establish the crush injury and CS model in both lower limbs by self-made crush injury mould. The survival rate and hematuria rate were observed after decompression. The biochemical indexes of blood were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after decompression. The samples of muscle, kidney, and heart were harvested for morphological observation. There was no treatment in the control group, and the same tests were performed. Seven rats died and 15 rats had hematuria during compression in the experimental group. Swelling of the lower limb and muscle tissue was observed in the survival rats after reperfusion. The liver function test results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P congestion and swelling, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, edema, necrosis, and myoglobin tube type were found in the kidneys; and myocardial structure had no obvious changes. The method of the crush injury and CS model by self-made crush injury mould is a simple and effective procedure and the experimental result is stable. It is a simple method to establish an effective model of rats crush injury and CS.

  16. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  17. Comparison of Allogeneic and Syngeneic Rat Glioma Models by Using MRI and Histopathologic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, Elena; Valazza, Alberto; Capucchio, Maria T; Annovazzi, Laura; Battaglia, Luigi; Chirio, Daniela; Gallarate, Marina; Mellai, Marta; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Peira, Elena; Riganti, Chiara; Schiffer, Davide; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Lanotte, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies are tested before human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin, grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic. In the current study, we used MRI and histopathologic evaluation to compare the most widely used allogeneic rat glioma model, C6-Wistar, with the F98-Fischer syngeneic rat glioma model in terms of percentage tumor growth or regression and growth rate. In vivo MRI demonstrated considerable variation in tumor volume and frequency between the 2 rat models despite the same stereotactic implantation technique. Faster and more reproducible glioma growth occurred in the immunoresponsive environment of the F98-Fischer model, because the immune response is minimized toward syngeneic cells. The marked inability of the C6-Wistar allogeneic system to generate a reproducible model and the episodes of spontaneous tumor regression with this system may have been due to the increased humoral and cellular immune responses after tumor implantation.

  18. Preservation of Retina Ganglion Cell Function by Morphine in a Chronic Ocular-Hypertensive Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid; Abdul, Yasir; Crosson, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    Morphine, a broad range opioid-receptors agonist, provides retina neuroprotection against glaucomatous injury in chronic experimental rat model. Morphine-induced retina neuroprotection in glaucoma model is mediated partly via inhibition of TNF-alpha production and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation.

  19. Effects of aspirin and enoxaparin in a rat model of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Liu; Liu, De-Liang

    2017-09-21

    To examine the effects of aspirin and enoxaparin on liver function, coagulation index and histopathology in a rat model of liver fibrosis. METHODS Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 5) and model group (n = 40). Thioacetamide (TAA) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the model group. TAA-induced fibrotic rats received TAA continuously (n = 9), TAA + low-dose aspirin (n = 9), TAA + high-dose aspirin (n = 9) or TAA + enoxaparin (n = 9) for 4 wk. All rats were euthanized after 4 wk, and both hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining were performed to observe pathological changes in liver tissue. Liver fibrosis was assessed according to the METAVIR score. Compared with untreated cirrhotic controls, a significant improvement in fibrosis grade was observed in the low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin and enoxaparin treated groups, especially in the high-dose aspirin treated group. Alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were higher, albumin was lower and both prothrombin time and international normalized ratio were prolonged in the four treatment groups compared to controls. No significant differences among the four groups were observed. Aspirin and enoxaparin can alleviate liver fibrosis in this rat model.

  20. Severity of osteopenia in estrogen-deficient women with anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, S; Miller, K; Coyle, C; Krempin, J; Armstrong, C; Pitts, S; Herzog, D; Klibanski, A

    1999-06-01

    density was most significantly related to lean body mass (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03 for the spine and hip, respectively), but not to the duration of amenorrhea or other indexes of estrogen status among patients with AN. In contrast, bone density of the lumbar spine was significantly related to weight and duration of amenorrhea among patients with HA. These data demonstrate that the severity of osteopenia in AN is greater than that in patients with HA and is critically dependent upon nutritional factors in addition to the degree or duration of estrogen deficiency itself. Lean body mass, independent of the duration or severity of estrogen deficiency, is an important predictor of bone loss among women with AN.

  1. Preliminary Study of Quercetin Affecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis on Rat Endometriosis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the endometriosis rats model was randomly divided into 6 groups: model control group, ovariectomized group, Gestrinone group, and quercetin high/medium/low dose group. Rats were killed after 3 weeks of administration. The expression levels of serum FSH and LH were detected by ELISA. The localizations and quantities of ERα, ERβ, and PR were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed that the mechanism of quercetin inhibiting the growth of ectopic endometrium on rat endometriosis model may be through the decreasing of serum FSH and LH levels and then reducing local estrogen content to make the ectopic endometrium atrophy. Quercetin can decrease the expression of ERα, ERβ, and PR in hypothalamus, pituitary, and endometrium, thereby inhibiting estrogen and progesterone binding to their receptors to play the role of antiestrogen and progesterone.

  2. Improvement of Radiation-Mediated Immunosuppression of Human NSCLC Tumour Xenografts in a Nude Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Tokalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model have consistently been used as an essential part of preclinical studies for anticancer drugs activity in human. Commonly, these animals receive whole body irradiation to assure immunosuppression. But whole body dose delivery might be inhomogeneous and the resulting incomplete bone marrow depletion may modify tumour behaviour. To improve irradiation-mediated immunosuppression of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model irradiation (2 + 2 Gy from opposite sides of animals has been performed using a conventional X-ray tube. The described modification of whole body irradiation improves growth properties of human NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model. The design of the whole body irradiation mediated immunosuppression described here for NSCLC xenografts may be useful for research applications involving other types of human tumours.

  3. Removal of thallium by deferasirox in rats as biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljooghi, Amir Sh; Fatemi, S Jamiladin

    2011-03-01

    The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of deferasirox in removing thallium after its administration for 30 days following two dose levels of 20 and 160 μm of thallium (III) chloride to male Wistar rats every day. After thallium administration some abnormal clinical signs such as red staining around the eyes, greenish mottling on the liver, weakness, loss of hair and weight, were observed in animals. Deferasirox was given orally to different groups of rats for a period of one week immediately after thallium administration. After chelation therapy, animals were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta, and then thallium and iron concentrations in various tissues were determined by standard addition method. The chelation therapy results showed that deferasirox was able to remove thallium ions from the body and clinical symptoms were also reduced. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaqif El Khassawna

    Full Text Available Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus. 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8 were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs

  5. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Böcker, Wolfgang; Govindarajan, Parameswari; Schliefke, Nathalie; Hürter, Britta; Kampschulte, Marian; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Alt, Volker; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Faulenbach, Miriam; Möllmann, Henriette; Zahner, Daniel; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Bauer, Natali; Wenisch, Sabine; Langheinrich, Alexander Claus; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus). 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8) were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs and growth factors

  6. Cardioprotection by controlling hyperamylinemia in a "humanized" diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Sharma, Savita; Harris, Todd R; Dong, Hua; Li, Ning; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margulies, Kenneth B; Hammock, Bruce D; Despa, Florin

    2014-08-21

    Chronic hypersecretion of the pancreatic hormone amylin is common in humans with obesity or prediabetic insulin resistance and induces amylin aggregation and proteotoxicity in the pancreas. We recently showed that hyperamylinemia also affects the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated whether amylin aggregates interact directly with cardiac myocytes and whether controlling hyperamylinemia protects the heart. By Western blot, we found abundant amylin aggregates in lysates of cardiac myocytes from obese patients, but not in controls. Aggregated amylin was elevated in failing hearts, suggesting a role in myocyte injury. Using rats overexpressing human amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and control myocytes incubated with human amylin, we show that amylin aggregation at the sarcolemma induces oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. In time, HIP rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. We then tested whether metabolites with antiaggregation properties, such as eicosanoid acids, limit myocardial amylin deposition. Rats were treated with an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades endogenous eicosanoids. Treatment doubled the blood concentration of eicosanoids, which drastically reduced incorporation of aggregated amylin in cardiac myocytes and blood cells, without affecting pancreatic amylin secretion. Animals in the treated group showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. The cardioprotective mechanisms included the mitigation of amylin-induced cardiac oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. The results suggest blood amylin as a novel therapeutic target in diabetic heart disease and elevating blood levels of antiaggregation metabolites as a pharmacological strategy to reduce amylin aggregation and amylin-mediated cardiotoxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

  8. Radioprotective effect of a metalloporphyrin compound in rat eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Crapo, J D; Mekonnen, T; Lindsey, N; Martinez, P; Gridley, D S; Slater, J M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the antioxidant Mn (III) tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP) in protecting ocular tissue and retinal microvasculature from radiation damage. 75 rats were treated with Mn TE-2-PyP at 2.5 micro g/injection into one eye an hour before proton irradiation. The radiation was delivered in a single fraction to total doses of 8 Gray (Gy) or 28 Gy; Rats were sacrificed 3 days and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months thereafter for histology and quantification of photoreceptor cell populations and retinal capillary changes. By 6 months following radiation, there was significant loss of retinal outer and inner nuclear layers in eyes receiving radiation only (8 and 28 Gy) (p eyes of rats treated with radiation plus metalloporphyrin. Retinal microvessel length density decreased significantly 6 months following 28 Gy (p eyes showed extensive damage to the photoreceptor layer, whereas the eyes of animals receiving radiation plus MnTE-2-PyP showed almost no morphological damage. MnTE-2-PyP treatment also suppressed radiation-induced apoptosis in our study. These results demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP protected both photoreceptors and retinal capillaries from radiation damage, suggesting that this metalloporphyrin antioxidant is effective in regulating the damage induced by proton radiation.

  9. Evaluation of deltamethrin kinetics and dosimetry in the maturing rat using a PBPK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Kim, Hyo J.; Haines, Wendy T.; Bruckner, James V.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study (Kim et al., in press) revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90 days old. The objective of the current study was to modify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DLM disposition in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat (Mirfazaelian et al., 2006), so blood and target organ dosimetry could be accurately predicted during maturation. Age-specific organ weights and age-dependent changes in the oxidative and hydrolytic clearance of DLM were modeled with a generalized Michaelis-Menten model for growth and the summary equations incorporated into the PBPK model. The model's simulations compared favorably with empirical DLM time-courses in plasma, blood, brain and fat for the four age-groups evaluated (10, 21, 40 and 90 days old). PND 10 pups' area under the 24-h brain concentration time curve (AUC 0-24h ) was 3.8-fold higher than that of the PND 90 adults. Our maturing rat PBPK model allows for updating with age- and chemical-dependent parameters, so pyrethroid dosimetry can be forecast in young and aged individuals. Hence, this model provides a methodology for risk assessors to consider age-specific adjustments to oral Reference Doses on the basis of PK differences.

  10. Hormone-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh

    2017-12-15

    Despite polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-aged women, the etiopathogenesis and mechanisms of this syndrome remain unclear. Considering the ethical limitations in human studies, animal models that reflect many features of PCOS are crucial resources to investigate this syndrome. We aimed to introduce the most suitable rat model of PCOS that closely mimics the endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances of human PCOS phenotype, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood, in order to further more detailed investigations about PCOS. We searched Pubmed, Science direct, and Web of science between 1990 and 2016, for relevant English manuscripts, using keywords including the "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome AND Rat Model" to generate a subset of citations relevant to our research. Included were those articles that compared at least both ovarian histology or estrous cycle and reproductive hormonal profiles in hormone-induced rat model of PCOS and controls. Differences in the findings between hormone-induced PCOS rats appear to be a result of the degree of transplacental transfer of the steroid administered into the fetus, dose and type of hormone, route of administration and timing and duration of exposure. We conclude that prenatal hormone-induced rat model with a lower dose and shorter time of exposure during the critical period of fetal development that exhibits endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances similar to PCOS in women, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood is more suitable than postnatal hormone-induced rat model to facilitate studies regarding PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of telmisartan on resistin expression in a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzan; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yingli; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of telmisartan on expression of resistin in serum and liver under conditions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and insulin resistance using a rat model system. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC, n=10), a model control group (MC, n=15), a polyene phosphatidylcholine prevention group (PP, n=10), and a telmisartan prevention group (TP, n=10). The NC group was given a standard diet and the other groups were given a high-fat diet for 16 weeks in order to induce NASH. At the end of week 12, 5 rats in the MC group were sacrificed for pathology confirmation of the NASH model. At the end of week 12, the TP group was given telmisartan (8.0 mg/kg/d) and the PP group was given polyene phosphatidylcholine (8.4 mg/kg/d) for an additional 4 weeks by intragastric administration. At the end of week 16, all rats were sacrificed and body weights recorded. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), resistin, insulin and fasting blood glucose were measured. The insulin resistance value, HOMA-IR, was assessed by homeostasis mode assessment. Liver expression of the resistin protein was detected by western blotting and of the resistin mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The F test and LSD test were used for statistical analyses. Compared to the NC group, the body weight and HOMA-IR of rats in the MC group were significantly increased (Pinsulin resistance were significantly lower in the TP group than in the MC group of rats (all Pinsulin resistance in NASH rats by decreasing the expression of serum resistin, and liver resistin protein and mRNA.

  12. Potential neuroprotective effects of acupuncture stimulation on diabetes mellitus in a global ischemic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Chae, Su-Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Park, Hun-Kuk; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Seok Keun

    2010-01-01

    Acupuncture (ACU) is known to be effective in ischemia treatment, and glutamate (GLU) excitotoxicity is an important factor in neuronal cell death. We observed the effect of ACU on cerebral blood flow (%CBF) and ΔGLU (the changes in GLU release) in the ischemic stroke rat model of diabetic mellitus (DM). A global ischemia was induced using the eleven-vessel occlusion (11-VO) method in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats (DM), which were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the ACU-treatment group. Extracellular ΔGLU was assessed using an intra-cerebral biosensor system measuring 256 samples per second, simultaneously with %CBF and electroencephalogram. ACU stimulation was applied to ACU points GB34 and GB39 during the ischemic period. Twenty-three diagnostic parameters were proposed first for a detailed analysis of changes in %CBF and GLU release during ischemia/reperfusion. ACU rats showed a significant decrease in ischemic (p < 0.05) and reperfusion %CBF (p < 0.0001) than control rats, and a significantly larger decrease in ischemic ΔGLU (p < 0.05) and peak level of reperfusion ΔGLU (p < 0.005) than control rats. From these results, we suggest that ACU stimulation is responsible for the potential protection of neurons through suppression of %CBF response in the increased plasma osmolality and extracellular ΔGLU in diabetic rats under ischemic conditions

  13. Hepatoprotective Effects of Swimming Exercise against D-Galactose-Induced Senescence Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a 12-week swimming exercise training can prevent liver damage or senescence associated biomarkers in an experimental aging model in rats. Twenty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: vehicle treatment with sedentary control (C, , aging induction with sedentary (A, , vehicle treatment with swimming exercise (SW, , and aging induction with swimming exercise (A + SW, . Rats in groups A and AS received intraperitoneal D-galactose injections (150 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks to induce aging. Rats in groups SW and A + SW were subjected to swimming exercise training for 12 weeks. Body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat mass, blood biochemistry, and liver pathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Hepatic senescence protein markers such as β-galactosidase, p53, and p21, as well as the inflammatory mediator, IL-6, were examined. The D-galactose-treated rats exhibited increases in AST and γ-GT plasma levels and β-galactosidase protein expression compared to the control group. Swimming exercise significantly reduced BW, epididymal fat mass, γ-GT activity, and p53, p21, and IL-6 protein levels compared to the aging group. These results suggest that a 12-week swimming exercise program suppresses senescence markers and downregulates inflammatory mediator in the liver tissues of D-galactose-induced aging rats.

  14. Strong interactions between learned helplessness and risky decision-making in a rat gambling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, José N; Hedayatmofidi, Parisa S; Lobo, Daniela S

    2016-11-18

    Risky decision-making is characteristic of depression and of addictive disorders, including pathological gambling. However it is not clear whether a propensity to risky choices predisposes to depressive symptoms or whether the converse is the case. Here we tested the hypothesis that rats showing risky decision-making in a rat gambling task (rGT) would be more prone to depressive-like behaviour in the learned helplessness (LH) model. Results showed that baseline rGT choice behaviour did not predict escape deficits in the LH protocol. In contrast, exposure to the LH protocol resulted in a significant increase in risky rGT choices on retest. Unexpectedly, control rats subjected only to escapable stress in the LH protocol showed a subsequent decrease in riskier rGT choices. Further analyses indicated that the LH protocol affected primarily rats with high baseline levels of risky choices and that among these it had opposite effects in rats exposed to LH-inducing stress compared to rats exposed only to the escape trials. Together these findings suggest that while baseline risky decision making may not predict LH behaviour it interacts strongly with LH conditions in modulating subsequent decision-making behaviour. The suggested possibility that stress controllability may be a key factor should be further investigated.

  15. Motor Function and Dopamine Release Measurements in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Osterhaus, Gregory L.; Lauderdale, Kelli; Mahoney, Luke; Fowler, Stephen C.; von Hörsten, Stephan; Riess, Olaf; Johnson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in motor and cognitive function. Here, we have quantitatively characterized motor deficiencies and dopamine release dynamics in transgenic HD model rats. Behavioral analyses were conducted using a newly-developed force-sensing runway and a previously-developed force-plate actometer. Gait disturbances were readily observed in transgenic HD rats at 12 to 15 months of age. Additionally, dopamine system challenge by ip injection of amphetamine also revealed that these rats were resistant to the expression of focused stereotypy compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, dopamine release, evoked by the application of single and multiple electrical stimulus pulses applied at different frequencies, and measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes, was diminished in transgenic HD rats compared to age-matched wild-type control rats. Collectively, these results underscore the potential contribution of dopamine release alterations to the expression of motor impairments in transgenic HD rats. PMID:22418060

  16. A truncated conical beam model for analysis of the vibration of rat whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenyi; Kan, Qianhua; Kergrene, Kenan; Kang, Guozheng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-09

    A truncated conical beam model is developed to study the vibration behaviour of a rat whisker. Translational and rotational springs are introduced to better represent the constraint conditions at the base of the whiskers in a living rat. Dimensional analysis shows that the natural frequency of a truncated conical beam with generic spring constraints at its ends is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass density. Under all the combinations of the classical free, pinned, sliding or fixed boundary conditions of a truncated conical beam, it is proved that the natural frequency can be expressed as f = α(rb/L(2))E/ρ and the frequency coefficient α only depends on the ratio of the radii at the two ends of the beam. The natural frequencies of a representative rat whisker are predicted for two typical situations: freely whisking in air and the tip touching an object. Our numerical results show that there exists a window where the natural frequencies of a rat whisker are very sensitive to the change of the rotational constraint at the base. This finding is also confirmed by the numerical results of 18 whiskers with their data available from literature. It can be concluded that the natural frequencies of a rat whisker can be adjusted within a wide range through manipulating the constraints of the follicle on the rat base by a behaving animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation induced by Krypton laser in Brown Norway (BN) rats, and observe the trend of the change of CNV after laser photocoagulation. Twenty-five male BN rats were involved in this study. Two eyes of one rat without any laser photocoagulation were randomly selected as the control group, and the other 48 eyes of 24 rats were selected as the experimental group. Eight eyes of four rats were randomly selected to receive the examinations of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after laser photocoagulation. After laser photocoagulation, the leakage appeared in burns on day 7 (59%), reached the peak on day 21 (84%), (p0.05). The thickness of CNV increased from day 7 to day 21 (p0.05). The experimental model of CNV can be successfully induced by Krypton laser in rats with a stable, long-lasting, and high success rate. After laser photocoagulation, the leakages appear on day 7, reach the peak on day 21, and remain stable after day 21.

  18. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Thrombolytic effects in vivo of nattokinase in a carrageenan-induced rat model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Du, Ming; Yang, Xiulin; Chen, Qingquan; Chen, Hong; Lin, Dong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of the soybean product natto. The fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic effects of nattokinase have been observed in vitro, but the effect in vivo has still to be researched. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the activity of nattokinase in vivo. To establish a rat model of thrombosis, κ-carrageenan was injected subcutaneously into the toes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Histological examination confirmed thrombosis. The rats were then treated with varying doses of nattokinase and the resulting thrombolysis was histologically assessed. ELISA was used to determine the levels of the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer, which are sensitive indices of fibrinolytic activity. Vermis kinase, a known thrombolytic agent, was used as a positive control. Biopsy results revealed partial thrombolysis in the tail vessels of the rats treated with nattokinase or vermis kinase. FDP and D-dimer levels were higher in rats treated with high-dose nattokinase than in those treated with saline. No difference in FDP or D-dimer levels was observed between rats treated with high-dose nattokinase and those treated with vermis kinase. Both the histological and physiological evidence from this study indicate that nattokinase exerts thrombolytic effects in vivo.

  20. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank Erhard; Strassburg, Christian P; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Spengler, Ulrich; Trebicka, Jonel

    2016-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics, and compared it to human NCIPH. Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one week after last embolization), hemodynamics were investigated, hepatic fibrosis and accumulation of myofibroblasts were analysed. General characteristics, laboratory analyses and liver histology were collected in patients with NCIPH. Weekly embolization induced a hyperdynamic circulation, with increased PP. The mesenteric flow and hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in weekly embolized compared to single embolized rats (mesenteric flow +54.1%, hydroxyproline +41.7%). Mesenteric blood flow and shunt volumes increased, whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was decreased in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies.

  1. Influence of manual therapy on functional mobility after joint injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlen, Rachel L; Snider, Eric J; Sargentini, Neil J; Worthington, Bart D; Singh, Vineet K; Pazdernik, Vanessa K; Johnson, Jane C; Degenhardt, Brian F

    2013-10-01

    Animal models can be used to investigate manual therapy mechanisms, but testing manipulation in animal models is problematic because animals cannot directly report their pain. To develop a rat model of inflammatory joint injury to test the efficacy of manual therapy in reducing nociception and restoring function. The authors induced acute inflammatory joint injury in rats by injecting carrageenan into the ankle and then measured voluntary running wheel activity in treated and untreated rats. Treatments included manual therapy applied to the ankle and knee of the injured limb and several analgesic medications (eg, morphine, ketorolac, prednisone). Intra-articular injection of carrageenan to the ankle produced significant swelling (diameter of the ankle increased by 64% after injection; P=.004) and a robust reduction in voluntary running wheel activity (running distance reduced by 91% compared with controls; Pmanual therapy nor analgesic medications increased running wheel activity relative to untreated rats. Voluntary running wheel activity appears to be an appropriate functional measure to evaluate the impact of an acute inflammatory joint injury. However, efforts to treat the injury did not restore running relative to untreated rats.

  2. General developmental health in the VPA-rat model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre, Mônica R; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Lamendola, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition diagnosed by impaired social interaction, abnormal communication and, stereotyped behaviors. While post-mortem and imaging studies have provided good insights into the neurobiological symptomology of autism, animal models can be used to study...... with VPA during early pregnancy show an increased risk for giving birth to an autistic child. In rats, early embryonic exposure, around the time of neural tube closure, leads to autism-like anatomical and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Considering the increasing use of the VPA rat model, we...

  3. Liraglutide Improves Hypertension and Metabolic Perturbation in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Vanessa; Bi, Jiangjiang; Mohankumar, Sheba M.; Vyas, Arpita K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of 5–8%. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are its long-term complications. Targeted therapies addressing both these complications together are lacking. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists that are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Hence we hypothesized that a GLP-1 agonist would improve both cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in PCOS. To test this hypothesis, we used an established rat model of PCOS. Prepubertal female Sprague Dawley rats were sham-implanted or implanted s.c. with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellets (90 day release; 83μg/day). At 12 wks of age, sham implanted rats received saline injections and the DHT treated animals were administered either saline or liraglutide (0.2mg/kg s.c twice daily) for 4 weeks. Subgroups of rats were implanted with telemeters between 12-13 weeks of age to monitor blood pressure. DHT implanted rats had irregular estrus cycles and were significantly heavier than the control females at 12 weeks (mean± SEM 251.9±3.4 vs 216.8±3.4 respectively; pDHT treated rats significantly decreased body weight (mean± SEM 294.75 ±3.2 in DHT+ saline vs 276.25±2.7 in DHT+ liraglutide group respectively; pDHT implanted rats significantly improved glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance test (area under the curve: DHT+ saline 28674±310 vs 24990± 420 in DHT +liraglutide p DHT rats were hypertensive and liraglutide treatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that GLP-1 treatment could improve DHT–induced metabolic and blood pressure deficits associated with PCOS. PMID:26010091

  4. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  5. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fusions using iliac crest autograft. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 rats received sham operations on their necks (control; N = 20); Group 2 rats were implanted with TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells into the subcutis of their necks (TheraCyte; N = 20). Six weeks after surgery the rats were killed. Fusion was assessed by inspection, manual palpation, radiography, and histology. Blood was drawn to measure the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Based on manual palpation, the control group had a fusion rate of 33 % (6/18) and the TheraCyte group had a fusion rate of 72 % (13/18) (P = 0.044). Histology confirmed the manual palpation results. Serum iPTH levels were significantly higher in the TheraCyte group compared with the control group (P TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells than in control rats without significant change in serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations. As with any animal study, the results may not extrapolate to a higher species. Further studies are needed to determine if these effects are clinically significant.

  6. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  7. Quercetin Decreases Insulin Resistance in a Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model by Improving Inflammatory Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhi; Zhai, Dongxia; Zhang, Danying; Bai, Lingling; Yao, Ruipin; Yu, Jin; Cheng, Wen; Yu, Chaoqin

    2017-05-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Quercetin, derived from Chinese medicinal herbs such as hawthorn, has been proven practical in the management of IR in diabetes. However, whether quercetin could decrease IR in PCOS is unknown. This study aims to observe the therapeutic effect of quercetin on IR in a PCOS rat model and explore the underlying mechanism. An IR PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection with dehydroepiandrosterone. The body weight, estrous cycle, and ovary morphology of the quercetin-treated rats were observed. Serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In ovarian tissues, the expression of key genes involved in the inflammatory signaling pathway was detected through Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or immunohistochemistry. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was also observed by immunofluorescence. The estrous cycle recovery rate of the insulin-resistant PCOS model after quercetin treatment was 58.33%. Quercetin significantly reduced the levels of blood insulin, interleukin 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Quercetin also significantly decreased the granulosa cell nuclear translocation of NF-κB in the insulin-resistant PCOS rat model. The treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation-related genes, including the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p22phox, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and Toll-like receptor 4, in ovarian tissue. Quercetin improved IR and demonstrated a favorable therapeutic effect on the PCOS rats. The underlying mechanism of quercetin potentially involves the inhibition of the Toll-like receptor/NF-κB signaling pathway and the improvement in the inflammatory microenvironment of the ovarian tissue of the PCOS rat model.

  8. Induction of osteoarthritis by injecting monosodium iodoacetate into the patellofemoral joint of an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikufumi; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes in the patellofemoral joint using a rat model of osteoarthritis that was induced using monosodium iodoacetate, and to establish a novel model of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in a rat model using histopathological analysis. Sixty male rats were used. Osteoarthritis was induced through a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in both knee joints. Animals were equally divided into two experimental groups based on the monosodium iodoacetate dose: 0.2 mg and 1.0 mg. Histopathological changes in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint and the infrapatellar fat pad were examined at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the monosodium iodoacetate injection. In the 1.0-mg group, the representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint over time. Additionally, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores of the patellofemoral joint increased over time. The synovitis scores of the infrapatellar fat pad in both groups were highest at 3 days, and then the values decreased over time. The fibrosis score of the infrapatellar fat pad in the 1.0-mg group increased with time, whereas the fibrosis score in the 0.2-mg group remained low. Representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced using monosodium iodoacetate. With appropriate selection, this model may be regarded as an ideal patellofemoral osteoarthritis model.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Bone: Pharmacologically Induced Diabetes has Deleterious Effect on Bone in Growing Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Cedo M; Edwards, Kristin; Berryman, Edwin

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Our objective was to create a rat model of human metabolic syndrome and determine the long-term impact of early-onset T1D on bone structure and strength in obese growing rats. Male rats were given either standard chow and RO water (Controls) or a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet and sugar water containing 55% fructose and 45% glucose (HFD). A third group of rats received the HFD diet and a single dose of streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes (HFD/Sz). Body weight and glucose tolerance tests were conducted several times during the course of the study. Serum chemistry, liver enzymes, and biomarkers of bone metabolism were evaluated at 10 and 28 weeks. Shear wave elastography and histology were used to assess liver fibrosis. Cancellous bone structure and cortical bone geometry were evaluated by mCT and strength by the 3-point bending method. Body mass and fat accumulation was significantly higher in HFD and HFD/Sz rats compared to Controls. Rats in both the HFD and HFD/Sz groups developed NASH, although the change was more severe in diabetic rats. Although both groups of obese rats had larger bones, their cancellous structure and cortical thickness were reduced, resulting in diminished strength that was further aggravated by diabetes. The HFD and HFD/Sz rats recapitulate MeSy in humans with liver pathology consistent with NASH. Our data provide strong indication that obesity accompanied by type 1 diabetes significantly aggravates comorbidities of MeSy, including the development of osteopenia and weaker bones. The juvenile rat skeleton seems to be more vulnerable to damage imposed by obesity and diabetes and may offer a model to inform the underlying pathology associated

  10. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  11. [The replacement therapy of rPTH(1-84) in established rat model of hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Li, Tiancheng; Liu, Yuhe; Xiao, Shuifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the replacement therapy of rPTH(1-84) (recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84)) to hypothyroidism in established rat model. Rat model of hypothyroidism was established by resecting parathyroids. A total of 30 rats with removal of parathyroids were divided into 6 groups randomly, 5 in each group, and applied respectively with saline injection (negative control group), calcitriol treatment (positive control group) and quadripartite PTH administration with dose of 20, 40, 80 and 160 µg/kg (experimental groups). Saline and rPTH(1-84) were injected subcutaneously daily. Calcitriol was gavaged once a day. Sham-operation was conducted in 5 rats of negative control group. To verify the authenticity of the rat model with hypothyroidism, the serum was insolated centrifugally from rat blood that was obtained from angular vein at specific time to measure calcium and phosphorus concentration. Urine in 12 hours was collected by metabolic cages and the calcium concentration was measured. After 10-week drug treatment, the experiment was terminated and bilateral femoral bone and L2-5 lumbar vertebra were removed from rats. Bone mineral density (BMD)of bilateral femoral bone and lumbar vertebra was analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) in serum was determined by radioimmunoassay. The rat model with hypothyroidism was obtained by excising parathyroid gland and was verified by monitoring calcium and phosphorus concentration subsequently. Administration of rPTH(1-84) in the dose of 80 or 160 µg/kg made serum calcium and phosphorus back to normal levels, with no significant difference between the doses (P>0.05). The BMD in each group of rats with rPTH(1-84) administration was increased significantly (P0.05). Calcium and phosphorus return to normal level by administration of rPTH(1-84) in the dose of 80 µg/kg or 160 µg/kg, with increase in BMD. Calcitriol can return the level of calcium to normal and

  12. Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiyun Cui,1,* Xinxin Yang,1,* Xiaoying Wang,2,* Zunsheng Zhang,1 Xuanye Yue,1 Hongjuan Shi,1 Xia Shen11Department of Neurology, 2Department of Ultrasound, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved.Methods: A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated.Results: Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real

  13. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecutive...... experiments. The first experiment evaluated vasomotor response (IR-Th) and scratching behavior (number of bouts) induced by intradermal serotonin (10 μl, 2%). Isotonic saline (control: 10 μl, 0.9%) and Methysergide (antagonist: 10 μl, 0.047 mg/ml) were used. The second experiment evaluated the dose......-response effect of intradermal serotonin (1%, 2% and 4%) on local temperature. The third experiment evaluated the anesthetized rats to test the local vasomotor responses in absent of scratching. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A dose...

  14. Avastin exhibits therapeutic effects on collagen-induced arthritis in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Da, Gula; Li, Hongbin; Zheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    Avastin is the monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study aimed to investigate therapeutic effect of Avastin on type II collagen-induced arthritis. Type II chicken collagen was injected into the tails of Wistar rats, and 60 modeled female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): Avastin group, Etanercept group, and control group. Arthritis index and joint pad thickness were scored, and the pathology of back metapedes was analyzed. The results showed that compared to control group, the arthritis index, target-to-non-target ratio, synovial pathological injury index, serum levels of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and VEGF staining were decreased significantly 14 days after Avastin or Etanercept treatment, but there were no significant differences between Avastin group and Etanercept group. These data provide evidence that Avastin exhibits similar effects to Etanercept to relieve rheumatoid arthritis in rat model and suggest that Avastin is a promising therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Transplantation of ES cells to Parkinson model rat irradiated with carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaji, Motoki; Okauchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuji; Nojima, Kumie; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to make a new Parkinson disease model using carbon ion beam. In this year, we irradiated right middle forebrain bundle of adult rats with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon, Mono peak, 150 Gy) and damaged right dopaminergic neurons pathway. To irradiate precisely, rats were set in the stereotactic frame with ear bars which was developed in this year. In 4 weeks after the irradiation, we performed methamphetamine induced rotation test and the autoradiography measurement on dopamine transporter using [ 11 C]PE2I to assess degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in caudate putamen (Cpu). As a result, ipsilateral rotation was observed and the distributions of dopamine transporter in the striatum decreased significantly. These results are similar to those of 6-OHDA lesioned rats, and indicate validity of this model. (author)

  16. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl......OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment......, colocystoplasty, and controls. All animals received antibiotics for 1 week after surgery; half of each group remained on oral antibiotics. Bone-related biochemistry was measured in serum and urine. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to determine bone...... no differences in bone length and volume. Loss of bone mass was almost exclusively in rats with ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment (-37.5%, pQCT, P

  17. A rat model of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia carries a missense mutation in the Edaradd gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a congenital disorder characterized by sparse hair, oligodontia, and inability to sweat. It is caused by mutations in any of three Eda pathway genes: ectodysplasin (Eda), Eda receptor (Edar), and Edar-associated death domain (Edaradd), which encode ligand, receptor, and intracellular adaptor molecule, respectively. The Eda signaling pathway activates NF-κB, which is central to ectodermal differentiation. Although the causative genes and the molecular pathway affecting HED have been identified, no curative treatment for HED has been established. Previously, we found a rat spontaneous mutation that caused defects in hair follicles and named it sparse-and-wavy (swh). Here, we have established the swh rat as the first rat model of HED and successfully identified the swh mutation. Results The swh/swh rat showed sparse hair, abnormal morphology of teeth, and absence of sweat glands. The ectoderm-derived glands, meibomian, preputial, and tongue glands, were absent. We mapped the swh mutation to the most telomeric part of rat Chr 7 and found a Pro153Ser missense mutation in the Edaradd gene. This mutation was located in the death domain of EDARADD, which is crucial for signal transduction and resulted in failure to activate NF-κB. Conclusions These findings suggest that swh is a loss-of-function mutation in the rat Edaradd and indicate that the swh/swh rat would be an excellent animal model of HED that could be used to investigate the pathological basis of the disease and the development of new therapies. PMID:22013926

  18. A New Rat Model of Epileptic Spasms Based on Methylazoxymethanol-Induced Malformations of Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCDs can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12 or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15 or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15 of NMDA. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats with single NMDA-provoked spasms at P15, we obtain the intracranial electroencephalography and examine the pretreatment response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or vigabatrin. Rat pups prenatally exposed to MAM exhibited a significantly greater number of spasms in response to single and multiple postnatal NMDA doses than vehicle-exposed controls. Vigabatrin treatment prior to a single NMDA dose on P15 significantly suppressed spasms in MAM group rats (p < 0.05, while ACTH did not. The MAM group also showed significantly higher fast oscillation (25–100 Hz power during NMDA-induced spasms than controls (p = 0.047. This new model of MCD-based epileptic spasms with corresponding features of human spasms will be valuable for future research of the developmental epilepsy.

  19. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Po; Lu, Chueng-He; Wen, Li-Li; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung; Borel, Cecil O; Ju, Da-Tong; Chen, Chun-Mei; Wu, Ching-Tang

    2011-12-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes a high mortality rate and morbidity. It was suggested that oxidant stress plays an important role in neuronal injury after SAH. Therefore, we assessed the effect of curcumin on reducing cerebral vasospasm and neurologic injury in a SAH model in rat. A double-hemorrhage model was used to induce SAH in rats. Groups of animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg curcumin (curcumin group, n = 24) or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle group, n = 33), normal saline (SAH group, n = 34) or normal saline (sham group, n = 22), 3 h after SAH induction and daily for 6 days. Glutamate was measured before SAH induction and once daily for 7 days. Glutamate transporter-1, wall thickness and the perimeter of the basilar artery, neurologic scores, neuronal degeneration, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were assessed. Changes of glutamate levels were lower in the curcumin group versus the SAH and vehicle groups, especially on day 1 (56 folds attenuation vs. vehicle). Correspondingly, glutamate transporter-1 was preserved after SAH in curcumin-treated rats. In the hippocampus and the cortex, malondialdehyde was attenuated (30% and 50%, respectively). Superoxide dismutase (35% and 64%) and catalase (34% and 38%) activities were increased in the curcumin rats compared with the SAH rats. Mortality rate (relative risk: 0.59), wall thickness (30%) and perimeter (31%) of the basilar artery, neuron degeneration scores (39%), and neurologic scores (31%) were improved in curcumin-treated rats. Curcumin in multiple doses is effective against glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative stress and improves the mortality rate in rats with SAH.

  1. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  2. Orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats for evaluation of stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Anthony L; Custis, James T; Harmon, Joseph F; Powers, Barbara E; Chubb, Laura S; LaRue, Susan M; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ryan, Stewart D

    2013-03-01

    To develop an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats as a model for evaluating the effects of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) on osteosarcoma cells. 26 athymic nude rats. 3 experiments were performed. In the first 2 experiments, rats were injected with 1 × 10(6) Abrams canine osteosarcoma cells into the proximal aspect of the tibia (n = 12) or distal aspect of the femur (6). Tumor engraftment and progression were monitored weekly via radiography, luciferase imaging, and measurement of urine pyridinoline concentration for 5 weeks and histologic evaluation after euthanasia. In the third experiment, 8 rats underwent canine osteosarcoma cell injection into the distal aspect of the femur and SRT was administered to the affected area in three 12-Gy fractions delivered on consecutive days (total radiation dose, 36 Gy). Percentage tumor necrosis and urinary pyridinoline concentrations were used to assess local tumor control. The short-term effect of SRT on skin was also evaluated. Tumors developed in 10 of 12 tibial sites and all 14 femoral sites. Administration of SRT to rats with femoral osteosarcoma was feasible and successful. Mean tumor necrosis of 95% was achieved histologically, and minimal adverse skin effects were observed. The orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in rats developed in this study was suitable for evaluating the effects of local tumor control and can be used in future studies to evaluate optimization of SRT duration, dose, and fractionation schemes. The model could also allow evaluation of other treatments in combination with SRT, such as chemotherapy or bisphosphonate, radioprotectant, or parathyroid hormone treatment.

  3. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  4. Depressive-like symptoms in a reserpine-induced model of fibromyalgia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Escrihuela-Vidal, Francesc; González-Soler, Eva M; Martínez-Expósito, Fernando; Blasco-Ausina, M Carmen; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso A

    2015-11-01

    Since the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia is unknown, treatment options are limited, ineffective and in fact based on symptom relief. A recently proposed rat model of fibromyalgia is based on central depletion of monamines caused by reserpine administration. This model showed widespread musculoskeletal pain and depressive-like symptoms, but the methodology used to measure such symptoms has been criticized. Evidence relates the high prevalence of pain and depression in fibromyalgia to common pathogenic pathways, most probably focused on the monoaminergic system. The present study aims at a validation of the reserpine model of fibromyalgia. For this purpose, rats undergoing this model have been tested for depressive-like symptoms with a Novelty-Suppressed Feeding Test adaptation. Animals administered with reserpine and subjected to forced food deprivation performed a smaller number of incursions to the center of the open field, evidenced by a decrease in the per-minute rate of the rats' approaching, smelling or touching the food. They also took more time to eat from the central food than control rats. These NSFT findings suggest the presence of depressive-like disorders in this animal model of fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  6. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  8. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola Mixed Microbial Infection in a Rat Model of Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are periodontal pathogens that express virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are synergistic in terms of virulence; using a model of mixed microbial infection in rats. Groups of rats were orally infected with either P. gingivalis or T. denticola or mixed microbial infections for 7 and 12 weeks. P. gingivalis genomic DNA was detected more frequently by PCR than T. denticola. Both bacteria induced significantly high IgG, IgG2b, IgG1, IgG2a antibody levels indicating a stimulation of Th1 and Th2 immune response. Radiographic and morphometric measurements demonstrated that rats infected with the mixed infection exhibited significantly more alveolar bone loss than shaminfected control rats. Histology revealed apical migration of junctional epithelium, rete ridge elongation, and crestal alveolar bone resorption; resembling periodontal disease lesion. These results showed that P. gingivalis and T. denticola exhibit no synergistic virulence in a rat model of periodontal disease.

  9. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  10. Bifidobacterium breve prevents necrotising enterocolitis by suppressing inflammatory responses in a preterm rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Izumi, H; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Namba, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inflammatory responses and barrier dysfunction in the gut. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on factors related to NEC development using an experimental rat model. Caesarean-sectioned rats were given formula milk with or without B. breve M-16V by oral gavage thrice daily, and experimental NEC was induced by exposing the rats to hypoxic conditions. Naturally delivered rats that were reared by their mother were used as healthy controls. The pathological score of NEC and the expression of molecules related to inflammatory responses and the barrier function were assessed in the ileum. B. breve M-16V reduced the pathological scores of NEC and resulted in some improvement in survivability. B. breve M-16V suppressed the increased expression of molecules related to inflammation and barrier function that resulted from NEC induction. B. breve M-16V normalised Toll-like receptor (TRL)4 expression and enhanced TLR2 expression. Our data suggest that B. breve M-16V prevents NEC development by modulating TLR expressions and suppressing inflammatory responses in a rat model.

  11. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl......OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment...... mass ex vivo.RESULTS: Most (90%) of the rats survived the study period (8 months); six rats died from bowel obstruction at the level of the entero-anastomosis and four had to be killed because of persistent severe diarrhoea. Vital intestinal mucosa was found in all augmented bladders. There were...... no differences in bone length and volume. Loss of bone mass was almost exclusively in rats with ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment (-37.5%, pQCT, P

  12. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Joseph U.; Sampaio, Arthur V.; Welch, Ian; Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A.; Underhill, T. Michael; Holdsworth, David W.

    2009-04-01

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 µm. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 ± 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p small BMC changes in animals.

  13. Royal Jelly Prevents Osteoporosis in Rats: Beneficial Effects in Ovariectomy Model and in Bone Tissue Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Hidaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX given 0.5% (w/w raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w protease-treated RJ (pRJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w pRJ, OVX given 17β-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD by 24%. Administration of 17β-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w RJ and 0.5–2.0% (w/w pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  14. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  15. Intervention of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the intervention effect of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH. Methods: 160 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the ASDH model rats were made by stereotactic autoblood injection, and sham operation group received craniotomy without blood injection. Sham operation group and model group were normally bred after model establishment, and 6 h after model establishment, the treatment group received intragastric administration of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction, and control group received intragastric administration of Piracetam Tablets, 1 time a day. On the 1d, 3d, 5d and 7d after model establishment, the general conditions of rats (activity, food intake and mental state were observed, blood was collected via auricula dextra, ELISA method was used to determine peripheral plasma NSE and S100毬 protein contents, routine HE staining was conducted after perfusion fixation, the neurons in blood injection side of brain tissue were counted, and the neuron damage was observed. Results: 26 rats were dead in the experiment. The general conditions of sham operation group were significantly better than those of other groups, treatment group was significantly better than model group and control group on the 5d group (P0.05; neuron count of sham operation group was basically stable, treatment group was not different from model group and control group on the 1d (P>0.05, treatment group was better than model group (P0.05 on the 3d, and treatment group was better than model group and control group on the 5d and 7d (P0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents decreased significantly on the 3d, and treatment group was significantly different from model group and control group (P<0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents increased on the 5d and 7d, the increase in treatment group was slower than that in model group and control group, and there was significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion

  16. Bisphenol A Induces Hepatotoxicity through Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab K. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are cytotoxic agents that lead to significant oxidative damage. Bisphenol A (BPA is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on liver, this study investigates whether BPA causes hepatotoxicity by induction of oxidative stress in liver. Rats were divided into five groups: The first four groups, BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 50 mg/kg/day were administrated orally to rats for four weeks. The fifth group was taken water with vehicle. The final body weights in the 0.1 mg group showed a significant decrease compared to control group. Significant decreased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase activity were found in the 50 mg BPA group compared to control groups. High dose of BPA (50 mg/kg significantly increased the biochemical levels of ALT, ALP and total bilirubin. BPA effect on the activity of antioxidant genes was confirmed by real time PCR in which the expression levels of these genes in liver tissue were significantly decrease compared to control. Data from this study demonstrate that BPA generate ROS and reduce the antioxidant gene expression that causes hepatotoxicity.

  17. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) in the rat kidney and application to acute renal failure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Ishii, Hirofumi; Bansho, Junichi; Koyama, Yukinori; Tobita, Akira

    1995-01-01

    Renal dynamic CT scanning is suitable for determining the excretion of contrast medium in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, which is valuable for understanding the pathogenesis of disease processes in various conditions. This form of scanning would be convenient for use, if a method of application to the rat kidney were available. Therefore, we developed a method of applying renal dynamic CT to rats and evaluated the cortical and medullary curves, e.g., the corticomedullary junction time which is correlated to creatinine clearance, in various rat models of acute renal failure. The rat was placed in a 10deg oblique position and a bilateral hilar slice was obtained before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 sec after administering 0.5 ml of contrast medium using Somatom DR. The width of the slice was 4 mm and the scan time was 3 sec. The corticomedullary junction time in normal rats was 23.0±10.5 sec, the peak value of the cortical curve was 286.3±76.7 Hounsfield Unit (HU) and the peak value of the medullary curve was 390.1±66.2 HU. Corticomedullary junction time after exposure of the kidney was prolonged compared to that of the unexposed kidney. In rats with acute renal failure, the excretion pattern of contrast medium was similar in both the glycerol- and HgCl2-induced acute renal failure models. The peak values of the cortical curve were maintained three hours after a clamp was placed at the hilar region of the kidney for one hour, and the peak values of the medullary curve were maintained during the administration of 10μg/kg/min of angiotensin II. Dynamic CT curves in the acute renal failure models examined were slightly different from those in human acute renal failure. These results suggest that rats do not provide an ideal model for human acute renal failure. However, the application of dynamic CT to the rat kidney models was valuable for estimating the pathogenesis of various human kidney diseases. (author)

  18. Attention and executive functions in a rat model of chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jean-Baptiste; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Akimana, Gladys; Cosquer, Brigitte; Ferrandon, Arielle; Herbeaux, Karine; Koning, Estelle; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Nehlig, Astrid; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a relatively frequent, invalidating, and often refractory neurologic disorder. It is associated with cognitive impairments that affect memory and executive functions. In the rat lithium-pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy model, memory impairment and anxiety disorder are classically reported. Here we evaluated sustained visual attention in this model of epilepsy, a function not frequently explored. Thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus. Twenty of them received a carisbamate treatment for 7 days, starting 1 h after status epilepticus onset. Twelve controls received lithium and saline. Five months later, attention was assessed in the five-choice serial reaction time task, a task that tests visual attention and inhibitory control (impulsivity/compulsivity). Neuronal counting was performed in brain regions of interest to the functions studied (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus). Lithium-pilocarpine rats developed motor seizures. When they were able to learn the task, they exhibited attention impairment and a tendency toward impulsivity and compulsivity. These disturbances occurred in the absence of neuronal loss in structures classically related to attentional performance, although they seemed to better correlate with neuronal loss in hippocampus. Globally, rats that received carisbamate and developed motor seizures were as impaired as untreated rats, whereas those that did not develop overt motor seizures performed like controls, despite evidence for hippocampal damage. This study shows that attention deficits reported by patients with temporal lobe epilepsy can be observed in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Carisbamate prevents the occurrence of motor seizures, attention impairment, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a subpopulation of neuroprotected rats. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  20. Establishment and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-xin DUAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog. Methods A rat model of inhalation lung injury was established by analyzing the composition of ship materials after combustion. Forty- two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group and 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h groups (6 eachafter inhalation, these rats were killed at each time point, and the changes of arterial blood gas, coagulation function, the lung water content (% were detected. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissues were observed to judge the degree of lung injury. Results The main components after combustion of 7 kinds of nonmetal materials on ship included CO, CO2, H2S, NOx and other harmful gases in this study, AIKE in one gas detector was used to monitor O2, CO, CO2 and H2S, and their concentrations remained relatively stable within 15 minutes, and the injury time was 15 minutes. The rats presented with shortness of breath and mouth breathing. Smoke inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 2h and the lung water content (% did 6h after inhalation (P<0.05. It is metabolic acidosis in the early stage after inhalation, but metabolic acidosis combined with respiratory acidosis in the later period. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue as manifestations of lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 72h after inhalation, the change of blood coagulation function was not statistically significant. Conclusion A rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog has been successfully established, and has the advantages of easy replication, stability and reliability, thus can be used to research and treat inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog in naval war environment and other cases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.03.14

  1. Dynamic modeling of renal blood flow in Dahl hypertensive and normotensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Elmer, Henrik; Knudsen, Morten H

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed in this paper which allows characterization of renal autoregulatory dynamics and efficiency using quantitative mathematical methods. Based on data from rat experiments, where arterial blood pressure and renal blood flow are measured, a quantitative model for renal blood flow...

  2. Prevention of injury by resveratrol in a rat model of adenine-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administration were analyzed using an auto-analyzer. Results: Resveratrol treatment significantly inhibited ... administration in a rat model of CKD by inhibiting FGF-23, parathyroid hormone, and phosphate. Thus, resveratrol may be of therapeutic ... FGF-23 also inhibits the generation of vitamin D and maintains the balance ...

  3. Strain Differences in Antioxidants in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the hypothesis that antioxidant substances and enzymes in lung, heart and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are altered in response to 03 in cardiovascular disease and/or metabolic syndrome (CVD)-prone rat models. CVD strains [spontaneously hypertensive (SH), SH ...

  4. Selenium prevents tumor development in a rat model for chemical carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkhem-Bergman, L.; Torndal, U. B.; Eken, S.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that selenium compounds can prevent cancer development. In this work we studied the tumor preventive effect of selenium supplementation, administrated as selenite, in the initiation, promotion and progression phases in a synchronized rat model for...

  5. Atorvastatin treatment during epileptogenesis in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A.; Holtman, Linda; Aronica, Eleonora; Schmitz, Leanne J. M.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Gorter, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that blood-brain barrier leakage together with inflammation could contribute to epileptogenesis and seizure progression in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Because statins have been shown to reduce blood-brain barrier permeability and inflammation in neurological

  6. Ocular Changes in TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Cohen, Robert M.; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was further observed in human AD retina. Along with Aβ deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation.

  7. Oxidative stress in a rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: ...

  8. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalová, Hana; Valeš, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Kopřivová, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Horáček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Oct 26 (2016), č. článku 209. ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-34524A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : OCD * quinpirole * animal model * brain circuits * rat * human Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2016

  9. Electrospun biodegradable microfibers induce new collagen formation in a rat abdominal wall defect model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpø, Cecilie Lærke Glindtvad; Chen, Menglin; Nygaard, Jens Vinge

    2018-01-01

    and effect on collagen and elastin production of a degradable mesh releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Implantation of biodegradable mesh with or without bFGF in their core has been conducted in 40 rats in an abdominal wall defect model. Samples were explanted after 4, 8, and 24 weeks...

  10. The Dilator Naris Muscle as a Reporter of Facial Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Knox, C.J.; Heaton, J.T.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many investigators study facial nerve regeneration using the rat whisker pad model, although widely standardized outcomes measures of facial nerve regeneration in the rodent have not yet been developed. The intrinsic whisker pad "sling" muscles producing whisker protraction, situated at

  11. Influence of fluid resuscitation on renal microvascular PO2 in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Tanja; Mik, Egbert G.; Nohé, Boris; Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Unertl, Klaus E.; Ince, Can

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Septic renal failure is often seen in the intensive care unit but its pathogenesis is only partly understood. This study, performed in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia, tests the hypotheses that endotoxemia impairs renal microvascular PO2 (microPO2) and oxygen consumption

  12. Assessment of visceral sensitivity using radio telemetry in a rat model of maternal separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welting, O.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; de Jonge, W. J.; Holman, R.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, a key mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of the irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral sensitivity in rats is generally assessed under restrain conditions. To avoid this potential stress factor, we developed a model

  13. Brain scan in cerebral ischemia. An experimental model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid embolic method for consistent induction of stroke in the rat is described. Brain scans were performed using a micro-pinhole collimator system, and the value of the model for studies in localization of radiopharmaceuticals in cerebral ischemia is demonstrated

  14. Sensitivity of Disease Parameters to Flexible Budesonide/Formoterol Treatment in an Allergic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brange , Charlotte; Smailagic , Amir; Jansson , Anne-Helene; Middleton , Brian; Miller-Larsson , Anna; Taylor , John D.; Silberstein , David S.; Lal , Harbans

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of Disease Parameters to Flexible Budesonide/Formoterol Treatment in an Allergic Rat Model correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 46 33 6256; fax: +46 46 33 6624. (Brange, Charlotte) (Brange, Charlotte) AstraZeneca R&D Lund--> , Lund--> - SWEDEN (Brange, Charlotte) AstraZeneca R&D Lund--> , Lund--> - SWEDEN (Brange, Charlotte) AstraZeneca R&D Lun...

  15. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Anders; Thygesen, Peter; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    was developed from experimental PKPD studies of rhGH and effects of long-term treatment as measured by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bodyweight gain in rats. Modelled parameter values were scaled to human values using the allometric approach with fixed exponents for PKs and unscaled for PDs...... and validated through simulations relative to patient data. KEY RESULTS: The final model described rhGH PK as a two compartmental model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination terms, parallel first-order absorption with a total s.c. bioavailability of 87% in rats. Induction of IGF-1 was described...... by an indirect response model with stimulation of kin and related to rhGH exposure through an Emax relationship. Increase in bodyweight was directly linked to individual concentrations of IGF-1 by a linear relation. The scaled model provided robust predictions of human systemic PK of rhGH, but exposure following...

  16. Dipyridamole reduces penile apoptosis in a rat model of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kutlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite the nerve-sparing technique, many patients suffer from erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP due to cavernous nerve injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate dipyridamole as a potential treatment agent of post-radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Material and methods: A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three experimental Groups (SHAM+DMSO, BCNI+DMSO and BCNI+DIP. An animal model of bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury (BCNI was established to mimic the partial nerve damage during nerve-sparing RP. After creating of BCNI, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO was administered transperitoneally as a vehicle to SHAM+DMSO and BCNI+DMSO Groups. BCNI+DIP Group received dipyiridamole (10mg/kg/day as a solution in DMSO for 15 days. Afterwards, rats were evaluated for in vivo erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation. Penile tissues were also analyzed biochemically for transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 level. Penile corporal apoptosis was determined by TUNEL method. Results: Erectile response was decreased in rats with BCNI and there was no significant improvement with dipyridamole treatment. TGF-β1 levels were increased in rats with BCNI and decreased with dipyridamole treatment. Dipyridamole led to reduced penile apoptosis in rats with BCNI and there was no significant difference when compared to sham operated rats. Conclusions: Although fifteen-day dipyridamole treatment has failed to improve erectile function in rats with BCNI, the decline in both TGF-β1 levels and apoptotic indices with treatment may be helpful in protecting penile morphology after cavernous nerve injury.

  17. Endothelin B receptors contribute to retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Z Minton

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP characterized by optic nerve degeneration, cupping of the optic disc, and loss of retinal ganglion cells which could lead to loss of vision. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a 21-amino acid vasoactive peptide that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the receptors mediating these effects have not been defined. In the current study, endothelin B (ET(B receptor expression was assessed in vivo, in the Morrison's ocular hypertension model of glaucoma in rats. Elevation of IOP in Brown Norway rats produced increased expression of ET(B receptors in the retina, mainly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, nerve fiber layer (NFL, and also in the inner plexiform layer (IPL and inner nuclear layer (INL. To determine the role of ET(B receptors in neurodegeneration, Wistar-Kyoto wild type (WT and ET(B receptor-deficient (KO rats were subjected to retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold (FG, following which IOP was elevated in one eye while the contralateral eye served as control. IOP elevation for 4 weeks in WT rats caused an appreciable loss of RGCs, which was significantly attenuated in KO rats. In addition, degenerative changes in the optic nerve were greatly reduced in KO rats compared to those in WT rats. Taken together, elevated intraocular pressure mediated increase in ET(B receptor expression and its activation may contribute to a decrease in RGC survival as seen in glaucoma. These findings raise the possibility of using endothelin receptor antagonists as neuroprotective agents for the treatment of glaucoma.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes and Metformin Influence on Fracture Healing in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fontaine, Javier; Chen, Chris; Hunt, Nathan; Jude, Edward; Lavery, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Persons with diabetes have a greater incidence of fractures compared with persons without diabetes. However, very little published information is available concerning the deleterious effect of late-stage diabetes on osseous structure and bone healing. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of diabetes on fracture healing in a rat femur repair model. Thirty-six lean and diabetic Zucker rats were subdivided into 3 groups: (1) 12 lean rats as the control group; (2) 12 diabetic rats without blood glucose control (DM group); and (3) 12 diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg metformin to reduce the blood glucose levels (DM + Met group). Radiographs were taken every week to determine the incidence of bone repair and delayed union. All the rats were killed at 6 weeks after surgery. In both the sham-operated and the fractured and repaired femurs, significant decreases in the fracture-load/weight and marginal decreases in the fracture-load between the lean and DM groups were found. Metformin treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose and body weight 12 days postoperatively. Furthermore, a decrease in the fracture-load and fracture-load/weight in the repaired femurs was found in the DM + Met group. Diabetes impairs bone fracture healing. Metformin treatment reduces the blood glucose and body weight but had an adverse effect on fracture repair in diabetic rats. Further investigations are needed to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on bone and bone quality and the effect of medications such as metformin might have in diabetic bone in the presence of neuropathy and vascular disease. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intermittent Fasting Pretreatment Prevents Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Miao; Deng, Min; Zhang, Jun-Jian

    2017-07-01

    Background: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) pretreatment can prevent vascular cognitive dysfunction remains unknown to our knowledge. Objective: We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of IF pretreatment on cognitive dysfunction in a permanent 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding for 12 wk before 2VO surgery. Rats in the IF protocol underwent alternative-day feed deprivation (FD). Memory of the animals was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition (NOR) test 6 wk after the surgery. After behavioral testing, malondialdehyde and glutathione concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, inflammatory protein concentrations, and microglia density were determined in the hippocampus of rats. Results: 2-vessel occlusion operation ad libitum (2VO-AL) rats had significantly longer escape latencies on day 4 of the training phase and spent a lower percentage of time in the target quadrant (25% compared with 38% and 41%) in the MWM, and had lower discrimination ratios (47% compared with 65% and 67%) in the NOR test than 2-vessel operation and alternate-day feed deprivation (2VO-FD) and sham operation ad libitum (Sham-AL) rats, respectively ( P < 0.05). This indicates that IF helps to prevent vascular cognitive deficits. 2VO-AL rats also had higher malondialdehyde (3.54 compared with 2.15 and 1.66 nmol/mg protein) and lower glutathione concentrations (53.25 compared with 66.41 and 91.71 nmol/mg protein), lower SOD activity (100.1 compared with 133.3 and 138.5 U/mg protein), lower gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, higher expression of inflammatory proteins, and higher microglia density in the hippocampus than 2VO-FD and Sham-AL rats, respectively ( P < 0.05). This suggests that IF has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions: IF pretreatment provided

  20. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Vaccine 21: 1375–1381. Wei, C.J., J.C. Boyington, P.M...contributes to heterosubtypic protection against influenza A-induced tachypnea in cotton rats" Name of Candidate: r. Timothy M. Straight Doctor of...Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Correia, Alyne Oliveira; Mendon?a, Francisco Nilson Maciel; Uchoa, Luiz Ricardo Ara?jo; Vasconcelos, Jessica Tamara Nunes; de Ara?jo, Carlos Ney Alencar; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Siqueira, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro; Cerqueira, Gilberto dos Santos; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Arida, Ricardo M?rio; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Background. Omega-3 (ω3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administrati...

  2. Identification of putative biomarkers for prediabetes by metabolome analysis of rat models of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Norihide; Beppu, Masayuki; Yoshida, Eri; Hoshikawa, Ritsuko; Hidaka, Shihomi; Matsubara, Toshiya; Shinohara, Masami; Irino, Yasuhiro; Hatano, Naoya; Seino, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are useful for prediction and intervention of the disease at earlier stages. In this study, we performed a longitudinal study of changes in metabolites using an animal model of T2D, the spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat. Fasting plasma samples of SDT and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected from 6 to 24 weeks of age, and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis. Fifty-nine hydrophilic me...

  3. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  4. The Protective Effects of Shen-Fu Injection on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Shen-Fu injection (SFI on a caerulein-induced rat pancreatitis (AP model. Methods. SFI was given to rats in the SFI treated group through intraperitoneal injection. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies. Results. Our results showed that AP caused significant decrease in tissue glutathione (GSH and serum IL-4 and IL-10, while pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO were increased. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, amylase, and lipase levels were also significantly increased. On the other hand, SFI treatment reserved all these biochemical indices as well as histopathologic alterations that were induced by caerulein. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the SFI protects against caerulein-induced AP in rats via modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB activity.

  5. Comparison of pharyngocutaneous fistula closure with and without bacterial cellulose in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Berat; Sarı, Murat; Binnetoglu, Adem; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Filinte, Deniz; Tekin, İshak Özel; Bağlam, Tekin; Batman, Abdullah Çağlar

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of bacterial cellulose used for closure of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, a complication of total laryngectomy, with those of primary sutures in a rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley underwent experimental pharyngoesophagotomy and were grouped depending on the material used for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure: group I, which received primary sutures alone, group II, which received bacterial cellulose alone; and group III, which received both. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed. Pharyngocutaneous fistula development was assessed, the gross wound was inspected, and histological examination was conducted. Pharyngocutaneous fistulae developed in 12 rats (41%) in all: 6 from group I (21%), 4 from group II (14%) and 2 from group III (7%). Fibroblast density and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly greater in group III than group I. We concluded that bacterial cellulose may be useful for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Terbinafine in Mouse and Rat Models of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Peter D.; Ashbaugh, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Terbinafine, an allylamine used to treat onychomycosis, has been reported to be active against rat Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, our in vitro data showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration of terbinafine against rat P. carinii is 3.7 μg/ml, a level that cannot be clinically achieved in serum. In the present study, terbinafine administered orally at doses of 20 to 400 mg/kg/day and 50 to 250 mg/kg/day was ineffective therapy for mouse and rat models of pneumocystosis, respectively. These results emphasize the complexities of P. carinii drug testing and the need for caution before considering studies in humans. PMID:11796365

  7. Role of Growth Hormone, Exercise and Serum Phosphorus in Unloaded Bone of Young Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnnaud, Sara B.; Harper, J. S.; Gosselink, K. L.; Navidi, M.; Fung, P.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone, known to be stimulated by exercise, is suppressed in rats after space flight and in a ground-based model in which the hind-limbs are unloaded (S). To determine the role of GH in the osteopenia of unloaded bones of S rats, young males were treated with GH combined with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a peptide that mediates the local actions of the hormone. 200 g rats, hypophysectomized (hypox) 17 d earlier, were treated with 1 mg/kg/d GH/IGF-1 (H) or saline (C) in 3 divided daily doses x10 d. Hind-limb bones were unloaded (S), ambulated (A) or exercised (X) by climbing a ladder while carrying a weight. Growth was monitored daily. Tibial growth plate (Tepi) was measured with a micrometer, and femoral (F) area, length, and mineral content (BMC) by DEXA. Parameters of calcium metabolism were measured by autoanalyzer and calciotropic hormones by radioimmunoassay. F bone density, g/square cm, (BMD) or BW were not affected by S in Hypox. However, FBMD was lower in S+H than A+H (p is less than 0.002) and H stimulated whole body growth in S (5.2 g/d) and SX (5.6 g/d) to a lesser extent than in A (6.6 g/d) (p is less than 0.05). Adjusted for BW, Tepi showed the greatest increase in S+H+X (64%), the next highest increase in S+H (50%) and no change in S+X. F area, length and BMC/100 g BW were lower in all H groups than respective C's. By multiple regression analysis, serum phosphorus (Pi) which correlated with Tepi (r = 0.88, p is less than 0.001) and was inversely related to FBMC (r = -0.68, p is less than 0.001) proved to be the most significant determinant of BMC. This illustrates the dependence of osteopenia in S on GH, the maximizing effect of X for epiphyseal growth and the major role of Pi metabolism on BMC in weight bearing bone during growth.

  8. A new model for the immobilization of the rat hind limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative device for the immobilization of the hind limb of the rat was developed to study the effects of chronic disuse on the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, maintained for 3 weeks in the shortening and the stretching positions, respectively. The proposed device is made of steel mesh and cotton materials, and has some advantages when compared to cast or plaster cast: it is cheaper, lighter (12 g or 4% of the body weight of the rat and the same unit can be easily adjusted and used several times in the same animal or in animals of similar size. Immobilization is also useful to restrain the movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Male rats (291 ± 35 g and aged 14 ± 2 weeks were used to develop and test the model. The soleus muscle of 18 rats was maintained in a shortened position for 21 consecutive days and lost 19 ± 7% of its length (P = 0.008 and 44 ± 6% of its weight (P = 0.002 compared to the contralateral intact muscle. No difference (P = 0.67 was found in the stretched tibialis anterior of the same hind limb when compared to the contralateral muscle. No ulcer, sore or foot swelling was observed in the animals. Immobilization was effective in producing chronic muscle disuse in the hind limbs of rats and is an acceptable alternative to the traditional methods of immobilization such as cast or plaster cast.

  9. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Patricia G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001. The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054. Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT.

  10. Methodological model of chronic stress associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats: a radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Semenoff Segundo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the time efficiency of stress associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Sixty adult Wistar rats, housed in temperature-controlled rooms and receiving water and food ad libitum, were randomly separated into stress (n = 30 or control groups (n = 30. All animals were anesthetized, and nylon ligatures were placed at the gingival margin level of the maxillary right second molars. After the induction of periodontitis, rats in the stress group were subjected to physical restraint for 12 hours daily. The animals were euthanized after 7, 15 and 30 days by anesthetic overdose (10 animals per group per period. The right hemimaxillae were stored in formalin solution for 48 hours. Parallel radiographic images of the hemimaxillae were taken and processed following standard procedures. Radiographic examination was performed by a blinded and previously calibrated investigator. Bone height level was measured, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni tests (p 0.05. Restraint stress modulates the short-term progression of periodontal disease in rats. Therefore, the 12-hour daily physical restraint stress model in rats applied for up to 15 days is suitable for the investigation of the combined effect of ligation and restraint stress on periodontal degradation.

  11. Electroacupuncture decreases the progression of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Xia, You-Bing; Sui, Liu-Cai; Zhou, Ji; Huang, Xuan; Zhou, Jing-Wei; Shao, Yi-Dan; Shen, Tao; Sun, Qin; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Yao, Bing

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of electroacupuncture treatment on preventing early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and the potential mechanisms involved using an induced rat model. The ovarian response was examined by measuring ovary weight, vascular permeability, levels of inflammation (interleukin-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha, chemokine ligand 2 (also known as monocyte chemoactic protein 1), vascular endothelial growth factor and hormone concentrations (oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin). Sprague-Dawley female rats underwent ovarian stimulation to induce OHSS. Hyperstimulated rats received consecutive electroacupuncture treatment from 3 days before the beginning of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin treatment or the time point of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin treatment respectively, and last until 3 days after HCG administration. Electroacupuncture treatment reduced ovary weight and vascular permeability in hyperstimulated rats. Electroacupuncture treatment also reduced the levels of serum steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in hyperstimulated rats. The results indicate that electroacupuncture can modulate endocrine hormone secretion and affect the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor, and thus prevent the progress of OHSS. Electroacupuncture may provide a simple and effective method for the prevention and treatment of OHSS. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Inability to produce a model of dialysis encephalopathy in the rat by aluminum administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Godolphin, W J; Sutter, M; Hansen, S; Kish, S J; Foulks, J G; Ito, M

    1987-04-01

    We attempted to produce a rat model of brain aluminum toxicity in order to explore whether or not aluminum accumulation produces the neurochemical changes observed in brains of patients who die with dialysis encephalopathy. Daily subcutaneous injection of Al(OH)3 caused marked elevation of serum aluminum concentrations, but did not increase brain aluminum contents, either in rats with normal renal function, or in rats with unilateral or 5/6 nephrectomies. LiCl pretreatment, which has been reported to cause irreversible renal failure, did not impair renal function nor aid in achieving elevated brain aluminum contents. No reductions in brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, E.C.4.1.1.15) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, E.C.2.3.1.6) activities were observed in aluminum-treated rats. We conclude that the rat is not a suitable laboratory animal to explore the role of aluminum toxicity in causing the GABA and ChAT deficits present in brains of hemodialyzed human patients.

  13. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  14. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Thioredoxin-1 overexpression in transgenic mice attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetic osteopenia: a novel role of oxidative stress and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Hideki; Kitazawa, Riko; Yodoi, Junji; Kitazawa, Sohei; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of osteopenia and bone fracture. However, the mechanisms accounting for diabetic bone disorder are unclear. We have previously reported that streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice develop low turnover osteopenia associated with increased oxidative stress in the diabetic condition. To determine the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetic osteopenia, we presently investigated the effect of overexpression of thioredoxin-1 (TRX), a major intracellular antioxidant, on the development of diabetic osteopenia, using TRX transgenic mice (TRX-Tg). TRX-Tg are C57BL/6 mice that carry the human TRX transgene under the control of beta-actin promoter. Eight-week-old male TRX-Tg mice and wild type (WT) littermates were intraperitoneally injected with either streptozotocin or vehicle. Mice were grouped as 1) non-diabetic WT, 2) non-diabetic TRX-Tg, 3) diabetic WT, and 4) diabetic TRX-Tg. After 12 weeks of streptozotocin treatment, oxidative stress on the whole body and bone was evaluated, and the physical properties of the femora, and histomorphometry parameters of the tibiae were assessed. TRX overexpression did not affect either body weight or hemoglobin A1c levels. There were no significant differences in renal function and in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone among the four groups. On the other hand, urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, was significantly elevated in diabetic WT and attenuated in diabetic TRX-Tg. Immunohistochemical staining for 8-OHdG revealed marked intensity in the bone tissue of diabetic WT compared with non-diabetic WT, while staining was attenuated in diabetic TRX-Tg. TRX overexpression partially restored reduced bone mineral density and prevented the suppression of bone formation observed in diabetic WT. Increased oxidative stress in diabetic condition contributes to the development of diabetic osteopenia

  16. Transcriptional alterations in the left ventricle of three hypertensive rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Catherine; Kurdi, Mazen; Bricca, Giampiero; Hodroj, Wassim; Paultre, Christian; Randon, Jacques; Gustin, Marie-Paule

    2006-11-27

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly associated with hypertension and represents an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiac overload related to hypertension is associated to a specific gene expression pattern independently of genetic background. Gene expression levels were obtained with microarrays for 15,866 transcripts from RNA of left ventricles from 12-wk-old rats of three hypertensive models [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Lyon hypertensive rat (LH), and heterozygous TGR(mRen2)27 rat] and their respective controls. More than 60% of the detected transcripts displayed significant changes between the three groups of normotensive rats, showing large interstrain variability. Expression data were analyzed with respect to hypertension, LVH, and chromosomal distribution. Only four genes had significantly modified expression in the three hypertensive models among which a single gene, coding for sialyltransferase 7A, was consistently overexpressed. Correlation analysis between expression data and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over all rats identified a larger set of genes whose expression was continuously related with LVMI, including known genes associated with cardiac remodeling. Positioning the detected transcripts along the chromosomes pointed out high-density regions mostly located within blood pressure and cardiac mass quantitative trait loci. Although our study could not detect a unique reprogramming of cardiac cells involving specific genes at early stage of LVH, it allowed the identification of some genes associated with LVH regardless of genetic background. This study thus provides a set of potentially important genes contained within restricted chromosomal regions involved in cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Adeno-associated viral vector serotype 5 poorly transduces liver in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Montenegro-Miranda

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies in mice and non-human primates showed that AAV serotype 5 provides efficient liver transduction and as such seems a promising vector for liver directed gene therapy. An advantage of AAV5 compared to serotype 8 already shown to provide efficient correction in a phase 1 trial in patients suffering from hemophilia B, is its lower seroprevalence in the general population. Our goal is liver directed gene therapy for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, inherited severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by UGT1A1 deficiency. In a relevant animal model, the Gunn rat, we compared the efficacy of AAV 5 and 8 to that of AAV1 previously shown to be effective. Ferrying a construct driving hepatocyte specific expression of UGT1A1, both AAV8 and AAV1 provided an efficient correction of hyperbilirubinemia. In contrast to these two and to other animal models AAV5 failed to provide any correction. To clarify whether this unexpected finding was due to the rat model used or due to a problem with AAV5, the efficacy of this serotype was compared in a mouse and two additional rat strains. Administration of an AAV5 vector expressing luciferase under the control of a liver specific promoter confirmed that this serotype poorly performed in rat liver, rendering it not suitable for proof of concept studies in this species.

  18. Postdependent state in rats as a model for medication development in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    Rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for alcoholism requires understanding of its underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology. Obtaining this knowledge largely relies on animal studies. Thus, choosing the appropriate animal model is one of the most critical steps in pre-clinical medication development. Among the range of animal models that have been used to investigate excessive alcohol consumption in rodents, the postdependent model stands out. It was specifically developed to test the role of negative affect as a key driving force in a perpetuating addiction cycle for alcoholism. Here, we will describe our approach to make rats dependent via chronic intermittent exposure to alcohol, discuss the validity of this model, and compare it with other commonly used animal models of alcoholism. We will summarize evidence that postdependent rats fulfill several criteria of a 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV/V-like' diagnostic system. Importantly, these animals show long-lasting excessive consumption of and increased motivation for alcohol, and evidence for loss of control over alcohol intake. Our conclusion that postdependent rats are an excellent model for medication development for alcoholism is underscored by a summary of more than two dozen pharmacological tests aimed at reversing these abnormal alcohol responses. We will end with open questions on the use of this model. In the tradition of the Sanchis-Segura and Spanagel review, we provide comic strips that illustrate the postdependent procedure and relevant phenotypes in this review. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Expression and localization of regenerating gene I in a rat liver regeneration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingshu; Koyota, Souichi; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ueno, Yasuharu; Ma Li; Kawagoe, Masami; Koizumi, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg) I has been identified as a regenerative/proliferative factor for pancreatic islet cells. We examined Reg I expression in the regenerating liver of a rat model that had been administered 2-acetylaminofluorene and treated with 70% partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH model), where hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation was suppressed and the hepatic stem cells and/or hepatic progenitor cells were activated. In a detailed time course study of activation of hepatic stem cells in the 2-AAF/PH model, utilizing immunofluorescence staining with antibodies of Reg I and other cell-type-specific markers, we found that Reg I-expressing cells are present in the bile ductules and increased during regeneration. Reg I-expressing cells were colocalized with CK19, OV6, and AFP. These results demonstrate that Reg I is significantly upregulated in the liver of the 2-AAF/PH rat model, accompanied by the formation of bile ductules during liver regeneration.

  20. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  1. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  2. Immune-mediated effects upon oral challenge of ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats: Further characterization of a rat food allergy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Houben, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no full validated enteral models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate a developed enteral Brown Norway (BN) rat food allergy model, systemic and local

  3. The combination of colesevelam with sitagliptin enhances glycemic control in diabetic ZDF rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Quan; Liu, Matthew K; Saumoy, Monica

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether adding sitagliptin (Januvia) (SIT), which prolongs bioactive GLP-1 half life, to COL would further enhance glycemic control. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were assigned to four groups: diabetic model without treatment (the model), the model treated with 2% COL or 0...... to levels similar to the model. Histological examination of the pancreatic ß-cell islets showed that islet sizes were larger, proliferation enhanced, and cell apoptosis reduced in the COL+SIT but not the SIT alone group compared with the model. We hypothesize that the combination of COL with SIT extends...

  4. A surgical ankle sprain pain model in the rat: Effects of morphine and indomethacin

    OpenAIRE

    Young Kim, Hee; Wang, Jigong; Chung, Kyungsoon; Mo Chung, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Ankle sprain is a frequent injury in humans that results in pain, swelling and difficulty in walking on the affected ankle. Currently a suitable animal model resembling human ankle sprain is lacking. Here, we describe an animal ankle sprain model induced by ankle ligament injury (ALI) in rats. Cutting combinations of the lateral ankle ligament complex produced pain, edema and difficulty of weight bearing, thereby mimicking severe (grade III) ankle sprain in humans. Analgesic compounds, morphi...

  5. Early brain connectivity alterations and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Moreno, Emma; Tudela, Raúl; López-Gil, Xavier; Soria, Guadalupe

    2018-01-01

    Background Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain c...

  6. Influence of acidosis and hypoxia on liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in an in vivo rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Bob H. M.; Elkhaloufi, Yasser; Straatsburg, Irene H.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of acidosis to the development of reperfusion injury is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of respiratory acidosis and hypoxia in a frequently used in vivo liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury rat model. Rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal

  7. The importance of dietary control in the development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Knippels, L.M.J.; Ezendam, J.; Odink, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the further development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway (BN) rats and in particular the importance of allergen-free breeding of the laboratory animals for the allergen to be used. For this purpose BN rats were bred for 3 generations on soy- and peanut-free feed since

  8. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  9. Electropuncture influences on learning, memory, and neuropeptide expression in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Shao; Yanqian Fu; Lihua Qiu; Bing Yan; Xinsheng Lai; Chunzhi Tang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in recent years have indicated that several neuropeptide-like substances, such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), somatostatin (SS), and β-endorphine (β-EP), are involved in the process of cerebral ischemic damage to cranial nerves.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electropuncture on back-shu points, as well as the influence on learning and memory, AVP, SS, and β-EP levels in plasma and brain were measured in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: College of Acupuncture and Massage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of TCM from December 2005 to December 2006. A total of 48 healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats of SPF-grade, 180-220 g, were provided by The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The following instruments were used: SDQ-30 Dipolar Radio-frequency Electrocoagulator (Shanghai Operation Instrument Factory), Morris Water Maze (The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Type G6805-1 Treating Equipment (Huasheng Equipment Factory, Qingdao, China).METHODS: ① Eight rats were randomly selected for the control group; the remaining 40 rats underwent 4-vascular occlusion to establish a cerebral ischemia model. Due to the death of 13 rats and 2 hemiplegies during model establishment, there was a total of 25 model rats available for testing. The model rats were divided randomly into 3 groups according to their body weight: electropuncture group (n = 9), medication group (n = 8), and VD group (n = 8). ② Electropuncture group: 25 mm needles (28 gauge) were used to electropuncture (150 Hz, continuous waves, 1.0-2.0 mA, duration of 20 minutes) the following acupoints: Baihui (GV20), Geshu (BL17), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23). The acupoints were located according to Experimental acupuncturology and were

  10. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  11. Characterization of liver changes in ZSF1 rats, an animal model of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borges-Canha

    Full Text Available Background: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic counterpart of the metabolic syndrome. ZSF1 rats are a metabolic syndrome animal model in which liver changes have not been described yet. Aim: The characterization of liver histological and innate immunity changes in ZSF1 rats. Methods: Five groups of rats were included (n = 7 each group: healthy Wistar-Kyoto control rats (Ctrl, hypertensive ZSF1 lean (Ln, ZSF1 obese rats with a normal diet (Ob, ZSF1 obese rates with a high-fat diet (Ob-HFD, and ZSF1 obese rats with low-intensity exercise training (Ob-Ex. The animals were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age, their livers were collected for: a measurements of the area of steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation (histomorphological analysis; and b innate immunity (toll-like receptor [TLR] 2, TLR4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ], toll interacting protein [TOLLIP] and inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNFvs], interleukin 1 [IL-1] expression analysis by real-time PCR. Results: Ob, Ob-HFD and Ob-Ex were significantly heavier than Ln and Ctrl animals. Ob, Ob-HFD and Ob-Ex animals had impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. ZSF1 Ob, Ob-HFD and Ob-Ex presented a higher degree of steatosis (3,5x; p < 0.05 than Ctrl or ZSF1 Ln rats. Steatohepatitis and fibrosis were not observed in any of the groups. No differences in expression were observed between Ctrl, Ln and Ob animals (except for the significantly higher expression of TOLLIP observed in the Ob vs Ln comparison. Ob-HFD and Ob-Ex rats showed increased expression of PPARγ and TOLLIP as compared to other groups. However, both groups also showed increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Nevertheless, this did not translate into a differential expression of TNFα or IL-1 in any of the groups. Conclusion: The ZSF1 model is associated with liver steatosis but not with steatohepatitis or a significantly increased expression of innate immunity or

  12. Oral sensitization to food proteins: A Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Spanhaak, S.; Houben, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. Objective: This paper describes the development of an enteral model for food

  13. The Effect of Rosiglitazone on Bone Quality in a Rat Model of Insulin Resistance and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Laura Donata

    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is an insulin-sensitizing drug used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Clinical trials show that women taking RSG experience more limb fractures than patients taking other T2DM drugs. The purpose of this study is to understand how RSG (3mg/kg/day and 10mg/kg/day) and the bisphosphonate alendronate (0.7mg/kg/week) alter bone quality in the male, female and female ovariectomized (OVX) Zucker fatty rat model over a 12 week period. Bone quality was evaluated by mechanical testing of cortical and trabecular bone. Microarchitecture, bone mineral density (BMD), cortical bone porosity, bone formation/resorption and mineralization were also measured. Female OVX RSG10mg/kg rats had significantly lower vertebral BMD and compromised trabecular architecture versus OVX controls. Increased cortical porosity and decreased mechanical properties occurred in these rats. ALN treatment prevented these negative effects in the OVX RSG model. Evidence of reduced bone formation and excess bone resorption was detected in female RSG-treated rats.

  14. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  15. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  16. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhoosudan A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D generally follows prediabetes (PD conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70% of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30% nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities.

  17. Diffraction enhanced imaging of a rat model of gastric acid aspiration pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Dean M; Zhong, Zhong; Foda, Hussein D; Wiebe, Sheldon; Parham, Christopher A; Dilmanian, F Avraham; Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D

    2011-12-01

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a type of phase contrast x-ray imaging that has improved image contrast at a lower dose than conventional radiography for many imaging applications, but no studies have been done to determine if DEI might be useful for diagnosing lung injury. The goals of this study were to determine if DEI could differentiate between healthy and injured lungs for a rat model of gastric aspiration and to compare diffraction-enhanced images with chest radiographs. Radiographs and diffraction-enhanced chest images of adult Sprague Dawley rats were obtained before and 4 hours after the aspiration of 0.4 mL/kg of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. Lung damage was confirmed with histopathology. The radiographs and diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed regions of atelectasis in the injured rat lung. The diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed the full extent of the lung with improved clarity relative to the chest radiographs, especially in the portion of the lower lobe that extended behind the diaphragm on the anteroposterior projection. For a rat model of gastric acid aspiration, DEI is capable of distinguishing between a healthy and an injured lung and more clearly than radiography reveals the full extent of the lung and the lung damage. Copyright © 2011 AUR. All rights reserved.

  18. Edaravone injection ameliorates cognitive deficits in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Qingjun; Li, Fang; Li, Jian; Liu, Xuewen

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress plays important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Edaravone is a potent free radical scavenger that exerts antioxidant effects. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate neuroprotective effects of edaravone for AD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15): control group, model group, and treatment group, which were injected with phosphate buffered saline, Aβ1-40, and Aβ1-40 together with 5 mg/kg edaravone, respectively, into the right hippocampal dentate gyrus. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were examined by Morris water maze test. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) level in rat hippocampus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetylase (ChAT) activities were assayed by commercial kits. We found that edaravone ameliorated spatial learning and memory deficits in the rats. 4-HNE level in the hippocampus as well as AChE and ChAT activities in the hippocampus was significantly lower in treatment group than in model group. In conclusion, edaravone may be developed as a novel agent for the treatment of AD for improving cholinergic system and protecting neurons from oxidative toxicity.

  19. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (PSinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  20. Effects of Paricalcitol and Aliskiren Combination Therapy on Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of aliskiren with paricalcitol on experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN model in rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each, namely the control (Group C, diabetes (Group D, aliskiren (Group A, paricalcitol (Group P, and aliskiren plus paricalcitol (Group A+P groups. Aliskiren was given by oral-gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day once daily for 12 weeks. Paricalcitol was given by intraperitoneally at a dose of 0,4 µg/kg/three day of week for 12 weeks. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers, mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system parameters and kidney histology were determined. Results: Group A+P had lower mean albümin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR (p=0.004 as well as higher creatinine clearance (CCr (pConclusion: Our data seem to suggest a potential role of aliskiren plus paricalcitol acting synergystically for reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in an experimental rat model.

  1. Healing of rotator cuff tendons using botulinum toxin A and immobilization in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilotra, Mohit N; Shorofsky, Michael J; Stein, Jason A; Murthi, Anand M

    2016-03-15

    We evaluated effects of botulinum toxin A (Botox) and cast immobilization on tendon healing in a rat model. Injection of Botox into rat supraspinatus was hypothesized to reduce muscle active force and improved healing. Eighty-four supraspinatus tendons were surgically transected and repaired in 42 Sprague-Dawley rats (transosseous technique). After repair, supraspinatus muscle was injected with saline or Botox (3 or 6 U/kg). Half the shoulders were cast-immobilized for the entire postoperative period; half were allowed free cage activity. Histology was examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. A healing zone cross-sectional area was measured, and biomechanical testing of repair strength and tendon viscoelastic properties was conducted at 4 and 12 weeks. Botox alone and cast immobilization alone exhibited increased ultimate load compared with controls (saline injection, no immobilization) at 4 weeks. No difference in ultimate load occurred between Botox-only and cast-only groups. At 12 weeks, the Botox (6 U/kg) plus cast immobilization group was significantly weakest (p < 0.05). A trend was shown toward decreased healing zone cross-sectional areas in casted groups. Supraspinatus Botox injection after rotator cuff repair might help protect the repair. However, cast immobilization plus Botox administration is harmful to rotator cuff healing in a rat tendon model.

  2. Establishment and application of rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guoliang; Lu Xing'an; Tang Jun; Wang Xiuzhen; Wu Shiliang; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury and to study the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on wound healing. Methods: Areas of buttock skin (20 mm x 40 mm) of 40 male SD rats were irradiated with 45 Gy/β-rays generated by linear accelerator, and then the forty rats were divided into two groups randomly: treatment group administrated with SOD (n=20) and control group administrated with normal saline (NS) (n=20). The wound healing time and rate were observed. The pathological changes were observed by light microscopy. The expressions of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) were determined by SP immunohistochemical method. Results: The deep second-degree burns was observed following 45 Gy irradiation. The wound healing time in treatment group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Strongly positive (+ + +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in treatment group and positive (+ +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in the control group were observed 6 weeks, 7 weeks and 8 weeks after the irradiation, while only weakly positive (+) expressions of VEGF and bFGF in both groups 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 9 weeks after the irradiation. Conclusions: The wound model of acute β-irradiated skin injury in rat was established and used in study of the effect of medicine on wound healing. SOD can promote the wound healing of acute β-irradiated skin injury. (authors)

  3. Bevacizumab Improves Achilles Tendon Repair in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tempfer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Effective wound-healing generally requires efficient re-vascularization after injury, ensuring sufficient supply with oxygen, nutrients, and various cell populations. While this applies to most tissues, tendons are mostly avascular in nature and harbor relatively few cells, probably contributing to their poor regenerative capacity. Considering the minimal vascularization of healthy tendons, we hypothesize that controlling angiogenesis in early tendon healing is beneficial for repair tissue quality and function. Methods: To address this hypothesis, Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody blocking VEGF-A signaling, was locally injected into the defect area of a complete tenotomy in rat Achilles tendon. At 28 days post-surgery, the defect region was investigated using immunohistochemistry against vascular and lymphatic epitopes. Polarization microscopy and biomechanical testing was used to determine tendon integrity and gait analysis for functional testing in treated vs non-treated animals. Results: Angiogenesis was found to be significantly reduced in the Bevacizumab treated repair tissue, accompanied by significantly reduced cross sectional area, improved matrix organization, increased stiffness and Young’s modulus, maximum load and stress. Further, we observed an improved gait pattern when compared to the vehicle injected control group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study we propose that reducing angiogenesis after tendon injury can improve tendon repair, potentially representing a novel treatment-option.

  4. Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Coleman, J K; Sasaki, C T

    1988-12-01

    In order to measure tinnitus induced by sodium salicylate injections, 84 pigmented rats, distributed among 14 groups in five experiments, were used in a conditioned suppression paradigm. In Experiment 1, all groups were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS) consisting of the offset of a continuous background noise. One group began salicylate injections before Pavlovian training, a second group started injections after training, and a control group received daily saline injections. Resistance to extinction was profound when injections started before training, but minimal when initiated after training, which suggests that salicylate-induced effects acquired differential conditioned value. In Experiment 2 we mimicked the salicylate treatments by substituting a 7 kHz tone in place of respective injections, resulting in effects equivalent to salicylate-induced behavior. In a third experiment we included a 3 kHz CS, and again replicated the salicylate findings. In Experiment 4 we decreased the motivational level, and the sequential relation between salicylate-induced effects and suppression training was retained. Finally, no salicylate effects emerged when the visual modality was used. These findings support the demonstration of phantom auditory sensations in animals.

  5. Fluvastatin increases insulin-like growth factor-1 gene expression in rat model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, Wael H.; Sourour, Doaa A.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Mahfouz, Mahmoud M.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was found to have a role in both glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to compare the effects of fluvastatin and metformin on IGF-1 mRNA expression within the liver and other individual components of the metabolic syndrome induced in rats by high fructose feeding. Rats fed 60% fructose in diet for 6 weeks were treated daily with fluvastatin (3.75 mg/kg/day) during the last two weeks and were compared with untreated fructose fed group. Fasting levels of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, nitric oxide products, IGF-1 mRNA within the liver as well as systolic blood pressure and body weight were determined. Compared to control rats, the fructose fed group developed hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and endothelial dysfunction as well as decreased levels of plasma IGF-1 and its mRNA within the liver. Fructose fed rats treated with fluvastatin or metformin for 2 weeks showed significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin and glucose levels compared to untreated fructose fed group. Also, both drugs increased significantly plasma levels of nitric oxide products and IGF-1 together with significant increase in IGF-1 mRNA within the liver. However, only metformin treated rats showed significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to fructose fed group. This study showed that in a rat model of insulin resistance, fluvastatin improves the metabolic profile and increases plasma level of IGF-1 and its gene expression as effective as metformin. (author)

  6. Electroacupuncture improves neurobehavioral function and brain injury in rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Deng, Li; Tang, Huajun; Gao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Youhua; Guo, Kan; Kong, Jiming; Yang, Chaoxian

    2017-05-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for a long time. Recently, studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can accelerate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on neurobehavioral function and brain injury in ICH rats. ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type I and heparin into the right caudate putamen. Adult ICH rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: model control group (MC), EA at non-acupoint points group (non-acupoint EA) and EA at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints group (EA). The neurobehavioral deficits of ICH rats were assessed by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and gait analysis. The hemorrhage volume and glucose metabolism of hemorrhagic foci were detected by PET/CT. The expression levels of MBP, NSE and S100-B proteins in serum were tested by ELISA. The histopathological features were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Apoptosis-associated proteins in the perihematomal region were observed by immunohistochemistry. EA treatment significantly promoted the recovery of neurobehavioral function in ICH rats. Hemorrhage volume reduced in EA group at day 14 when compared with MC and non-acupoint EA groups. ELISA showed that the levels of MBP, NSE and S100-B in serum were all down-regulated by EA treatment. The brain tissue of ICH rat in the EA group was more intact and compact than that in the MC and non-acupoint groups. In the perihematomal regions, the expression of Bcl-2 protein increased and expressions of Caspase-3 and Bax proteins decreased in the EA group vs MC and non-acupoint EA groups. Our data suggest that EA treatment can improve neurobehavioral function and brain injury, which were likely connected with the absorption of hematoma and regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Rafal M [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

  8. Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Rafal M.; Blaszczak, Piotr; Dekundy, Andrzej; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Calderazzo, Lineu; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Turski, Waldemar A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality

  9. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  10. Low-energy Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Erectile Dysfunction in a Pelvic Neurovascular Injuries Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixi; Matheu, Melanie P; Sun, Fionna; Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lee, Yung-Chin; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by pelvic injuries is a common complication of civil and battlefield trauma with multiple neurovascular factors involved, and no effective therapeutic approach is available. To test the effect and mechanisms of low-energy shock wave (LESW) therapy in a rat ED model induced by pelvic neurovascular injuries. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) at newborn were divided into 4 groups: sham surgery (Sham), pelvic neurovascular injury by bilateral cavernous nerve injury and internal pudendal bundle injury (PVNI), PVNI treated with LESW at low energy (Low), and PVNI treated with LESW at high energy (High). After LESW treatment, rats underwent erectile function measurement and the tissues were harvested for histologic and molecular study. To examine the effect of LESW on Schwann cells, in vitro studies were conducted. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement, histological examination, and Western blot (WB) were conducted. Cell cycle, Schwann cell activation-related markers were examined in in vitro experiments. LESW treatment improves erectile function in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injury by leading to angiogenesis, tissue restoration, and nerve generation with more endogenous EdU(+) progenitor cells recruited to the damaged area and activation of Schwann cells. LESW facilitates more complete re-innervation of penile tissue with regeneration of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive nerves from the MPG to the penis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that LESW has a direct effect on Schwann cell proliferation. Schwann cell activation-related markers including p-Erk1/2 and p75 were upregulated after LESW treatment. LESW-induced endogenous progenitor cell recruitment and Schwann cell activation coincides with angiogenesis, tissue, and nerve generation in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  11. Cardiovascular-renal and metabolic characterization of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Moulana, Mohaddetheh; Lima, Roberta; Davis, Deborah D; Zhang, Huimin; Lockhart, Rachel; Racusen, Lorraine C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2011-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive dysfunction in premenopausal women. PCOS is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease when PCOS first occurs and later in life. Hypertension, a common finding in women with PCOS, is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms responsible for hypertension in women with PCOS have not been elucidated. This study characterized the cardiovascular-renal consequences of hyperandrogenemia in a female rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4-6 weeks) were implanted with dihydrotestosterone or placebo pellets lasting 90 days. After 10 to 12 weeks, blood pressure (by radiotelemetry), renal function (glomerular filtration rate, morphology, protein, and albumin excretion), metabolic parameters (plasma insulin, glucose, leptin, cholesterol, and oral glucose tolerance test), inflammation (plasma tumor necrosis factor-α), oxidative stress (mRNA expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, p22(phox), p47(phox), gp91(phox), and NOX4), nitrate/nitrite excretion and mRNA expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme [ACE], and AT1 receptor) were determined. Plasma dihydrotestosterone increased 3-fold in hyperandrogenemic female (HAF) rats, whereas plasma estradiol levels did not differ compared with control females. HAF rats exhibited estrus cycle dysfunction. They also had increased food intake and body weight, increased visceral fat, glomerular filtration rate, renal injury, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and increased expression of angiotensinogen and ACE and reduced AT1 receptor expression. The HAF rat is a unique model that exhibits many of the characteristics of PCOS in women and is a useful model to study the mechanisms responsible for PCOS-mediated hypertension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Viral persistence, liver disease and host response in Hepatitis C-like virus rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, Sheetal; Murthy, Satyapramod; Sharma, Himanshu

    2018-01-01

    The lack of a relevant, tractable, and immunocompetent animal model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has severely impeded investigations of viral persistence, immunity and pathogenesis. In the absence of immunocompetent models with robust HCV infection, homolog hepaciviruses in their natural host could...... potentially provide useful surrogate models. We isolated a rodent hepacivirus (RHV) from wild rats (Rattus norvegicus), RHV-rn1, acquired the complete viral genome sequence and developed an infectious reverse genetics system. RHV-rn1 resembles HCV in genomic features including the pattern of polyprotein...... cleavage sites and secondary structures in the viral 5' and 3' UTRs. We used site-directed and random mutagenesis to determine that only the first of the two miR-122 seed sites in viral 5'UTR is required for viral replication and persistence in rats. Next, we used the clone derived virus progeny to infect...

  13. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Silva, Bárbara Soares da; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation.

  14. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bastos Polonio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model; and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation.

  15. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; de Almeida, Francine Maria; da Silva, Bárbara Soares; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation. PMID:25210965

  16. Establishment of a rat and guinea pig aortic interposition graft model reveals model-specific patterns of intimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Elaine K; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Kibbe, Melina R

    2016-12-01

    Although the aortic interposition bypass model has been widely used to evaluate biomaterials for bypass grafting, there is no comprehensive description of the procedure or of the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that results. The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize approaches of aortic interposition grafting in animal models, (2) determine the pertinent anatomy for this procedure, (3) validate this model in the rat and guinea pig, and (4) compare the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that develops in each species. A literature search was performed in PubMed from 1980 to the present to analyze the use of anesthesia, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, graft material, suture, and anastomotic techniques. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and Hartley guinea pigs, we established pertinent aortic anatomy, developed comparable models, and assessed complications for each model. At 30 days, the graft and associated aorta were explanted, intimal formation was assessed morphometrically, and cellularity was assessed via nuclear counting. We reviewed 30 articles and summarized the pertinent procedural findings. Upon establishing both animal models, key anatomic differences between the species that affect this model were noted. Guinea pigs have a much larger cecum, increased retroperitoneal fat, and lack the iliolumbar vessels compared with the rat. Surgical outcomes for the rat model included a 53% technical success rate and a 32% technical error rate. Surgical outcomes for the guinea pig model included a 69% technical success rate and a 31% technical error rate. These two species demonstrated unique distribution of intimal hyperplasia at 30 days. Intimal hyperplasia in the rat model was greatest at two areas, the proximal graft (5400 μm 2 ; P guinea pig model developed similar intimal hyperplasia throughout the graft (4500-5100 μm 2 ; P guinea pig, and describe a unique distribution of intimal formation that results in both species

  17. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  18. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemens, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  19. Protective effect of lactobacillus acidophilus and isomaltooligosaccharide on intestinal mucosal barriers in rat models of antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Dan; Fang Lichao; Chen Bingbo; Wei Hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of synbiotics combined lactobacillus acidophilus and iso-malto-oligosaccharide (IMO) on intestinal mucosal barriers in rat models of antibiotic-associated diarrhea(AAD). Methods: Rat models of AAD were prepared with lincomycin gavage for 5 days. The synbiotics was orally administered to the AAD rats daily at three different strengths for 7 days. The intestinal flora and intestinal mucus SIgA levels were determined on d6, d9 and d13. The histopathological changes of ileal mucosa were studied on d13. Results: In the prepared AAD model rats (on d6) there were lower intestinal mucus SIgA levels and intestinal flora disorders were demonstrated. The intestinal floras of the rats administering synbiotics were readjusted to the similar pattern of healthy rats with bacterial translocation corrected on d13 and the levels of SIgA were not significantly different from of the control (P>0.05). The histopathological picture was basically normal in the treated models on d13. Conclusion: The synbiotics combined lactobacillus acidophilus and isomaltooligosaccharide possessed good protective effect on the intestinal mucosal barrier in lincomycin induced rat models of AAD. (authors)

  20. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Jansson

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  1. Identification of ischemic regions in a rat model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Anke; Jaenisch, Nadine; Witte, Otto W; Frahm, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Investigations following stroke first of all require information about the spatio-temporal dimension of the ischemic core as well as of perilesional and remote affected tissue. Here we systematically evaluated regions differently impaired by focal ischemia. Wistar rats underwent a transient 30 or 120 min suture-occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) followed by various reperfusion times (2 h, 1 d, 7 d, 30 d) or a permanent MCAO (1 d survival). Brains were characterized by TTC, thionine, and immunohistochemistry using MAP2, HSP72, and HSP27. TTC staining reliably identifies the infarct core at 1 d of reperfusion after 30 min MCAO and at all investigated times following 120 min and permanent MCAO. Nissl histology denotes the infarct core from 2 h up to 30 d after transient as well as permanent MCAO. Absent and attenuated MAP2 staining clearly identifies the infarct core and perilesional affected regions at all investigated times, respectively. HSP72 denotes perilesional areas in a limited post-ischemic time (1 d). HSP27 detects perilesional and remote impaired tissue from post-ischemic day 1 on. Furthermore a simultaneous expression of HSP72 and HSP27 in perilesional neurons was revealed. TTC and Nissl staining can be applied to designate the infarct core. MAP2, HSP72, and HSP27 are excellent markers not only to identify perilesional and remote areas but also to discriminate affected neuronal and glial populations. Moreover markers vary in their confinement to different reperfusion times. The extent and consistency of infarcts increase with prolonged occlusion of the MCA. Therefore interindividual infarct dimension should be precisely assessed by the combined use of different markers as described in this study.

  2. Pets, Purity and Pollution: Why Conventional Models of Disease Transmission Do Not Work for Pet Rat Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Charlotte; Perkins, Elizabeth; Watkins, Francine; Christley, Robert

    2017-12-07

    In the United Kingdom, following the emergence of Seoul hantavirus in pet rat owners in 2012, public health authorities tried to communicate the risk of this zoonotic disease, but had limited success. To explore this lack of engagement with health advice, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with pet rat owners and analysed them using a grounded theory approach. The findings from these interviews suggest that rat owners construct their pets as different from wild rats, and by elevating the rat to the status of a pet, the powerful associations that rats have with dirt and disease are removed. Removing the rat from the contaminated outside world moves their pet rat from being 'out of place' to 'in place'. A concept of 'bounded purity' keeps the rat protected within the home, allowing owners to interact with their pet, safe in the knowledge that it is clean and disease-free. Additionally, owners constructed a 'hierarchy of purity' for their pets, and it is on this structure of disease and risk that owners base their behaviour, not conventional biomedical models of disease.

  3. Liraglutide improves hypertension and metabolic perturbation in a rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hoang

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of 5-8%. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD are its long-term complications. Targeted therapies addressing both these complications together are lacking. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1 agonists that are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Hence we hypothesized that a GLP-1 agonist would improve both cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in PCOS. To test this hypothesis, we used an established rat model of PCOS. Prepubertal female Sprague Dawley rats were sham-implanted or implanted s.c. with dihydrotestosterone (DHT pellets (90 day release; 83 μg/day. At 12 wks of age, sham implanted rats received saline injections and the DHT treated animals were administered either saline or liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg s.c twice daily for 4 weeks. Subgroups of rats were implanted with telemeters between 12-13 weeks of age to monitor blood pressure. DHT implanted rats had irregular estrus cycles and were significantly heavier than the control females at 12 weeks (mean± SEM 251.9±3.4 vs 216.8±3.4 respectively; p<0.05 and 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide in DHT treated rats significantly decreased body weight (mean± SEM 294.75 ±3.2 in DHT+ saline vs 276.25±2.7 in DHT+ liraglutide group respectively; p<0.01. Liraglutide treatment in the DHT implanted rats significantly improved glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance test (area under the curve: DHT+ saline 28674±310 vs 24990± 420 in DHT +liraglutide p <0.01. DHT rats were hypertensive and liraglutide treatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that GLP-1 treatment could improve DHT-induced metabolic and blood pressure deficits associated with PCOS.

  4. [Open-field behavioral study in rat hyperlipidemia combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Zhang, Yingchun; Xu, Yeqing; Liu, Chunfeng; Wang, Liwei

    2015-06-16

    To investigate behavioral changes in a rat hyperlipidemia model induced by high lipid feed combined with depression by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into control (CON), control feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (CON + CUMS), high fat diet (HFD) and high lipid feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (HFD + CUMS) (n = 10 each). Open-field test was individually measured at baseline, week 9 and week 13. (1) Serum lipids: total cholesterol [(2.67 ± 0.04) mmol/L, (2.68 ± 0.02) mmol/L] and low density lipoprotein [(1.08 ± 0.03) mmol/L, (1.06 ± 0.01) mmol/L] of HFD and HFD + CUMS were both significantly higher than those of CON and CON + CUMS [(1.78 ± 0.12) mmol/L, (0.79 ± 0.04) mmol/L; (1.76 ± 0.09) mmol/L, (0.76 ± 0.06) mmol/L, all P Open-field test: at week 13, compared to CON rats, CON + CUMS rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity during the first minute, reduced activity in the center squares and rearing, and increased the number of grooming and defecation (all P < 0.05). In comparison to the CON rats, a decrease in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares was observed in HFD rats at week 13 (all P < 0.05). However, compared with HFD, CON, CON + CUMS rats, when high lipid feed for 9 weeks combined with depression, significant decrease activities in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares were observed in HFD + CUMS rats at week 13. Besides these, the number of rearing was reduced, however, locomotor activity during the first minute and the number of grooming and defecation was significantly increased (all P < 0.001). Under uncontrolled hyperlipidemia, severe depressive symptoms will present more early once exposure to a series of chronic stressors followed by significant autonomic nervous dysfunctional symptoms.

  5. ABO Blood Group and Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in the Elderly Population: An Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP)-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Negahdar, Hajar; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Nooreddini, Hajighorban; Parsian, Hadi

    Osteoporosis is known as a degenerative disease of the skeletal system and its main complication is fracture, which influences quality of life in the elderly. There are 4 major blood groups in humans based on the presence of A and B antigens. According to the investigations, there are reported relations between blood types and some diseases. In this study, the association between the ABO blood group and the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in an elderly population was investigated. Medical records of 990 elderly people were investigated in a cross-sectional study and the association between their blood group and the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results showed that ABO blood groups had no association with the prevalence of osteoporosis in both elderly men and women. The association between age and osteoporosis was significant and the association between this disorder and gender was significant too. The results also indicate that there is no association between RH + and RH - blood types and osteoporosis and osteopenia in both men and women. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to conduct extensive studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  7. [Effects of soybean isoflavone on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Su, Yi-xiang; Wang, Wen-wei; Li, An-le; Liu, Cun-li; Wang, Yi-long; Hu, Wan-li

    2007-07-01

    To study the effects of soybean isoflavone (SI) on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. All 70 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the levels of total cholesterol (TC) in serum: hyper-lipoid group, estrogen group, low-dose SI group, middle-dose SI group, high-dose SI group, sham group and normal control groups. Bilateral ovaries were extirpated except sham and normal control groups. Except the rats in normal control group, the other rats were fed with high fat diet. Body weight was weighted ad unam vice per week. The estrogen, different dose of SI or deionized water were fed with intragastric administration for 12 weeks. Vena caudalis serum were collected after being ovariectomized, administered for 4 w, 8 w and killed. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and bone density were measured etc. To interfere of estrogen and SI might recover AKP enzyme activity after its being ovariectomized. There almost sowed no differences between high dose SI intervention and estrogen on bone density and microstructure. Bone loss due to being ovariectomized was relieved after SI intervention. SI might protect cardiocyte myofilament and mitochondrial ultramicrostructure. There was mirror image in estrogen, high dose SI group resembling the normal control group, and there was obvious damage in hyper-lipoids group. There should be effects of high dose SI on bone metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. Serum AKP enzyme activity and bone density should have significantly recovered, the serum level of calcium and phosphorus were maintained after high dose intervened but no significant effects for low dose of SI.

  8. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Inherited behaviors, BDNF expression and response to treatment in a novel multifactorial rat model for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersner, Roman; Gal, Ram; Levit, Ofir; Moshe, Hagar; Zangen, Abraham

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and devastating mental illness behaviorally characterized by various symptoms, including reduced motivation, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation. Although the etiology of MDD is still obscure, a genetic predisposition appears to play an important role. Here we used, for the first time, a multifactorial selective breeding procedure to generate a distinct 'depressed' rat line (DRL); our selection was based upon mobility in the forced swim test, sucrose preference and home-cage locomotion, three widely used tests associated with core characteristics of MDD. Other behavioral effects of the selection process, as well as changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the response to three antidepressant treatments, were also examined. We show that decreased mobility in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose preference (two directly selected traits), as well as decreased exploration in the open field test (an indirectly selected trait), are hereditary components in DRL rats. In addition, lower BDNF levels are observed in the dorsal hippocampus of DRL rats, complying with the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression. Finally, electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) but not pharmacological treatment normalizes both the depressive-like behavioral impairments and the BDNF-related molecular alterations in DRL rats, highlighting the need for robust treatment when the disease is inherited and not necessarily triggered by salient chronic stress. We therefore provide a novel multifactorial genetic rat model for depression-related behaviors. The model can be used to further study the etiology of the disease and suggest molecular correlates and possible treatments for the disease.

  10. Agmatine Improves Cognitive Dysfunction and Prevents Cell Death in a Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Hur, Bo Eun; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Yang, Wonsuk; Cho, Hyun Jin; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Kyoung Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. Materials and Methods We studied the effect of Agm on AD pathology using a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. For each experiment, rats were given anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg, ip), followed by a single injection of STZ (1.5 mg/kg) bilaterally into each lateral ventricle (5 µL/ventricle). Rats were injected with Agm (100 mg/kg) daily up to two weeks from the surgery day. Results Agm suppressed the accumulation of amyloid beta and enhanced insulin signal transduction in STZ-induced Alzheimer rats [experimetal control (EC) group]. Upon evaluation of cognitive function by Morris water maze testing, significant improvement of learning and memory dysfunction in the STZ-Agm group was observed compared with the EC group. Western blot results revealed significant attenuation of the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, as well as increases in the protein expressions of Bcl2, PI3K, Nrf2, and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, in the STZ-Agm group. Conclusion Our results showed that Agm is involved in the activation of antioxidant signaling pathways and activation of insulin signal transduction. Accordingly, Agm may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline and attenuating apoptosis in AD. PMID:24719136

  11. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-11-15

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of taurolithocholate as a model for cholestasis in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, V.M.; Loo, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A model was investigated to facilitate the detection of mild diffuse liver disease. The introduction of sodium taurolithocholate(TLC) into the bloodstream of rats has been shown to produce cholestasis. This study was undertaken to assess the available control over the cholestatic effect with regulated TLC. The rat model then utilized to evaluate the ability of Tc-99m Hepatolite (IDA) to predict the extent of cholestasis in mildly diseased liver. 27 Charles River rats (300-350 grams) were studied. Pentabarbital was used for anesthesia and body temperature was maintained between 37.5 and 38.5 0 C. A standard tracheostomy and jugular vein and carotid artery cannulation was performed for the administration of the TLC and IDA and for blood sampling. The common bile duct was cannulated for bile collection. Bile was collected for 10 minutes post surgery and then the TLC, or just vehicle for controls, was administered. 5 minute bile collections continued for 60 minutes and blood samples were collected 9 times during the same hour period. The cumulative percent dose of IDA in the bile was found to be controllable while the blood clearance was not appreciably different for the doses investigated. Doses of 5.0, 3.75, 2.75 and 0 micromoles of TLC per 100 grams of rat weight were found to yield a 85%, 68% 45% and 15% cholestatic effect. The 45% cholestasis is reproducible and most clinically interesting the authors' studies. The 15% cholestasis for the control rats demonstrates a baseline cholestasis from the surgical intervention

  13. Does Omegaven have beneficial effects on a rat model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N Cakir; Turkon, Hakan; Albayrak, Aynur; Ovali, Mehmet; Islimye, Mine; Gencer, Meryem; Hacivelioglu, Servet; Cevizci, Sibel; Cesur, Ismet; Cosar, Emine

    2014-10-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, a safe and inexpensive product, on a rat model of ovarian I/R. A group of 39 rats was divided into six groups. Group 1 (Sham Group; n=6) underwent two laparotomies with a 3-h interval and their ovaries were removed 3h later. Group 2 (torsion-detorsion Group; n=7) had their ovaries torsioned clockwise and fixed at 720°; 3h later a detorsion operation was done and after another 3h, their ovaries were removed. Group 3 (n=7) and Group 4 (n=7) received the same treatment as Group 2; however, half an hour prior to detorsion, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. Group 5 (n=6) and Group 6 (n=6) received the same treatment as Group 1; however, half an hour prior to the second laparotomy, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. One ovary from each rat was evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the other ovary was homogenized and evaluated for total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). While we failed to show any significant relationship among groups in oxidative parameters, there was a significant worsening in the torsion-detorsion group in histological evaluation. High Omegaven doses, but not low doses, improved tissue injury scores of torsioned and detorsioned ovaries to the levels observed in the control group. Omegaven improves the detrimental effects of ovarian I/R when used in sufficient doses. Its effects and dose adjustment on women with ovarian torsion must be investigated by further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects on locomotion and memory in 2 models of cerebral hypoperfusion in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, J A; García, L I; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral ischaemia is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Its many sequelae range from motor and sensory symptoms to cognitive decline and dementia. Animal models of cerebral ischaemia/hypoperfusion elicit effects on long term memory; however, the effects of these procedures on short term memory are not clearly understood and effects induced by alternative hypoperfusion models are completely unknown. We evaluated the effects of 2 cerebral hyperperfusion models on memory in 3-month-old male rats. Episodic memory and working memory were assessed using the new object recognition test and the spontaneous alteration test, respectively. Neurological assessment was also performed, along with an open field test to evaluate locomotor activity. Rats in both hyperperfusion models displayed no cognitive changes. Rats with unilateral left-sided ligation plus temporary ligation of the right carotid tended to show slightly impaired performance on the new object recognition test on the second day after the procedure. In contrast, the group with permanent unilateral ligation tended to display alterations in working and episodic memory 9 days after the procedure, but they subsequently recovered. Despite these differences, both hypoperfusion groups displayed clear signs of motor impairment 2 days after the procedure, as reflected by their decreased locomotor activity during the open field test. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A rat hysteropexy model for evaluating adhesion formation and comparison of two different structured meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen-Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Aydin, Serdar; Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Adanir, Ilknur; Ilhan, Gulsah; Ates, Seda

    2017-11-01

    Peritonization of mesh during sacrohysteropexy is generally advocated to prevent adhesions to the viscera; however, randomized clinical trials are lacking, and peritonization may not be completely possible in a laparoscopic hysteropexy procedure. Our main objective was to describe a basic experimental rat sacrohysteropexy model. We hypothesized that even when peritoneal closure was omitted, using composite mesh would result in less adhesions to the viscera. Twenty in-bred female virgin Wistar Hannover rats were used in this study. Standardized hysteropexy procedure and adhesion model is described step by step with two different mesh materials: polypropylene and a composite polyester. Mesh was anchored between the posterior cervix and anterior longitudinal ligament of the lumbar vertebrae. Macroscopic adhesion scores and histopathological tissue reaction was investigated. Macroscopically, the surface area involved in adhesions was similar between groups. However, adhesions in the polypropylene group were more dense, required sharp dissection for lysis, and yielded higher total macroscopic adhesion scores (p < 0.001). Histologically, a more pronounced host inflammatory response was encountered in the polyester group (p < 0.001). We describe a rat hysteropexy model and a previously established uterine adhesion model. Adhesion scores in the composite mesh group were lower, and bowel involvement was not seen. Our findings are promising, and further research investigating antiadhesive composite mesh use for hysterosacropexy would be appropriate, especially when peritoneal closure is omitted.

  16. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  17. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  18. A new rat model of portal hypertension induced by intraportal injection of microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Nong; Benjamin, IS; Alexander, B

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To produce a new rat model of portal hypertension by intraportal injection of microspheres. METHODS: Measured aliquots of single or different-sized microspheres (15, 40, 80μm) were injected into the portal vein to block intrahepatic portal radicals. The resultant changes in arterial,portal,hepatic venous and splenic pulp pressures were monitored. The liver and lungs were excised for histological examination. RESULTS: Portal venous pressure was elevated from basal value of 0.89-1.02 kPa to a steady-state of 1.98-3.19 kPa following the sequential injections of single- or different-sized microspheres, with a markedly lowered mean arterial pressure. However, a small-dose injection of 80 μm microspheres (1.8 × 105) produced a steady-state portal venous pressure of 2.53 × 0.17 kPa, and all rats showed normal arterial pressures. In addition, numerous microspheres were found in the lungs in all experimental groups. CONCLUSION: Portal hypertension can be reproduced in rats by intraportal injection of microspheres at a small dose of 80 μm (1.8 × 105). Intrahepatic portal-systemic shunts probably exist in the normal rat liver. PMID:11819236

  19. Effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone loss in a rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Pereira, Aline de Sousa Barbosa Freitas; Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier de; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Araújo, Lorena de Souza; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; Hiyari, Sarah; Pirih, Flávia Q; Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of metformin (Met) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone loss in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Male albino Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups of twenty-one rats each, and given the following treatments for 10 days: (1) no ligature + water, (2) ligature + water, (3) ligature + 50 mg/kg Met, (4) ligature + 100 mg/kg Met, and (5) ligature + 200 mg/kg Met. Water or Met was administered orally. Maxillae were fixed and scanned using Micro-computed Tomography (μCT) to quantitate linear and bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) volumetric bone loss. Histopathological characteristics were assessed through immunohistochemical staining for MMP-9, COX-2, the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, SOD-1, and GPx-1. Additionally, confocal microscopy was used to analyze osteocalcin fluorescence. UV-VIS analysis was used to examine the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, IL-1β and TNF-α from gingival tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR reaction was used to gene expression of AMPK, NF-κB (p65), and Hmgb1 from gingival tissues. Significance among groups were analysed using a one-way ANOVA. A p-value of ploss after 50 mg/kg Met compared to the ligature and Met 200 mg/kg groups. The same pattern was observed volumetrically in BV/TV and decreased osteoclast number (ploss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

  20. Chicken collagen type II reduces articular cartilage destruction in a model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Shen, W

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of domestic chicken collagen type II (CCII) on rat osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze concomitant changes in the level of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-9, Cathepsin K and their mRNA as well as the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA in articular cartilage of osteoarthritic rats. Osteoarthritis models were surgically induced. Morphology of articular cartilage was done by haematoxylin and eosin staining and Mankin score was calculated, immunohistochemistry of MMP-13, MMP-9 and Cathepsin K was done by ABC method while the mRNA level for MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as TIMP-1 was evaluated by RT-PCR method. Oral administration of CCII reduced the morphological changes of osteoarthritic cartilage (shown by Mankin score), decreased levels of MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as their mRNA in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic rats while it exhibited no effect on TIMP-1 mRNA. Oral CCII reduced articular cartilage degradation of osteoarthritic rats and may probably be a potent drug candidate for OA treatment.

  1. Renal Podocyte Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and hence generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, possesses antioxidant effects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the protective effects of metformin on the injury of renal podocytes in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT rats, a new model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. Metformin (350 mg/kg/day was given to SDT rats for 17 weeks. Blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and albuminuria were examined. Kidney histopathology, renal 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels and apoptosis were examined. In 43-week-old SDT rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, and albuminuria was markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, urinary and renal 8-OHdG levels were highly increased, and podocyte loss was shown through application of the TUNEL and synaptopodin staining. However, treatment of SDT rats with metformin restored all these renal changes. Our data suggested that diabetes-induced podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy could be suppressed by the antidiabetes drug, metformin, through the repression of oxidative injury.

  2. Efficacy of continuous treatment with radiation in a rat brain-tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, K.T.; Kaufman, K.

    1981-01-01

    Rats bearing intracerebral 9L/Ro tumors were treated with 10 daily fractions of cesium-137 gamma-rays, BCNU, or combinations of these to agents beginning on either Day 10 or Day 12 after implantation. The treatments were administered either 5 days/week for 2 weeks, with the weekend off, or 10 consecutive days. The median day of death for untreated tumor-bearing rats was Day 15, so Day 12 tumors can be considered late tumors and Day 10 tumors can be considered moderately early. Although all single- and multiple-agent treatments significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the lifespan of tumor-bearing rats over that of the untreated controls, and all multiple-agent schedules significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the lifespan over that of the single-agent therapies, none of the 10 consecutive day schedules increased the lifespan of tumor-bearing rats significantly (p less than 0.2) over that obtained with the 5-day/week schedules. Thus, the evidence from this tumor model suggests that no significant improvement in lifespan would be expected if malignant brain tumors were treated with radiation 7 days a week, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents such as BCNU

  3. Effect of Vitamin B5 on Liver Enzyme Levels in Bile Duct Ligation Cholestatic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Emami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Accumulation of toxic bile salts in a bile duct ligation (BDL animal model plays a pivotal role in the induction of liver fibrosis. Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient, which acts as a cofactor in many detoxification system enzymes. In the present research, the antifibrotic effect of vitamin B5 was investigated on liver cholestasis induced by BDL in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups: Control, sham-operated, vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw, BDL, and BDL+vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw. After BDL, rats were given vitamin B5 via intragastric gavage for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from heart and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes, were measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the BDL animals, the serum activities of AST, ALT, and ALP significantly increased (p<0.001. Treatment of BDL rats with vitamin B5 significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that vitamin B5 has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in the cholestatic liver, which is likely due to the antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of this vitamin.

  4. Effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-07-01

    DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701. In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose. The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

  5. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  6. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats.

  7. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad; Rezvaneh, Ghazanfari; Shahroo, Etemad-Moghadam; Mojgan, Alaeddini; Azam, Khorshidian; Shahram, Rabbani; Reza, Shamshiri Ahmad; Nafiseh, Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats. PMID:27275614

  8. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

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    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  9. Evaluation of Lercanidipine in Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Rat: A Preliminary Study

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    Lekha Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the antinociceptive effect of lercanidipine in paclitaxel-induced neuropathy model in rat. Materials and Methods. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups of six rats in each group as follows: Gr I: 0.9% NaCl, Gr II: paclitaxel + 0.9% NaCl, Gr III: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 0.5 μg/kg, Gr IV: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 1 μg/kg, and Gr V: paclitaxel + lercanidipine 2.5 μg/kg. Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rat was produced by single intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 1 mg/kg of paclitaxel on four alternate days (0, 2, 4, and 6. The tail flick and cold allodynia methods were used for assessing the pain threshold, and the assessments were done on days 0 (before first dose of paclitaxel and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Results. There was a significant decrease (P<0.001 in the tail flick and cold allodynia latency in the paclitaxel-alone group from day 14 onward when compared with day 0. In the lercanidipine groups, the decrease in the tail flick and cold allodynia latency was not observed in 1.0 and 2.5 μg/kg groups and it was statistically significant (P<0.01 when compared with paclitaxel-alone group.

  10. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

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    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  11. Water avoidance stress induces frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 expression: a bladder rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takao, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Jiro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Water avoidance stress is a potent psychological stressor and it is associated with visceral hyperalgesia, which shows degeneration of the urothelial layer mimicking interstitial cystitis. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have been recognized to ameliorate frequency both in clinical and experimental settings. We investigated the voiding pattern and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a rat bladder model of water avoidance stress. After being subjected to water avoidance stress or a sham procedure, rats underwent metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out to examine cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid in bladders of rats. Protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, etodolac, were investigated by carrying out cystometrography, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography showed significantly shorter intervals and less volume of voiding in water avoidance stress rats. Significantly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed significantly higher cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels in water avoidance stress bladders. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed high cyclooxygenase-2 expression exclusively in smooth muscle cells. All water avoidance stress-induced changes were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor pretreatment. Chronic stress might cause frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 gene upregulation in bladder smooth muscle cells. Further study of cyclooxygenase-2 in the water avoidance stress bladder might provide novel therapeutic modalities for interstitial cystitis. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

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    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  13. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanru; Brook, Caitlin L; Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Andrew; Yazbeck, Roger; Howarth, Gordon S

    2013-08-01

    Mucositis is a debilitating intestinal side effect of chemotherapeutic regimens. Probiotics have been considered a possible preventative treatment for mucositis. Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), a newly identified probiotic, has been shown to partially alleviate mucositis induced by administration of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug, methotrexate in rats; likely mediated through a mechanism of folate production. However, its effects against other classes of chemotherapy drug have yet to be determined. The authors investigated the effects of TH-4 in a rat model of mucositis induced by the anthracycline chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Gastrointestinal damage was induced in female Dark Agouti rats (148.3 ± 1.5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg). Animals recieved a daily oral gavage of TH-4 at 10(9) cfu/ml or skim milk (vehicle) from days 0 to 8. At day 6, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. At kill, small intestinal tissues were collected for determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and histological assessment. Body weight was significantly decreased by doxorubicin compared with normal controls (p TH-4 partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin (2.3% compared with 4%), but provided no further therapeutic benefit. The minimal amelioration of doxorubicin-induced mucositis by TH-4 further supports folate production as a likely mechanism of TH-4 action against methotrexate-induced mucositis. Further studies into TH-4 are required to confirm its applicability to other conventional chemotherapy regimens.

  15. Sleep in prenatally restraint stressed rats, a model of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Gatta, Eleonora; Marrocco, Jordan; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Consolazione, Michol; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) can induce persisting changes in individual's development. PRS increases anxiety and depression-like behaviors and induces changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult PRS rats after exposure to stress. Since adaptive capabilities also depend on temporal organization and synchronization with the external environment, we studied the effects of PRS on circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, that are parameters altered in depression. Using a restraint stress during gestation, we showed that PRS induced phase advances in hormonal/behavioral circadian rhythms in adult rats, and an increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep, positively correlated to plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma corticosterone levels were also correlated with immobility in the forced swimming test, indicating a depressive-like profile in the PRS rats. We observed comorbidity with anxiety-like profile on PRS rats that was correlated with a reduced release of glutamate in the ventral hippocampus. Pharmacological approaches aimed at modulating glutamate release may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat stress-related disorders. Finally, since depressed patients exhibit changes in HPA axis activity and in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the paradoxical sleep regulation, we suggest that PRS could represent an original animal model of depression.

  16. Scalp acupuncture attenuates neurological deficits in a rat model of hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiaowei; Zou, Wei; Leng, Mengtong; Zhang, Beng; Kang, Xiaoyu; He, Tao; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited human studies suggested that scalp acupuncture could facilitate functional recovery after cerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we used an animal model of cerebral hemorrhage to examine the potential effects of scalp acupuncture. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received autologous blood (50μL) into the right caudate nucleus on the right side under pentobarbital anesthesia, and then received scalp acupuncture (DU20 through GB7 on the lesion side) or sham acupuncture (1cm to the right side of the acupoints) (n=10 per group). A group of rats receiving autologous blood into the caudate nucleus but no other intervention, as well as a group of rats receiving anesthesia but no blood injection to the brain (n=10 per group) were included as additional controls. Composite neuroscore, corner turn test, forelimb placing test, wire hang task and beam walking were used to evaluate the behavior of rats. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes. Western blot was used to detect the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-KappaB (NFκB) protein expression. Scalp acupuncture attenuated neurological deficits (phemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  18. Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Saeed; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Mohseni, Simin; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Bagheri, Maryam; Khamse, Safoura; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2015-10-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor treatment ameliorates diarrhea and bowel inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, L Grier; Schwartz, Marshall Z; Kuenzler, Keith A; Birbe, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Transfection of the HLA-B27 gene into normal Fischer rats induces phenotypic changes similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the benefits of 2 doses of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Fischer rats and HLA-B27 rats were divided into 4 groups: Fischer rats treated with saline, HLA-B27 rats treated with saline, HGF at 150 microg/kg/d, and HGF at 300 microg/kg/d. HGF or saline was infused for 14 days via an osmotic pump attached to a catheter in the internal jugular vein. After treatment, rats were evaluated for diarrhea and reduction in gross and microscopic bowel inflammation. Statistics were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value diarrhea by 40%, gross inflammation by 41%, and microscopic inflammation by 72% (P diarrhea by 46%, gross inflammation by 45%, and microscopic inflammation by 54% (P < or =.05). HGF administration reduces the clinical manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Similar effects were seen at both doses of HGF administration, implying that there is a plateau above which further increases in HGF levels provides no added benefit. HGF administration may be clinically useful in the management of IBD.

  20. A rat model system to study complex disease risks, fitness, aging, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-02-01

    The association between low exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality is statistically strong yet mechanistically unresolved. By connecting clinical observation with a theoretical base, we developed a working hypothesis that variation in capacity for oxygen metabolism is the central mechanistic determinant between disease and health (aerobic hypothesis). As an unbiased test, we show that two-way artificial selective breeding of rats for low and high intrinsic endurance exercise capacity also produces rats that differ for numerous disease risks, including the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications, premature aging, and reduced longevity. This contrasting animal model system may prove to be translationally superior relative to more widely used simplistic models for understanding geriatric biology and medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (ppills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    validated animal model of depression, the chronic mild stress model (CMS). Depression-like and control rats were killed by decapitation within 24 h. Trunk blood, brain and liver tissue were collected. The quantitative amount of plasma corticosterone and melatonin were measured using an ELISA and RIA kit...... that depression-like animals showed an abnormal circadian rhythm in the liver and in subregions of the rat brains related to depression. However, the SCN was partly protected against stress. We found an increased level of corticosteron and melatonin, in the depression-like animals as well as a shifted circadian......Aim: The focus of this project is to identify biomarkers related to circadian disturbances in major depressive disorder. Background: A large body of clinical data from depressed individuals showed that sleep, temperature, hormones, physiological states and moodchanges are consistent...

  3. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  4. Mechanistic comparison between gastric bypass vs. duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kodama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both gastric bypass (GB and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. METHODS: Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls, and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. RESULTS: Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. CONCLUSION: GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models.

  5. Persistent polyuria in a rat spinal contusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patricia J; Hubscher, Charles H

    2012-10-10

    Polyuria contributes to bladder overdistention, which confounds both lower and upper urinary tract management in individuals having a spinal cord injury (SCI). Bladder overdistention post-SCI is one of the most common triggers for autonomic dysreflexia, a potentially life-threatening condition. Post-SCI polyuria is thought to result from loss of vascular tone in the lower extremities, leading to edema and subsequent excess fluid, resulting in polyuria. Mild SCIs that have near complete recovery would therefore be expected to have little to no polyuria, while severe injuries resulting in flaccid limbs and lower extremity edema would be expected to exhibit severe polyuria. Since interventions that may decrease lower extremity edema are recommended to lessen the severity of polyuria, step training (which promotes vascular circulation) was evaluated as a therapy to reduce post-SCI polyuria. In the present study, polyuria was evaluated in mild, moderate, and severe contusive SCI in adult male rats. The animals were housed in metabolic cages for 24-hour periods pre- and post-SCI (to 6 weeks). Urine, feces, food, water, and body weights were collected. Other assessments included residual expressed urine volumes, locomotor scoring, in-cage activity, and lesion histology. SCI produced an immediate increase in 24-hour urine collection, as early as 3 days post-SCI. Approximately 2.6-fold increases in urine collection occurred from weeks 1-6 post-SCI for all injury severities. Even with substantial gains in locomotor and bladder function following a mild SCI, polyuria remained severe. Step training (30 min/day, 6 days/week) did not alleviate polyuria in the moderate SCI contusion group. These results indicate that (1) mild injuries retaining weight-bearing locomotion that should have mild, if any, edema/loss of vascular tone still exhibit severe polyuria, and (2) step training was unable to reduce post-SCI polyuria. Taken together, these results indicate that the current

  6. Celiac disease, iron deficiency anaemia, grave's disease, osteopenia and short stature in single patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaideh, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an intestinal immune mediated disorder, triggered by ingestion of gluten-containing diet in genetically susceptible individuals. The genetic pre-disposition is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, especially HLA-DQ2 positive patients. The prevalence of celiac disease in high worldwide and it has been estimated to be 1-26% in Western countries. Many auto-immune diseases can be associated with celiac disease including auto-immune thyroid disease; hashimoto thyroiditis and grave's disease. The opposite also appears to be true, celiac disease is found on persons with auto-immune thyroid disorders at high rates than the general population. Celiac disease is also associated with other extraintestinal diseases other the auto-immune diseases like anemia, short stature, metabolic bone disease and others. Screening for celiac disease should be considered in patients with auto-immune thyroid disease, anemia, short stature and metabolic bone disease. The life-long adherence to gluten-free diet is the only cure in celiac disease and can improve the quality of patients life and prevent future complications. This report describes a case of Grave's disease, Iron deficiency anemia, Short stature, Osteopenia, diagnosed to have Celiac disease. (author)

  7. Evolutionary medicine and bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases--A theory of inflammation-related osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pacifici, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bone loss is typical in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, and others. It is also typical in transplantation-related inflammation and during the process of aging. While we recognized that bone loss is tightly linked to immune system activation or inflamm-aging in the form of acute, chronic active, or chronic smoldering inflammation, bone loss is typically discussed to be an "accident of inflammation." Extensive literature search in PubMed central. Using elements of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation of homeostasis and immune function, we work out that bone waste is an adaptive, evolutionarily positively selected program that is absolutely necessary during acute inflammation. However, when acute inflammation enters a chronic state due to the inability to terminate inflammation (e.g., in autoimmunity or in continuous immunity against microbes), the acute program of bone loss is a misguided adaptive program. The article highlights the complexity of interwoven pathways of osteopenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  10. Recipient bone marrow-derived stromal cells prolong graft survival in a rat hind limb allotransplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Yurie, Hirofumi; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Mitsui, Hiroto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Toguchida, Junya; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) have immunomodulatory properties that suppress the T cell responses that cause graft rejection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recipient BMSCs intravenous infusion for immunomodulation in a rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. A total of nine Wistar (WIS) rats and thirty Lewis (LEW) rats were used. BMSCs were harvested from three LEW rats. Twenty-four LEW rats were used as recipients and divided randomly into four groups: BMSC group, FK group, UT group, and Iso group. In the BMSC group, orthotopic rat hind limb transplantation was performed between WIS donor and LEW recipient rats. Recipient rats were injected intravenously with 2 × 10 6 recipient BMSCs on day 6, and with 0.2 mg/kg/day tacrolimus administered over 7 days (n = 6). In the FK group, recipient rats were treated with tacrolimus alone (n = 6). Rats in the UT group received no immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). In the Iso group, transplantation was performed from three LEW donor rats to six LEW recipient rats without any immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). Graft survival was assessed by daily inspection and histology. The immunological reactions of recipients were also evaluated. The graft survival of recipient rats in the BMSC group (24.5 days) was significantly prolonged in comparison with that of the FK group (18 days) (P Recipient rats in the BMSC group had significantly reduced serum IFN-γ cytokine levels (1.571 ± 0.779 pg/ml) in comparison with that of the FK group (7.059 ± 1.522 pg/ml) (P = .001). In in vitro study, BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness and prolong graft survival in the rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. BMSCs exhibit immunomodulatory properties against acute rejection that can be realized without the need for significant recipient

  11. Establishment of a reversible model of prehepatic portal hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Dou, Jian; Gao, Qing-Jun

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve upon the traditional model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension in rats, and simulate the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation without veno-venous bypass. A reversible model of portal hypertension was induced by portal vein ligation, with a label ring ligated along the portal vein. A total of 135 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: i) Normal control (NC) group; ii) portal hypertensive control (PHTC) group; and iii) reperfusion (R) group. In the R group, rats with portal hypertension underwent simultaneous clamping of the portal triad and retrohepatic vena cava for 1 h, followed by removal of the clamps to enable blood reperfusion. Portal venography and portal vein pressure were recorded during the surgery. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO 2 ), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) levels were determined, and pathological changes of the liver were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that, 3 weeks after portal vein ligation, the vein area and the free portal pressures in the PHTC group were significantly increased compared with those in the NC group. The serum ALT and AST levels in the R group at different time points were significantly elevated compared with those in the PHTC group, and reached their maximal levels at 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, the PaO 2 at 24 h after reperfusion was significantly decreased. In conclusion, the reversible model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension in rats was successfully established using the introduction of a label ring. This model may be useful for basic research focusing on the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation without veno-venous bypass.

  12. Gastroprotective effects of arctigenin of Arctium lappa L. on a rat model of gastric ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Miao, Yu; Su, Qin-Yong; Yao, Jing-Chun; Li, Hong-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Min

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective effects of arctigenin of Fructus Arctii were evaluated and the possible underlying mechanisms of action were elucidated. Arctigenin (high-performance liquid chromatography purity, >99.0%) was isolated and purified from the seeds of Arctium lappa L. The anti-ulcerogenic activity of arctigenin against ulcers induced by absolute ethanol and acetic acid was evaluated in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. In addition, the antioxidant activity was assessed by mea...

  13. Local blockage of EMMPRIN impedes pressure ulcers healing in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xi-Lan; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Ze-Xin; Yang, Guo-Li; Liu, Ji-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Li, Ming; Chen, Min; Xia, Yong-Mei; Liu, Jun-Jie; Qiu, Shu-Ping; Gong, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix degradation caused by the hyperfunction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the failure of pressure ulcers healing. EMMPRIN, as a widely expressed protein, has emerged as an important regulator of MMP activity. We hypothesize that EMMPRIN affects the process of pressure ulcer healing by modulating MMP activity. In the rat pressure ulcer model, the expression of EMMPRIN in ulcers detected by Western blot was elevated compared with that obse...

  14. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...

  15. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on memory impairment in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Changping Dun,1 Junqian Liu,1 Fucheng Qiu,1 Xueda Wu,2 Yakun Wang,3 Yongyan Zhao,4 Ping Gu1 1Department of Neurology, the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 3Department of Endocrinology, the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 4Department of Nursing, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Tangshan City, Tangshan, People’s Republic of China Objective: Astragalus polysaccharides (APS are active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of APS on memory impairment in a diabetic rat model and their mechanisms. Methods: A diabetic model was established in 50 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection. A blood glucose level higher than 16.7 mmol/L obtained 72 hours after the injection was regarded as a successful diabetic model. The modeled rats were divided into model group, high, medium, and low doses of APS, and piracetam groups (positive control. A group of ten rats without streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used as a normal control. After respective consecutive 8-week treatments, the levels of blood fasting plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, memory performance, hippocampal malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase were determined. Results: After the 8-week APS treatment, serum fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin levels were decreased compared with those of the model group (P<0.05. Importantly, memory impairment in the diabetic model was reversed by APS treatments. In addition, hippocampal malondialdehyde concentration was lowered, whereas that of superoxide dismutase was higher after APS treatments. Conclusion: APS are important active components responsible for memory improvement in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The potential mechanism of action is associated with the effects of APS on glucose and lipid metabolism, and

  16. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA......-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. METHODS: A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration...

  17. Effects of Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, on Photochemically Induced Cerebral Infarction in a Rat Hemiplegic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie

    2013-01-01

    Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533?nm (10?mm diameter), and the rose bengal was injected intra...

  18. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  19. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration

  20. Transplantation of ES cells to Parkinson model rat irradiated with carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaji, Motoki; Okauchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuji; Nojima, Kumie

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to make better Parkinson model animal and evaluate the transplantation treatment with ES cell. In the first year, we irradiated left striatum of adult rats with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon, 5 mm spread-out Bragg peak, 100 Gy) for purpose of making Parkinson model rats. At 4, 8, 12 weeks after the irradiation, we performed the rotation test to methamphetamine and the autoradiography on dopamine D2 receptor and transporter using 11 C-raclopride and 11 C-PE2I to measure the effects of the irradiation. As a result, the number of rotation increased and the distributions of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter in the striatum decreased during the time after the irradiation. These results suggested that the secondary neural damage due to the vascular degeneration caused the progressive destruction of dopamine system. To make more stable Parkinson model rats, we need to use smaller collimator and develop the accurate stereotactic irradiation system in the further research. (author)

  1. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat.

  2. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  3. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  4. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Serrapeptase and nattokinase intervention for relieving Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, N N; Ahmed, H H; Booles, H F; Sayed, A H

    2013-07-01

    Serrapeptase (SP) and nattokinase (NK) are proteolytic enzymes belonging to serine proteases. In this study, we hypothesized that SP and NK could modulate certain factors that are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology in the experimental model. Oral administration of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in a dose of 17 mg/kg body weight (bw) daily for 45 days induced AD-like pathology in male rats with a significant increase in brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), Fas and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Meanwhile, AlCl3 supplementation produced significant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) when compared with control values. Also, AlCl3 administration caused significant decline in the expression levels of disinte