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Sample records for rat neuro-vascular tissues

  1. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expresse...

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Neuro-Vascular Coupling in Rat Cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina

    Activity in the neurons called climbing fibers causes blood flow changes. But the physiological mechanisms which mediate the coupling are not well understood. This PhD thesis investigates the mechanisms of neuro-vascular coupling by means of mathematical methods. In experiments, the extracellularly...... measured field potential is used as an indicator of neuronal activity, and the cortical blood flow is measured by means of laser-Doppler flowmetry. Using system identification methods, these measurements have been used to construct and validate parametric mathematical models of the neuro-vascular system...

  3. Modeling neuro-vascular coupling in rat cerebellum: characterization of deviations from linearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Lauritzen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the quantitative relation between neuronal activity and blood flow by means of a general parametric mathematical model which described the neuro-vascular system as being dynamic, linear, time-invariant, and subjected to additive noise. The model was constructed from measurements...... by means of system identification methods and validated across experiments. We sought to cover the system response to multiple stimulation frequencies and durations by a single model. We used the model to investigate the transport delay, the linear order, the deviations from linearity, and conditions...

  4. Neuro-vascular-desmal relationship disturbances in peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglions and motor segmental centers in the etoposide-induced neuropathy.

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    Gerashchenko S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work was to determine the mechanisms of pathologic morphogenesis of the toxic neuropathy caused by etoposide taking into consideration all complex the neuro-vascular-desmal relationship disturbances in peripheral nerves, their motor and sensor segmental centers. It has been shown in the experiments on 86 white rats that single intravenous injection of etoposide at dose of 22 mg/kg body weight induse peripheral neuropathy. The complex of morphologic methods included the neurohistological and electronic microscopic methods of the research, the histochemical markers for study transmissivity of the vessels of the circulatory bed on the light microscopic and ultrastructural levels was used. The recommendations of the Interagency Committee of Neurotoxicology were considered to choose the methods of the research. The presence of 3 stages of morphogenesis has been established - phase of primary axonal reaction (3d day of experiment, phase of disturbance of the microcirculation of peripheral nerves and their segmental centers (7th day of experiment, phase of degenerative changes (15th day. Etoposide-indused neuropathy features are determined by a singularity of interdependent reactive changes, alteration and compensation processes in sensory and motor neurons, glial cells, microcirculatory bed and connective tissue.

  5. Microcirurgia de descompressão neuro-vascular para neuralgia do trigêmeo: estudo de 35 casos

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    Murilo S. Meneses

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo de 35 casos de microcirurgia de descompressão neuro-vascular na neuralgia do trigêmeo. A ausência de mortalidade e a morbidade muito baixa permitem a indicação deste procedimento, realizado atualmente como uma cirurgia de rotina. A escolha do tratamento e as vantagens de cada método são discutidas.

  6. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  7. Hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Bruinsma, GM; Rakhorst, G; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study, an inventory of the hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the living rat was made. Peritoneal tissues were divided into mesentery (i.e., omentum) and parietal and visceral peritoneum and their hydrophobicity was determined by the sessile drop method. All peritoneal tissues were hydr

  8. Hemoglobin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miretta Tommila; Christoffer Stark; Anne Jokilammi; Ville Peltonen; Risto Penttinen; Erika Ekholm

    2011-01-01

    The general opinion that hemoglobin is only a carrier protein for oxygen and carbon dioxide has been challenged by several recent studies showing hemoglobin expression in other cells than those of the erythroid series, for example, in macrophages. We discovered β-globin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue induced by subcutaneously implanted cellulose sponges. Closer investigation revealed also α-globin expression. The first peak of the biphasic globin expression noticed during granulation tissue formation correlated with the invasion of monocytes/macrophages, whereas the second one seemed to be connected to the appearance of hematopoietic progenitors. Data presented in this study indicate globin expression both in macrophages and in immature erythroid cells as validated by erythroid-specific markers.

  9. Rat fetal ventral mesencephalon grown as solid tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglinger, G U; Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten;

    1998-01-01

    Free-floating roller tube (FFRT) cultures of fetal rat and human nigral tissue are a means for tissue storage prior to grafting in experimental Parkinson's disease. In the present study, FFRT cultures prepared from embryonic-day-14 rat ventral mesencephalon were maintained for 4, 8, 12, or 16 days...

  10. Changes in activities of tissues enzymes in rats administered Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzymes in the serum, liver, kidney and heart of albino rats. ... significant alteration in enzyme activities in the serum and tissues as well as relative organ ... powder using an electrical blender. ... (average weight 160 g) at the Central Animal.

  11. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  12. Repeated dose of ketamine effect to the rat hippocampus tissue

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    Mehtap Okyay Karaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to determine the neurotoxic effect of repeated ketamine administration on brain tissue and if neurotoxic effect was present, whether this effect continued 16 days later using histological stereological method, a quantitative and objective method. Materials and Methods: Female rats were divided into three groups, each containing five rats. Rats in Group I were given 0.9% saline solution 4 times a day for 5 days. The rats in Groups II and III were given ketamine as intraperitoneal injections. Rats in Groups I and II were sacrificed on 5 th day while the ones in Group III on 21 st day. Cornu ammonis (CA and gyrus dentatus (GD regions in hippocampus tissue of rats were studied using optic fractionation method. Findings: There were significantly less number of cells in hippocampal CA and GD regions of rats from Groups II and III compared to the ones from Group I. Difference in cell number was also significantly higher in Group III than in Group II, but this difference was not as pronounced as the one between Groups III and I. Conclusion: Repeated ketamine doses caused neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

  13. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  14. Characterization of rat apical tissues in different root development stage.

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    Xu, Lin; Yang, Zhenhua; Jin, Fang; Duan, Yinzhong; Jin, Yan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we try to compare the histological characteristics and the odontogenic capability of apical tissues (AT) at different root development stages of rat molar teeth. AT of mandibular first molars from 8-day-old, 21-day-old, and 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected as being representative of root-initiating, root-forming, and root-completing stages, respectively. Cell counting, flow cytometry assays, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess the proliferation and mineralization potential of apical tissue cells at different stages of root development in vitro. In vivo transplantation of apical tissue cells combined with ceramic bovine bone was used to characterize the differentiation capacity. It was shown that there was a structurally and functionally dynamic change in the apical tissue of developing tooth root of rats, of which the unique developmental potential will reduce gradually with the ending up of root development. The AT of root-initiating and root-forming stage exhibited much higher proliferation and tissue-regenerative capacity than those of root-completing stage. Our present results indicate that the apical tissue, with the sustainable developmental ability throughout almost the whole process of tooth development, can yet be regarded as a competent candidate source for root/periodontal tissues regeneration.

  15. HPLC study of tissue distribution of loganin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lantong; Xu, Lei; Yin, Wei

    2006-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for determination of loganin in rat tissues. Samples were prepared based on a simple protein precipitation. Separation of loganin was achieved on a reversed-phase C(18) column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (16:84, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 236 nm and the temperature of the column was kept at 30 degrees C. The method was applied to study tissue distribution of loganin in rats after a single administration of loganin at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The highest level was observed in kidney, then in stomach, lung and small intestine. The lowest level was found in brain. The peak levels were attained at 90 min in most tissues. It was indicated that kidney was the major distribution tissue of loganin in rats, and that loganin had difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier. It was also found there was no long-term accumulation of loganin in rat tissues.

  16. Fibronectin distribution in epithelial and associated tissues of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T; Thom, D

    1979-01-01

    Specific antiserum was used to investigate the distribution of the extracellular glycoprotein, fibronectin, in rat skin and tongue tissue by light and electron microscopy with immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. We conclude that fibronectin is absent from stable, differentiated...... parts of tissues, such as the sebaceous glands or the matrix, medulla, cortex, and cuticles of the hair and the inner and outer root sheaths, or even in tissues in which there is some cell movement, such as the epidermis. It is, however, characteristic of sites at which cell division is occurring...... in contact with an extracellular scaffolding, such as basement membrane or loose connective tissue. Conspicuous examples were in the glassy membrane and connective tissue sheath associated with the follicular epithelium, the basement membrane underlying vascular endothelial cells, the connective tissues...

  17. Adipose tissue resistin gene expression in DIO and DR rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Zhao; Yuhui Ni; Xirong Guo; Haixia Gong; Xia Chi; Ronghua Chen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of resistin gene in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet resistance (DR)rats. Methods: DIO and DR models were prepared with male SD rats after 6 weeks feeding by a diet of relatively high fat, sucrose, and caloric content (HE diet). Body-weight, fat mass, and the concentration of serum insulin were measured, and the expression of resistin and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptory-γ(PPAR-γ) gene in whit adipose tissue (WAT) was also detected by RT-PCR. Results: ①Body weight, fat mass and the concentration of serum insulin were significantly increased in DIO rats and decreased in DR rats. ② The expression of resistin and PPARγ gene was upregulated in DIO group and supressed in DR group, but the expression of resistin was not detectable in all samples within three groups. Conclusion: Resistin may serve as a link between obesity and insulin resistance, but the individual difference is enormous.

  18. Reduced levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the serum of diabetic retinopathy patients and in the retina of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, M Shamsul; Nawaz, Mohd Imtiaz; El-Asrar, Ahmed Abu; Abouammoh, Marwan; Alhomida, Abdullah S

    2013-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is widely recognized as a neurovascular disease. Retina, being a neuronal tissue of the eye, produces neurotrophic factors for its maintenance. However, diabetes dysregulates their levels and thereby may damage the retina. Among neurotrophins, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant in the retina. In this study, we investigated the level of BDNF in the serum of patients with DR and also in the serum and retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The level of BDNF was significantly decreased in the serum of proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients as compared to that of non-diabetic healthy controls (25.5 ± 8.5-10.0 ± 8.1 ng/ml, p BDNF in the serum and retina of diabetic rats were also significantly reduced compared to that of non-diabetic controls (p TrkB) was significantly decreased in diabetic rat retina compared to that of non-diabetic controls as determined by Western blotting technique. Caspase-3 activity was increased in diabetic rat retina after 3 weeks of diabetes and remained elevated until 10 weeks, which negatively correlated with the level of BDNF (r = -0.544, p = 0.013). Our results indicate that reduced levels of BDNF in diabetes may cause apoptosis and neurodegeneration early in diabetic retina, which may lead to neuro-vascular damage later in DR.

  19. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

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    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  20. Apoptosis in the craniofacial tissues of irradiated growing rats

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    Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hang Moon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptosis induction in tissues constituting the craniofacial region of growing rat by irradiation. The submandibular gland, brain, articular cartilage of condylar head, and calvarium were extracted from 20-day-old rats irradiated 10 Gy. Apoptosis of each tissue was examined by DNA fragmentation and estimated quantitatively using apoptotic index on TUNEL assay. Apoptotic index of each tissue was calculated by the equation for apoptotic cells/total cells X 1,000 on the images of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptotic index was analyzed statistically according to the time lapse after irradiation on the tissues. In the submandibular gland, apoptotic index was significantly increased from 6 hours after irradiation showing the highest value at 12 hours and decreased to the control level at 3 days after irradiation. In the brain, apoptotic index was abruptly reached to the maximum value at 6 hours after irradiation and decreased to the control level at 4 days after irradiation. Articular cartilage and calvarium showed no or little apoptotic signals. The results obtained by the apoptotic index accorded with that of DNA fragmentation. Radiation was closely related with the apoptosis of submandibular gland and brain but, not related with the apoptosis of the articular cartilage of condylar head and calvarium. The changes induced by radiation of the hard tissues would not be explained by apoptosis.

  1. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (pACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.

  2. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in rat tissue cytosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, A.J.; Nijssen, J.G.; Aarsman, A.J.; Bosch, H. van den

    1988-01-01

    Cytosols (105000 X g supernatant) from seven rat tissues were assayed for Ca²⁺-independent phospholipase A₂ activity with either 1-acyl-2-[1-¹⁴C]linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-acyl-2-[l-¹⁴C]linoleoyl-snglycero- 3-phosphoethanohunine or 1-0-hexadecyl-2-[9,10-³H₂]oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoc

  3. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  4. Optimization of RNA Extraction from Rat Pancreatic Tissue

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    Sanaz Dastgheib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimized RNA extraction from tissues and cell lines consists of four main stages regardless of the method of extraction: 1 homogenizing, 2 effective denaturation of proteins from RNA, 3 inactivation of ribonuclease, and 4 removal of any DNA, protein, and carbohydrate contamination. Isolation of undamaged intact RNA is challenging when the related tissue contains high levels of RNase. Various technical difficulties occur during extraction of RNA from pancreatic tissue due to spontaneous autolysis. Since standard routine protocols yield unacceptable results in pancrease, we have designed a simple method for RNA extraction by comparing different protocols. Methods: We obtained 20-30 mg pancreatic tissues in less than 2 min from 30 rats. Several methods were performed to extract RNA from pancreatic tissue and evaluate its integrity. All methods were performed three times to obtain reproducible results. Results: Immersing pancreatic tissue in RNA-later for 24 h at -80ºC yielded high quality RNA by using the TriPure reagent which was comparable to the commercial RNeasy Micro Kit. The quality of RNA was evaluated by spectrophotometer, electrophoresis and RT-PCR. We separated intact 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA when our procedure was compared with the RNeasy Micro Kit. Finally, full length of the actin gene was amplified by RT-PCR. Conclusion: We designed a simple, fast, cost-effective method for complete RNA extraction from the least amount of quantitatively intact pancreatic tissue

  5. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

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    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  6. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

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    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  7. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  8. The expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome rat mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) rat model and compare the expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of PCOS rat with that of controls.Methods 21-day-old female SD

  9. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... sulfate proteoglycans previously described....

  10. Disposition and Tissue Distribution of ML12 in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luqin SI; Gao LI; Sanlan WU; Jiangeng HUANG; Dapeng WU; Quan GAN

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the disposition and tissue distribution of ML12 after intravenous (iv) ad- ministration in rats, the compound in plasma or in tissue was extracted into ethyl acetate under basic condition and was determined by HPLC after extracted by dilute sulfuric acid. Excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of fluorescence detection were 278 nm and 307 nm, respectively. The data were processed with the software 3P97 to calculate the main pharmaceutical parameters of ML12, At dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg, the elimination of the drug from plasma was found to be kinetically linear, but when the dosage was 20 mg/kg, a non-linear feature was observed. The highest level of MLI2 was found in the kidney. Distribution of MLI2 after iv administration was extensive and the concentration-time profile was found to he fitted to an open two-compartment model.

  11. Prostaglandin F receptor expression in intrauterine tissues of pregnant rats

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    Kanca, Halit; Yar, Atiye Seda; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Menevşe, Sevda; Çalgüner, Engin; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats on gestational Days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and postpartal Days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. A high level of immunoreactivity was observed on gestational Days 20, 21, and 21.5 with the most significant signals found on Day 20. FP receptor protein was expressed starting on gestational Day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor mRNA levels were low between Days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on Day 20 and peaked on Day 21.5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP receptor mRNA expression and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) along with serum estradiol/progesterone ratios (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). In summary, we observed an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation of expression at term, and a concominant decrease during the postpartum period. These findings indicate a role for uterine FP receptors in the mediation of uterine contractility at term. PMID:24136214

  12. Biocompatibility evaluation of biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; de Oliveira, Danilo Louzada; Jacomini, Larissa Menegucci; da Silva, Sindinéia Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, St-Maur-des-Fossés, France) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of Biodentine in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of 4 tubes. One tube was empty, 1 was filled with zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 1 was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the last tube was filled with Biodentine. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P Biodentine; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or nonsignificant. Biodentine was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

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    Wajdy Al-Awaida

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT.

  14. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  15. Tissue Distribution of [3H]—Nicotine in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ParimalChowdhury; RyuichiroDOI; 等

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted in adult male Sprageue-Dawley rats to determine the distribution of [3H]-nicotine in blood and tissues following a bolus injection and a constant infusion of pure nicotine.The animalw were anesthetized and injectd with either 0.5ml of nicotine solution or given a constant infusion of the same nicotine solution with indentical amounts of radioactive nicotine.After sacrifice.blood,brain,trachea,salivery gland, esophagus,lung,heart,liver,fundus,antrum,spleen,pancreas,duodenum,jejunum,ileum, cecum,colon,kidneys,adrenal gland,and testes were collected and measured for radioactivity by scintillation counting.The distribution of nicotine was found highest in kidneys by both routes of administration.Higher accumulations were also found in salivary and adrenal glands,fundus,antrum,duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon.Retention of nicotine via constant infusion was significantly higher in esophagus,fundus antrum,spleen,cecum, pancreas,testes,heart and muscle when compared with bolus injection,Six-fold increase in retention of blood levels of nicotine were ofund with constant infusion.(P<0.05).The results indicate that longer retention of nicotine occurs in blood and other specific tissues such as esophagus,fundus,antrum,spleen,cecum,pancreas,testes,heart and muscle via constant exposure.These data may implicate the predisposition of these tissues to patologic manifestations.

  16. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... infected end-to-end anastomosis of popliteal artery injury. The other was a case ... increased risk of delayed union and non-union(24). Some of the ... compromise and amputation after intramedullary nailing of a tibia fracture.

  17. Tissue distribution of lycopene in ferrets and rats after lycopene supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A L; Yeum, K J; Liu, C; Smith, D; Krinsky, N I; Wang, X D; Russell, R M

    2000-05-01

    To determine lycopene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and F344 rats, we supplemented orally 4.6 mg/(kg body wt.d) lycopene in a tomato oleoresin-corn oil mixture (experimental groups). After 9 wk of supplementation, the animals were killed and blood and organs were collected. Plasma and tissue carotenoids were extracted and measured using HPLC. Mean concentrations of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissues of ferrets were as follows: liver 933, intestine 73, prostate 12.7 and stomach 9.3. Levels of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissue of rats were as follows: liver 14213, intestine 3125, stomach 78.6, prostate 24 and testis 3.9. When these organs were extracted without saponification, the lycopene levels were lower, except for rat testis. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant isomer found in tomato oleoresin and in the majority of rat tissues, whereas cis-lycopenes were predominant in rat prostate and plasma. This pattern was reversed in ferrets. The results show the following: 1) lycopene from tomato oleoresin is absorbed and stored primarily in the liver of both animals; 2) saponification generally improves the extraction of lycopene from most tissues of both animals; 3) cis-lycopene and all-trans-lycopene are the predominant isomers in ferret and rat tissues, respectively; and 4) rats absorb lycopene more effectively than ferrets.

  18. Development of heart failure assessed by tissue Doppler imaging in hypertensive Dahl rats

    OpenAIRE

    宮田, 聖子||ミヤタ, セイコ||Miyata, Seiko; 山田, 亜紀||ヤマダ, アキ||Yamada, Aki||Iwami Yamada, Aki; 橋本, 克徳||ハシモト, カツノリ||Hashimoto, Katsunori; 黒木, 祥子||クロキ, ショウコ||Kuroki, Shoko; 岩本, 隆司||イワモト, タカシ||Iwamoto, Takashi; 野田, 明子||ノダ, アキコ||Noda, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) has been recognized as a useful tool to assess regional myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of heart failure in hypertensive Dahl rats using echocardiography with TDI. Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet from 7 weeks old. As an age-matched control, DS rats were consistently placed on normal diet. In these rats, echocardiography was performed successively. We evaluated interventric...

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Verticinone from F. hupehensis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Verticinone, the main active component in F. hupehensis, exhibits potent antitussive and expectorant effects. Here, a LC-MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of verticinone in rats, and its plasma protein binding in vitro. A significant gender difference in the pharmacokinetics of verticinone in rats was observed, as its absolute oral bioavailability in male and female rats was 45.8% and 2.74%, respectively. The relative bioavailability of verticinone was significantly lower in female rats as compared to male, following intragastrical (i.g. and intravenous (i.v. administration. After successive i.g. administration of verticinone, accumulation was observed in female rats but not in the male ones. The tissue distribution study showed that verticinone had a good tissue penetrability and a high tissue affinity in most studied tissues, except brain. After a 2 mg/kg oral dose, less than 4% of the dose was excreted as unchanged parent compound in male rats, and less than 1% in female rats, which indicated that verticinone was metabolized more extensively in female rats than in male rats.

  20. Identification and target prediction of miRNAs specifically expressed in rat neural tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Kang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation. Several studies have indicated that some miRNAs are specifically expressed in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues. For example, miR-1 and miR-133 are specifically expressed in muscles. Tissue-specific miRNAs may have particular functions. Although previous studies have reported the presence of human, mouse and zebrafish tissue-specific miRNAs, there have been no detailed reports of rat tissue-specific miRNAs. In this study, Home-made rat miRNA microarrays which established in our previous study were used to investigate rat neural tissue-specific miRNAs, and mapped their target genes in rat tissues. This study will provide information for the functional analysis of these miRNAs. Results In order to obtain as complete a picture of specific miRNA expression in rat neural tissues as possible, customized miRNA microarrays with 152 selected miRNAs from miRBase were used to detect miRNA expression in 14 rat tissues. After a general clustering analysis, 14 rat tissues could be clearly classified into neural and non-neural tissues based on the obtained expression profiles with p values Conclusion Our work provides a global view of rat neural tissue-specific miRNA profiles and a target map of miRNAs, which is expected to contribute to future investigations of miRNA regulatory mechanisms in neural systems.

  1. Determinants of renal tissue hypoxia in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Evans, Roger G

    2014-11-15

    Renal tissue oxygen tension (PO2) and its determinants have not been quantified in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Therefore, we measured kidney tissue PO2 in the Lewis rat model of PKD (LPK) and in Lewis control rats. We also determined the relative contributions of altered renal oxygen delivery and consumption to renal tissue hypoxia in LPK rats. PO2 of the superficial cortex of 11- to 13-wk-old LPK rats, measured by Clark electrode with the rat under anesthesia, was higher within the cysts (32.8 ± 4.0 mmHg) than the superficial cortical parenchyma (18.3 ± 3.5 mmHg). PO2 in the superficial cortical parenchyma of Lewis rats was 2.5-fold greater (46.0 ± 3.1 mmHg) than in LPK rats. At each depth below the cortical surface, tissue PO2 in LPK rats was approximately half that in Lewis rats. Renal blood flow was 60% less in LPK than in Lewis rats, and arterial hemoglobin concentration was 57% less, so renal oxygen delivery was 78% less. Renal venous PO2 was 38% less in LPK than Lewis rats. Sodium reabsorption was 98% less in LPK than Lewis rats, but renal oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between the two groups. Thus, in this model of PKD, kidney tissue is severely hypoxic, at least partly because of deficient renal oxygen delivery. Nevertheless, the observation of similar renal oxygen consumption, despite markedly less sodium reabsorption, in the kidneys of LPK compared with Lewis rats, indicates the presence of inappropriately high oxygen consumption in the polycystic kidney.

  2. Telomerase activity (TMA) in tumour and peritumoural tissues in a rat liver cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huo-Jun; Yang, Ji-Jin; Tian, Jian-Ming; Wang, Pei-Jun; Shao, Cheng-Wei; Zuo, Chang-Jing; Zhang, Shun-Min; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-02-01

    To study the levels of telomerase activity (TMA) in tumour and peritumoural tissues in a liver cancer model in rats, and to study the change in TMA expression over time. Using the telomeric repeated amplification protocol (TRAP), TMA was measured in tumour tissue, peritumoural tissue and normal liver tissue of Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats at 4, 6 and 8 days after tumour implantation. TMA at day 4, 6 and 8 was 0.767+/-0.117, 0.768+/-0.118 and 0.774+/-0.111 in tumour tissue, 0.389+/-0.263, 0.492+/-0.253 and 0.584+/-0.239 in peritumoural tissue, and 0.231+/-0.022, 0.229+/-0.022 and 0.233+/-0.021 in normal liver tissue, respectively. TMA in tumour tissue was higher than that in peri-tumour and normal liver tissues at all time points of measurement (P TMA levels in tumour tissue and normal liver tissue did not show any change over time. TMA level in the peritumoural tissue increased with time; TMA level in animals sacrificed at day 8 was higher than that seen in animals sacrificed at day 4 (P TMA in walker-256 tumour-bearing rats was higher than that in normal and peritumoural tissues. TMA level in the peritumoural tissue increased with time suggesting that TMA activation in peritumoural tissue may be an important factor promoting tumour growth.

  3. Effect of Zinc-Deficient Diet on Oral Tissues and Periodontal Indices in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24th day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluat...

  4. Decomposition of α-Tocopheryl Glycosides in Rat Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaś, Małgorzata; Wałejko, Piotr; Maj, Jadwiga; Hryniewicka, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Stanisław; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Dudzik, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of our investigation was to estimate the stability of α-tocopheryl O-glycosides in relation to activity of exoglycosidases in selected rat tissues. Material and Methods Acetylated glycosides were obtained in glucosidation of α-tocopherol using the Helferich method. The activity of exoglycosidases was determined by the Zwierz et al. method. Protein concentrations were determined by the biuret method. The concentration of released α-tocopherol was determined with the HPLC method. Results The comparison of the amount of released α-tocopherol with the amount of released p-nitrophenol shows that glycoside bound in 2a–5a derivatives of α-tocopherol undergoes hydrolysis significantly harder than in appropriate 2b–5b p-nitrophenyl derivatives. Conclusion The results indicate that tocopheryl O-glycosides are more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis than appropriate p-nitrophenol O-glycosides 2a–5a. Among examined tocopheryl O-glycosides, galactoside 4 is the only compound that caused the significant increase in tocopherol concentration, as compared to its endogenic content. PMID:19696909

  5. Diazinon toxicokinetics, tissue distribution and anticholinesterase activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H X; Evreux-Gros, C; Descotes, J

    1996-12-01

    The toxicokinetics, tissue distribution, and anticholinesterase (antiChE) activity of diazinon were investigated in the rat. Plasma concentrations most adequately fitted a two-compartment open model after i.v. administration of 10 mg/kg and a one-compartment model after oral administration of 80 mg/kg. Diazinon elimination half-life following i.v. and oral dosing was 4.70 and 2.86 h, respectively. The oral bioavailability was found to be low (35.5%). Hepatic extraction ratios after i.v. administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg were 54.8% and 47.7%, respectively, suggesting that low systemic oral bioavailability can be explained by a first-pass effect in the liver. Diazinon was found to be approximately 89% protein-bound in plasma within the concentration range 0.4-30 ppm. The highest concentration of diazinon after i.v. administration was found in the kidneys, when comparing to liver, kidney, brain. Both red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma ChE activities were inhibited rapidly (44% and 17% at 10 min, and 36% and 13% min for i.v. and oral administration, respectively), but inhibition of RBC AChE was greater than that of plasma ChE.

  6. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  7. JNK and IKKβ phosphorylation is reduced by glucocorticoids in adipose tissue from insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Katia; Barbosa, Amanda Marreiro; Bobinski, Franciane; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Rafacho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is one of the main side effects caused by glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapies, and the molecular mechanisms of GC-induced IR are not yet fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of dexamethasone treatment on the main components of insulin and inflammatory signaling in the adipose tissue of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone (1mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) for 5 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline (CTL). The metabolic status was investigated, and the epididymal fat fragments were collected for lipolysis and western blot analyses. The DEX rats became hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant, compared with the CTL rats (Pinsulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 at ser(307) increased by 93% in the adipose tissue of the DEX rats after an oral bolus of glucose (Padipose tissue of the DEX rats (Padipose tissue of the DEX rats (Pinsulin-resistant status of rats induced by dexamethasone administration have PKB and IRS-1 activity attenuated in epididymal fat without increases in the phosphorylation of the proinflammatory signals JNK and IKKβ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue-specific alterations in expression and function of P-glycoprotein in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-lu ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Lin XIE; Liang LU; Shi JIN; Xin-yue JING; Dan YAO; Nan HU; Li LIU; Ru DUAN; Xiao-dong LIU

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes of expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-GP) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, liver, intestinal mucosa and kidney of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetic rats were prepared via a single dose of streptozocin (65 mg/kg, ip). Abcb1/P-GP mRNA and protein expression levels in tissues were evaluated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and Western blot, respectively.P-GP function was investigated via measuring tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios and body fluid excretion percentages of rhodamine 123.Results: In 5- and 8-week diabetic rats, Abcb1a mRNA levels were significantly decreased in cerebral cortices and intestinal mucosa,but dramatically increased in hippocampus and kidney. In liver, the level was increased in 5-week diabetic rats, and decreased in 8-week diabetic rats. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and kidney, but reduced in liver and intestinal mucosa in the diabetic rats. Western blot results were in accordance with the alterations of Abcb1a mRNA levels in most tissues examined. P-GP activity was markedly decreased in most tissues of diabetic rats, except kidney tissues.Conclusion: Alterations in the expression and function of Abcb1/P-GP under diabetic conditions are tissue specific, Abcb1 specific and diabetic duration-dependent.

  9. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than

  10. Responses to Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid of Rat Visual Cortical Neurons in Tissue Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Neurol. 234: 242-263. Peters, A. and Proskauer, c. C. (1980) Synaptic relationships between a multipolar stellate cell and a pyramidal neuron in rat...APR 1986 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Responses to Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid of Rat Visual Cortical Neurons in...AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER Title of Thesis: Responses to Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid of Rat Visual Cortical Neurons in Tissue Slices Name of Candidate

  11. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in rats as determined by radioimmunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerlink, T.; Krift, T.P. van der; Post, M.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein from rat liver was used to measure levels of PC-transfer protein in rat tissues. The assay as described before (Teerlink T., Poorthuis B.J.H.M., Van der Krift T.P. and Wirtz K.W.A., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665 (1981) 74–80) was modified

  12. Distribution of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in different organs and tissues of dietically obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.; Voss, C.; Huebner, G. (Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic)); Weber, A. (Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1985-04-01

    The distribution of /sup 125/I-thyroxine (% dose/g tissue; tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio) was investigated in different tissues of 28-week-old obese Wistar rats. Obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and confirmed by carcass analysis; in heavy obese animals the relative and absolute fat content is increased twofold and threefold, respectively, compared to control rats fed on a low-fat diet (LFD). Heavy HFD rats exhibit diminished /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ distribution in the 'slow pool' (fat tissue, muscle) and unchanged values in the 'fast pool' (liver, kidneys) in comparison with LFD rats with low body weight. The differences in distribution presented here are not caused by the diet per se, but they are the consequence of the obesity of the animal, because no differences in the /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ distribution were found in the /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ between HFD and LFD rats with relatively equal body weight and body composition. The reduced T/sub 4/ distribution in the fat tissue of obese rats is discussed in connection with possibly decreased lipolysis in this tissue and possible causal participation in the beginning of obesity.

  13. Biocompatibility of a new epoxy resin-based root canal sealer in subcutaneous tissue of rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Neslihan; Akinci, Levent; Gecor, Orhan; Alan, Hilal; Ahmetoglu, Fuat; Taslidere, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the subcutaneous biocompatibility of two root canal sealers. Materials and Methods: Thirty female rats were distributed into two groups of 15 animals. Each received subcutaneous dorsal implants: Silicone tubes filled with AH Plus or Obtuseal. After the 11th, 14th, and 45th days, tissues were collected for biopsy and fixed and processed for histologic evaluation. Observations of the cellular inflammatory components, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, were made. The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Connover tests (P 0.05). Conclusion: After 45 days, Obtuseal yielded a satisfactory tissue reaction; it was biocompatible when tested in subcutaneous rat tissue. On the basis of the obtained results, it was concluded that Obtuseal root canal sealer caused a satisfactory tissue reaction as AH plus, because it was biocompatible when tested in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. PMID:25713481

  14. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  15. Resistant starch improves insulin resistance and reduces adipose tissue weight and CD11c expression in rat OLETF adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Imai, Chihiro; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-05-01

    CD11s/CD18 dimers induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into many tissues, including adipose tissues. In particular, it was reported that β2-integrin CD11c-positive macrophages in adipose tissues are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether intake of resistant starch (RS) reduces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissues and inhibits the development of insulin resistance at an early stage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Twenty-two-wk-old male OLETF rats were fed a control diet (55% α-corn starch) or an RS diet (55% RS) for 5 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 wk of feeding; tissues (mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues, and liver) and tail vein blood were collected after 5 wk of feeding the test diets. Feeding the RS diet to OLETF rats for 5 wk improved insulin resistance, reduced the mesenteric adipose tissue weight, and enhanced the number of small adipocytes. CD68 expression, a macrophage infiltration marker, was not changed by the RS diet, whereas the gene expression levels of integrins such as CD11c, CD11d, and CD18, but not CD11a, and CD11b, were significantly reduced. CD11c protein expression was reduced by the RS diet. These findings suggest that part of the mechanism for the improved insulin resistance by the RS diet involves a reduction of CD11c expression in adipose tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Macrophages Undergo M1-to-M2 Transition in Adipose Tissue Regeneration in a Rat Tissue Engineering Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Xu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhifa; Dai, Taiqiang; Ma, Chao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model. Neo-adipose tissue was generated 6 weeks after implantation. Macrophages were obvious in the chamber constructs 3 days after implantation, peaked at day 7, and significantly decreased thereafter. At day 3, macrophages were predominantly M1 macrophages (CCR7+), and there were few M2 macrophages (CD206+). At day 7, the percentage of M2 macrophages significantly increased and remained stable at day 14. M2 macrophages became the predominant macrophage population at 42 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated transition of cytokines from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, which was consistent with the transition of macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2. These results showed distinct transition of macrophage phenotypes from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 in adipose tissue regeneration in our tissue engineering model. This study provides new insight into macrophage phenotype transition in the regeneration of adipose tissue.

  17. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation. PMID:27895467

  18. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  19. Effect of zinc-deficient diet on oral tissues and periodontal indices in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24(th) day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluated clinically after four weeks. Also the gingival index and periodontal pocket depth were recorded. The measurement of serum zinc level was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The microscopic slides of oral tissue specimen were evaluated quantitatively. The serum zinc level of the ZD rats was lower than the ZC group (pkeratin thickening between two groups. This study indicated that oral and periodontal health was better in ZC rats than in ZD rats. Aphthous lesions were more prominent in ZD rats. This study confirmed that zinc deficiency may endanger oral and periodo ntal structures.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  1. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  2. Quantitative maps of protein phosphorylation sites across 14 different rat organs and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Secher, Anna; Lage, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    across 14 rat organs and tissues. We provide the data set as an easily accessible resource via a web-based database, the CPR PTM Resource. A major fraction of the presented phosphorylation sites are tissue-specific and modulate protein interaction networks that are essential for the function...

  3. Histological effects of fibrin glue on nervous tissue: a safety study in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Menovsky, T.; Gulik, S. van; Wesseling, P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known of the histologic effects of fibrin glue on normal nervous tissue. To verify the safety of intracranial application of fibrin glue, we investigated the histologic effects of fibrin glue on brain tissue and intracranial nerves of rats. METHODS: In Group I (n =12), bifronta

  4. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; Praslická, M

    1982-01-01

    The content of triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids and nonesterified fatty acids was measured in plasma and tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 in the weightless and centrifuged state. The weightlessness exposure increased lipid fractions in plasma and tissues, and artificial gravity produced a beneficial effect.

  5. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Tahaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  7. Testosterone uptake by prostatic tissue from young and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadian, R; Fotherby, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of [3H]-testosterone in vitro by the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats more than 11 months old was significantly less than that of rats 4-5 weeks old. There were significant decreases between young and old rats in the RNA and DNA content of the prostate but not in the activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher than that of acid phosphatase. Testosterone uptake by the prostate was higher in culture medium TC199 than in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution.

  8. C-Psilocin tissue distribution in pregnant rats after intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C.P. Law

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many species of hallucinogenic mushrooms have been found in the genus Psilocybe. The main psychoactive chemicals of Psilocybe mushrooms are psilocin and its phosphoryloxy derivative, psilocybin. In addition to its psychedelic effects, psilocybin is an effective agent to lift the mood of depressed patients with terminal cancers. Objective: To study the dispositional kinetics of 14C-psilocin in pregnant rats after intravenous injection, to calculate tissue dose surrogates i.e., tissue 14C concentration and area under the concentration-time curve using the experimental data, to quantify trans-placental passage of psilocin and/or its metabolites, and to identify new psilocin metabolite(s in rat urine. Methods: A group of 15 pregnant Wistar rats weighing between 0.30-0.36 kg was used in the study. Each rat was given a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg 14C-psilocin i.v. Three rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 hr post-dosing. The maternal and fetal tissues were quickly removed and the radioactivity in these tissues determined by liquid scintillation counting. In a separate study, urine samples were collected from 6 male Wistar rats after administering 15 mg/kg of unlabeled psilocin i.p. The urine samples were collected and extracted by chloroform-methanol (9:1 v/v and analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Results: 14C-Psilocin crossed the placental barrier of pregnant rats readily after i.v. administration; maternal tissue 14C concentrations were found to be much higher than those in fetal tissues. The areas under the curve for maternal tissues also were much higher than the fetal tissues. In general, maternal tissues could be divided into the fast eliminating organ group, which included the brain (elimination half-life 13 hr. A new psilocin metabolite tentatively identified as dihydroxyindoleacetic acid was found in the urine. Conclusion: Our study showed that psilocin readily crossed the

  9. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  10. [Rhythmic changes in morphometric parameters of fiber structure of myocardial connective scar tissue in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, I I

    1993-02-01

    The results of morphometrical and stereological analysis of cardiomyocytes and rats' cardiac scar conjunctive tissue are stated in this article. It was shown that during the myocardial construction, the collagen fibril tension occurs. When diastole ensues, they goes back to point of departure. The author supposes that such a rhythmical, synchronous with systole changes of scar conjunctive tissue collagen fibres indicates the conjunctive tissue scar participation in cardiac contractile activity.

  11. Observations on Preadipocytes and Their Distribution Patterns in Rat Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    enzyme lipoprotein lipase (Hietanen and viously (Stiles et al., 󈨏) in rat adipose tissue Greenwood, 󈨑). Exercise training initiated and suggest that...Huston, C.G. Plopper, and A.L. Hecker increased hormone sensitivity during in vitro adipocyte (1975) Adipose tissue cellularity and lipolysis : Response to... adipose tissue developing into adipocytes. J. Usuku, G., K. Iyama, and K. Ohzono (1978) Ultrastructural Lipid Res., 19: 316-324. studies on the white

  12. Tissue response to implanted ceramic-coated titanium alloys in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, K; Akagawa, Y; Nikai, H; Tsuru, H

    1988-07-01

    In order to assess the tissue compatibility of the hybrid materials for the dental implant (hydroxyapatite, titanium oxide and titanium nitride coated titanium alloys), tissue response to these materials implanted in the rat subcutaneous tissue was histologically examined. Initial inflammatory response was less evident in titanium oxide coated and non-coated titanium alloys. All materials were encapsulated by thin fibrous connective tissues. The membrane thickness of hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy was significantly higher than that of titanium nitride coated one. These results suggest that all materials possess favourable tissue compatibility and may encourage clinical use as the dental implant.

  13. Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.......We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats....

  14. Tissue bioavailability of anthocyanins from whole tart cherry in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, E Mitchell; Wolforth, Janet; McNish, Robert; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-03-15

    Our aim was to confirm and identify the presence of tart cherry anthocyanins in several target tissues of healthy rats. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was employed for detection and characterisation of anthocyanin metabolites. It was shown that four native anthocyanins, namely cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-D-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside were differentially distributed among targeted tissues of rats. Bladder and kidney contained more total anthocyanins than all other tissues analysed. It was also revealed that the bioavailability pattern of these native anthocyanins among tissues is varied. The highest concentration of individual anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (2339 picograms/gram of tissue) was detected in bladder, followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-d-glucoside (916 picograms/gram) in the liver of rats. Although the diverse distribution of tart cherry anthocyanins in different rat tissues still requires further explanation, it may provide an evidentiary link between tissue bioavailability and health-enhancing properties of anthocyanins at target sites.

  15. The expression of Fetuin-A in brain tissues of WAG/Rij Rats, genetic rat model of absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Yüksel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to determine the Fetuin-A levels in different regions of the brain in absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats in order to contribute the identification of new potential biomarkers of the diagnosis, prognosis and follow up the epilepsy treatment. Methods: 1, 3 and 6 months old male WAG/Rij rats (n=21 with absence epilepsy were used in this study. All of the rats were decapitated under anesthesia and their cortex and thalamus tissues were isolated. Fetuin-A levels of the groups were determined by Western Blot method by using standard techniques and differences between densities of the groups were compared. Results: According to data obtained, there was no Fetuin-A expression in brain cortex and thalamus tissues of WAG/Rij rats with absence epilepsy. Conclusion: In this study, it was shown that Fetuin-A is not expressed in brain cortex and thalamus tissues of WAG/Rij rats with absence epilepsy throughout the age-related development. By evaluating the findings obtained, extensive researches that contain molecular and histological methods must be planned, Fetuin-A findings that are obtained experimentally must be confirmed. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 387-390

  16. The protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids on rat testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Zararsız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on testicular tissue was aimed to investigate at biochemical levels.Materials and methods: Totally, 16 adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Rats in Group I were used as control and only saline was given by intragastric gavage. Rats in Group II, 400 mg/kg dose ω-3 fatty acids were given daily by intragastric gavage. At the end of the six-week experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. The testicular tissue specimens taken from animals, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, blood testosterone levels were examined.Results: In our study, ω-3 fatty acids in rats were given a statistically significant increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase a statistically significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels were determined when compared to control group. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids in rats given a statistically significant increase in blood testosterone levels were observed.Conclusion: We concluded that ω-3 fatty acid had favorable effects in rat testis tissue by preventing oxidative damage and increasing the level of testosterone.

  17. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  18. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

  19. Down-regulation of Zac1 gene expression in rat white adipose tissue by androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirowska, Agnieszka; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Swierczynski, Julian

    2014-03-01

    ZAC1 is a zinc-finger protein transcription factor, a transcriptional cofactor for nuclear receptors, and a co-activator of nuclear receptors, which interacts with multiple signaling pathways affecting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and metabolism. Some data suggest that ZAC1 regulates the expression of genes associated with function of adipose tissue. Since there is no information about the levels of Zac1 gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT), and the expression of several genes associated with metabolic function of WAT is significantly lower in male than female animals, we have examined: (a) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in some organs/tissues, including three main depots of WAT, in 3-month-old male rats; (b) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of male and female rats; (c) the effect of orchidectomy and orchidectomy with concomitant testosterone treatment on ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels; (d) the effect of ovariectomy and ovariectomy with concomitant 17β-estradiol treatment on ZAC1 mRNA levels; (e) the effect of dihydrotestosterone on ZAC1 mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes. Our results indicate that: (a) ZAC1 mRNA levels are relatively high in WAT in comparison with other organs/tissues; (b) ZAC1 mRNA levels in subcutaneous WAT are approximately 2-fold lower than in epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; (c) ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of adult female rats are approximately 2-fold higher than in male rats; (d) testosterone is inversely related to ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in WAT of male rats; and (e) dihydrotestosterone decreases the ZAC1 mRNA levels in adipocytes in dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Zac1 gene is highly expressed in white adipose tissue of adult rats. Androgens could play an important role in down-regulation of the ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in rats.

  20. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  1. Adequate evaluation of HSL mass and activity in rat adipose tissue in fasting and aging-related obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Morimoto, Chie; Kameda, Kenji; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2002-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a unique tissue because its mass is readily changed by altering nutritional conditions. Therefore the activity and content of enzyme in the adipose tissue is significantly differed according to the way of their presentation: per g tissue, per whole tissue, or per cell number. In the present study, the effects of the ways of expressing the hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and content were studied in rat by decreasing or increasing adipose tissue. Fasting caused a progressive decline in body weight and in the weight of the epididymal fat pad. When the HSL content was expressed per g of adipose tissue, the lipase activity and immunoreactive HSL protein content in fasting rats were higher than those in fed rats. On the other hand, when they were expressed as per fat pad, the lipase activity and immunoreactive HSL protein in fasting rats were lower than those in fed rats. The opposite results were observed in obesity. When the HSL content was expressed per g of adipose tissue, the lipase activity and immunoreactive HSL protein in obese rats were lower than in control rats. However, when the HSL content was expressed per fat pad, the lipase activity and immunoreactive HSL protein in the obese rats were higher than in the control rats. Therefore we must pay careful attention to the way of presentation of adipose tissue enzyme contents.

  2. Late inflammatory swelling by carrageenan in rat's subcutaneous neck tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S; Mathur, M; Bhide, N K

    1988-01-01

    When injected subcutaneously in the dorsum of neck in albino rats, carrageenan produced inflammatory swelling which reached peak after about 16 hr. The occurrence of the peak inflammatory swelling was delayed but not significantly reduced in severity by aspirin or indomethacin which were administered repeatedly. Phenylbutazone significantly reduced and dexamethasone almost completely inhibited it. In rat hind paw model, subplantar carrageenan injection produced peak inflammatory swelling after about 4 hr which was significantly reduced by all anti-inflammatory drugs mentioned above. It is interesting that an inflammagen when injected at different sites in the same species elicits responses which differ in the time course and drug responses.

  3. Exposure to industrial wideband noise increases connective tissue in the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João R Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats were daily exposed (eight hours/day for a period of four weeks to the same high-intensity wideband noise that was recorded before in a large textile plant. Histologic observation of liver sections of the rats was used to perform quantitative comparison of hepatic connective tissue (dyed by Masson trichromic staining between the noise-exposed and control animals. For that, we have photographed at random centrolobular areas of stained rat liver sections. We found that noise exposure resulted in significant enhancement in the area of collagen-rich connective tissue present in the centrolobular domain of the rat liver. Our data strengthen previous evidence showing that fibrotic transformation is a systemic effect of chronic exposure of rodents and humans to industrial wideband noise.

  4. Determination of the optical properties of rat tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of light with tissue. Such interaction is influenced by the optical properties such as the absorption (ua) and reduced scattering (us') coefficients of the tissue. When consulting the literature however one finds there exists a huge discrepancy between...

  5. Enhancement of albumin expression in bone tissues with healing rat fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Igarashi, Aki; Misawa, Hiroyuki; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori

    2003-05-15

    The characterization of 66 kDa protein molecule, a major protein component which is produced from femoral-diaphyseal tissues with fracture healing (Igarashi and Yamaguchi [2002] Int. J. Mol. Med. 9:503-508), was investigated. Weaning rats were killed at 7 and 14 days after femoral fracture. When the femoral-diaphyseal tissues with fracture healing were cultured for 48 h in a serum-free medium, many proteins in the bone tissues were released into the medium. Analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that a protein molecule of approximately 66 kDa was markedly increased in culture medium from bone tissues with fracture healing. N-terminal sequencing of 66 kDa protein indicated that its N-terminus was identical to that of rat albumin. Western blot analysis of medium 66 kDa protein showed expression of albumin. This expression was significantly enhanced by fracture healing. The expression of albumin was seen in the diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues of rat femur. When the femoral-diaphyseal tissues obtained at 7 days after femoral fracture were cultured in a serum-free medium containing either vehicle, parathyroid hormone (1-34) (10(-7) M), insulin-like growth factor-I (10(-8) M) or zinc acexamate (10(-4) M), medium albumin was significantly increased in the presence of those bone-stimulating factors. The addition of albumin (0.5 or 1.0 mg/ml of medium) caused a significant increase in calcium and deoxyribonucleic acid contents in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from normal rats in vitro. The present study demonstrates that fracture healing induces a remarkable production of albumin which is a major protein component produced from femoral-diaphyseal tissues of rats, and that albumin has an anabolic effect on bone components.

  6. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; D'jatelinka, J; Smajda, B; Toropila, M

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid phosphorus and nonesterified fatty acids were measured in blood plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow and adipose tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129. This exposure was accompanied by increases in lipomobilization, content of total cholesterol and lipid phosphorus in plasma, and triglycerides in the thymus and bone marrow. The postflight exposure to repeated stresses demonstrated changes in the lipid content in all animal groups, especially in flight rats.

  7. Features of microelement maintenance in rat's brain tissues at experimental hypoxia of different degree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of microelement maintenance (iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and cobalt, conditionally toxic chrome and toxic lead were studied in newborn rat's brain tissues at experimental hypoxia of different degree. Tissues of newborn rat’s brain are characterized by high level of saturation and considerable dynamism of microelement maintenance. Till the end of the first week of life, the maintenance of these microelements decreases in 1,5 – 10 times. The level of the toxic lead decreases more than in 2,5 times. The hypoxia of easy degree of newborn rats invokes reduction cobalt level 3 times, iron level 2 times, manganese – on 27,65 %, chrome – on 25,84%, zinc – on 16,43%. It means that considerable deficiency and disbalance of microelement maintenance rat's brain tissues. The heavy degree of hypoxia is characterized by further increase of deficiency and disbalance of microelements.

  8. Effect of pineapple peel extract on total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Okafor OY; Kosoko SB; Owolabi FO

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to attenuate alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues. Methods:Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20%w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were assayed for total phospholipid (TP) content and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results:Administration of alcohol significantly caused a reduction in TP content. Treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly increased the TP content. Significant high levels of MDA was observed in alcohol-fed rats, treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA levels. Conclusions:Results obtained from this study indicates that pineapple peel extract protects against alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues.

  9. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  10. Effect of Food Restriction on Adipose Tissue in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayo Morinaga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-fa/fa (SDT fatty rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. SDT fatty rat exhibits obesity associated with hyperphagia. In this study, SDT fatty rats were subjected to pair-feeding with SDT-+/+ (SDT rats from 6 to 22 weeks of age. The ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S decreased at 12 weeks of age in the pair-feeding rats. The intraperitoneal fat weight such as epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weight decreased, whereas mesenteric fat weight had no change. Cell size of the epididymal fat in the pair-feeding rats tended to decrease. Glucose oxidation level in epididymal fat in the pair-feeding rats at 12 weeks of age was recovered to a similar level with that in SDT rats. These results indicated that SDT fatty rat is a useful model to evaluate the functional or the morphological features in adipose tissue and develop a novel drug for antiobesity.

  11. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  12. Arginine-deficient diets alter plasma and tissue amino acids in young and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K L; Hartman, W J; Ronnenberg, A; Prior, R L

    1991-10-01

    Blood and urine metabolites were measured in two experiments for young (2-mo-old) and aged (20-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats fed arginine-devoid diets made isonitrogenous to a control 1.12% arginine diet by adding alanine or glycine. Diet, fed for 7 or 13 d, had little effect on urinary or plasma ammonia and urea. Urinary orotate excretion was more than 40-fold higher in rats fed the arginine-deficient diets (P less than 0.01) in both experiments. Source of nonessential N (alanine or glycine) in the arginine-deficient diets did not alter orotic acid excretion or plasma or urine ammonia or urea. Changes in plasma arginine, alanine and glycine concentrations reflected the levels of these amino acids in the diet. Tissue ornithine levels reflected dietary arginine level, but tissue citrulline was unaffected by dietary arginine. Glutamate and glutamine were greater in the plasma and liver of rats fed arginine-deficient diets. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were positively correlated with urinary orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.05) and ornithine and arginine were negatively correlated with orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.01). Increased tissue glutamine may be related to the greater orotate excretion in rats fed arginine-devoid diets. The metabolic responses to dietary arginine deficiency were similar in young and aged rats. In general, concentrations of amino acids in plasma, liver and spleen were higher in aged rats.

  13. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  14. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue by RP-HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Dou, De-Qiang; Hou, Qiang; Sun, Yu; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed for the determination of arctigenin in plasma and various organs of rats after the oral administration of 30, 50 and 70 mgkg(-1) of arctigenin to the Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the validated HPLC method was simple, fast, reproducible and suitable to the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue and one-compartmental model with zero-order absorption process can well describe the changes of arctigenin concentration in the plasma. The concentration of compound was highest in the spleen, less in the liver and the least in the lung.

  16. Effect of polydatin on phospholipase A2 in lung tissues in rats with endotoxic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒仕瑜; 王兴勇; 凌智瑜; 卢仲毅

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of polydatin on phospholipase A2 in lung tissues in rats with endotoxic shock.Methods: Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were employed in this study. A total of 8 rats received normal saline intravenously (control group ), 8 rats received 10 mg/kg of endotoxin ( endotoxic shock group), 8 rats received 1 mg/kg of polydatin after endotoxin injection (polydatin treatment group), and 8 rats received 1 mg/kg of polydatin (polydatin prevention group ) 30 minutes before endotoxin injection. Mean arterial pressure was measured once half an hour. Lung tissues were collected 6 hours later. Phospholipase A2 activity was measured with acid titration. The gene expression of secretory phospholipase A2 type IIA was detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile, the histological changes of the lungs among four groups were compared through microscopic examination. Results: Phospholipase A2 activity and the gene expression of secretory phospholipase A2 type ⅡA increased after endotoxin injection, but polydatin could inhibit these effects of endotoxin. Obvious morphological evidence could be found in the lung pathological sections and the protective effect of polydatin was most significant in the polydatin prevention group.Conclusions: Polydatin has prophylactic and therapeutic effects (the former is more distinct than the latter) on acutely injured lungs in rats with endotoxic shock and which suggests that polydatin may be a phospholipase A2 inhibitor.

  17. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  18. Angiotensin II does not acutely regulate conduction velocity in rat atrial tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kristine B; Braunstein, Thomas H; Sørensen, Charlotte M;

    2011-01-01

    . The aim of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of Ang II on conduction velocity (CV) in atrial tissue from normal and chronically infarcted rats. Methods. Contractile force was measured and CV was determined from the conduction time between electrodes placed on the tissue preparation...... and functional in the free wall preparation. The difference between free wall and auricle was probably not caused by differences in receptor expression since equal amounts of AT1 mRNA were present. To test if myocardial infarction (MI) sensitizes the atrium to Ang II, free atrial wall from rats subjected to 4...

  19. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel...... agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety...

  20. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  1. Biodegradation of a carbamate pesticide, Propoxur, in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Madhavi, N B; Sharma, C B

    1993-01-01

    Propoxur (Baygon, 2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is a carbamate pesticide commonly used against house insects. When the insecticide was administered intramuscularly in rats it was converted to a new metabolite which was found to be present in the serum, liver, kidney and brain 6 h after the administration of the pesticide. The metabolite was purified by high performance liquid to chromatography and comparison of the infrared spectra of Propoxur and the metabolite showed that a deamination reaction was responsible for the formation of the metabolite from the parent pesticide. The pesticide also induced haematological changes such as an increased level of total bilubrin, amylase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and decrease of cholinesterase activity, indicating damage of the liver and nervous system in rats.

  2. [FTIR spectra investigation of rat sensitive tissues exposure to ELF-EMF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gun; Yan, Ya-jing; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    Nonthermal effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are related to changes in the microstructure of biological tissues after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis method can effectively study the mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. The present paper studies the characteristics of sensitive tissues of rat after ELF-EMF exposure. FTIR analysis of sensitive tissues of control group and experimental group showed that 50 Hz, 0.75 mT ELF-EMF exposure for 20 days can affect molecular level of the rat testis, blood and brain. Experimental results show that regular changes in absorption peak positions and intensity in the spectra of sensitive tissue may be caused by exposure to ELF-EMF, therefore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective means to study mechanism of biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  3. Effect of melatonin on expression of leptin in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin (MLT on protein and mRNA expression of leptin (Lep in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin resistance (IR rats. Methods Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=27 and control group (CN group, n=10. Rats in model group were fed with high glucose diet for 6 weeks. Twenty rats having developed IR in the model group were further randomly divided into two groups: IR group (n=10 and melatonin group (MLT group, n=10. Rats in CN group and MLT group were fed with 10mg/(kg.d of standard chow or MLT, respectively, for 6 weeks from the beginning of the 7th week. At the end of the 12th week, the subcutaneous fat tissue was harvested from bilateral inguinal areas of the rats for the evaluation of the protein and mRNA expression of Lep by immunohistochemistry and RTPCR. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting serum leptin (Lep, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, malondialdehyde (MDA and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly lower (P0.05. The protein and mRNA expressions of Lep in subcutaneous adipose tissue were significantly higher in IR group than in CN group (P<0.01, while they were significantly lower in MLT group than in IR group (P<0.01. Conclusion MLT may improve IR and the status of oxidation stress, and inhibit the over expression of Lep protein and mRNA in subcutaneous fat tissue in the high-glucose diet-induced IR rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.04

  4. [Effect of topical application of aminoguanidine cream on skin tissue of rats with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Qing, Chun; Cao, Xiao-Zan; Niu, Yi-Wen; Lu, Shu-Liang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of aminoguanidine cream on the proliferation of keratinocytes (KC), content of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and oxidative stress in skin tissue of rats with diabetes. Stearic acid, liquid paraffin, vaseline, lanolin, isopropyl myristate fat, glycerol, 50 g/L alcohol paraben, aminoguanidine hydrochloride etc. were mixed in certain proportion to make aminoguanidine cream, and cream without aminoguanidine was used as matrix. The dorsal skin of normal rats were harvested and treated by aminoguanidine cream with dose of 5, 10 g/L, or 5 g/L together with 10 g/L azone. The transdermal effect was respectively measured at post treatment hour 2, 4, 7, 10, 12, 24. Thirty SD rats were divided into normal control (NC, n = 6), diabetes (D, n = 8), aminoguanidine cream-interfered (AI, n = 8), matrix cream-interfered groups (MI, n = 8) according to the random number table. Diabetes was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) in rats of D, AI, and MI groups, and rats in NC group were injected with 0.05 mmol/L citrate buffer as control. One week later, dorsal skin of rats in AI and MI groups were respectively treated with 10 g/L aminoguanidine cream and matrix cream by external use for 4 weeks. AGE content was determined with fluorescence detection from skin collagen extract. KC cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Skin tissue specimens were obtained for determination of levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and total antioxidant capacity. Data were processed with t test. Transdermal effect of aminoguanidine cream with dose of 10 g/L was better than that with 5 g/L or 5 g/L + 10 g/L azone cream. One rat was not induced successfully in MI group. Four weeks after model reproduction, 4 rats died in D group and 1 rat died in AI group. The AGE content in D group was obviously higher than that in NC group [(36.8 +/- 2.6), (24.6 +/- 2.7) U per milligram hydroxyproline, respectively

  5. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats at rather a depressed level, explaining a corresponding decrease in cold tolerance. On the other hand, the expression of insulin receptor mRNA was attenuated in BAT of rats from all the insulin-treated groups, possibly due to the down-regulation of insulin. Thus, there appeared to be some linkage among BAT, heat acclimation, and insulin.

  6. The Effects of Pollen on Serum Parameters, and Liver and Kidney Tissues on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate any positive effects or possible side effects of the use of pollen. Mature male rats were fed pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at the rate of 60 mg/animal/day over a periodof 30 days. After treatment, biochemical parameters and serum enzyme activities were analysed and weights of liver and kidney measured. Liver and kidney tissues of rats were examined by light microscope.Serum cholesterol and HDL levels decreased in rats fed on pollen of Trifolium spp. and Cistus spp. Serum glucose levels increased in rats given pollen of Trifolium spp. and Raphanus spp. There was no change in serum enzyme levels in rats of any pollen group.While absolute liver weights of rats fed on pollen of Trifolium spp. and Cistus spp. increased, no change at all in absolute kidney weight and relative weight (organ weight/body weight of liver and kidney of rats was found in any pollen group. Histopathological changes in theliver and kidney of rats given pollen were not observed. Although serum cholesterol and HDL levels decreased, we cannot suggest that pollen caused either adverse or beneficial effects because of the short tretment period of 30 days.

  7. Melatonin improves mitochondrial function in inguinal white adipose tissue of Zücker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenéz-Aranda, Aroa; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Mohammad A-Serrano, María; Reiter, Russel J; Agil, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity-related metabolic derangements such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because mitochondria are a target for melatonin action, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function in white (WAT) and beige inguinal adipose tissue of Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of obesity-related T2DM. In this experimental model, melatonin reduces obesity and improves the metabolic profile. At 6 wk of age, ZDF rats and lean littermates (ZL) were subdivided into two groups, each composed of four rats: control (C-ZDF and C-ZL) and treated with oral melatonin in the drinking water (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL). After the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, tissues dissected, and mitochondrial function assessed in isolated organelles. Melatonin increased the respiratory control ratio (RCR) in mitochondria from white fat of both lean (by 26.5%, P types of fat, white and beige, in both lean and obese rats. These results demonstrate that chronic oral melatonin improves mitochondrial respiration and reduces the oxidative status and susceptibility to apoptosis in white and beige adipocytes. These melatonin effects help to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and thereby to improve obesity-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes and dyslipidemia of ZDF rats.

  8. Expression of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor in Airway Epithelial Tissue of Asthmatic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Weining; ZENG Daxiong; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shengdao; FANG Huijuan; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; CAO Chao

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in airway epithelial tissues of normal and asthmatic rats, the influence of dexamethasone and the role of LIF in pathogenesis of asthma, 30 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 for each group): normal group, asthma model group, and dexamethasone-interfered group. In asthmamodel group and dexamethasone-interfered group, asthma rat models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10% ovalbumin (OVA) and challenge with 1% OVA via inhalation. Rats in dexamethasone-interfered group were pretreated with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.p) 30 min before each challenge. The expression of LIF protein in lung was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that LIF protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm of bronchial epithelial cells. The expression of LIF protein in the airway epithelial tissue of asthma model group was significantly higher than that in normal group and dexamethasone-interfered group (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between normal group and dexamethasone-interfered group (P>0.05). It was concluded that the expression of LIF was increased significantly in the airway epithelial tissue of the asthma rats, and dexamethasone could down-regulate the expression of LIF. It was suggested that LIF might play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma as an inflammation regulator.

  9. The effect of Mentha spicata Labiatae on uterine tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Mehmet; Oral, Baha; Karahanli, Nermin; Mungan, Tamer; Akdogan, Mehmet

    2006-09-01

    The plant Mentha spicata, or peppermint, is commonly used in the treatment of loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea and vomiting, and indigestion as a herbal agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biochemical and histological effects of M. spicata Labiatae, growing on the Anamas high plateau of Yenisarbademli town, on rat uterine tissue. Twenty female Wistar albino rats weighing 160+/-10 g were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups of ten animals: group I received no herbal tea (control group) and group II received 20 g/L M. spicata tea. Control group rats were given commercial drinking water (Hayat DANONESA water). Herbal tea was prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats over 30 days as drinking water. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. In addition, uterine tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination. MDA levels were increased in group II when compared with the control group. The difference between group II and the control group was statistically significant (Pspicata Labiatae-treated group, histopathological changes like apoptosis and diffuse eosinophil leucocyte infiltration in surface and stromal glandular epithelium were observed in both endometrium and endocervix. It was concluded that lipid peroxidation and uterine damage occurs after M. spicata administration in rat uterus. Despite the beneficial effects of M. spicata Labiatae in indigestion, we should also be aware of the toxic effects when it is not used in the recommended fashion, at the recommended dose.

  10. Biopersistence of silver nanoparticles in tissues from Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are known to be distributed in many tissues after oral or inhalation exposure. Thus, understanding the tissue clearance of such distributed nanoparticles is very important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles in vivo. For risk assessment purposes, easy clearance indicates a lower overall cumulative toxicity. Accordingly, to investigate the clearance of tissue silver concentrations following oral silver nanoparticle exposure, Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups: control, low dose (100 mg/kg body weight), and high dose (500 mg/kg body weight), and exposed to two different sizes of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 10 and 25 nm) over 28 days. Thereafter, the rats were allowed to recover for 4 months. Regardless of the silver nanoparticle size, the silver content in most tissues gradually decreased during the 4-month recovery period, indicating tissue clearance of the accumulated silver. The exceptions were the silver concentrations in the brain and testes, which did not clear well, even after the 4-month recovery period, indicating an obstruction in transporting the accumulated silver out of these tissues. Therefore, the results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles did not affect their tissue distribution. Furthermore, biological barriers, such as the blood–brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, seemed to play an important role in the silver clearance from these tissues. PMID:24059869

  11. Tissue distribution of quercetin in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, V.C.J. de; Dihal, A.A.; Woude, H. van der; Arts, I.C.W.; Wolffram, S.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary polyphenolic compound with potentially beneficial effects on health. Claims that quercetin has biological effects are based mainly on in vitro studies with quercetin aglycone. However, quercetin is rapidly metabolized, and we have little knowledge of its availability to tissue

  12. Bone tissue engineering for spine fusion : An experimental study on ectopic and orthotopic implants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, SM; Dhert, WJA; van den Muysenberg, A; Oner, FC; van Blitterswijk, C; Verbout, AJ; de Bruijn, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Alternatives to the use of autologous bone as a bone graft in spine surgery are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine tissue-engineered bone constructs in comparison with control scaffolds without cells in a posterior spinal implantation model in rats. Syngeneic bone marrow cells were cul

  13. Extraction and Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Biological Matrices with Application to Rat Lung Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudrick, Kyle; Corson, Nancy; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Herckes, Pierre; Halden, Rolf U.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biological matrices such as rat lung tissue is integral to developing a quantification method for evaluating the environmental and human health exposure and toxicity of CNTs. The ability of various chemical treatment methods, including Solvable (2.5% sodium hydroxide/surfactant mixture), ammonium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and proteinase K, to extract CNTs from rat lung tissue was evaluated. CNTs were quantified using programmed thermal analysis (PTA). Two CNTs were used to represent the lower (500°C) and upper (800°C) PTA limit of CNT thermal stability. The recovery efficiency of each of the eight chemical reagents evaluated was found to depend on the ability to (1) minimize oxidation of CNTs, (2) remove interfering background carbon from the rat lung tissue, and (3) separate the solid-phase CNTs from the liquid-phase dissolved tissue via centrifugation. A two-step extraction method using Solvable and proteinase K emerged as the optimal approach, enabling a recovery of 98 ± 15% of a 2.9 ± 0.19 µg CNT loading that was spiked into whole rat lungs. Due to its high yield and applicability to low organ burdens of nanomaterials, this extraction method is particularly well suited for in vivo studies to quantify clearance rates and retained CNTs in lungs and other organs. PMID:23992048

  14. Roles of Fatty Acid oversupply and impaired oxidation in lipid accumulation in tissues of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Nicholas D; Kjellstedt, Ann; Thalén, Pia; Ljung, Bengt; Turner, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA) metabolism in obese (Obese) and lean (Lean) Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-(3)H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ((3)H-R-BrP) and [U-(14)C]-palmitate ((14)C-P) FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (R a ) was estimated from plasma (14)C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (R ox) was assessed using (3)H2O production from (3)H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and R a , associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, R ox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply.

  15. Roles of Fatty Acid Oversupply and Impaired Oxidation in Lipid Accumulation in Tissues of Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Oakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA metabolism in obese (Obese and lean (Lean Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-3H]-(R-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP and [U-14C]-palmitate (14C-P FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (Ra was estimated from plasma 14C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (Rox was assessed using 3H2O production from 3H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and Ra, associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, Rox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply.

  16. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P. van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor subpopula

  17. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  18. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  19. Rat adipose tissue rapidly accumulates and slowly releases an orally-administered high vitamin D dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; van Beek, J; Ferwerda, H; Brugman, AM; van der Klis, FRM; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of oral high-dose cholecalciferol on plasma and adipose tissue cholecalciferol and its subsequent release, and on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Female Wistar rats (n 126) received 37.5 mu g cholecalciferol/d for 14 d and were subsequently studied for a further 88 d

  20. Specificity of antibodies to nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human, guinea pig, rat, and mouse tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coers, W; Timens, W; Kempinga, C; Klok, PA; Moshage, H

    1998-01-01

    Ten commercially available rabbit polyclonal anti-NOS antibodies were tested for their immunohistological applicability in normal human, guinea pig, rat, and mouse organs. Most antibodies reacted as expected and described in the literature with various tissues of the investigated species. Several an

  1. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  2. Pharmacokinetic Study and Tissue Distribution of Single Mangiferin After Intravenous Administration in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-juan; SUI Ying-jie; XIN Nian

    2009-01-01

    A simple,sensitive ane selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV detection (320 nm) was developed and validated for determination of mangiferin in rat phsma and tissues.Mangiferin and internal standard (spinosin) were separated using mobile phase of aeetonitrile-water (20:80,v/v) with 1% glacial acetic acid and 1% THF on a Phenomenex gemini C18 column.The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min.The calibration curves of mangiferin in plasma and tissues were linear over the investigated ranges.The intra- and inter-run precisions for all samples were less than 13.8%.The time-concentration curve of mangiferin after intravenous administration to rats corresponded to two-compartment model.The brain,respectively.Mangiferin was not found in liver.After intravenous administration,the drug was distributed extensively and transferred quickly in rats in vivo.

  3. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  4. Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Justin P.; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Langford, Richard M.; Shortland, Peter J.

    2013-03-01

    Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), most commonly in rats. It is well known that compromised blood flow caused by mechanical disruption of the vasculature can produce irreversible damage and cell death in hypoperfused tissue regions and spinal cord tissue is particularly susceptible to such damage. A fiberoptic photoplethysmography (PPG) probe and instrumentation system were used to investigate the practical considerations of making measurements from rat spinal cord and to assess its suitability for use in SCI models. Experiments to assess the regional perfusion of exposed spinal cord in anesthetized adult rats using both PPG and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed. It was found that signals could be obtained reliably from all subjects, although considerable intersite and intersubject variability was seen in the PPG signal amplitude compared to LDF. We present results from 30 measurements in five subjects, the two methods are compared, and practical application to SCI animal models is discussed.

  5. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  6. Plasma kinetics, tissue distribution, and cerebrocortical sources of reverse triiodothyronine in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obregon, M.J.; Larsen, P.R.; Silva, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    Studies in vitro have shown that rT3 is a potent and competitive inhibitor of T4 5'-deiodination (5'D). Recent studies in vivo have shown that cerebrocortical (Cx) T4 5'D-type II (5'D-II) activity (propylthiouracil (PTU) insensitive pathway), is reduced by T4 and rT3, the latter being more potent than T3 in Cx 5'D-II suppression. Some other reports had described rT3 production in rat brain as a very active pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism. To examine the possibility that rT3 plays a physiological role in regulating Cx 5'D-II, we have explored rT3 plasma kinetics, plasma to tissue exchange, and uptake by tissues in the rat, as well as the metabolic routes of degradation and the sources of rT3 in cerebral cortex (Cx). Plasma and tissue levels were assessed with tracer (/sup 125/I)rT3. Two main compartments were defined by plasma disappearance curves in euthyroid rats (K/sub 1/ = -6.2 h-1 and K/sub 2/ = -0.75 h-1). In Cx of euthyroid rats, (/sup 125/I)rT3 peaked 10 min after iv injection, tissue to plasma ratio being 0.016 +/- 0.004 (SE). In thyroidectomized rats, plasma and tissue (/sup 125/I)rT3 concentrations were higher than in euthyroid rats, except for the Cx that did not change. PTU caused further increases in all the tissues studied, except for the Cx and the pituitaries of thyroidectomized rats. From the effect of blocking 5'D-I with PTU or reducing its activity by making the animals hypothyroid, we concluded that 5'D-I accounts for most of the rT3 clearance from plasma. In contrast, in Cx and pituitary the levels of rT3 seem largely affected by 5'D-II activity. Since the latter results suggest that plasma rT3 does not play a major role in determining rT3 levels in these tissues, we explored the sources of rT3 in Cx using (/sup 125/I)T4. The (/sup 125/I)rT3 (T4) to (/sup 125/I)T4 ratio remained constant at 0.03 from 1 up to 5 h after injection of (/sup 125/I)T4.

  7. Antioxidant peroxiredoxin 3 expression is regulated by 17beta-estradiol in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco; M Galmés-Pascual, Bel; Sbert-Roig, Miquel; J García-Palmer, Francisco; Gianotti, Magdalena; M Proenza, Ana; Lladó, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and brown adipocyte primary culture were used to study the roles of both E2 and testosterone in in vitro experiments. PRX3 levels were greater in the WAT of female rats than in males. This sexual dimorphism disappeared by HFD feeding but was magnified with Rsg supplementation. PRX3 sexual dimorphism was not observed in BAT, and neither HFD nor ovariectomy modified PRX3 levels. Rsg increased Prx3 expression in the BAT of both sexes. In vitro studies supported the results obtained in vivo and confirmed the contribution of E2 to sex differences in WAT Prx3 expression. Finally, we reported an E2 upregulation of both PRX3 and thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) in WAT but not in BAT that could play a key role in the sex dimorphism reported in the antioxidant defence of WAT in order to palliate the detrimental effect of the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant effect of sericin in brain and peripheral tissues of oxidative stress induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali Deori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE from Antheraea assamenisis (Aa in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w./day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, high cholesterol fed (HCF, HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF, HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD. In brain, heart, liver, serum and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyl content (PCC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress (OS marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Sericin in Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Oxidative Stress Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Meetali; Devi, Dipali; Kumari, Sima; Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Sarma, Rahul; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE) from Antheraea assamensis in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w.)/day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control, high cholesterol fed (HCF), HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF), HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD), and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD). In brain, heart, liver, serum, and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC) brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC) excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  10. Expression of heat shock protein 27 in the esophageal tissue of rats with reflux esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chao-xu; WANG Zhuo-qing; LIN Wei-bin; CHU Zhong-hua; CHEN Liu-hua; JI Zhuang-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE), and few studies of the importance of HSP27 in esophagitis have been carried out in animal models.This study aimed to explore the expression of HSP27 in the esophageal tissue of rats with RE. Methods Eighty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental groups A and B and control groups C and D (n=20 in each group). To establish RE, rats in the two experimental groups received pylorus and forestomach ligations,while rats in the control group received gastrostomy and gastric perforation repair. The rats in groups A and C were sacrificed 7 days after surgery, and the rats in groups B and D were sacrificed 14 days after surgery. In groups A and B,10 and 8 rats were diagnosed with RE by pathological examination, respectively (they were included in groups A' and B',respectively). The histopathological diagnosis of all the lower esophageal tissues in groups C and D was normal and 20normal specimens were randomly selected for groups C and D' with 10 specimens in each group. Macroscopic and microscopic esophagitis scores were assessed for the specimens in groups A' and B'. Lower esophageal tissues were collected from groups A', B', C, and D', and paraffin-embedded slices were made using part of the tissues. The expression of HSP27 in the tissues was detected using the two-step streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method. Some collected tissues were frozen, and expressions of HSP27 mRNA were detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). Results Median macroscopic and microscopic esophagitis scores in groups A' (n=10) and B' (n=8) were 1.0 and 1.5,and 2.0 and 2.5, respectively. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic or microscopic esophagitis scores between the two groups (Z=-0.330, P=0.741; Z=-0.142, P=0.887, respectively). Immunohistochemical staining showed that HSP27 was

  11. Characteristics of lipolysis in white adipose tissues of SHR/NDmc-cp rats, a model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikai, Naoki; Hashimoto, Ayu; Semma, Masanori; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2007-06-01

    This study shows the characteristics of hormone-dependent lipolysis in white adipose tissues from corpulent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NDmc-cp(cp/cp)). The glycerol-releasing activity on addition of norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin (ACTH) was diminished in slices of epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissues from cp/cp rats compared with those from Wistar Kyoto rats and lean spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR/NDmc-cp(+/+)). 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate had a slight effect on lipolysis in epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissues from cp/cp rats, and addition of NE and ACTH resulted in a slight accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in epididymal adipose tissue from cp/cp rats. Therefore, the alteration of hormone-dependent lipolysis-related genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was found that the expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, and perilipin messenger RNAs was limited in epididymal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissues from cp/cp rats compared with +/+ rats. These results indicate that in white adipose tissue from cp/cp rats, the diminished lipolytic response to NE and ACTH may be caused by impaired expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, and perilipin.

  12. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  13. The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is used in medicine. However, its administration can have negative side effects, disturb the water-electrolyte equilibrium and affect the level of essential elements. For these reasons the influence of oral lithium intoxication at the dose of 150 mg Li dm(-3) on magnesium and calcium levels in serum and tissues of rats was investigated. The concentration of Mg and Ca in serum increased throughout the experiment. The concentration of magnesium in tissues decreased after three weeks in liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle. The trend of the changes of calcium tissue concentration was opposite to the one observed in the case of magnesium.

  14. Triglyceride kinetics, tissue lipoprotein lipase, and liver lipogenesis in septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studied by examining liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant iv infusion of (2-3H)glycerol-labeled VLDL. Clearance of VLDL-TG was also evaluated by measuring activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, soleus muscle, and adipose tissue from fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E. coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10(7) live E. coli colonies per 100 g body wt. Twenty-four hours after E. coli injection, serum TG, free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol of fasted E. coli-treated rats were elevated by 170, 76, and 16%, respectively. The elevation of serum TG may be attributed to the 67% decrease in clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E. coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The suppressed activities of LPL in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart were consistent with reduced clearance of TG. Secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in livers of fasted E. coli-treated rats, which was accompanied by a twofold increase in the composition of liver TG. Rates of in vivo TG synthesis in livers of the fasted E. coli-treated rats were twofold higher than in those of fasted control rats. Decreased rate of TG appearance along with the increase in liver synthesis of TG contributed to the elevation of liver lipids in the fasted E. coli-treated rats.

  15. Effect of Acupuncture on Uncoupling Protein 1 Gene Expression for Brown Adipose Tissue of Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志诚; 孙凤岷; 赵东红; 张中成; 孙志; 吴海涛; 徐炳国; 朱苗花; 李朝军

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of acupuncture on the expression of uncoupling protein 1(UCP1) gene of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in obese rats. Methods: The expression of UCP1 gene of BAT was determined with RT-PCR technique. The changes of body weight, Lee′s index, body fat, and the expression of UCP1 gene of BAT in obese rats were observed before and after acupuncture. Resuits:The body weight, Lee′s index, body fat in obese rats were all markedly higher than those in normal rats,but the expression of UCP1 gene of BAT in obese rats was all lower than that in normal rats. There were negative correlation between the obesity index and the expression of UCP1 gene in BAT. After acupuncture the marked effect of weight loss was achieved while the expression of UCP1 gene of BAT obviously increased in obese rats. Conclusion: The abnormal reduction for expression of UCP1 gene of BAT might be an important cause for the obesity. To promote the expression of UCP1 in obese organism might be an important cellular and molecular mechanism in anti-obesity effect by acupuncture.

  16. Genomic organization, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the rat Pate gene cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angireddy Rajesh

    Full Text Available The cysteine rich prostate and testis expressed (Pate proteins identified till date are thought to resemble the three fingered protein/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor proteins. In this study, for the first time, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Pate gene cluster and also determine the expression pattern. The rat Pate genes are clustered on chromosome 8 and their predicted proteins retained the ten cysteine signature characteristic to TFP/Ly-6 protein family. PATE and PATE-F three dimensional protein structure was found to be similar to that of the toxin bucandin. Though Pate gene expression is thought to be prostate and testis specific, we observed that rat Pate genes are also expressed in seminal vesicle and epididymis and in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract. In the developing rats (20-60 day old, expression of Pate genes seem to be androgen dependent in the epididymis and testis. In the adult rat, androgen ablation resulted in down regulation of the majority of Pate genes in the epididymides. PATE and PATE-F proteins were found to be expressed abundantly in the male reproductive tract of rats and on the sperm. Recombinant PATE protein exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas PATE-F did not exhibit any antibacterial activity. Pate expression was induced in the epididymides when challenged with LPS. Based on our results, we conclude that rat PATE proteins may contribute to the reproductive and defense functions.

  17. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Several previous studies, suggesting the potential use of embryonic xenografts in the treatment of neurological disorders, indicate that neural growth and axonal guidance factors may function across species. In this light, blocks of fetal porcine neocortex were grafted into small cortical lesion...... cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  18. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K.; King, Benjamin J.; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M.; Krhut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile. PMID:27688751

  19. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Mann-Gow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10 and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E

    2014-03-04

    The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases "expectant brain" and "maternal brain". Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array) was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1) whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis E. Mann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1 whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated.

  2. Oxidative Damage to Lung Tissue and Peripheral Blood in Endotracheal PM2.5-treated Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI-QING LIN; ZHU-GE XI; DAN-FENG YANG; FU-HUAN CHAO; HUA-SHAN ZHANG; WEI ZHANG; HUANG-LIANG LIU; ZAI-MING YANG; RU-BAO SUN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oxidative damage to lung tissue and peripherial blood in PM2.5-treated rats.Methods PM2.5 samples were collected using an auto-sampling instrument in summer and winter.Treated samples were endotracheally instilled into rats.Activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as oxidative damage biomarkers of lung tissue and peripheral blood detected with the biochemical method.DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail were used as DNA damage biomarkers of lung tissue and peripheral blood detected with the biochemical method. Results The activity of GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA in lung tissue significantly decreased after exposure to PM2.5 for 7-14 days.In peripheral blood,the concentration of MDA decreased,but the activity of GSH-Px increased 7 and 14 days after experiments.The two indicators had a dose-effect relation and similar changing tendency in lung tissue and peripheral blood.The DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail in lung tissue and peripheral blood significantly increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to PM2.5.The two indicators had a dose-effect relation and similar changing tendency in lung tissue and peripheral blood. Conclusion PM2.5 has a definite oxidative effect on lung tissue and peripheral blood.The activity of GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA are valuable biomarkers of oxidative lung tissue damage induced by PM2.5.The DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail are simple and valuable biomarkers of PM2.5-induced DNA damage in lung tissues and peripheral blood.The degree of DNA damage in peripheral blood can predict the degree of DNA damage in lung tissue.

  3. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  4. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    A new type of resorbable biomaterial intended for pelvic reconstruction was tested with respect to tissue regeneration and biocompatibility in rats. The biomaterial consisted of methoxypolyethyleneglycol-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA). Implants were pure, enriched with extra-cellular ......A new type of resorbable biomaterial intended for pelvic reconstruction was tested with respect to tissue regeneration and biocompatibility in rats. The biomaterial consisted of methoxypolyethyleneglycol-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA). Implants were pure, enriched with extra...... of tissue regeneration. Thus, it is hardly a candidate per se in reinforcement of pelvic reconstruction, but it could have a future role as carrier for stem cells....

  5. Phospholipase A2 changes and its significance on brain tissue of rat in severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xuan; Chen Xi; Ji Zongzheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective To survey changes and the significance of phospholipase A2(PLA2) on brain tissue of SD rat in acute pancreatitis. Methods With retrograde injection of 3% taurocholate sodium into pancreatic and biliary duct, rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was made,and it included four groups: the control group, the sham-operation group, the SAP group and the PLA2 inhibitor-treated group of SAP. Serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue were measured and the brain tissue changes were observed. Results There were no significant difference in serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue between the sham-operation and the control groups; the levels of serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue in the SAP group were higher than those in the control. In the SAP group expansion and hemorrhage of meninges, intracephalic arteriolar hyperemia, in meninges and cephalic-parenchyma infiltration of inflammatory cells and interval broaden were observed, significant differences were found between two groups.Compared with the SAP group, the level of serum amylase, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue were reduced significantly in the treatment group of SAP. Pathological damages in the treatment group were significantly reduced when compared with the SAP group. Conclusion PLA2 might play an important role in brain tissue damages in severe acute pancreatitis.

  6. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.

  7. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Jeong Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo-vascular system (PVS is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  8. Methylation of migraine-related genes in different tissues of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieneke Labruijere

    Full Text Available 17ß-Estradiol, an epigenetic modulator, is involved in the increased prevalence of migraine in women. Together with the prophylactic efficacy of valproate, which influences DNA methylation and histone modification, this points to the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic studies are often performed on leukocytes, but it is unclear to what extent methylation is similar in other tissues. Therefore, we investigated methylation of migraine-related genes that might be epigenetically regulated (CGRP-ergic pathway, estrogen receptors, endothelial NOS, as well as MTHFR in different migraine-related tissues and compared this to methylation in rat as well as human leukocytes. Further, we studied whether 17ß-estradiol has a prominent role in methylation of these genes. Female rats (n = 35 were ovariectomized or sham-operated and treated with 17β-estradiol or placebo. DNA was isolated and methylation was assessed through bisulphite treatment and mass spectrometry. Human methylation data were obtained using the Illumina 450k genome-wide methylation array in 395 female subjects from a population-based cohort study. We showed that methylation of the Crcp, Calcrl, Esr1 and Nos3 genes is tissue-specific and that methylation in leukocytes was not correlated to that in other tissues. Interestingly, the interindividual variation in methylation differed considerably between genes and tissues. Furthermore we showed that methylation in human leukocytes was similar to that in rat leukocytes in our genes of interest, suggesting that rat may be a good model to study human DNA methylation in tissues that are difficult to obtain. In none of the genes a significant effect of estradiol treatment was observed.

  9. Prostaglandin production by rat vaginal tissue, in vitro, in response to ethanol, a mild mucosal irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, N H; Wolff, M C; Thomas, C L; DiBlasi, M C

    1985-05-01

    Toxicological testing of vaginal irritants currently involves in vivo testing in rabbits. While chemical-induced irritation or inflammation involves numerous biologic responses, these responses appear to be to a large extent mediated by prostaglandin release. Since vaginal tissue of the rat produces prostaglandins, this tissue was studied in vitro to determine if it would respond to ethanol, a mild irritant. Small vaginal segments were rinsed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.0) and exposed to various concentrations of ethanol. The segments were then transferred to fresh buffer and incubated for 30 min in a shaking 37 degrees C water bath. Ethanol (70%) exposure for 30 sec increased prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha production by vaginal tissue. While ethanol exposure resulted in increases in prostaglandin production regardless of the stage of the cycle from which the tissue was derived, the relative increase was greatest in tissues from the diestrous stage of the cycle. The prostaglandin production response of vaginal tissue, and of cervical and uterine tissue, was related to the concentration of ethanol to which these tissues were exposed. Indomethacin blocked this response in a dose-dependent manner. These experiments demonstrate that vaginal tissue responds to ethanol by increasing production of PGF2 alpha and PGE2. This in vitro system may prove useful as an alternative to live-animal testing in the screening of irritants of the vaginal mucosa or other tissues as well.

  10. Effect of decellularized tissue powders on a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Masaki; Negishi, Jun; Yamashita, Akitatsu; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio; Funamoto, Seiichi

    2015-11-01

    Many research groups are currently investigating new treatment modalities for myocardial infarction. Numerous aspects need to be considered for the clinical application of these therapies, such as low cell integration and engraftment rates of cell injection techniques. Decellularized tissues are considered good materials for promoting regeneration of traumatic tissues. The properties of the decellularized tissues are sustained after processing to powder form. In this study, we examined the use of decellularized tissue powder in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The decellularized tissue powders, especially liver powder, promoted cell integration and neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Decellularized liver powder induced neovascularization in the infarct area, resulting in the suppression of myocardial necrosis. The results of this study suggest that decellularized liver powder has good potential for application as a blood supply material for the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  11. Comparison of PCB congener profiles in tissues of PCB-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania-Korwel, I.; Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C.; Peck, A. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Sulkowski, W.W. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Information on the congener-specific distribution of PCBs in tissues of laboratory animals after exposure to technical or environmental PCB mixtures is limited. Typically PCB levels and profiles from adipose tissue, liver, blood and occasionally brain are reported. In the work presented here 120 PCB congeners were extracted from 9 tissues of rats exposed to two different PCB mixtures. One mixture was Aroclor 1254, a well studied technical mixture. The second mixture was an environmental mixture obtained after extraction of soil contaminated with Chlorofen, a highly chlorinated Polish PCB mixture. The study was designed to investigate how different chlorination levels and the structure of PCB congeners affect their distribution and total concentration in selected tissues. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were employed to compare tissues of Aroclor and soil extract-treated animals.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of salidroside in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Liqun; Lin, Li; Liu, Jianxun; Zhang, Zaohua; Xu, Dongjin; Xiang, Feijun

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and tissue distribution of salidroside, a main active constituent in the roots of Rhodiola species. The plasma concentration declined rapidly following the intravenous dosing at 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg with a short half-life time of about 1 h. The mean values of area under the concentration-time curve (300.48 ± 36.73, 514.51 ± 134.99, and 1036.64 ± 101.67 mg · min/L), total body clearance (0.025 ± 0.003, 0.031 ± 0.008, and 0.029 ± 0.003 L/min/kg), and distribution value (2.02 ± 0.80, 2.47 ± 1.09 and 2.58 ± 0.68 L/kg) suggested linear pharmacokinetics between the three doses. After intravenous injection of salidroside at 15 mg/kg, the total cumulative recovery of salidroside in urine was 53.67 ± 12.03 % over 48 h, but only 0.09 ± 0.03 % and 0.18 ± 0.18 % of the dosage was excreted in bile and feces. Concentrations of salidroside in 12 tissues as well as plasma were evaluated at 15, 40, and 120 min after dosing. At all time points, no higher concentration of salidroside was detected in tissues than that in plasma, with the lowest concentration of salidroside being observed in the brain, liver, fat, and skeletal muscle were tissues with a higher concentration of salidroside. A better distribution was also observed in the ovary and testis than that in the kidney and spleen. This finding demonstrated that salidroside is eliminated from plasma rapidly mainly by kidney clearance and conspicuously penetrated well into the skeletal muscle, fat, ovary and testis. A total recovered salidroside of about 54 % from excretion routes suggested that the metabolism was likely to take an important role in its elimination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  14. Preliminary observation of genes specifically expressed in brain tissues during stroke-like episodes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-mei; ZHAO Bin; ZHU Shan-jun; ZHU Zhi-ming; ZHANG Qian; HUI Ru-tai

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of gene expressions of brain tissues during apoplectic episodes and those of normal brain in Wistar rats in order to study the pathological mechanism of apoplexy. Methods: A rat model of hypertension was established with the administration of cold stimulus and high salt intake as the environmental risk factors.Apoplexy occurred in the rats because of hypertension. Suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) was used to identify and analyze the differential genes specifically expressed in cerebral tissues of stoke group and control rats. Results: A total of 226 genes out of the 228 were usable and analyzed. The average length of the 226 genes was (286.6±120.3) bp with a range from 50 bp to 619 bp. And 126 clones out of the 226 showed a sequence with significant identity to the known genes; 78 clones demonstrated homogenous sequences to the existing ESTs ofdbEST, but no one of the 78 showed sequence with identity to that of known genes; and remaining 22 were novel transrcipts exhibiting no similarity to any known sequences. All the clones which were highly homogenous to the known genes were categorized on the basis of their function. It was found that 26.5% of the mitochodrial genes in brain tissues underwent changes after apoplexy and the changes showed a twofold relationship of cause and effect. Conclusion: Environmental factors are able to induce changes of gene expression, which may increase the sensitivity to apoplectic stroke.

  15. Characterization of acute renal allograft rejection by proteomic analysis of renal tissue in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Jing-Bin; Mi, Jie; He, Yun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hou; Luo, Chun-Li; Liang, Si-Min; Li, Jia-Bing; Tang, Ya-Xiong; Li, Jie

    2012-02-01

    Rapid and reliable biomarkers of renal allograft rejection have not been available. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers in renal allograft tissue using proteomic analysis. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Syngenic control group (Group I) constituted F344-to-F344 orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8); and allogenic group (Group II) consisted of F344-to-Lewis orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8). Renal tissues were harvested 7 days after transplantation. Samples were analyzed using 2-D electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified between allogenic group and syngenic control group. A rat model of acute renal allograft rejection was successfully set up. Differentially expressed proteins in renal allograft tissue of rat were detected using proteomic analysis and might serve as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human. Quantitative proteomics, using MALDL-TOF-MS methodology has the potential to provide a profiling and a deeper understanding of acute renal rejection.

  16. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Hazar, Aydin Ismet; Eyyupoglu, Seyit Erkan; Can Balci, Mustafa Bahadir; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Tuzlali, Pinar

    2016-01-14

    Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1) consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2) included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3) consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012). If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  17. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. Material and Method: In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1 consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2 included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3 consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Results: Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012. Conclusion: If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  18. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

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    Assunta Lombardi

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2, a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient and mitochondria (longer lasting, suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis.

  19. Metabolic programming of adipose tissue structure and function in male rat offspring by prenatal undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nichola; Huber, Korinna; Bedürftig, Mirijam; Hansen, Kathrin; Miles-Chan, Jennifer; Breier, Bernhard H

    2014-01-01

    A number of different pathways to obesity with different metabolic outcomes are recognised. Prenatal undernutrition in rats leads to increased fat deposition in adulthood. However, the form of obesity is metabolically distinct from obesity induced through other pathways (e.g. diet-induced obesity). Previous rat studies have shown that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to insulin hyper-secretion and obesity in offspring, but not to systemic insulin resistance. Increased muscle and liver glycogen stores indicated that glucose is taken up efficiently, reflecting an active physiological function of these energy storage tissues. It is increasingly recognised that adipose tissue plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism and pathophysiology of obesity development. The present study investigated the cell size and endocrine responsiveness of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from prenatally undernourished rats. We aimed to identify whether these adipose tissue depots contribute to the altered energy metabolism observed in these offspring. Adipocyte size was measured in both subcutaneous (ScAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RpAT) in male prenatally ad libitum fed (AD) or prenatally undernourished (UN) rat offspring. Metabolic responses were investigated in adipose tissue explants stimulated by insulin and beta3 receptor agonists ex vivo. Expression of markers of insulin signalling was determined by Western blot analyses. Data were analysed by unpaired t-test or Two Way ANOVA followed by Fisher's PLSD post-hoc test, where appropriate. Adipocytes in offspring of undernourished mothers were larger, even at a lower body weight, in both RpAT and ScAT. The insulin response of adipose tissue was reduced in ScAT, and statistically absent in RpAT of UN rats compared with control. This lack of RpAT insulin response was associated with reduced expression of insulin signalling pathway proteins. Adrenergic receptor-driven lipolysis was observed in both

  20. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  1. The expression of HIF-1 α in liver tissues in the rat model of paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the levels of HIF-αand TGF-βin the liver tissue,change of serum transaminase in different phases after paraquat(PQ)toxicity and liver histopathology change in PQ-induced liver toxicity of rat models in order to analyze the relationship between HIF-αand hepatic toxicity induced by PQ.Methods A total of 48 healthy SD rats were randomly(random number)assigned into 2 groups:PQ poisoning group(n=42,

  2. The Effect of Atorvastatin on the Pancreatic Tissue of Male Rats

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    M Karimian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & aim: Statins are inhibitors drugs of hydroxymethyl glotaryl coenzyme A. In addition to decreasing plasma cholesterol, low-density cholesterol they reduce the rate of triglycerides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue.In addition to decreasing the rate of plasma cholesterol concentration they also decrease the rate of LDL and Triglyceride. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue. Methods: In this study, 32 adult male rats were divided into four groups, control and three test groups. To conduct the present study, 32 male adult rats were divided into 4 equal groups: one control group and three test groups. Then the test groups were treated by Atorvastatin for 45 days with 10mg (group1, 20mg (group2 and 30 mg (group3 doses respectively. At the end of the treatment period, all rats were killed by taking blood from their hearts. The pancreas tissue of each rat (N=32 was separated. After fixation, tissue preparation and slide staining, Longerhans diameter was measured and number of cells was counted. Data were analyzed by t test.After fixing and coloring the tissue, all slides were prepared and evaluated under the microscope the diameter of I's of Longerhans and the number of cells. The data was analyzed through t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the diameter mean of Longerhans between the test groups and the control group. The mean number of islets cells were increased in compared to the control group (P>0.05.There was also a significant increase was shown in the number of Longerhans cells in the test groups in relation to the control group (p (05/0>.(p>0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of the atorvastatine causes an increase in the number of Longerhans cells. In addition, the increase in the number of cells also increases the insulin secretion. As a result, blood sugar is decreased. Key Words

  3. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ozone therapy on cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in retina tissue of diabetic retinopathy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To study the effect of ozone therapy on cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in retina tissue of diabetic retinopathy rats.Methods:SD rats were selected as experimental animals and divided into control group, model group and ozone group, and after diabetic models were built, ozone enema was conducted. Retina tissue was collected, TUNEL kits were used to detect the number of apoptotic cells, and Elisa kits were used to detect the contents of nerve damage molecules, angiogenesis-related molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules. Results:The number of apoptotic cells in retina tissue of model group was significantly more than that of control group, and the number of apoptotic cells in retina tissue of ozone group was significantly less than that of model group; NgR, NR2B, ERK1, ERK2, GFAP, VEGF, STAT-3, HIF-1α, Apelin, APJ, PERK, IRE-1α, ATF-6, eIF2α and XBP-1 contents in retina tissue of model group were significantly higher than those of control group, and PEDF content was lower than that of control group; NgR, NR2B, ERK1, ERK2, GFAP, VEGF, STAT-3, HIF-1α, Apelin, APJ, PERK, IRE-1α, ATF-6, eIF2α and XBP-1 contents in retina tissue of ozone group were significantly lower than those of model group, and PEDF content was higher than that of model group.Conclusion:Ozone therapy can reduce the number of apoptotic cells while reduce nerve cell injury and inhibit angiogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in retina tissue of diabetic rats.

  5. Soya protein attenuates abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue from obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigolet, María E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2012-01-01

    Several metabolic disturbances during obesity are associated with adipose tissue-altered functions. Adipocytes contain the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates signalling pathways that control angiogenesis via Akt in an autocrine fashion. Soya protein (Soy) consumption modifies the gene expression pattern in adipose tissue, resulting in an improved adipocyte function. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study whether dietary Soy regulates the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes and its association with the phosphorylated state of Akt in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Animals were fed a 30 % Soy or casein (Cas) diet containing 5 or 25 % fat for 160 d. mRNA abundance was studied in the adipose tissue, and Akt phosphorylation and hormone release were measured in the primary adipocyte culture. The present results show that Soy treatment in comparison with Cas consumption induces lower angiotensin release and increased insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipocytes. Furthermore, Soy consumption varies the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes, which maintain cell size and vascularity in the adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis, which are frequently observed in dysfunctional adipose tissue, were avoided by consuming dietary Soy. Taken together, these findings suggest that Soy can be used as a dietary strategy to preserve adipocyte functionality and to prevent obesity abnormalities.

  6. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  7. [The metabolism of [2-(14)C] glycine in rat tissues in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, S V; Ianovych, V H

    1996-01-01

    It is found that two hours after intraperitoneal injection of [2-(14)C] glycine to rats its higher amount (83.6%) is used in the protein synthesis and 16.4% is catabolized. The carbonic chain of the amino acid is used to the greater extent in the synthesis of lipids than in the oxidation and glucogenesis. Radioactivity of the proteins in the investigated organs and tissues of rats varies within L7-50.6 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue and decreases in a series: small intestine mucosa, kidneys, liver, stomach mucosa, heart, lungs, cardiac muscle, skin, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain. Radioactivity of lipids is within the limits of 0.2-5.1 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue 11.7-81.6% of protein radioactivity) and decreases in a series: liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, lungs, cardiac muscle, stomach mucosa, skin, skeletal muscle, brain. The total radioactivity of glucose+glycogen varies within 0.05-0.34 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue (0.8-10.7% of protein radioactivity) and decreases is a series: kidneys, liver, brain, skeletal muscle.

  8. Comparison of three methods for isolation of nucleic acids from membranate inner ear tissue of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-jia; WANG Ying; WANG Qiong; HAN Yue-chen; HU Yu-juan

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in sensorineural deafness. The aim of this study was to compare three methods for extraction of nucleic acid from membranate inner ear tissue of rats.Methods Alkaline denaturation, a conventional phenol-chloroform method and Trizol reagent were respectively used to extract the slight nucleic acid from membranate inner ear tissue of rats. We assessed the amount and quality of nucleic acid using a UV-spectrometer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results The yield and purity (OD260/OD280) of DNA from inner ear tissue using the phenol-chloroform method was the highest of the three methods. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment can be amplified by PCR from nucleic acid prepared by all methods, while no nuclear DNA (nDNA) fragment can be amplified by method of alkaline denaturation. Both nuclear and mitochondrial genescould be amplified by reverse transcriptional PCR from the RNA prepared by Trizol reagent.Conclusion Adequate amount and high-quality of mtDNA, nDNA and RNA were obtained from unilateral membranate inner ear tissue of rats. Method of alkaline denaturation could be chosen when mtDNA without nDNA was needed, while phenol-chloroform method was suitable for extracting total DNA (including nDNA and mtDNA); method with Trizol reagent was suitable for extracting total RNA and total DNA.

  9. THE LOCALIZATION OF ADRENOMEDULLIN IN RAT KIDNEY TISSUE AND ITS INHIBITORY EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF CULTURED RAT MESANGIAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学光; 张志刚; 张秀荣; 朱虹光; 陈琦; 郭慕依

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To observe the localization of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat kidney tissue and its inhibitory effect on the growth of cultured rat mesangial cells (MsC). Methods. A monoclonal antibody against AM developed by our laboratory was used to detect the localization of AM protein in rat kidney tissue by avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry. The expressions of AM and its receptor CRLR mRNA on cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) and MsC were investigated by Northern blot assay, and the possible effect of AM secreted by GEC on MsC proliferation was observed using [3H]thymidine incorporation as an index. Results. A specific monoclonal antibody against AM was successfully developed. AM was immunohistochemically localized mainly in glomeruli (GEC and endothelial cells), some cortical proximal tubules, medullary collecting duct cells, interstitial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Northern blot assay showed that AM mRNA was expressed only on cultured GEC, but not on MsC, however, AM receptor CRLR mRNA was only expressed on MsC. GEC conditioned medium containing AM can inhibit MsC growth and AM receptor blocker CGRP8-37 may partially decreased this inhibitory effect. Conclusion. AM produced by GEC inhibits the proliferation of MsC, which suggests that AM as an important regulator is involved in glomerular normal physiological functions and pathologic processes.

  10. THE LOCALIZATION OF ADRENOMEDULLIN IN RAT KIDNEY TISSUE AND ITS INHIBITORY EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF CULTURED RAT MESANGIAL CELLSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学光; 张志刚; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the localization of adrenomedullin(AM) in rat kidney tissue and its inhibitory effect on the growth of cultured rat mesangial cells (MsC).Methods:A monoclonal antibody against AM developed by our laboratory was used to detect the localization of AM protein in rat kidney tissue by avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry.The expressions of AM and its receptor CRLR mRNA on cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC)and MsC were investigated by Northern blot assay,and the possible effect of AM secreted by GEC on MsC proliferation was observed using [3H] thymidine incorporation as an index.Results:A specific monoclonal antibody against AM was successfull developed.AM was immunohistochemically localized mainly in glomeruli (GEC and endothelial cells),some cortical proximal tubules,medullary collecting duct cells,interstitial cells,vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.Northern blot assay showed the AM mRNA was expressed only on cultured GEC,but not on MsC,however,AM receptor CRLR mRNA was only expressed on MsC.GEC conditioned medium containing AM can inhibit MsC growth and AM receptor blocker CGRP8-37 may partially decreased this inhibitory effect.Conclusion:AM produced by GEC inhibits the proliferation of MsC,which suggests that AM as an important regulator is involved in glomerular normal physiological functions and pathologic processes.

  11. Ultrastructure of focal cerebral cortex tissue from rats with focal cortical dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Developing a model of focal cortical dysplasia in microgyrus and observing the ultrastructure of focal tissue is of important significance for analyzing the pathology of cortical developmental disorder and the factors of structural changes. OBJECTIVE:This study was to observe the pathological characteristics of focal tissue around the microgyrus of rats with cortical developmental disorder using an electron microscope,so as to analyze the causes associated with cerebral cortical developmental disorder. DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was carried out in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology,Room for Electron Microscope of Chongqing Medical University,and Laboratory Animal Center,Research Institute of Surgery,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2004 and August 2006.Eighteen healthy newborn male Wistar rats,weighing 3.0 - 6.0 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA,were involved in this study.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Probes (Chongqing Wire & Cable Factory,China) were made of copper core wire with diameter of 1 mm.METHODS:The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 in each:normal control group,liquid nitrogen injured group and sham-operation group.①In the liquid nitrogen injured group,a blunt probe frozen by liquid nitrogen was placed on fronto-parietal crinial bone of rats for 8 s.A 3 - 5 cm of microgyrus was induced in the unilateral cerebral sensory cortical area.In the sham-operation group,probe was placed at the room temperature.In the normal control group,rats were untouched.② The conscious state and electrical activity of brain of rats in each group were observed.③ 2-3 mm thickness of hippocampal tissue with coronary section was taken

  12. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrios Freitas, Rodrigo; Melato, Fernanda Araujo; Oliveira, Jerusa Maria de; Bastos, Daniel Silva Sena; Cardoso, Raisa Mirella; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2017-02-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues. The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.

  14. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  15. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serkan Dundar,1 Abubekir Eltas,2 Sema S Hakki,3 Sıddık Malkoc,4 M Ozay Uslu,2 Mehmet Tuzcu,5 James Komorowski,6 I Hanifi Ozercan,7 Fatih Akdemir,8 Kazim Sahin9 1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Firat University, Elazig, 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Inonu University, Malatya, 3Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, 4Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Inonu University, Malatya, 5Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 6Research & Development, Nutrition 21 Inc., Purchase, NY, USA; 7Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 8Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Fisheries, Inonu University, Malatya, 9Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Abstract: The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower

  16. The role of adipose tissue asymmetric dimethylarginine/dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase pathway in adipose tissue phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in subtotally nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Wakino, Shu; Hosoya, Kozi; Sueyasu, Keiko; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Keisuke; Yoshifuji, Ayumi; Futatsugi, Koji; Komatsu, Motoaki; Kanda, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    The lipodystrophy-like phenotype has been suggested in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). It includes adipose tissue atrophy, systemic insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid accumulation. To elucidate its pathogenesis, we investigated the role of two uremic toxins that affect insulin sensitivity: an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and indoxyl sulfate (IS). Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered CKD by subtotal nephrectomy (Nx) and compared with sham-operated rats. Cultured 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were differentiated into mature adipocytes with or without ADMA. Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing each isoform of ADMA degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) and DDAH2 were subject to Nx and their phenotypes were investigated. In Nx rats, IR was evident and insulin stimulation failed to activate insulin signaling in adipose tissues. Adipose tissue weight, adipocyte size and adipocyte differentiation marker expressions decreased as a consequence of IR in Nx. Tissue lipid content in the liver and muscle increased in Nx rats. Tissue levels of ADMA, IS and oxidative stress increased in the adipose tissue of Nx rats. Both DDAH1 and DDAH2 expressions decreased, and a putative IS receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, expression increased in the adipose tissue of Nx rats. ADMA inhibited adipocyte differentiation, triglyceride accumulation and insulin signaling, which were reversed by pretreatment with cGMP. In each type of Tg mice overexpressing DDAH1 or DDAH2, all lipodystrophy-like phenotypes induced by Nx were reversed. In mild CKD, dysregulation of the ADMA/DDAH pathway in adipose tissue triggers lipodystrophy-like phenotype changes, including ectopic fat depositions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  18. [POLYPEPTIDES INFLUENCE ON TISSUE CELL CULTURES REGENERATION OF VARIOUS AGE RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhak, A P; Chalisova, N I; Lin'kova, N S; Khalimov, R I; Ryzhak, G A; Zhekalov, A N

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of polypeptides extracted from the tissues of calves: Cortexin (from brain cortex), Epinorm (from pineal gland), Ventvil (from liver), Prostatilen (from prostate), Thymalin (from thymus), Chelohart (from heart), Chondrolux (from cartilage) on the relevant organotypic tissue cultures of young and old rats, in concentration 0,01-100 ng/ml was performed. Polypeptides specifically stimulated "young" and "old" cell cultures growth in concentration 20-50 ng/ml. This effect correlates with increasing of PCNA and decreasing of p53 expression in brain cortex, pineal gland, liver, prostate, heart, cartilage. Moreover, Thymalin activated CD5, CD20 expression--markers of B-cells differentiation. These data show that polypeptides isolated from different tissues have selective molecular activity on the regeneration of suitable tissues in aging.

  19. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  20. Analysis of tissue residues and comparative metabolism of virginiamycin in rats, turkeys, and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschall, D.W.; Gombatz, C.; Wang, R.

    Liver tissue samples from turkeys, cattle, and rats given (/sup 14/C)virginiamycin were examined for the presence of metabolites. Extraction of the liver was performed sequentially with methanol and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The methanol fraction was further partitioned into chloroform-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The majority of the total liver residue (56-73%) remained intractable following these treatments. The three extracts were fractionated by normal- or reversed-phase HPLC. The results indicated that virginiamycin was metabolized to a large number of fragments and that no single metabolite represented greater than 3.5% of the total liver residue. Due to sample limitations no metabolite identification was possible at this time. Fortification experiments indicated that little, if any, parent virginiamycin was present in the tissue. Additional balance-excretion studies conducted in cattle and rats demonstrated that the majority of the dose (83-94%) was eliminated in the feces.

  1. Effect of Nrf2 on rat ovarian tissues against atrazine-induced anti-oxidative response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Kun; Zhao, Lijing; Liu, Jian; Suo, Qi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Hebin; Zhao, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The environmental persistence and bioaccumulation of herbicide atrazine may pose a significant threat to human health. In this experiment, Wistar rats were treated by 5, 25 and 125 mg·kg-1 atrazine respectively for 28 days, and the oxidative stress responses as well as the activations of Nrf2 signaling pathway in ovarian tissues induced by atrazine were observed. The results showed that after be treated by atrazine, the proportion of atretic follicles in the rat ovary were increased, the contents of NO and MDA in the tissue homogenates were increased, the over-expressed Nrf2 transferred into the nuclei and played an antioxidant role by up-regulated the expression of II phase detoxifying enzymes such as HO1 and NQO1 and the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, SOD and GSH-PX. PMID:25031697

  2. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2013-01-01

    of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...

  3. Concomitant expression of adrenomedullin and its receptor components in rat adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Nozomi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Sugiyama, Toru; Ozawa, Naoko; Sato, Ryuji; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Hirata, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) expressed by and secreted from a variety of cells plays pluripotent roles in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. The present study was undertaken to explore the expression of AM and its receptor genes in adipose tissues, their changes during the development of obesity, and the process of preadipocyte differentiation. Both mature adipocytes and stromal vascular cells constituting adipose tissue expressed AM transcript. AM and its receptor component [calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (CRLR/RAMP2)] mRNAs were expressed in a variety of rat adipose tissues, including epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. AM mRNA levels in rat and human epididymal adipose tissue were about one-tenth of those in the kidney. Steady-state mRNA levels of AM and CRLR/RAMP2 in epididymal, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk were far greater than those in rats with normal diet accompanied by increased plasma AM levels, whereas steady-state AM mRNA levels conversely decreased in other organs, such as kidney and liver. AM mRNA expressed in a mouse preadipocyte cell line (3T3-L1) transiently decreased by day 3, returned to basal level by day 6, and then increased by day 9 during preadipocyte differentiation, which paralleled AM secretion from the cells. However, the addition of either exogenous AM or AM receptor antagonist calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37), to block endogenous AM did not affect lipid droplet accumulation during preadipocyte differentiation. The present study demonstrates for the first time that AM and its receptor component (CRLR/RAMP2) mRNAs were concomitantly expressed in various adipose tissues, whose tissue-specific upregulation was induced during the development of obesity. These data suggest that AM may act as a new member of adipokines, although its functional role, as well as its pathophysiological significance in obesity

  4. 60-Hz electric field alters the steroidogenic response of rat adrenal tissue, in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymangrover, J.R. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC); Keku, E.; Seto, Y.J.

    1983-02-14

    Exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 10 kV/m but not at 5 kV/m, 100 kV/m or 1000 kV/m caused a highly significant, threefold elevation in the steroidogenic response of rat adrenal cortical tissue after the administration of 10 mU of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) under in vitro, superfusion conditions. A 60-Hz electric field can directly influence the function of mammalian tissue in the absence of central-nervous-system mediation.

  5. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  6. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Weinert, Brian Tate;

    2012-01-01

    ,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals...... that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle...

  7. Protective Effect of PPARγ Agonists on Cerebellar Tissues Oxidative Damage in Hypothyroid Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Baghcheghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonists on cerebellar tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroid rats. The animals included seven groups: group I (control, the animals received drinking water; group II, the animals received 0.05% propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water; besides PTU, the animals in groups III, IV, V, VI, and VII, were injected with 20 mg/kg vitamin E (Vit E, 10 or 20 mg/kg pioglitazone, and 2 or 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone, respectively. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the cerebellar tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU administration reduced thiol content, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities in the cerebellar tissues while increasing malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO metabolites. Vit E, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone increased thiol, SOD, and CAT in the cerebellar tissues while reducing MDA and NO metabolites. The results of present study showed that, similar to Vit E, both rosiglitazone and pioglitazone as PPARγ agonists exerted protective effects against cerebellar tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroid rats.

  8. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdy Al-Awaida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results:The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn't induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure.

  9. Determination of Epimedin B in Rat Plasma and Tissue by LC-MS/MS: Application in Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianru Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of epimedin B in rat plasma and tissue samples. After being processed with a protein precipitation method, these samples were separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (32 : 68, v/v. The calibration curve of epimedin B was linear over the concentration range from 1 to 500 ng/mL in plasma and tissue homogenate. The method was then applied to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies after a single oral administration of Herba Epimedii extract to SD rats. Results showed that epimedin B reached the plasma peak concentration at 0.4 h and the terminal elimination half-life was 1.6 h in rat plasma, and the plasma area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞ was 14.35 μg/L·h. The concentration distribution of epimedin B in rat tissue was in the following order: liver > ovary > womb > lung > kidney > spleen > heart > brain, indicating that the compound could be widely distributed in rat, and the reproductive system may be the principal target of epimedin B for female rat.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of soft tissue infection with iron oxide labeled granulocytes in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassina Baraki

    Full Text Available OBJECT: We sought to detect an acute soft tissue infection in rats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using granulocytes, previously labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parasternal infection was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus suspension in rats. Granulocytes isolated from isogenic donor rats were labeled with SPIO. Infected rats were imaged by MRI before, 6 and 12 hours after intravenous injection of SPIO-labeled or unlabeled granulocytes. MR findings were correlated with histological analysis by Prussian blue staining and with re-isolated SPIO-labeled granulocytes from the infectious area by magnetic cell separation. RESULTS: Susceptibility effects were present in infected sites on post-contrast T2*-weighted MR images in all animals of the experimental group. Regions of decreased signal intensity (SI in MRI were detected at 6 hours after granulocyte administration and were more pronounced at 12 hours. SPIO-labeled granulocytes were identified by Prussian blue staining in the infected tissue and could be successfully re-isolated from the infected area by magnetic cell separation. CONCLUSION: The application of SPIO-labeled granulocytes in MRI offers new perspectives in diagnostic specificity and sensitifity to detect early infectious processes.

  11. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  12. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezelli Jose D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15 and allowed to consume water (C, light Coca Cola ® (L or regular Coca Cola® (R as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats.

  13. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15) and allowed to consume water (C), light Coca Cola ® (L) or regular Coca Cola® (R) as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats. PMID:20573247

  14. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  15. The use of thermography in early detection of tissue perfusion disorders in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokaj, Marek; Falkowski, Aleksander; Prowans, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tissue perfusion disorders can be present in various diseases and progress in the form of arterial ischemia or venous stasis with accompanying local changes in temperature. Aim To use of thermography in the diagnostics of early periods of tissue perfusion disorders before the clinical symptoms occur. Material and methods Thirty-two male rats were used. After anesthesia the skin on lower limbs was shaved and femoral vessels of both sides were exposed. In 10 rats the left femoral artery was ligated, in 12 rats the left femoral vein was ligated and in the 10 remaining rats both left femoral vessels were ligated. Thermography of the limbs was performed before the vessels were ligated and after a period of 24 h. The pictures were taken every 5 s during 3 min. Before the measurement, the tissues were cooled down for 20 s with a 5°C water compress. The rate of temperature return to the limbs was evaluated. Results Statistically significant differences were observed after the 24-hour period on the thigh after the ligation of the vein, and on the shank and the foot after ligation of the artery. After the ligature of both vessels, statistically significant differences occurred immediately after their ligature within the thigh and shank and after 24 h on the foot. Conclusions The results show that cameras with an accuracy of 0.05°C can be used to detect tissue perfusion disorders. The special diagnostic value is the ability to detect perfusion disorders before clinical symptoms occur. PMID:25337154

  16. Effect of paeonol on tissue destruction in experimental periodontitis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Fu, Earl; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Wei-Jeng; Cheng, Wan-Chien; Tu, Hsiao-Pei

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of paeonol, a phenolic compound of Moutan Cortex, on the tissue inflammation and destruction in experimental periodontitis of rats. The maxillary palatal bony surfaces of 18 rats received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/mL), PBS or LPS-plus-paeonol (40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal injection) for three days. Five days later, the osteoclasts were examined and compared after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. In another 36 rats, the experimental periodontitis was induced by placing the ligatures around the maxillary second and mandibular first molars. Seven days later, the periodontal destruction and inflammation in rats with paeonol (40 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg) and those who had no ligature or without paeonol were compared by dental radiography, micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), and histology. Gingival mRNA expressions of pre-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β' IL-6 and TNF-α were also examined. Compared to the effect of the LPS positive control, the paeonol injection significantly reduced the induced osteoclast formation. In ligature-induced periodontitis, the periodontal bone supporting ratio was significantly higher in the ligature-plus-paeonol groups compared to that of the ligature group, although they were still less than those in the non-ligature group. By micro-CT and by histology/histometry, a consistent anti-destructive effect was observed when paeonol was added. Moreover, less amount of inflammatory cell-infiltrated connective tissue area, connective tissue attachment, and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were presented in the ligature-plus-paeonol groups than those in the ligature group. These results suggested that paeonol might have a protective potential on gingival tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss during the process of periodontitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Tissue-specific PAI-1 gene expression and glycosylation pattern in insulin-resistant old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, R; Barrenetxe, J; Orbe, J; Rodríguez, J A; Gallardo, N; Martínez, C; Andrés, A; Páramo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have been associated with obesity, aging, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, conditions that contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. PAI-1 is expressed in a variety of tissues, but the cellular origin of plasma PAI-1 is unknown. To link insulin resistance, aging, and cardiovascular disease, we examined the expression and glycosylation pattern of PAI-1 in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) from adult (3 mo) and insulin-resistant old (24 mo) Wistar rats. Glycosylated PAI-1 protein was also purified by affinity chromatography from endothelial culture supernatans to analyze its inhibitory activity. We also analyzed the contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells from WAT to PAI-1 levels with aging. Aging caused a significant increase of PAI-1 mRNA (P < 0.001) in WAT that was predominantly due to the adipocytes and not to stroma-vascular cells, while there was no modification in liver from aged rats. Moreover, PAI-1 expression increased during preadipocyte differentiation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we found a tissue-dependent PAI-1 glycosylation pattern: adipose tissue only expresses the glycosylated PAI-1 form, whereas the liver mainly expresses the nonglycosylated form. Finally, we also found evidences suggesting that the glycosylated PAI-1 form shows higher inhibitory activity than the nonglycosylated. Our data suggest that WAT may be a major source of the elevated plasma levels of PAI-1 in insulin-resistant old rats. Additionally, the high degree of PAI-1 glycosylation and activity, together with the significant increase in visceral fat in old rats, may well contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk associated with insulin-resistant states.

  18. [Ammonia, glutamine and glutamic acid content of rat tissues during and after hyperoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabibov, M M

    1975-01-01

    The content of ammonia, glutamine, glutamic acid was measured in the brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, skeletal muscles and blood rats exposed to a 4 atm oxygen atmosphere and during aftereffects. The hyperoxic atmosphere resulted in an increase of ammonia and glutamic acid and in a decrease of glutamine in the tissues. The return to the norm of the compounds occurred slowly and nonuniformly, lasting for 40 to 60 posthyperoxic days.

  19. Tissue distribution and excretion of 125I-lidamycin in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping Liu; Quan-Sheng Li; Yu-Rong Huang; Chang-Xiao Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-lidamycin (125I-C-1027) in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.METHODS: The total radioactivity assay (RA method) and the radioactivity assay after precipitation with 200 mL/L trichloroacetic acid (TCA-RA method) were used to dete-rmine the tissue distribution, and the urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-C-1027 in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.RESULTS: Tissue concentrations reached the peak at the fifth minute after administration of 125I-C-1027 to mice. The highest concentration was in kidney, and the lowest in brain at all test-time points. The organs of the concentrations of 125I-C-1027 from high to low were kidney, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, uterus, ovary, intestine, muscle, heart, testis, fat, and brain in mice. The accumulative excretionamounts of 0-24 h, and 0-96 h after administration of125I-C-1027 were 68.36 and 71.64% in urine, and 2.60 and 3.21% in feces of mice, respectively, and the accumulative excretion amount of 0-24 h was 3.57% in bile in rats.CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the characteristics of the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125IC-1027 in mice and the biliary excretion of 125I-C-1027and its metabolites in rats, and indicate that 125I-C-1027and its metabolites are mainly distributed in kidney, and excreted in urine.

  20. Radioimmunoassay and characterization of enkephalins in rat tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.J.; Cooper, B.; Cuatrecasas, P.

    1978-01-25

    A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for three enkephalins (opiate-like pentapeptides) has been developed. The assay utilizes /sup 125/I-labeled enkephalins and antisera raised in rabbits, to synthetic enkephalins coupled with glutaraldehyde to bovine serum albumin. These antisera show <1% cross-reactivity between H/sub 2/N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-OH ((Met/sup 5/)enkephalin) and H/sub 2/N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH ((Leu/sup 5/)enkephalin) and even lower cross-reactvity to ..beta..-endorphin. Morphine shows no cross reactivity at all. The assay can detect as little as 10 fmol of enkephalin. Dose response curves for synthetic enkephalin and enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in acid extracts of brain are superimposable. Enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in tissue extracts is destroyed by treating extracts with leucine aminopeptidase or carboxypeptidase, enzymes which also destroy synthetic enkephalin. An opiate receptor binding assay based on the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (DAla/sup 2/Leu/sup 5/)-enkephalin to N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells has also been developed. Gel filtration of acid extracts of brain or pituitary gland shows that both contain opiate-like material. However, whereas in brain most of opiate-like material co-chromatographs with enkephalin, in the pituitary no opiate-like material was observed to co-chromatograph with enkephalin but was of higher molecular weight. Enkephalin is widely distributed in the brain. High concentrations of both (Met/sup 5/)- and (Leu/sup 5/)enkephalins are found in the striatum (approximately 5 pmol/mg of protein), lower concentrations in the thalamus and midbrain, and very low concentrations in the cerebellum. The ratio of (Met/sup 5/)enkephalin to (Leu/sup 5/)enkephalin also differs in different brain areas. The ratio is very high in the hippocampus (15.2) and hypothalamus (13.6), but lower in other areas such as the cortex (1.4).

  1. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hepatic tissue of female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehane I. Eid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting compound widely spread in our living environment. It is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to the limited information concerning the effect of BPA on the liver, the present study was designed to assess hepatic tissue injury induced by early life exposure to BPA in female rat offspring. Rat dams (n = 9 were gavaged with 0.5 and 50 mg of BPA/kg b.w./day throughout lactation until weaning. The sham group received olive oil for the same duration while the control group did not receive any injection. The liver tissue was collected from female pups at different pubertal periods (PND50, 90 and 110 to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers, extent of DNA damage and histopathological changes. Our results indicated that early life exposure to BPA significantly increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, induced DNA damage and chronic severe inflammation in the hepatic tissue in a time dependent manner. These data suggested that BPA causes long-term adverse effects on the liver, which leads to deleterious effects in the liver of female rat offspring.

  2. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  3. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  4. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

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    de Oliveira Patricia G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001. The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054. Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT.

  5. The effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on element levels in the bone tissue of ovariectomized rats: histopathologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sunar, Fusun; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Acar, Musa; Toy, Hatice

    2014-05-01

    Study aimed to determine the effects of zinc supplementation/deficiency on the histological structure and elements levels in bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. The study included 40 Sprague-Dawley type adult female rats, divided as follows: Control, ovariectomized, ovariectomized + zinc supplemented, ovariectomized + zinc deficient groups. At the end of the study bone tissues (femur) were collected to determine the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, aluminium, chrome, lithium, lead, nickel, and manganese. The bone tissue was examined for histopathology. Ovariectomy leaded to significant decrease in magnesium. Zinc supplementation to ovariectomized rats restored the reduced calcium, phosphorus, zinc. However, zinc deficiency in ovariectomized rats further reduced calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and manganese levels. Zinc deficiency in ovariectomized significantly increased Al, Cr, Li, Pb, and Ni levels. Tissue integrity was impaired due to ovariectomy and zinc deficiency. Ovariectomy and zinc deficiency leads significant decreases elements of the bone.

  6. Expression and distribution of TNF-α and PGE2 of periodontal tissues in rat periodontitis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu-Hang Liao; Wei Fei; Zhi-Hao Shen; Ming-Ping Yin; Chen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To simulate the expression ofTNF-α andPGE2of periodontal tissues in rat periodontitis model.Methods:40Wistar rats were randomly divided into the periodontitis group and the control group(n=20).After the successful establishment of periodontitis rat model, raising for six weeks before the animals were sacrificed.The periodontal tissues were obtained and made into slices.Observed the histopathological changes of the periodontal tissues and measured TNF-α,PGE2 levels change by immunohistochemistry,Western blot analysis andELISA. Results:TNF-α,PGE2 expression of the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was significant(P<0.05).Conclusions:TheTNF-α,PGE2 expression of the rat periodontal tissue in the periodontitis group was significantly higher than the control group.

  7. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  8. Duodenal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Dietary Heme and Nonheme Iron Differ in Rats123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang; Thomas, Carrie E.; Insogna, Karl L.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined. Objectives: In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen). Methods: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of 57Fe-ferrous sulfate and 58Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing. Results: High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = −0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = −0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more 57Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more 58Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron. PMID:25332470

  9. Protective Effects of Lycopene and Ellagic Acid on Gonadal Tissue, Maternal Newborn Rats Induced by Cadmiumchloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hoshmand Motlagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Cadmium is a toxin which reduces the ability of the reproduction in humans .Different antioxidants damaging effects of toxins are eliminated .The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of lycopene and Ellagic acid induced by cadmium chloride on the gonadal tissue of newborn rats during pregnancy. Methods: In the present experimental study, 30 adult female Wistar rats (180-200 gr were prepared and maintained in standard conditions. The female rats were used for mating with the male. After observation of vaginal plaque, pregnant rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats. Group I (normal: They were given normal saline in 13 days during pregnancy. Group II (Control: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and normal saline was given to them in 13 days of during pregnancy. Group III: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg/orally in 13 days were injected during pregnancy. Group IV: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and copene acid (20 mg/kg/orally was injected in 13 days of during pregnancy. Group V: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg/orally and lycopene acid (20 mg/kg/orally were injected in 13 days during pregnancy. After postpartum, Neonatal rats were anesthetized with ether. Animals were dissected, then the testes and Ovaries were removed and transferred to 10% formalin solution. After tissue processing, tissue sections were prepared and H&E stained. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and ANOVA test. Results: Average number of Sertoli cells ,spermatogonia ,Leydig, and the number of seminiferous tube in control group were compared to other groups that were treated with lycopene - ellagic acid and ellagic acid had been reduced-proves to be significant(P <0.05. Average diameter of seminiferous tube in control group compared to other groups that are treated with lycopene - ellagic acid and ellagic acid had

  10. Tissue reactions to collagen scaffolds in the oral mucosa and skin of rats: environmental and mechanical factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.G.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the tissue reactions to implanted collagen scaffolds in the palate and the skin of rats. DESIGN: Crosslinked collagen scaffolds were implanted submucoperiosteally in the palate, and subcutaneously on the skull and on the back of 25 rats and evaluated after up to 16 weeks. On H&

  11. Evaluation of Hypoxic Tissue Dynamics with F-18-FMISO PET in a Rat Model of Permanent Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Santiago; Herance, José Raul; Abad, Sergio; Jiménez, Xavier; Pareto, Deborah; Ruiz, Alba; Torrent, Èlia; Figueiras, Francisca P.; Popota, Foteini; Fernández-Soriano, Francisco J.; Planas, Anna M; Gispert, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: [18F]Fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) is a nitroimidazole derivative that has been proposed as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer to detect hypoxic tissue in vivo. This compound accumulates in hypoxic but viable tissue and may be a good candidate for evaluating the ischemic penumbra. We evaluated the time course of 18F-FMISO uptake using PET in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia and the correlation with histological changes. Procedures: Rats (n = 14) were subjecte...

  12. Effect of transplantation of muscle tissue in rats from the same litter on total number of flavins and FAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kobylnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin is a member of redox enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy generation. Important role of this vitamin is in reproductive function. Exchange of transformation of riboflavin in animal tissues and cells of microorganisms include reactions that lead to synthesis and subsequent collapse of FMN and FAD. It is involved in enhancing antitumor activity of many anticancer drugs, as well as activation of the immune system to kill tumor cells. Issues of transport of riboflavin and its derivatives in animals have been studied enough. Investigations of changes of the balance of riboflavin and its metabolites in muscular tissues before transplantation in rats from one litter and at operation without replanting were conducted, based on the Udenfriend method of flavin determination. Transplantation in the experiment was carried out on white non-linear male rats weighing 180–300 g. Animals were taken out of the experiment by passing electric current through the medulla. Belly muscular tissue was taken from donor rats of the same litter, and that tissue was sewn to homological muscular tissue of the recipient. The same procedure was carried out with femoral muscular tissue. In the course of operation without replanting the same manipulations have been made except for transplantation stage (for determination of the effect of surgical intervention. Tissue not subject to any surgical intervention served as a control. Parameters of the study were measured on the first, third and seventh days after transplantation. Transplantation of muscular tissue caused no changes in total flavin amount. Content of RF + FMN after transplantation of muscular tissue in rats of the same litter decreased in femoral muscular tissue of the recipient. Transplantation of muscular tissues in rats from the same litter lead to increase in FAD amount in femoral muscular tissue of the donor and recipient on the third day of the experiment. Transplantation of femoral

  13. Investigation of endocrine and immunological response in fat tissue to hyperbaric oxygen administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, H; Erbağ, G; Ovali, M A; Öztopuz, R Ö; Uzun, M

    2016-04-30

    Though HBO treatment is becoming more common, the mechanism of action is not fully known. The positive effects of HBO administration on the inflammatory response is thought to be a possible basic mechanism. As a result, we aimed to research whether endocrine and immunological response of fat tissue changes in rats given HBO treatment model. This research was carried out on Wistar albino rats, they were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Their fatty tissue were taken from the abdomen, gene expression of the cytokines and adipokines were analyzed with Real time PCR method. When the gene expression of hormones and cytokines by fat tissue was examined, the leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels in the HBO treatment group were statistically significantly increased compared to the control group (p=0.0313, p=0.0156, p=0.0156, p=0.0156, p=0.0313). In conclusion, in our study we identified that HBO administration affected the endochrinological functions of fat tissue.

  14. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  15. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P leptin and leptin receptor (P adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  16. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reaction to a New Nano Zinc-Oxide Eugenol Sealer in Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Salma; Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina; Mushakhian, Siavash; Jafarian, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the histological response of the new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer in comparison with Pulp Canal Sealer (ZOE based) and AH-26 (epoxy resin sealer). Methods and Materials: A total of 27 Wistar rats were used. Four polyethylene tubes were implanted in the back of each rat (three tubes containing the test materials and an empty tube as a control). Then, 9 animals were sacrificed at each interval of 15, 30 and 60 days, and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues.Samples were evaluated for the presence of inflammatory cell (mononuclear cell), vascular changes, fibrous tissue formation and present of giant cell. Comparisons between groups and time-periods were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed in tissue reactions and biocompatibility pattern of three sealers during 3 experimental periods (P<0.05). In all groups the tissue behavior showed tendency to decrease the irritation effect over time. Conclusion: The new nano zinc-oxide eugenol sealer has histocompatibility properties comparable to conventional commercial sealers. PMID:28179927

  17. Repairing peripheral nerve defects with tissue engineered artificial nerves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ai-lin; LIU Shi-qing; TAO Hai-ying; PENG Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of tissue engineered nerves in repairing peripheral nerve defects ( about 1. 5 cm in length) in rats to provide data for clinical application.Methods: Glycerinated sciatic nerves (2 cm in length) from 10 Sprague Dawley ( SD) rats ( aged 4 months) were used to prepare homologous dermal acellular matrix. Other 10 neonate SD rats (aged 5-7 days) were killed by neck dislocation. After removing the epineurium, the separated sciatic nerve tracts were cut into small pieces, then digested by 2.5 g/L trypsin and 625 U/ml collagenase and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for 3 weeks. After proliferation, the Schwann cells ( SCs) were identified and prepared for use. And other 40 female adult SD rats (weighing 200 g and aged 3 months) with sciatic nerve defects of 1.5 cm in length were randomly divided into four groups: the defects of 10 rats bridged with proliferated SCs and homologous dermal acellular matrix (the tissue engineered nerve group, Group A), 10 rats with no SCs but homologous dermal acellular matrix with internal scaffolds ( Group B ), 10 with autologous nerves ( Group C) , and the other 10 with nothing (the blank control group, Group D). The general status of the rats was observed, the wet weight of triceps muscle of calf was monitored, and the histological observation of the regenerated nerves were made at 12 weeks after operation.Results: The wounds of all 40 rats healed after operation and no death was found. No foot ulceration was found in Groups A, B and C, but 7 rats suffered from foot ulceration in Group D. The triceps muscles of calf were depauperated in the experimental sides in all the groups compared with the uninjured sides,which was much more obvious in Group D. The wet weight of triceps muscle of calf and nerve electrophysiologic monitoring showed no statistical difference between Group A and Group C,but statistical difference was found between Groups A and B and Groups B and D. And significant

  18. The variation of macro- and micro-minerals of tissues in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Tennille D; Duncan, A'ja V; Jeffers, Anne B; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na in various tissues samples (liver, brain, kidney, intestines, muscle and hair) of diabetic and non-diabetic rats by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, in order to assess the role of element levels during T2DM. The ratios of Ca/Mg, Zn/Cu, Ca/Zn, and Mg/Zn in diabetic and non-diabetic rat tissues were also calculated. The determined element levels were further subjected to a student-t test statistical analysis and multiple-linear-regression in order to evaluate similarities, differences, and an inter-element association in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. The results of the study showed high variability in element levels and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, but are tissue- and element-dependent, suggesting differences in the accumulation of the elements in tissues of diabetics and non-diabetics. The obtained significant differences in the levels of elements and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in several tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats in this study suggest that the investigated elements play considerable roles in the T2DM disease process. Strong inter-element associations (R(2)≥0.9) were observed for some elements in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetics rats. However, poor inter-elemental associations were obtained for some elements in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal and topographic profiles of tissue hypoxia following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Takahisa; Furuichi, Yasuhisa; Ishiye, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Aramori, Ichiro; Mutoh, Seitaro; Yanagihara, Takehiko; Manabe, Noboru

    2006-08-01

    Intravascular accumulation of blood cells after brain ischemia-reperfusion can cause obstruction of cerebral blood flow and tissue hypoxia/ischemia as a consequence. In the present study, we examined temporal and topographic changes of tissue hypoxia/ischemia after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 60 min in rats with immunohistochemical staining for hypoxia (2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker: hypoxyprobe-1 adducts). Our results showed that tissue hypoxia expressed as positive staining for hypoxyprobe-1 adducts preceded neuronal degeneration. Platelets and granulocytes were detected close to the hypoxyprobe-1 adducts positive area. These results suggested that the hypoxic environment could persist even after reperfusion of MCA, because of vascular obstruction with accumulation of platelets and granulocytes.

  1. A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Diogo; Pais, Diogo; Iria, Inês; Mota-Silva, Eduarda; Almeida, Maria-Angélica; Alves, Sara; Pen, Cláudia; Farinho, Ana; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Ferreira-Silva, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Vassilenko, Valentina; Videira, Paula A.; Gory O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Free tissue transfer has been increasingly used in clinical practice since the 1970s, allowing reconstruction of complex and otherwise untreatable defects resulting from tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, malformations or burns. Free flaps are particularly useful for reconstructing highly complex anatomical regions, like those of the head and neck, the hand, the foot and the perineum. Moreover, basic and translational research in the area of free tissue transfer is of great clinical potential. Notwithstanding, surgical trainees and researchers are frequently deterred from using microsurgical models of tissue transfer, due to lack of information regarding the technical aspects involved in the operative procedures. The aim of this paper is to present the steps required to transfer a fasciocutaneous epigastric free flap to the neck in the rat. This flap is based on the superficial epigastric artery and vein, which originates from and drain into the femoral artery and vein, respectively. On average the caliber of the superficial epigastric vein is 0.6 to 0.8 mm, contrasting with the 0.3 to 0.5 mm of the superficial epigastric artery. Histologically, the flap is a composite block of tissues, containing skin (epidermis and dermis), a layer of fat tissue (panniculus adiposus), a layer of striated muscle (panniculus carnosus), and a layer of loose areolar tissue. Succinctly, the epigastric flap is raised on its pedicle vessels that are then anastomosed to the external jugular vein and to the carotid artery on the ventral surface of the rat's neck. According to our experience, this model guarantees the complete survival of approximately 70 to 80% of epigastric flaps transferred to the neck region. The flap can be evaluated whenever needed by visual inspection. Hence, the authors believe this is a good experimental model for microsurgical research and training. PMID:28117814

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy and detection of brain tumor in rat fresh-tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Fukushi, Y.; Kubota, O.; Itsuji, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Ouchi, T.

    2015-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging of biomedical samples is expected to be an important application of THz analysis techniques. Identification and localization of tumor tissue, imaging of biological samples, and analysis of DNA by THz spectroscopy have been reported. THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is useful for obtaining the refractive index over a broad frequency range. However, THz-TDS spectra of fresh tissue samples are sensitive to procedures such as sample preparation, and a standardized measurement protocol is required. Therefore, in this work, we establish a protocol for measurements of THz spectra of fresh tissue and demonstrate reliable detection of rat brain tumor tissue. We use a reflection THz-TDS system to measure the refractive index spectra of the samples mounted on a quartz plate. The tissue samples were measured immediately after sectioning to avoid sample denaturalization during storage. Special care was taken in THz data processing to eliminate parasitic reflections and reduce noise. The error level in our refractive index measurements was as low as 0.02 in the frequency range 0.8-1.5 THz. With increasing frequency, the refractive index in the tumor and normal regions monotonically decreased, similarly to water, and it was 0.02 higher in the tumor regions. The spectral data suggest that the tumor regions have higher water content. Hematoxylin-eosin stained images showed that increased cell density was also responsible for the observed spectral features. A set of samples from 10 rats showed consistent results. Our results suggest that reliable tumor detection in fresh tissue without pretreatment is possible with THz spectroscopy measurements. THz spectroscopy has the potential to become a real-time in vivo diagnostic method.

  3. Comparison of in vivo effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation and INSIG-1/2 in rat liver and human and rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2013-06-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Comparison of In Vivo Effects of Insulin on SREBP-1c Activation and INSIG-1/2 in Rat Liver and Human and Rat Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2012-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. PMID:23913732

  5. Biocompatibility of a new nanomaterial based on calcium silicate implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate rat connective tissue response to a new calcium silicate system 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after implantation. Twenty Wistar albino male rats received two tubes half-filled with a new calcium silicate system (NCSS or MTA in subcutaneous tissue. The empty half of the tubes served as controls. Five animals were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and samples of the subcutaneous tissue around implanted material were submitted to histological analysis. The intensity of inflammation was evaluated based on the number of inflammatory cells present. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA and Holm Sidak's multiple comparison tests. Mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was observed after 7, 15 and 30 days around a NCSS while mild inflammatory reaction was detected after 60 days of implantation. In the MTA group, mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was found after 7 and 15 days while mild inflammatory reaction was present after 30 and 60 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammatory reactions between the tested materials and control groups in any experimental period (ANOVA p>0.05. Regarding the intensity of inflammatory reactions at different experimental periods, a statistically significant difference was observed between 7 and 30 days, 7 and 60 days and 15 to 60 days for both materials. For the controls, a statistically significant difference was found between 7 and 60 days and 15 and 60 days of the experiment (Holm Sidak < p 0.001. Subcutaneous tissue of rats showed good tolerance to a new calcium silicate system. Inflammatory reaction was similar to that caused by MTA. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  6. Early Overfeed-Induced Obesity Leads to Brown Adipose Tissue Hypoactivity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. Methods: Birth of litters was considered day 0. On day 2, litter size was adjusted to normal (9 pups and small (3 pups litters. On day 21, the litters were weaned. A temperature transponder was implanted underneath interscapular brown adipose tissue pads of 81-day-old animals; local temperature was measured during light and dark periods between days 87 and 90. The animals were euthanized, and tissue and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The vagus and retroperitoneal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. Results: Small litter rats presented significant lower interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature during the light (NL 37.6°C vs. SL 37.2°C and dark (NL 38°C vs. SL 37.6°C periods compared to controls. Morphology of small litter brown adipose tissue showed fewer lipid droplets in the tissue center and more and larger in the periphery. The activity of vagus nerve was 19,9% greater in the small litter than in control (pConclusion: Early overfeeding programming of obesity changes the interscapular brown adipose tissue structure in adulthood, leading to local thermogenesis hypoactivity, which may contribute to obesity in adults.

  7. Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Gao, Yu-Hai; Yan, Juan-Li; Shi, Wen-Gui; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMFs 1.5 h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8 mT SEMFs at 1.5 h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.

  8. Temperature of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue during the application of aerosols in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre de Oliveira Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the thermal changes of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues exposed to different aerosols. Thirty-six adults Wistar rats were arranged in two treatment groups, one exposed to methyl salicylate (GSM; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous and the other exposed to diclofenac diethylammonium (GDD; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous aerosols. Five jets were applied for one-second through an apparatus to reduce spray dispersion (3 cmdiameter in the lateral left thigh of the animals. Temperatures were measured every minute (min. during 30 min., with a digital thermometer. In the skin tissue the sensor was positioned manually, in the subcutaneous tissue it was surgically inserted through the rear face and positioned in the lateral thigh. The skin temperature has homogeneously reduced in both groups. In the subcutaneous tissue the GDD has induced hypothermia from the 2nd to 20th min., the lowest temperature was recorded on the 7th min. (-3.6 ± 0.2ºC in relation to basal. Lowering the temperature by GSM took place from the 1st to 21st min, and the lowest temperature occurred on the 1st min (-9.7 ± 0.5ºC in relation to basal. In the three initial minutes the GSM had temperatures 25, 10 and 5% lower than the GDD. Aerosols have induced hypothermia in the tissues, while the GSM has decreased faster and reached lower values of temperature shown in the subcutaneous tissue.

  9. Dietary iron concentration may influence aging process by altering oxidative stress in tissues of adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Fernandes Arruda

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2 and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2 relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging.

  10. Complete Human and Rat Ex Vivo Spermatogenesis from Fresh or Frozen Testicular Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Sereni, Nicolas; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Blondet, Antonine; D Estaing, Sandrine Giscard; Plotton, Ingrid; Morel-Journel, Nicolas; Lejeune, Hervé; David, Laurent; Durand, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Until now, complete ex vivo spermatogenesis has been reported only in the mouse. In this species, the duration of spermatogenesis is 35 days, whereas it is 54 days in the rat and 74 days in humans. We performed long-term (until 60 days) cultures of fresh or frozen rat or human seminiferous tubule segments in a bioreactor made of a hollow cylinder of chitosan hydrogel. Testicular tissues were obtained from 8- or 20-day-old male rats or from adult human subjects who had undergone hormone treatments leading to a nearly complete regression of their spermatogenesis before bilateral orchiectomy for gender reassignment. The progression of spermatogenesis was assessed by cytological analyses of the cultures; it was related to a dramatic increase in the levels of the mRNAs specifically expressed by round spermatids, Transition protein 1, Transition protein 2, and Protamine 3 in rat cultures. From 2% to 3.8% of cells were found to be haploid cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of human cultures. In this bioreactor, long-term cultures of seminiferous tubule segments from prepubertal rats or from adult men allowed completion of the spermatogenic process leading to morphologically mature spermatozoa. Further studies will need to address the way of optimizing the yield of every step of spermatogenesis by adjusting the composition of the culture medium, the geometry, and the material properties of the chitosan hydrogel bioreactors. Another essential requirement is to assess the quality of the gametes produced ex vivo by showing their ability to produce normal offspring (rat) or their biochemical normality (human).

  11. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Fischer 344 rats showed sex difference in the percentage of oleate in lipids of the omental adipose tissue (Thorling, E.B. and Overvad, K. (1994) Nutr. Res. 14, 569-576). The development of this difference was studied with respect to time in rats maintained on laboratory chow, from the age of 3...... in the female than in the male rats, and this difference increased with age. The results of the present study suggest that these changes in percentage of oleate in adipose tissue lipids may partly have been caused by an effect of sex steroids on the delta-9-desaturase....

  12. Lipase inhibitor orlistat decreases incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Oliveira, Manuel; Pescia, Grégory; Moulin, Julie; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Orlistat is a gastric and pancreatic lipases inhibitor that is often prescribed to obese subjects. Orlistat has been shown to decrease the absorption of biologically important lipophilic micronutrients such as liposoluble vitamins. We hypothesized that long-term administration of orlistat may lower the incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in blood lipids and tissues. This hypothesis was tested in rats fed a diet supplemented with fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental high-fat diets containing fish oil (control diet) or fish oil plus orlistat (200 and 400 mg/kg of diet) over the course of 3 weeks. Fat absorption and the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, among other fatty acids, in red blood cells, plasma, liver, and spleen, were measured at the end of the experimental period. The results show that at 200 mg and 400 mg/kg of diet orlistat lowers fat absorption by 9% (P = .008) and 54% (P = .008). Orlistat given at the higher level induced a reduction of the incorporation of EPA in red blood cell (-45%; P = .006) and in plasma (-34%; P = .026) compared to the control group. Our results confirmed that administration of orlistat reduces incorporation of n-3 LC-PUFA in blood lipids and tissues in a rat model.

  13. Tissue distribution and vitamin D dependence of IMCAL in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarski, S.; Cowen, L.A.; Takahashi, M.T.; Schachter, D.

    1987-09-01

    Integral membrane calcium-binding protein (IMCAL) is a vitamin D-dependent integral membrane protein that binds calcium with relatively high affinity. Specific immunoassays for IMCAL utilizing rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies were developed and applied to studies of its tissue distribution and regulation by vitamin D/sub 3/ and dietary calcium in the rat. The results indicate that vitamin D-dependent, cross-reactive protein is present in small intestinal mucosa, cecal mucosa, bone, kidney, brain, testis, heart, lung, spleen, and skin. Rats maintained on a low- (0.02%) compared with a high- (2.0%) calcium diet had significantly higher content of IMCAL in duodenal mucosa, cecal mucosa, bone, kidney, brain, testis, and heart. Treatment of rats on the high-calcium diet with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ increased the IMCAL content of the duodenal mucosa, cecal mucosa, and kidney. The widespread tissue distribution of vitamin D-dependent IMCAL, its close correlation in intestinal mucosa with the calcium transport mechanism, and its occurrence in isolated preparations of enterocyte plasma membranes (microvillus and basolateral membranes) suggest that the protein is involved in the regulation of calcium flux in a number of cell types.

  14. [Treatment with isoflavones replaces estradiol effect on the tissue fat accumulation from ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, Rosana; Gomes, Rodrigo M; Ferrarese, Maria L; de Melo, Fernando Ben-Hur; Ramos, Aparecida M D; Mathias, Paulo C F; Scomparin, Dionizia X

    2008-12-01

    Isoflavones (ISO) present in soybean are named phytoestrogens because they show estrogen effect. The use of isoflavones has beneficial effect in disturbance of post-menopause, which is characterized by ovarian function suppression. Decreasing of estrogen secretion and consequent morphologic and metabolic disarrangements are observed in female hormonal decline. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of ISO on the fat accretion of uterine endometric tissue, and HDL and glucose blood concentration from ovariectomized rats (OVX). Female Wistar rats with 60 days-old were submitted a surgery to remove bilaterally the ovarium. After 8-day recovery period the animals were distributed into three groups: sham operate (GC); OVX ISO untreated (GI) and OVX supplemented with ISO (G II). Total uterus mass, uterus fat and retroperitoneal fat pad, were removed, washed and weighted. Samples of uterus were histological processed to measure endometrium thickness. Blood samples were also collected to analyze the concentration of HDL and glucose. The OVX caused endometric atrophy, decrease of uterus weight and HDL reduction. The treatment with ISO provoked decrease of uterine and retroperitoneal fat pad. HDL increase and glycemia reduction were also observed. However, there was no uterotrophic effect. ISO treatment causes decrease in tissue fat accretion from ovariectomized rats.

  15. Consumption of resistant starch decreases postprandial lipogenesis in white adipose tissue of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Marc A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic consumption of diets high in resistant starch (RS leads to reduced fat cell size compared to diets high in digestible starch (DS in rats and increases total and meal fat oxidation in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic organs following a high RS or DS meal. Following an overnight fast, male Wistar rats ingested a meal with an RS content of 2% or 30% of total carbohydrate and were then administered an i.p bolus of 50 μCi 3H2O either immediately or 1 hour post-meal. One hour following tracer administration, rats were sacrificed, a blood sample collected, and the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT, and gastrocnemius muscle excised and frozen until assayed for total 3H-lipid and 3H-glycogen content. Plasma triglyceride and NEFA concentrations and 3H-glycogen content did not differ between groups. In all tissues, except the liver, there was a trend for the rate of lipogenesis to be higher in the DS group than the RS group which reached significance only in WAT at 1 h (p

  16. Evaluation of cartilage repair tissue after biomaterial implantation in rat patella by using T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrin-Pinzano, A; Ruaud, J-P; Cheli, Y; Gonord, P; Grossin, L; Bettembourg-Brault, I; Gillet, P; Payan, E; Guillot, G; Netter, P; Loeuille, D

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the ability of MR T2 mapping (8.5 T) to characterize ex vivo longitudinally, morphologically and quantitatively, alginate-based tissue engineering in a rat model of patellar cartilage chondral focal defect. Calibrated rat patellar cartilage defects (1.3 mm) were created at day 0 (D0) and alginate sponge with (Sp/C+) or without (Sp/C-) autologous chondrocytes were implanted. Animals were sacrificed sequentially at D20, D40 and D60 after surgery and dissected patellae underwent MRI exploration (8.5 T). T2 values were calculated from eight SE images by using nonlinear least-squares curve fitting on a pixel-by-pixel basis (constant repetition time of 1.5 s, eight different echo times: 5.5, 7.5, 10.5, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ms). On the T2 map, acquired in a transversal plane through the repair zone, global T2 values and zonal variation of T2 values of repair tissue were evaluated versus control group and compared with macroscopic score and histological studies (toluidine blue, sirius red and hematoxylin-eosin). "Partial", "total" and "hypertrophic" repair patterns were identified. At D40 and D60, Sp/C+ group was characterized by a higher proportion of "total" repair in comparison to Sp/C- group. At D60, the proportion of "hypertrophic" repair was two fold in Sp/C- group versus Sp/C+ group. As confirmed morphologically and histologically, the T2 map also permitted the distinction of three types of repair tissue: "total", "partial" and "hypertrophic". "Total" repair tissue was characterized by high T2 values versus normal cartilage (p<0.05). Zonal variation, reflecting the collagen network organization, appeared only at D60 for Sp/C+ group (p<0.05). "Hypertrophic" tissue, mainly observed at D60, presented high T2 global values without zonal variation with cartilage depth. These results confirm the potency of the MR T2 map (8.5 T) to characterize macroscopically and microscopically the patterns of the scaffold guided-tissue repair of a focal chondral

  17. Stimulatory effect of zinc acexamate administration on fracture healing of the femoral-diaphyseal tissues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, A; Yamaguchi, M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of zinc acexamate on fracture healing of the femoral-diaphyseal tissues in rats was investigated in vivo. Zinc acexamate (0.3 and 10.0 mg Zn/100 g body weight per day) was orally administered to rats (4 weeks old) surgically fractured the femoral diaphysis for 14 to 28 days. Calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal tissues were significantly decreased in rats with fracture healing, while bone acid phosphatase activity and protein content were markedly increased. The administration of zinc acexamate (10.0 mg Zn/100 g) for 28 days caused a significant increase in calcium content, alkaline and acid phosphatases activities, protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contents in the femoral-diaphyseal tissues of rats with fracture healing. With the lower dose (3.0 mg Zn/100 g), zinc compound had a partial effect on bone components. Femoral mineral density in rats with fracture healing was significantly increased by the administration of zinc acexamate (10.0 mg Zn/100 g) for 28 days. Femoral-diaphyseal zinc content was significantly decreased in rats with fracture healing. This decrease was completely restored by the administration of zinc acexamate (10.0 mg Zn/100 g) for 28 days. The present study suggests that the supplement of zinc compound stimulates fracture healing of the femoral-diaphyseal tissues in rats.

  18. Whole-body tissue distribution of total radioactivity in rats after oral administration of [¹⁴C]-bilastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, María Luisa; Patterson, Andrew B

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the tissue distribution of total radioactivity in male albino, male pigmented, and time-mated female albino rats after oral administration of a single dose of [¹⁴C]-bilastine (20 mg/kg). Although only 1 animal was analyzed at each time point, there were apparent differences in bilastine distribution. Radioactivity was distributed to only a few tissues at low levels in male rats, whereas distribution was more extensive and at higher levels in female rats. This may be a simple sex-related difference. In each group and at each time point, concentrations of radioactivity were high in the liver and kidney, reflecting the role of these organs in the elimination process. In male albino rats, no radioactivity was measurable by 72 hours postdose. In male pigmented rats, only the eye and uveal tract had measurable levels of radioactivity at 24 hours. Measureable levels of radioactivity were retained in these tissues at the final sampling time point (336 hours postdose), indicating a degree of melanin-associated binding. In time-mated female rats, but not in albino or pigmented male rats, there was evidence of low-level passage of radioactivity across the placental barrier into fetal tissues as well as low-level transfer of radioactivity into the brain.

  19. Maternal undernutrition programs the apelinergic system of adipose tissue in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, S; Marousez, L; Drougard, A; Knauf, C; Guinez, C; Eberlé, D; Laborie, C; Vieau, D; Lesage, J; Breton, C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality. We investigated whether apelin and its receptor APJ could be a target of maternal undernutrition. Adult male rat offspring from FR30 dams showed increased plasma apelin levels and apelin gene expression in WAT. Post-weaning high-fat diet led to marked increase in APJ mRNA and protein levels in offspring's WAT. We demonstrate that maternal undernutrition and post-weaning diet have long-term consequences on the apelinergic system of adult male rat offspring.

  20. Reduced sympathetic neurite outgrowth on uterine tissue sections from rats treated with estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeri, Analía; Bianchimano, Paola; Crutcher, Keith A; Brauer, M Mónica

    2010-05-01

    In order to evaluate the contribution of substrate-bound factors to the extent and patterning of the sympathetic innervation of rat uterus following estrogen treatment, superior cervical ganglion explants from neonatal and adult ovariectomized rats were cultured on tissue sections of fresh frozen uterus from adult ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen or a vehicle. The main findings were: (1) neurite growth was greatly influenced by histological features of the underlying section; (2) on myometrial sections, neurites followed the orientation of the main axis of the longitudinally sectioned muscle cells; (3) neurites showed limited growth on transversally sectioned smooth muscle; (4) neuritic patterning was unaffected by a reduction in migrating ganglionic non-neuronal cells; (5) neurite outgrowth, but not non-neural cell migration, was markedly reduced on myometrial sections from rats treated with estrogen. These results suggest that adult myometrium continues to provide signals allowing the organotypic patterning and growth of sympathetic axons, that estrogen treatment modifies myometrial substrate properties so that it is less supportive for sympathetic neurite growth, and that adult sympathetic neurons retain their ability to recognize substrate-bound cues present in the myometrium. On endometrial sections, neurites formed radially symmetric halos, which were reduced in size on estrogen-treated endometrial substrates. Thus, changes in the neuritogenic capacity of the uterus underlie plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves, and alterations in substrate-bound factors contribute to the diminished receptivity of the estrogenized uterus to its sympathetic innervation.

  1. Dedifferentiated fat cells convert to cardiomyocyte phenotype and repair infarcted cardiac tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumabay, Medet; Matsumoto, Taro; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Kano, Koichiro; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Takayuki; Mitsumata, Masako; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Mugishima, Hideo; Fukuda, Noboru

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we investigate whether mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells can differentiate to cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo by establishing DFAT cell lines via ceiling culture of mature adipocytes. DFAT cells were obtained by dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes from GFP-transgenic rats. We evaluated the differentiating ability of DFAT cells into cardiomyocytes by detection of the cardiac phenotype markers in immunocytochemical and RT-PCR analyses in vitro. We also examined effects of the transplantation of DFAT cells into the infarcted heart of rats on cardiomyocytes regeneration and angiogenesis. DFAT cells expressed cardiac phenotype markers when cocultured with cardiomyocytes and also when grown in MethoCult medium in the absence of cardiomyocytes, indicating that DFAT cells have the potential to differentiate to cardiomyocyte lineage. In a rat acute myocardial infarction model, transplanted DFAT cells were efficiently accumulated in infarcted myocardium and expressed cardiac sarcomeric actin at 8 weeks after the cell transplantation. The transplantation of DFAT cells significantly (pDFAT cells have the ability to differentiate to cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, transplantation of DFAT cells led to neovascuralization in rats with myocardial infarction. We propose that DFAT cells represent a promising candidate cell source for cardiomyocyte regeneration in severe ischemic heart disease.

  2. Protective effects of betaglucin on myocardial tissue during myocardial infarction in rats and dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao QIAN; Ai-jun LIU; Wei ZHANG; Zhi-peng WEN; Lili LIN; Jing-hang WANG; Ding-feng SU; Jian-guo LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To test the protective effects of betaglucin, a novel beta-glucan, on models of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats and dogs.Methods: The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion model was used to induce an MI in rats and dogs. Three doses of betaglucin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg), propranolol (positive control, 1 mg/kg) and vehicle alone (5% glucose solution) were adminis-tered before LAD occlusion, and characteristics of the resulting MI were subsequently assessed. In anesthetized dogs, blood pressure,heart rate, ventricular function, coronary artery blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption were determined before and after the drug administration.Results: The MI mass in both rats and dogs was significantly reduced by betaglucin (30 and 100 mg/kg, P0.05). High-dose betaglucin (100 mg/kg) increased myocar-dial oxygen consumption, but not to a statistically significant level (P>0.05). The hemodynamic indexes were significantly changed by propranolol.Conclusion: Betaglucin has protective effects on myocardial tissue during MI in rats and dogs and has no influence on hemodynamic parameters at a therapeutic dose. The increase in coronary artery blood flow induced by betaglucin might be beneficial in the treat-ment of patients with MI.

  3. Gene Expression and Correlation of Pten and Fabp4 in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Gao, Ying-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Cai-Ping; Huangfu, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2015-11-22

    The aim of this work was to study the Fabp4 and Pten gene expression and correlation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=12/group): a control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks and an experimental group fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 8 weeks and that received 25 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. The random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin levels were measured. The expression of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and epididymal adipose tissues was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to investigate the expression correlation between Pten and Fabp4 in T2DM rats. The gene expressions of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were all significantly higher than those in the control group (Pmuscles and Fabp4 was highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissues. Furthermore, expressions of Fabp4 and Pten in the muscle and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were positively correlated (Pmuscles of T2DM rats may play an important role in the insulin resistance of T2DM. However, the mechanism by which these 2 genes function in T2DM needs further study.

  4. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanadha Vijaya Padma; Gurusamy Lalitha; Nicholson Puthanveedu Shirony; Rathinasamy Baskaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods: Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results: Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions: Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane.

  5. Extraction of optical properties and prediction of light distribution in rat brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Baumgartner, Ryan; Liu, Yuming; Jacques, Steven L.; Eliceiri, Kevin; Pashaie, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the distribution of light inside any turbid media, such as biological tissue, requires detailed information about the optical properties of the medium, including the absorption and scattering coefficients and the anisotropy factor. Particularly, in biophotonic applications where photons directly interact with the tissue, this information translates to system design optimization, precision in light delivery, and minimization of unintended consequences, such as phototoxicity or photobleaching. In recent years, optogenetics has opened up a new area in deep brain stimulation with light and the method is widely adapted by researchers for the study of the brain circuitries and the dynamics of neurological disorders. A key factor for a successful optogenetic stimulation is delivering an adequate amount of light to the targeted brain objects. The adequate amount of light needed to stimulate each brain object is identified by the tissue optical properties as well as the type of opsin expressed in the tissue, wavelength of the light, and the physical dimensions of the targeted area. Therefore, to implement a precise light delivery system for optogenetics, detailed information about the optical properties of the brain tissue and a mathematical model that incorporates all determining factors is needed to find a good estimation of light distribution in the brain. In general, three measurements are required to obtain the optical properties of any tissue, namely diffuse transmitted light, diffuse reflected light, and transmitted ballistic beam. In this report, these parameters were measured in vitro using intact rat brain slices of 500 μm thickness via a two-integrating spheres optical setup. Then, an inverse adding doubling method was used to extract the optical properties of the tissue from the collected data. These experiments were repeated to cover the whole brain tissue with high spatial resolution for the three different cuts (transverse, sagittal, and coronal

  6. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Skeletal Tissues (Bones, Joints, and Teeth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Stacey; Vahle, John; Long, Philip; Schelling, Scott; Ernst, Heinrich; Boyce, Rogely Waite; Jolette, Jacquelin; Bolon, Brad; Bendele, Alison; Rinke, Matthias; Healy, Laura; High, Wanda; Roth, Daniel Robert; Boyle, Michael; Leininger, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is an initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the skeletal tissues and teeth of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of many common lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material were databases from government, academic and industrial laboratories throughout the world. PMID:27621538

  7. A procedure for the quantitative analysis of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, M K; Gaull, G E

    1967-03-01

    1. A method is described for the quantitative separation of the sulphur compounds in a single sample of tissue by passing an extract through a serial assembly of ion-exchange resins in the order: Dowex 2 (Cl(-) form), Dowex 1 (CO(3) (2-) form), Amberlite CG-50 (H(+) form) and Zeo-Karb 225 (H(+) form). 2. Groups of sulphur amino acids were eluted separately from each column; the recovery of sulphur compounds after their labelling with (35)S in vivo by injection of l-[(35)S]-methionine was 91-106%. Individual sulphur compounds were further resolved by one-dimensional or two-dimensional paper chromatography. 3. Evidence is presented on the occurrence of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in rat liver and brain. Rat liver and brain contained 83.6 and 31.4mmu-moles/g. respectively of S-adenosylmethionine.

  8. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  9. Tissue engineering of rat bladder using marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bladder acellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Coutu

    Full Text Available Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration.

  10. Ellagic acid prevents cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in liver and heart tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ateşşahin, Ahmet; Ceribaşi, Ali Osman; Aksakal, Mesut

    2007-11-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce hepatotoxicity, and several studies suggest that supplemental antioxidants can reduce cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects on the liver and heart oxidant/antioxidant system and the possible protective effects of ellagic acid on liver and heart toxicity induced by cisplatin. The control group received 0.9% saline; animals in the ellagic acid group received only ellagic acid (10 mg/kg); animals in the cisplatin group received only cisplatin (7 mg/kg); animals in cisplatin + ellagic acid group received ellagic acid for 10 days after cisplatin. The rats were killed at the end of the treatment period. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in liver and heart tissue. While administration of cisplatin increased the MDA levels in liver and heart tissues, it decreased the GSH, GSH-Px and CAT in these samples when compared to the control group. The administration of ellagic acid to cisplatin-treated rats decreased the MDA levels, and increased GSH, GSH-Px and CAT in these samples. Cisplatin caused marked damages in the histopathological status of liver and heart tissues. These damages were ameliorated by ellagic acid administration. In conclusion, ellagic acid may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters.

  11. Zinc prevention of electromagnetically induced damage to rat testicle and kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Baltaci, Abdülkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Oztekin, Esma

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of lipid peroxidation when zinc is administered to rats periodically exposed to a 50-Hz electromagnetic field for 5 min at a time over a period of 6 mo. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were subdivided in groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as untreated controls, group 2 was exposed to an electromagnetic field but received no additional treatment, and group 3 was exposed to electromagnetic radiation and treated with 3-mg/kg daily intraperitoneal injections of zinc sulfate. The erythrocyte glutathione activity (GSH) and the plasma, testicle, and kidney tissue levels of zinc (Zn) and of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in all of the animals. The plasma and testicle MDA levels in group 2 were higher than those in groups 1 and 3, with group 3 values significantly higher than those in group 1 (ptesticle and kidney tissues, the GSH levels in group 1 were lower than for groups 2 and 3, with group 2 significantly lower than group 3 (ptesticle and kidney tissue damage caused by periodic exposure to an electromagnetic field are ameliorated or prevented by zinc supplementation.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lundby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity.

  13. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1–4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3–4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions. PMID:27932989

  14. Tissue distribution of anthocyanins in rats fed a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgines, Catherine; Texier, Odile; Garcin, Pauline; Besson, Catherine; Lamaison, Jean-Louis; Scalbert, Augustin

    2009-09-01

    Anthocyanins are natural dietary pigments that could be involved in various health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of anthocyanins to various organs (bladder, prostate, testes, heart and adipose tissue) in rats fed with a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet for 12 days. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins were carried out by HPLC-DAD. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins (native anthocyanins and their metabolites) was low (0.20 +/- 0.03%, n = 8). Proportions of anthocyanin derivatives (methylated anthocyanins and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) differed according to the organ considered. The bladder contained the highest levels of anthocyanins followed by the prostate. Prostate, testes and heart contained native cyanidin 3-glucoside and a small proportion of cyanidin monoglucuronide. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and methylated derivatives were present in adipose tissue. Thus, anthocyanin feeding in rats resulted in a wide distribution of anthocyanin derivatives to several organs. Identification of target tissues of anthocyanins may then help to understand the mechanisms of action of anthocyanins in vivo.

  15. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  16. Detection and characterization of chemical-induced abnormal tissue and rat tumors at different stages using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Crull, Jason; Knobbe, Edward T.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of diseased tissues, including chemical-induced rat liver, kidney and testis lesions, as well as murine mammary tumor, was studied. The rat liver, kidney and testis tissues were excited by radiation of 350 and 366 nm, which appeared to provide the optimal differentiation between normal and lesion tissues; the tumor tissues were excited by both 350 nm and 775 nm wavelengths. In comparison with normal liver tissue, at (lambda) ex equals 366 nm, the fluorescent spectrum of liver lesion showed a clear red shift around the emission peak of 470 nm, the major native fluorescent peak of organized tissue. When excited by 350 nm wavelength, all the chemically induced lesion tissues (liver, kidney and testis) appeared to cause a significant reduction of emission intensity at the 470 nm peak. While the 775 nm excitation did not reveal any significant difference among tumor, muscle and skin tissues, the 350 nm excitation did provide some interesting features among the tumor tissues at different stages. Compared with muscle tissue, the viable tumor showed an overall reduction of emission intensity around 470 nm. In addition, the viable tumor tissue showed a secondary emission peak at 390 nm with necrotic tumor tissue having a reduced intensity. The histology of both viable and necrotic tumor tissue was examined and appeared to correlate with the results of the fluorescent spectroscopy observation.

  17. Increased expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in rat hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Jia; Si-Yuan Li; Shuang-Suo Dang; Yan-An Cheng; Xin Zhang; Wen-Jun Wang; Clare E Hughes; Bruce Caterson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in rat liver tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups:control group (n =10)and HCC model group (n =20).Rats in the HCC model groups were intragastrically administrated with 0.2% (w/v) N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) every 5 d for 16 wk,whereas 0.9% (w/v) normal saline was administered to rats in the control group.After 16 wk from the initiation of experiment,all rats were killed and livers were collected and fixed in 4% (w/v) paraformaldehyde.All tissues were embedded in paraffin and sectioned.Histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin and Toluidine blue) was performed to demonstrate the onset of HCC and the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG).Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate the expression of chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS)-GAG,heparan sulphate (HS)-GAG,keratan sulphate (KS)-GAG in liver tissues.Furthermore,expression and distribution of CSPG family members,including aggrecan,versican,biglycan and decorin in liver tissues,were also immunohistochemically determined.RESULTS:After 16 wk administration of DEN,malignant nodules were observed on the surface of livers from the HCC model group,and their hepatic lobule structures appeared largely disrupted under microscope.Toluidine blue staining demonstrated that there was an significant increase in sGAG content in HCC tissues when compared with that in the normal liver tissues from the control group [0.37 ± 0.05 integrated optical density per stained area (IOD/area) and 0.21 ±0.01 IOD/area,P < 0.05].Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that this increased sGAG in HCC tissues was induced by an elevated expression of CS/DS (0.28 ± 0.02 IOD/area and 0.18 ± 0.02 IOD/area,P <0.05) and HS (0.30 ± 0.03 IOD/area and 0.17 ± 0.02 IOD/area,P < 0.01) but not KS GAGs in HCC tissues.Further studies thereby

  18. [Comparative analysis of tissue reaction to acrylic resin materials in studies on Wistar strain rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, E

    1999-01-01

    The study takes up the issue of assessing rat tissue reaction to operatively inserted implants of different acrylic resin materials used in prosthetic dentistry. The materials subjected to analysis were polyacrylics: Vertex Soft, Vertex R.S., Vertex S.C., Superacryl and silicone material Molloplast B. The prolongation of life and the dynamic development of prosthetic treatment have caused removable dentures to be used longer and among more people. Polymerised acrylic resin material of these dentures is a potential pathogenic factor to the oral cavity mucosa which is in contact with it. As many as 20 to 70% of patients using removable acrylic dentures suffer from prosthetic stomatopathy. It is considered that the mucosa irritation may be caused by denture trauma, a mycotic infection or toxic action of some components of acrylic materials. Therefore the use of new generation acrylic materials in producing prosthetic dentures needs a precise assessment of undesirable local and systemic effects. A comparative analysis of the effect of correctly polymerised acrylic material on rat mucosa, parotid glands and lymphatic nodes was carried out. Systemic toxicity of these materials was assessed. Acrylic plates were prepared from the most often used acrylic resin materials in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry PAM and a silicone material (these materials were polymerised precisely according to the producers instruction). Before implantation the plates underwent a thermodynamic analysis in order to ensure that the polymerisation process was carried out correctly and to determine thermal resistance of particular materials. Next sterile acrylic plates were implanted in rats under general anaesthesia. The animals were divided into 6 groups, 10 rats each. In four groups acrylic plates were implanted, in one group silicone material plates were implanted and it represented the comparative group, in one control group an incision of the buccal mucosa was made. The rats were

  19. Bioavailability, tissue distribution and hypoglycaemic effect of vanadium in magnesium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Cristina; Torres, Miguel; Bermúdez-Peña, María C; Aranda, Pilar; Montes-Bayón, María; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Llopis, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Vanadium is an element whose role as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic drug has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate the bioavailability and tissue distribution of vanadium and its interactions with magnesium in healthy and in magnesium-deficient rats, in order to determine its role as a micronutrient and antidiabetic agent. Four groups were used: control (456.4 mg magnesium and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); control treated with 1mg vanadium/day; magnesium-deficient (164.4 mg magnesium/kg food and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); and magnesium-deficient treated with 1 mg vanadium/day. The vanadium was supplied in the drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV). The experiment had a duration of five weeks. We measured vanadium and magnesium in excreta, serum, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver, adipose tissue and femur. Fasting glucose, insulin and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were studied. The vanadium treatment applied to the control rats reduced the absorption, retention, serum level and femur content of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency increased the retention and serum level of vanadium, the content of vanadium in the kidney, liver and femur (organs where magnesium had been depleted), serum glycaemia and insulin, and reduced TAS. V treatment given to magnesium-deficient rats corrected magnesium content in muscle, kidney and liver and levels of serum glucose, insulin and TAS. In conclusion, our results show interactions between magnesium and vanadium in the digestive and renal systems. Treatment with vanadium to magnesium-deficient rats corrected many of the alterations that had been generated by the magnesium deficiency.

  20. Changes in the antioxidant defence and in selenium concentration in tissues of vanadium exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Cristina; Bermudez-Peña, Carmen; Trenzado, Cristina E; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Montes-Bayon, María; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Llopis, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Vanadium is an element whose role as a micronutrient for humans is not yet completely established, but which has been shown to possess hypoglycaemic properties in diabetes. In an earlier study, we showed that in STZ-diabetic rats, exposure to 1 mg V per day has no effect on glycaemia or on antioxidant status. When the exposure was raised to 3 mg V per day there was a hypoglycaemic effect, together with reduced Se in the tissues, which reduced antioxidant defences. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to 1 mg V per day modifies Se nutritional status and/or antioxidant defences in healthy rats. Two groups of rats were examined: control and vanadium-treated. Vanadium, as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(iv), was supplied in the drinking water. The experiment had a duration of five weeks. Selenium was measured in excreta, serum, skeletal muscle, kidneys, liver, heart, femur and adipose tissue. Number of red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells and haemoglobin (Hb) were determined in samples of whole blood. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and NAD(P)H:quinine-oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver were evaluated. Treatment significantly reduced food intake, produced an anaemic state, and decreased Se absorption and Se content in serum, kidneys and the liver. GPx, GST and NQO1 activity were decreased in the liver, while MDA levels rose. We conclude that healthy rats are more sensitive than diabetic ones to the effects of V. This should be taken into account for populations that are particularly exposed to V for environmental reasons, and/or that consume V as a nutritional supplement.

  1. Diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated dendrimers in rat aortic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Brenda S; Roelofs, Karen J; Majoros, Istvan J; Baker, James R; Stanley, James C; Henke, Peter K; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the distribution of labeled dendrimers in native and aneurysmal rat aortic tissue was examined. Adult male rats underwent infrarenal aorta perfusion with generation 5 (G5) acetylated Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated dendrimers for varying lengths of time. In a second set of experiments, rats underwent aortic elastase perfusion followed by aortic dendrimer perfusion 7 days later. Aortic diameters were measured prior to and postelastase perfusion, and again on the day of harvest. Aortas were harvested 0, 12, or 24 h postperfusion, fixed, and mounted. Native aortas were harvested and viewed as negative controls. Aortic cross-sections were viewed and imaged using confocal microscopy. Dendrimers were quantified (counts/high-powered field). Results were evaluated by repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-test. We found that in native aortas, dendrimers penetrated the aortic wall in all groups. For all perfusion times, fewer dendrimers were present as time between dendrimer perfusion and aortic harvest increased. Longer perfusion times resulted in increased diffusion of dendrimers throughout the aortic wall. By 24 h, the majority of the dendrimers were through the wall. Dendrimers in aneurysmal aortas, on day 0 postdendrimer perfusion, diffused farther into the aortic wall than controls. In conclusion, this study documents labeled dendrimers delivered intra-arterially to native rat aortas in vivo, and the temporal diffusion of these molecules within the aortic wall. Increasing perfusion time and length of time prior to harvest resulted in continued dendrimer diffusion into the aortic wall. These preliminary data provide a novel mechanism whereby local inhibitory therapy may be delivered locally to aortic tissue.

  2. Experimental hyperprolinemia induces mild oxidative stress, metabolic changes, and tissue adaptation in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Andréa G K; da Cunha, Aline A; Machado, Fernanda R; Pederzolli, Carolina D; Dalazen, Giovana R; de Assis, Adriano M; Lamers, Marcelo L; dos Santos, Marinilce F; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of chronic hyperprolinemia on oxidative and metabolic status in liver and serum of rats. Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of proline from their 6th to 28th day of life. Twelve hours after the last injection the rats were sacrificed and liver and serum were collected. Results showed that hyperprolinemia induced a significant reduction in total antioxidant potential and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased after chronic proline administration, while glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity, dichlorofluorescin oxidation, GSH, sulfhydryl, and carbonyl content remained unaltered. Histological analyses of the liver revealed that proline treatment induced changes of the hepatic microarchitecture and increased the number of inflammatory cells and the glycogen content. Biochemical determination also demonstrated an increase in glycogen concentration, as well as a higher synthesis of glycogen in liver of hyperprolinemic rats. Regarding to hepatic metabolism, it was observed an increase on glucose oxidation and a decrease on lipid synthesis from glucose. However, hepatic lipid content and serum glucose levels were not changed. Proline administration did not alter the aminotransferases activities and serum markers of hepatic injury. Our findings suggest that hyperprolinemia alters the liver homeostasis possibly by induction of a mild degree of oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The hepatic alterations caused by proline probably do not implicate in substantial hepatic tissue damage, but rather demonstrate a process of adaptation of this tissue to oxidative stress. However, the biological significance of these findings requires additional investigation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  4. Inflammation and adipose tissue: effects of progressive load training in rats

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    Oyama Lila M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α are increased after exhaustive exercise in the rat retroperitoneal (RPAT and mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT pads. On the other hand, these cytokines show decreased expression in these depots in response to a chronic exercise protocol. However, the effect of exercise with overload combined with a short recovery period on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of cytokine production in the adipose tissue of rats after an overtraining-inducing exercise protocol. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C, Trained (Tr, Overtrained (OT and recovered overtrained (R. Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4, Nuclear Factor kBp65 (NF-kBp65, Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL and, Perilipin protein expression were assessed in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, we analysed plasma lipid profile, insulin, testosterone, corticosterone and endotoxin levels, and liver triacylglycerol, cytokine content, as well as apolipoprotein B (apoB and TLR4 expression in the liver. Results OT and R groups exhibited reduced performance accompanied by lower testosterone and increased corticosterone and endotoxin levels when compared with the control and trained groups. IL-6 and IL-10 protein levels were increased in the adipose tissue of the group allowed to recover, in comparison with all the other studied groups. TLR-4 and NF-kBp65 were increased in this same group when compared with both control and trained groups. The protein expression of HSL was increased and that of Perilipin, decreased in the adipose in R in relation to the control. In addition, we found increased liver and serum TAG, along with reduced apoB protein expression and IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the of R in relation to the control and trained groups. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that increases in pro

  5. Sensory innervation of the nonspecialized connective tissues in the low back of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Sarah M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, including low back pain, is a worldwide debilitating condition; however, the mechanisms that underlie its development remain poorly understood. Pathological neuroplastic changes in the sensory innervation of connective tissue may contribute to the development of nonspecific chronic low back pain. Progress in understanding such potentially important abnormalities is hampered by limited knowledge of connective tissue's normal sensory innervation. The goal of this study was to evaluate and quantify the sensory nerve fibers terminating within the nonspecialized connective tissues in the low back of the rat. With 3-dimensional reconstructions of thick (30-80 μm) tissue sections we have for the first time conclusively identified sensory nerve fiber terminations within the collagen matrix of connective tissue in the low back. Using dye labeling techniques with Fast Blue, presumptive dorsal root ganglia cells that innervate the low back were identified. Of the Fast Blue-labeled cells, 60-88% also expressed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity. Based on the immunolabeling with CGRP and the approximate size of these nerve fibers (≤2 μm) we hypothesize that they are Aδ or C fibers and thus may play a role in the development of chronic pain.

  6. Determination of piroxicam from rat articular tissue and plasma based on LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sol; Cho, Ha Ra; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Yong Seok

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. To manage OA, in general, oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used. Recently, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long-acting NSAID, by intra-articular (IA) administration in OA was reported, and the possibility that PX is distributed in articular tissues at a certain concentration was raised. Thus, herein, novel LC-MS/MS methods to detect PX in rat articular tissue and plasma are presented. For articular tissue, solvent extraction with acetonitrile for 12 h was employed and a protein precipitation method was used for the preparation of a plasma sample. The developed methods were validated by following the FDA guidelines, and the validated methods were successfully applied to a PK study of IA PX. The present study presents, to our knowledge, the first method of determining a drug in articular tissue. Additionally, the level of PX in articular tissue after IA PX administration was experimentally confirmed for the first time using the present methods. Therefore, the present methods provide a new direction for in vivo evaluation for IA PX formulations and contribute to the development of alternative IA PX formulations with better effects for the treatment of OA.

  7. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  8. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  9. Do adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate Parkinson's disease in rat model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hh; Salem, Am; Atta, Hm; Ghazy, Ma; Aglan, Ha

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in middle-aged and elderly people. This study aimed to elucidate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in management of PD in ovariectomized rat model. MSCs were excised from adipose tissue of both the omentum and the inguinal fat pad of male rats, grown, and propagated in culture; then characterized morphologically; and by the detection of surface markers gene expression. In this study, 40 ovariectomized animals were classified into 5 groups; group 1 was ovariectomized control, groups 2 to 5 were subcutaneously administered with rotenone for 14 days after 1 month of ovariectomy for induction of PD. Group 2 was left untreated; groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Sinemet(®), Cerebrolysin(®), and a single dose of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs), respectively. Y-chromosome gene (sry) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in brain tissue of the female rats. Serum transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Brain dopamine level was assayed fluorometrically, while brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was detected by semiquantitative real-time PCR. The PD group showed significant increase in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels associated with significant decrease in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In contrast, all treatments produce significant decrease in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels in concomitant with significant increase in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In conclusion, the observed improvements in the studied biomarkers due to ADMSCs infusion might be attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neurotrophic effects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Biochemical enzyme activity in different tissues of rats exposed to a novel phosphorothionate (RPR-V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed F; Siddiqui, Mohammed K J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a novel phosphorothionate (RPR-V) synthesized at Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, was studied using three sub-chronic doses of 0.033 (low), 0.066 (medium) and 0.099 (high) mg kg(-1) in male and female rats for a period of 90 days. This long term and repeated treatment of RPR-V revealed that the membrane bound target enzymes Aspartate aminotransferase and Alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in serum and kidney, whereas these enzymes significantly decreased in liver and lung tissues when measured after 45 and 90 days of treatment. This compound also caused significant inhibition of RBC Acetylcholinesterase, target enzyme of organophosphorus compounds revealing its effect on normal synaptic transmission. Two way Anova studies disclosed that the alterations were mostly dose and time dependent, sexual dimorphism was not observed when the activities of male rats were compared with female rats. Enzyme recoveries were recorded after 28 days of post treatment, high degree positive correlation was observed with regard to these enzymes between serum versus kidney, whereas in case of serum versus liver and lung tissues high degree negative correlation was recorded. These enzyme profiles elucidates that they increased in serum but they decreased significantly in liver and lung indicating necrosis of these tissues. However, in case of kidney the level of these enzymes increased significantly with parallel to serum, which is suggestive of an increase synthesis of these enzymes, may be an adaptive mechanism due to the stress of the toxicant. These biomarker enzymes can be detected rapidly and hence may be used for the prediction and diagnosis of pesticide insults.

  11. Assessment of regional bone tissue perfusion in rats using fluorescent microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Aref

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in bone blood flow have been shown to have deleterious effects on bone properties yet there remain many unanswered questions about skeletal perfusion in health and disease, partially due to the complexity of measurement methodologies. The goal of this study was use fluorescent microspheres in rats to assess regional bone perfusion by adapting mouse-specific fluorescent microsphere protocol. Ten fifteen-week old Sprague Dawley rats were injected with fluorescent microspheres either via cardiac injection (n = 5 or via tail vein injection (n = 5. Femora and tibiae were harvested and processed to determine tissue fluorescence density (TFD which is proportional to the number of spheres trapped in the tissue capillaries. Right and left total femoral TFD (2.77 ± 0.38 and 2.70 ± 0.24, respectively and right and left tibial TFD (1.11 ± 0.26 and 1.08 ± 0.34, respectively displayed bilateral symmetry in flow when assessed in cardiac injected animals. Partitioning of the bone perfusion into three segments along the length of the bone showed the distal femur and proximal tibia received the greatest amount of perfusion within their respective bones. Tail vein injection resulted in unacceptably low TFD levels in the tibia from 4 of the 5 animals. In conclusion this report demonstrates the viability of cardiac injection of fluorescent microspheres to assess bone tissue perfusion in rats.

  12. Effect of triiodothyronine on adiponectin expression and leptin release by white adipose tissue of normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanelas, A; Cordeiro, A; Santos Almeida, N A dos; Monteiro de Paula, G S; Coelho, V M; Ortiga-Carvalho, T M; Pazos-Moura, C C

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that alterations in thyroid status may lead to changes in serum leptin and adiponectin, both in humans and rodents. The mechanisms, especially for adiponectin, are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on the expression of adiponectin mRNA and the release of leptin and adiponectin by white adipose tissue (WAT) explants obtained from epididymal (visceral) or inguinal (subcutaneous) depots from normal rats. We also analyzed the effects of other known regulators of adiponectin and leptin release, such as rosiglitazone and dexamethasone. T3 acted directly at rat WAT explants in a depot-specific manner and in a unique fashion to each hormone. T3 was able to inhibit leptin release only by epididymal explants, and to reduce adiponectin mRNA expression only in inguinal explants. However, T3 was incapable of modifying adiponectin release by both explants. Additionally, rosiglitazone exhibited an inhibitory effect on adiponectin release by both WAT explants, even though adiponectin mRNA was importantly upregulated only in inguinal explants. Rosiglitazone acted as an inhibitor of leptin release by both studied fat depots, while only epididymal explants responded to the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone on leptin release. Therefore, the present model of isolated rat white adipose tissue explants highlights the fact that the regulation of hormonal production by white adipose tissue depends on the type of depot and its anatomical location. In this context, our results show for the first time a potential inhibitory effect of T3 on adiponectin mRNA expression specifically on WAT from a subcutaneous depot. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  13. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg BW of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase–glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase–glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague–Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels.

  14. Effects of ozone on lung tissue of E-supplemented rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.D.; Abedin, M.Z.; Alfin-Slater, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E (E) in protecting lung tissue of rats exposed to ozone were studied in male, pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats fed synthetic diets containing 0, 10 and 50 IU E/Kg for 6 wks. Thereafter, half of the animals in each group were exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone for 4 days, the other half to filtered air, then all animals were killed. Plasma E levels increased with increasing dietary E in both ozone-exposed and air-breathing rats; values in both groups were 12 times higher at 50 IU than what was observed in E-free dietary controls. Even greater increases were seen in lung and liver. Ozone enhanced the observed increased levels in the lung but diminished those in the liver. Ozone produced lipid oxidation in the lung at 0 and 10 IU E as measured by a modified TBA test whereas 50 IU was protective. In the lung, mean organ weight, cytosolic protein content, and activities of NADPH-generating and sulfhydryl-metabolizing enzymes were not affected by the level of dietary E in air-breathing controls. Ozone exposure, however, increased these indices but the extent of increase varied inversely with the E level in the tissue. It is suggested that the enhanced enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in the lung reflects injury from ozone exposure. Reduction in the extent of these changes with increased tissue E suggests that dietary vitamin E may offer protection against the oxidant-induced lung injury.

  15. [Expression and significance of enkephalin and dopamine in experimental rat cerebral concussion tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui-Yun; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, De-Wen; Xiao, Xing-Yi; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jie; Xu, Long-He; Hu, Wen-Hua

    2003-05-01

    To explore the expression and significance of enkephalin and dopamine in rat cerebral concussion tissue. 80 Wistar male rats were used to make animal model of cerebral concussion, which were sacrificed on 1,3,7,14 and 30 days after postconcussion and the brain tissues were taken out. The expression patterns of enkephalin and dopamine were studied in the course of cerebral concussion by immunohistochemical staining. The clinical manifestation with typical cerebral concussion character was seen in rat group with 100 g body weight. The mainly pathologic changes were cerebral vascular constriction and dilatation, congestion and edema of cerebral tissue, and neuronal degeneration and necrosis. Expression of enkephalin was increased on day 1 after injury and the enkephalin positive area was in the plasma of endothelial cells in cerebral cortex, hippocamp and cerebellum. The expression of enkephalin reached the peak on day 7 after injury, and the positive area was also seen in the plasma of neurons in cerebral cortex, hippocamp and cerebellum. From 14 days after injury, the expression of enkephalin decreased gradually, but until 30 days after injury it was still higher than that of controls. Expression of dopamine increased in 7 days after injury and the positive area was seen in the plasma of endothelial cells and in the vessel wall in cerebral cortex, hippocamp, thalamus and cerebellum, and had no notable changes at other time points. The mainly pathologic changes after cerebral concussion were blood circulatory disorder and denaturation and necrosis of parenchymal cells. Enkephalin and dopamine may participate in the pathophysiological course of cerebral injury after cerebral concussion, and play an important role in the blood vessel injury, regulation of blood-brain barrier and the denaturation and necrosis of nerve cells.

  16. Stress response of bovine artery and rat brain tissue due to combined translational shear and fixed unconfined compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren

    During trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, sinusoidal waves permeate the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both non-homogeneous biological tissues with high fluid contents. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat brain tissue and bovine aortic tissue. Both tissues exhibit Mullins effect in shear. Harmonic wavelet decomposition, a novel application to the mechanical response of these tissues, shows significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component magnitude in brain tissue, which is much larger than in aortic tissue, may correlate to interstitial fluid induced drag forces that decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of damage resulting in easier fluid movement. The fluid may cause the quasiperiodic, viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. The mechanical response differences under impact may cause shear damage between arterial and brain connections.

  17. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  18. Whole tissue AC susceptibility after superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent administration in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Francisco Jose [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain) and Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: osoro@unizar.es; Gutierrez, Lucia [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Rosa Abadia, Ana [Dept. Farmacologia y Fisiologia, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza (Spain); Soledad Romero, Maria [Dept. Medicina y Psiquiatria, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, Antonio [CNAM - Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Jesus Munoz, Maria [Dept. Farmacologia y Fisiologia, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A magnetic AC susceptibility characterisation of rat tissues after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Endorem{sup (R)}), at the same dose as established for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement in humans, has been carried out. The measurements reveal the presence of the contrast agent as well as that of physiological ferritin in liver and spleen while no traces have been magnetically detected in heart and kidney. This preliminary work opens suggestive possibilities for future biodistribution studies of any type of magnetic carriers.

  19. METOVITAN PREVENTS ACCUMULATION OF THIAMIN DIPHOSPHATE OXYGENIZED FORM IN RAT TISSUES UNDER IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. M. Parkhomenko; G. V. Donchenko; L. I. Chehovskaya; S. P. Stepanenko; O. A. Mejenskaya; E. N. Gorban

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the ability of the drug “Metovitan” to prevent the redox balance disturbance in the tissues and thiamine diphosphate irreversible oxidation upon exposure of ionizing radiation on the body. The rats were undergo to a single exposure of the X-ray therapeutic instrument RUM-17 to create a dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy. Preparation “Metovitan” were administered at a dose of 25 mg per 1 kg body weight for 22–24 h before irradiation. Contents of thiamin...

  20. Immunohistochemical Expression of Leptin (Ob-protein in Experimentally Hypertensive Rat Kidney Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Gevrek

    2016-12-01

    Results: The blood pressure levels of the experimental group were higher than in the control, and their renal tissues had some distinctive histopathological changes. Additionally, Leptin immunostaining scores increased in the excretory tubule cells of hypertensive rats. Conclusion: Upregulation of Leptin expression may indicate that Leptin molecules have an important physiological role such as regulation of some kidney functions to adapt high blood pressure; or, contrary to this, they may be a pathophysiological sign. Further research is necessary to determine whether this situation is physiological or pathophysiological process. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 255-265

  1. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    in immunohistochemical studies on frozen tissue sections from many rat organs. However, there was no reactivity with some basement membranes, notably those of several smooth muscle types and cardiac muscle. In addition, it was found that pancreatic acinar basement membranes also lacked the HSPG type recognized...... HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG represents...

  2. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-A Lee,1 Mi-Kyung Kim,1 Hee-Jeong Paek,1 Yu-Ri Kim,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,2 Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk–do, Republic of Korea Purpose: The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods: Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion: The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ

  3. Chronic tissue response to untethered microelectrode implants in the rat brain and spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen, Ali; Elkabes, Stella; Freedman, David S.; Sahin, Mesut

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device-tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach. One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main results. The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 μm from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 μm perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance. These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant.

  4. Gamma-Glutamyl Cysteine Attenuates Tissue Damage and Enhances Tissue Regeneration in a rat Model of Lead-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Samir A; Arab, Hany H; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Memy H; AlSaeed, Mohammed S

    2016-09-01

    Lead is a biohazardous metal that is commonly involved in human illness including renal injury. Although it is a non-redox reactive metal, lead-induced renal injury is largely based on oxidative stress. The current work aimed at exploring the possible protective effect of γ-glutamyl cysteine (γGC) against lead-induced renal injury. Rats were allocated to normal and γGC control groups, lead-treated group, and lead and γGC-treated group. γGC alleviated lead-induced renal injury as evidenced by attenuation of histopathological aberration, amelioration of oxidative injury as demonstrated by significant reduction in lipid and protein oxidation, elevation of total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione level. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly elevated. γGC significantly decreased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, γGC reduced kidney lead content, enhanced weight gain, and improved renal function as demonstrated by reduced serum levels of urea and creatinine. Importantly, γGC upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, denoting enhanced renal regenerative capacity. Together, our findings highlight evidence for alleviating effects of γGC against lead-induced renal injury that is potentially mediated through diminution of oxidative tissue injury, reduction of inflammatory response, attenuation of apoptosis, and enhancement of renal regenerative capacity.

  5. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

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    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  6. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

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    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Duygu Uzun,1 Gülcan Güntas Korkmaz,2 Mustafa Erinç Sitar,3 Tamer Cebe,4 Karolin Yanar,3 Ufuk Çakatay,3 Seval Aydin3 1Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Kirklareli University, School of Health, Kirklareli, Turkey; 3Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Aging is characterized by a gradual functional decrease of all systems including the kidneys. Growing evidence links altered lipid protein redox-homeostasis with renal dysfunction. The effect of sexual dimorphism on the lipid protein redox-homeostasis mechanisms in the aging kidney is obscure. In the current study, we aimed to investigate redox homeostasis as it related to sexual dimorphism on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation parameters, as protein carbonyl (PCO, total thiol (T-SH, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, as potential aging biomarkers, which may contribute to an analysis of the free radical theory of aging. Materials and methods: The study was carried out with 16 naturally aged rats (24 months old; eight males and eight females and their corresponding young rat groups as controls (6 months old; eight males and eight females. All of the aforementioned parameters (PCO, T-SH, AOPP, MDA, GSH, SOD were measured manually instead of automated devices or ELISA kits. Results: PCO, AOPP, and malondialdehyde levels in aged rats were significantly higher in the older rat group than in the younger rat group, whereas SOD activities were significantly lower in old rats. T-SH levels were not significantly different in male groups; however, T-SH levels were lower in the aged female group than in the young female control group. In addition, GSH levels were significantly different between the aged rat group and the corresponding

  7. Role of connective tissue growth factor in experimental radiation nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dian-ge; WANG Tie-min

    2008-01-01

    Background Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potent fibrogenic cytokine which has been associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We investigated the role of CTGF on the progression of a rat model of radiation nephropathy.Methods The model of radiation nephropathy in rats was established as follows: control group (n=-12), underwent only laparotomy; irradiated group (n=20), underwent a laparotomy, then the rats were subjected to a single dose 25 Gy X-ray to the kidneys. The rats were followed up one, three, six and nine months after renal exposure to radiation.Results Renal dysfunction was noted early in irradiated rats. Histological analysis showed focal glomerular sclerotic lesions at an early stage after irradiation. Radiation-induced glomerular and tubulointerstitial injudes were particularly severe the sixth month after irradiation as compared to the control group (P <0.01). By immunohistochemistry, increased expression of CTGF was noted in the irradiated kidneys, which began to increase from the first month after irradiation,and remained significantly higher at the sixth and ninth month after irradiation (P <0.01). Upon Westem blot analysis CTGF protein expression showed an increase in the radiation treated kidneys compared with the control rats. The expression of CTGF closely correlated with the progression of radiation nephropathy. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type Ⅲ collagen and type Ⅳ collagen was also high in the irradiated kidney as compared to control rat kidneys (P <0.05), and was most severe at the sixth and ninth month after irradiation (P <0.01). By double immunostaining, CTGF expressing cells were found to be α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts and vimentin-positive tubular epithelial cells. Glomerular expression of CTGF closely correlated with the glomerular expression of α-SMA (r=0.628, P <0.01), vimentin (r=0.462, P <0.05) and accumulation of type Ⅳ collagen (r=0.584, P <0

  8. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus.

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    Lauriane Jugé

    Full Text Available Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P < 0.001, for both, an alteration of the corpus callosum and periventricular white matter microstructure (CC+PVWM and rearrangement of the cortical gray matter microstructure (P < 0.001, for both, while compression without gross microstructural alteration was evident in the caudate-putamen and ventral internal capsule (P < 0.001, for both. During hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P < 0.001, while a decrease in space was observed for the ventral internal capsule (P < 0.001. For the cortical gray matter, an increase in extracellular tissue water was significantly associated with a decrease in tissue stiffness (P = 0.001. To conclude, this study characterizes the temporal changes in tissue microstructure, water content and stiffness in different brain regions and their association with ventricular enlargement. In summary, whilst diffusion changes were larger and statistically significant for majority of the brain regions

  9. Acute effect of nano-copper on liver tissue and function in rat

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    Miron Doudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This paper reports on the toxicity of CuO NPs on hepatic enzymes and liver and lung histology. Materials and Methods: To assess the toxicity of copper nanoparticles (10-15 nm in vivo, pathological examinations and blood biochemical indexes including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT at various time points (2, 7 and 14 dayswere studied. Thirty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Treatment groups (group 1, 2, 3 received CuO NP solution containing 5, 10 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline via ip injection for 7 consecutive days. After 14 days, the tissue of liver and lung were collected and investigated for their histological problems. Results:The histology of the hepatic tissues showed vasculature in central veins and portal triad vessels in all three treatment groups. Histology of lungs showed air sac wall thickening and increased fibrous tissue in all three groups. Biochemical results of the hepatic enzymes showed that the SGOT levels in groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than the control group two days after the intervention. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that all concentration of copper nanoparticles [with 10-15 nm diameters, spherical shape, purity of 99.9%, mineral in nature, and wet synthesis method in liquid phase (alternation] induce toxicity and changes of histo-pathological changes in liver and lung tissues of rats. It is evident that these nanoparticles cannot be used for human purposes because of their toxicity.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a novel PDE5 inhibitor,SK-3530, in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-hyun YOO; Nam-sun KIM; Guang-jin Im; Dong-hyun KIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile and tissue distribution of a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, 5-ethyl-2-{5-[4-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-piperazine-1-sulfonyl]-2-propoxy-phenyl }-7-propyl-3,5-dihydro-pyrrolo(3,2-d)pyrimidin-4-one (SK-3530), in rats after administration of the 14C-labeled compound. Methods:The pharmacokinetic parameters of SK-3530 were measured based on the total radioactivity and parent SK-3530 concentration in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration. The tissue distribution of total radioactivity after a single oral administration of [14C]SK-3530 at a dose of 40 mg/kg was assayed. The plasma protein binding rates of SK-3530 were assessed by in vitro and ex vivo assay. Results: The total radioactivity profiles showed linear pharmacokinetics.The maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of the parent SK3530 were 10%-20% compared to those of the total radioactivity. After the oral admin-istration of [14C]SK-3530, the radioactivity was widely distributed in all tissues,and the tissue/plasma ratio of the radioactivity 1 h after administration was calcu-lated as 0.5-2.6 with the exception of excretory organs. A relatively high penetra-tion was shown in the adrenal glands, liver, and lung. In vitro and ex vivo plasma protein binding assay by ultrafiltration showed a considerably high binding rate of more than 97%. Conclusion: SK-3530 was relatively well absorbed in the gas-trointestinal tract and showed linear pharmacokinetics over the investigated dose range. SK-3530 had low oral bioavailability due to a high, first-pass metabolism.

  11. Assessment of apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy after grape polyphenols intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of grape polyphenols intervention on apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods: SPF male SD rats were selected as experimental animals and divided into control group, diabetes group and grape polyphenols group, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was adopted to establish diabetic rat models, and grape polyphenols group received intragastric administration of grape polyphenols. 60 d after model establishment, the rats were executed, and the retina tissue was collected to determine apoptosis molecules and oxidative stress indexes.Results:Bax, Caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, ROS, MDA, 8-OHdG, PARP, Cyclophilin D, Nrf-2, ARE, ERK and PI3K content in retina tissue of diabetes group were significantly higher than those of control group while Bcl-2, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1 and NQO1 content were significantly lower than those of control group; Bax, Caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, ROS, MDA, 8-OHdG, PARP and Cyclophilin D content in retina tissue of grape polyphenols group were significantly lower than those of diabetes group while Bcl-2, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1, NQO1, Nrf-2, ARE, ERK and PI3K content were significantly higher those of diabetes group.Conclusions:Grape polyphenols intervention can relieve the apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O(2) (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O(2)) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  13. Estrogen reduces 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver and visceral, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therése; Söderström, Ingegerd; Simonyté, Kotryna; Olsson, Tommy

    2010-03-01

    Following menopause, body fat is redistributed from peripheral to central depots. This may be linked to the age related decrease in estrogen levels. We hypothesized that estrogen supplementation could counteract this fat redistribution through tissue-specific modulation of glucocorticoid exposure. We measured fat depot masses and the expression and activity of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in fat and liver of ovariectomized female rats treated with or without 17beta-estradiol. 11betaHSD1 converts inert cortisone, or 11-dehydrocorticosterone in rats into active cortisol and corticosterone. Estradiol-treated rats gained less weight and had significantly lower visceral adipose tissue weight than nontreated rats (P adipose weight was unaltered. In addition, 11betaHSD1 activity/expression was downregulated in liver and visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat of estradiol-treated rats (P adipose tissue depots, with higher levels in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue of estradiol-treated animals (P effects on tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism, suggesting that estrogen replacement therapy could influence obesity related morbidity in postmenopausal women.

  14. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs. PMID:22559688

  15. Effect of higher frequency components and duration of vibration on bone tissue alterations in the rat-tail model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Goenka, Shilpi; Kim, Brian; Kim, Jay; Bhattacharya, Amit; Stringer, Keith F; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2015-01-01

    To formulate more accurate guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) linked to Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), delineation of the response of bone tissue under different frequencies and duration of vibration needs elucidation. Rat-tails were vibrated at 125 Hz (9 rats) and 250 Hz (9 rats), at 49 m/s(2), for 1D (6 rats), 5D (6 rats) and 20D (6 rats); D=days (4 h/d). Rats in the control group (6 rats for the vibration groups; 2 each for 1D, 5D, and 20D) were left in their cages, without being subjected to any vibration. Structural and biochemical damages were quantified using empty lacunae count and nitrotyrosine signal-intensity, respectively. One-way repeated-measure mixed-model ANOVA at pbone, structural damage quantified through empty lacunae count was significant (pbone while the trabecular bone showed significant (pbone tissue are dependent upon higher vibration frequencies of 125 Hz, 250 Hz and the duration of vibration (5D, 20D).

  16. Effects of chronic tramadol administration on testicular tissue in rats: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatief, R B; Elgamal, D A; Mohamed, E E M

    2015-08-01

    In a prospective experimental study, the effects of chronic tramadol administration on gonadotrophic and sex hormones, histopathological and morphometrical alterations in rat testicular tissue were investigated in a laboratory setting. Tramadol was given alone to adult male albino rats. Gonadotrophic and serum sex hormone levels were measured and testicular pathological and morphometric changes were observed in treated vs. After 30 days of treatment, tramadol induced a decrease in LH, FSH and testosterone serum levels. Histologically, degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules were observed. They showed shrinkage, separation of tubular basement membrane, disorganisation and vacuolisation of spermatogenic layers. Morphometric analysis revealed significant decrease in the mean values of the tubular diameter and epithelial height. Ultrastructural abnormalities were detected in all cells of spermatogenic lineage in addition to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Sertoli cell vacuolation, huge lipid droplets and disrupted Sertoli cell junctions were observed. Leydig cells showed euchromatic nuclei and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In view of these findings, it is concluded that tramadol induces alterations in sex hormonal levels in conjunction with disruption of the normal histological structure of rat testis. This might lead to the risk of male infertility. Therefore, tramadol should be used with caution with appropriate dose monitoring. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

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    Toshiki Yoneda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old (n = 27 received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group or control ointment (control group to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group. At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  18. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P hydrocephalus development.

  19. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  20. Implantation of juvenile human chondrocytes demonstrates no adverse effect on spinal nerve tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külling, Fabrice A; Liu, Jane J; Liebenberg, Ellen; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-09-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common disabling condition for millions of individuals. Injection of xenogenic juvenile chondrocytes (XJC) into the disc space has been shown to have a therapeutic potential for disc repair. In the current study, XJC were injected extra-discally on neural structures in an in vivo rat hemilaminectomy model to compare the histological and behavioral effects on XJC and fibrin glue carrier. Twenty-four rats were assigned to four groups: cells plus carrier, carrier alone, sham hemi-laminectomy, and a positive control (nerve root ligation). A right-sided hemilaminectomy was performed and the study material was placed on and around the exposed L4 nerve root and the spinal cord. Pre- and postoperatively mechanical allodynia was tested on the ipsilateral hind paw using the von Frey up-down method. The lumbar spines were harvested after 6 and 12 weeks for nerve histology and TNF-α quantification. After a brief period of hyperalgesia, the von Frey data indicate there are no adverse effects of placing XJC on spinal nerve roots in rats. However ligation of nerve root showed significant allodynia compared to the other groups. These behavioral data were supported by histological analyses. While these results need to be confirmed over a larger period of time, they suggest that XJC transplantation into the disc space shows no adverse effect on nerve tissue.

  1. Biodistribution and metabolism of immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide CPG 7909 in mouse and rat tissues following subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Bernhard O; McCluskie, Michael J; Sniatala, Tanja; Lohner, Angela; Yuill, Stephanie; Krieg, Arthur M; Schetter, Christian; Davis, Heather L; Uhlmann, Eugen

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK) and biodistribution, CPG 7909, a 24-mer immunostimulatory fully phosphorothioated oligodeoxynucleotide (PS-ODN), was administered by subcutaneous injection at 2, 5 and 12.5mg/kg to mice and at 9mg/kg to rats. Parent compound and metabolites were isolated from plasma and tissues and quantified by capillary gel electrophoresis with UV detection (CGE-UV) and molecular masses were determined by matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization time of flight detection (MALDI-TOF). An established method for PS-ODN isolation from plasma and tissue was modified to prevent oxidation of the phosphorothioate bonds during the extraction process, significantly increasing sensitivity in the subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. Concentrations of CPG 7909 and metabolites were highest at the injection site (>600mg/kg at 4h). Maximal concentrations in local (draining) lymph nodes (LLN), kidney and liver were 10-15% of that at the injection site. The highest total amount of PS-ODN (percentage of administered dose) was found in the liver (32% at 4h), followed closely by the injection site (23% at 4h). Only very low levels of CPG 7909 and metabolites were found in plasma and only during the first hours. Metabolites identified by MALDI-TOF were similar for both species and all analyzed tissues, although the relative amounts of the different metabolites varied with tissue and over time. Degradation of CPG 7909 in vivo occurred predominantly by 3'exonucleases with additional cleavage by endonucleases.

  2. Effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissues in rat embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Homayoon Sadraie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspirin is the drug of the century, and is a multifunctional drug and one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. Aspirin is a safe drug at low doses but also it has life-threatening side effects when administered at high doses. This study investi-gates the effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissue in rat embryos.Methods: In this study, 30 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Control group with no intervention, sham group received 2 ml distilled water (as a sol-vent of aspirin received from days 8 to 20 of pregnancy, and four experimental groups received different doses of 75, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aspirin by gavage. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the twenty days of pregnancy and the fetuses were removed. Weight of the fetuses and placenta and Crown-Rump length were measured. Fetal kid-neys were fixed in formalin processed, sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin- Eosin. Thickness of renal cortical and medullary tissue by using a Motic hardware and soft-ware system were measured and recorded. A significance level of 0.05 was predeter-mined for all statistical analyses.Results: No apparent fetal anomalies were observed in experimental groups. In addi-tion, no significant differences were shown in the mean of fetal weight, placental weight, mean of Crown-Rump length in experimental groups 75, 200 and 300 mg/kg compared to control and sham groups. Mean fetal and placental weight in experimental group 100 significantly increased compared to control and sham groups. Mean ratio of renal cortex to renal medulla in experimental group 75, 100 and 300 were significantly decreased compared to control and sham groups (respectively P= 0.03, P= 0.013, P= 0.03.Conclusion: It seems that maternal use of aspirin during pregnancy can not cause fetal abnormalities. However, it can cause some changes in renal cortical and medullary tis-sue of rat embryos.

  3. Variations in lead isotopic abundances in Sprague-Dawley rat tissues: possible reason of formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duojian Liu

    Full Text Available It has been reported in previous research that the lead isotopic composition of blood, urine and feces samples statistically differed from the given lead sources in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. However, the reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. An animal experiment was performed to investigate the lead isotope fractionation in diverse biological samples (i.e., lungs, liver, kidneys, bone and to explore the possible reasons. SD rats were intratracheally instilled with lead acetate at the concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/kg body weight. Biological samples were collected for lead isotope analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Significant differences are observed in lead isotope abundances among the diverse biological samples. The lead isotope abundances ((206Pb, (207Pb and (208Pb in diverse biological samples show different degrees and directions of departure from the given lead source. The results suggest that differences in enrichment or depletion capacity for each lead isotope in the various tissues might lead to the variation in lead isotopic abundances in tissues. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead level and the lead isotope abundances in liver and bone is observed. When the whole-blood level is higher than 50 ng/mL, the lead isotopic compositions of biological samples tend to be the same. Thus, the data support the speculation of a fractionation functional threshold.

  4. Sodium metabisulfite induces lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in rat gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sevim; Oztürk, Nihal; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Gungor, Nazli Ece; Yargicoglu, Piraye

    2010-08-01

    Sodium metabisulfite (Na( 2)S(2)O(5)) is used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in a variety of drugs and functions as a preservative in many food preparations. This study was performed to elucidate the dose-dependent effects of sodium metabisulfite ingestion on rat gastric tissue apoptotic changes and lipid peroxidation. Forty male wistar rats, aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups: control (C), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (10 mg/kg; S1), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (100 mg/kg; S2), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (260 mg/kg; S3). Na( 2)S(2)O(5) was given by intragastric intubation for 35 days. In the S2 and S3 groups, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased markedly when compared with the control group. High doses of sulfite administration elevated number of apoptotic cells both in mucosa and submucosa layers of stomach in parallel with increased MDA levels. These results suggest that sodium metabisulfite increased lipid peroxidation and thus number of apoptotic cells on gastric tissue in dose-dependent manner.

  5. Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Study of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Zidovudine in Rats

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    Shah Purvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (AZT-SLNs and zidovudine in solution were prepared and administered in rats. The aim of this research was to study whether the bioavailability of zidovudine can be improved by AZT-SLNs perorally to rats as compared to oral administration of zidovudine. Zidovudine was determined in plasma and tissues by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters of zidovudine were determined after peroral administration: area under curve of concentration versus time (AUC for AZT-SLNs was 31.25% greater than AZT solution; meanwhile mean resident time (MRT was found to be 1.83 times higher for AZT-SLNs than AZT solution. Elimination half life of zidovudine was also increased for SLN formulation. Tissue distribution pattern of zidovudine was changed in case of AZT-SLNs. AUC of zidovudine in brain and liver was found to be approximately 2.73 and 1.77 times higher in AZT-SLNs than AZT solution, respectively, indicating that AZT-SLNs could cross blood brain barrier. Distribution of zidovudine was approximately 0.95 and 0.86 times lesser in heart and kidney, respectively. It can be concluded from the study that oral administration of AZT-SLNs modifies the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and biodistribution of zidovudine.

  6. Expression of serotonin receptors in the colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats

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    Tong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.01. The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.05, P< 0.01. On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.01, P< 0.01. Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet.

  7. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  8. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  9. Anti-oxidative effect of resveratrol on aluminum induced toxicity in rat cerebral tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M M H; Hajipour, B; Estakhri, R; Saleh, B M

    2017-01-01

    The direct protective effects of resveratrol against oxidative stress have been demonstrated in neuroglial cells, the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. The aim of this research was to study the effect of resveratrol on AL induced cerebral injury in rat. We divided the groups as follows with 10 animals each: a) Group I - served as control receiving normal drinking water and diet ad libitum. b) Group II - animals were administered aluminum at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 6 weeks daily through oral gavage. c) Group III - animals were administered aluminum at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight and resveratrol at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for a period of 6 weeks daily. After 6 weeks rats were anesthetized and decapitated. Brains were removed immediately and frozen in liquid nitrogenRESULTS: The levels of SOD and GPx antioxidant enzymes were decreased in all of the groups receiving aluminium, but it was less severe in resveratrol treated group. SOD and GPx levels in aluminium + resveratrol group were higher than in the aluminum group (p resveratrol group compared to aluminum group and the difference was significant (p resveratrol is effective in preventing AL induced toxicity by reducing MDA production in cerebral tissue. Resveratrol also attenuated SOD and GPx suppression in cerebral tissue significantly. Our findings provide the rationale for further studies directed to understanding the mechanism of resveratrol in preventing neurodeterioration (Tab. 1, Ref. 35).

  10. Erdosteine protects rat testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, A; Ickin, M; Uzun, O; Bakar, C; Balbay, E Gulec; Balbay, O

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on testis morphology and the effects of erdosteine on testis tissue. Caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. Adult male Wistar rats were placed in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber. Rats in the erdosteine group were exposed to the same conditions and treated orally with erdosteine (20 mg kg(-1) daily) at the same time from the first day of hypoxic exposure for 2 weeks. The normoxia group was evaluated as the control. The hypoxia group showed decreased height of spermatogenic epithelium in some seminiferous tubules, vacuolisation in spermatogenic epithelial cells, deterioration and gaps in the basal membrane and an increase in blood vessels in the interstitial area. The erdosteine group showed amelioration of both epithelial cell vacuolisation and basal membrane deterioration. Numbers of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-immunostained Sertoli and Leydig cells were significantly higher in the hypoxia group than in the erdosteine group. The number of seminiferous tubules with caspase-3-immunostained germ cells was highest in the hypoxia group and decreased in the erdosteine and normoxia groups respectively. Based on these observations, erdosteine protects testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

  11. 65zinc uptake from blood into brain and other tissues in the rat

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    Pullen, R.G.; Franklin, P.A.; Hall, G.H. (Sunderland Polytechnic, Tyne Wear (England))

    1990-10-01

    Zinc is essential for normal growth, development and brain function although little is known about brain zinc homeostasis. Therefore, in this investigation we have studied 65Zn uptake from blood into brain and other tissues and have measured the blood-brain barrier permeability to 65Zn in the anaesthetized rat in vivo. Adult male Wistar rats within the weight range 500-600 g were used. 65ZnCl2 and (125I)albumin, the latter serving as a vascular marker, were injected in a bolus of normal saline I.V. Sequential arterial blood samples were taken during experiments that lasted between 5 min and 5 hr. At termination, samples from the liver, spleen, pancreas, lung, heart, muscle, kidney, bone, testis, ileum, blood cells, csf, and whole brain were taken and analysed for radio-isotope activity. Data have been analysed by Graphical Analysis which suggests 65Zn uptake from blood by all tissues sampled was unidirectional during this experimental period except brain, where at circulation times less than 30 min, 65Zn fluxes were bidirectional. In addition to the blood space, the brain appears to contain a rapidly exchanging compartment(s) for 65Zn of about 4 ml/100g which is not csf.

  12. In vitro differentiation of rat spermatogonia into round spermatids in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, A; Hou, M; Winton, T R; Chapin, R E; Söder, O; Stukenborg, J-B

    2016-09-01

    Do the organ culture conditions, previously defined for in vitro murine male germ cell differentiation, also result in differentiation of rat spermatogonia into post-meiotic germ cells exhibiting specific markers for haploid germ cells? We demonstrated the differentiation of rat spermatogonia into post-meiotic cells in vitro, with emphasis on exhibiting, protein markers described for round spermatids. Full spermatogenesis in vitro from immature germ cells using an organ culture technique in mice was first reported 5 years ago. However, no studies reporting the differentiation of rat spermatogonia into post-meiotic germ cells exhibiting the characteristic protein expression profile or into functional sperm have been reported. Organ culture of testicular fragments of 5 days postpartum (dpp) neonatal rats was performed for up to 52 days. Evaluation of microscopic morphology, testosterone levels, mRNA and protein expression as measured by RT-qPCR and immunostaining were conducted to monitor germ cell differentiation in vitro. Potential effects of melatonin, Glutamax® medium, retinoic acid and the presence of epidydimal fat tissue on the spermatogenic process were evaluated. A minimum of three biological replicates were performed for all experiments presented in this study. One-way ANOVA, ANOVA on ranks and student's t-test were applied to perform the statistical analysis. Male germ cells, present in testicular tissue pieces grown from 5 dpp rats, exhibited positive protein expression for Acrosin and Crem (cAMP (cyclic adenosine mono phosphate) response element modulator) after 52 days of culture in vitro. Intra-testicular testosterone production could be observed after 3 days of culture, while when epididymal fat tissue was added, spontaneous contractility of cultured seminiferous tubules could be observed after 21 days. However, no supportive effect of the supplementation with any factor or the co-culturing with epididymal fat tissue on germ cell differentiation in

  13. The effect of milk on plasmatic and tissue levels of macrolides: in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Groppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The ingestion of milk with drugs, particularly some antibiotics, is frequently recommended in order to decrease possible gastrointestinal discomfort. The objective of this study was to assess the interference of milk in the absorption and tissue levels of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Forty female rats received surgicallyimplanted PVC sponges on their backs. One week later, granulomatous tissue was observed and the animals were divided into eight groups, which received erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin with and without milk. One hour after administration of antibiotic, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and tissue samples were submitted to microbiological assay with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, in order to determine drug concentration. Milk did not cause any reduction in the serum and tissue levels of azithromycin and clarithromycin (p>0.05,t-test. However, ingestion of milk reduced by approximately 28.7% the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and by 34.1% the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t test serum concentrations. Similar effects were observed on tissue levels. Milk ingestion caused a reduction of approximately 20.8% in the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and 40% in the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t-test tissue levels. We concluded that erythromycin and roxithromycin should be not administered with milk. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, macrolides, milk, serum concentration

  14. In vivo glucose utilization in rat tissues during the three phases of starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherel, Y.; Burnol, A.F.; Leturque, A.; Le Maho, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Three phases of starvation have been described from changes in protein and lipid utilization in birds and mammals. In the present study, tissue glucose utilization was measured in vivo during these three phases, using a 2-deoxy-(1-3H)glucose technique in the anesthetized rat. According to this technique, the term glucose utilization therefore refers to transport and phosphorylation of glucose in tissues, ie, whatever is the fate of glucose. Whole-body glucose turnover rate, which was determined by a continuous infusion of (3-3H)glucose, decreased by 40% during the first two days of starvation (phase 1); it did not change thereafter, neither in the protein-sparing phase 2 nor in phase 3, which is marked by an increase in net protein breakdown. Two days of starvation caused a marked decrease in the glucose utilization in skeletal muscles; this decrease was higher in oxidative muscles (65% in diaphragm, 66% in soleus) than in glycolytic muscles (31% in extensor digitorum longus, 34% in epitrochlearis). Glucose utilization also decreased in heart atria (75%), heart ventricles (93%), and white adipose tissue (54%); by contrast, there was a two-fold increase in glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue and no change in brain and skin. No variations were observed in glucose utilization in any of the tissues from phase 1 to phase 2. However, phase 3 was marked by a decrease in glucose utilization in extensor digitorum longus (45%), brown adipose tissue (76%), brain (29%), and skin (40%), whereas there was a 2.3- and 3.4-fold increase in glucose utilization in diaphragm and heart ventricles, respectively.

  15. Measurement of lung tissue dynamics in artificially ventilated rats with optical coherence tomography

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    Schnabel Christian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of lung tissue and the airways become a major task for medical care and health care systems in modern industrial countries in the future. Suitable treatment methods and strategies for lung support and artificial ventilation are of dare need. Besides the obvious importance as life-saving intervention, the effects of usually used over-pressure ventilation onto the sensitive alveolar tissue are insufficiently understood. Therefore, it is of great interest to characterize lung tissue during artificial ventilation at the alveolar level. Those measurements can be used to link micromechanics of alveolar structures to mechanical properties of the whole lung like compliance and resistance measured at the ventilator device. This can be done only in animal experiments due to the fact that imaging techniques used in human diagnostics like CT or MRT fail to resolve alveolar tissue structures. The disadvantage of high-resolution techniques like optical coherence tomography (OCT or intravital microscopy (IVM is the need of a surgical access to the lung due to the limitation in penetration depth of these techniques. Furthermore, imaging dynamic processes with high-resolution imaging techniques during uninterrupted artificial ventilation is a challenging task. In this study, we present a measurement setup for combined imaging of conventional pressure-controlled ventilated rats and the visualization of volume changes of alveolar structures during one cycle of breath. A custom-made OCT system in combination with a triggered scanning algorithm was used to acquire time-resolved 3D OCT image data. Furthermore, this system was combined with a self-adapting autofocus function for intravital microscopy to track the lung surface keeping the tissue in focal plane. The combination of new dynamic measurement modes for OCT and IVM allows new insights into alveolar tissue and will promote the understanding of mechanical behavior during artificial ventilation.

  16. Guided tissue regeneration for using a chitosan membrane: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shyh Ming; Chang, Shwu Jen; Chen, Ta Wei; Kuan, Tang Ching

    2006-02-01

    Barrier membranes are employed clinically to deflect the growth of gingival tissues away from root surface. They provide an isolated space over the regions with the defective tissues that allow the relatively slow growing periodontal ligament fibroblasts to be repopulated onto the root surface. Several makes of bioabsorbable membranes are now commercially available. In this study, we have employed chitosan as barrier membrane material and evaluated it for a guided tissue regeneration application. Three types of chitosan membranes: Chi-NaOH, Chi-Na(5)P(3)O(10), and Chi-Na(2)SO(3)(each was gelated by NaOH, crosslinked by Na(5)P(3)O(10) and Na(2)SO(3), respectively), were prepared to be evaluated by the following categories: the mechanical strength to create an effective space, the rapid rate to reach hydrolytic equilibrium in phosphate-buffered solution, and the ease of clinical manipulative operations. Consequently, standardized, transosseous and critical sized skull defects were made in adult rats and the defective regions were covered with the specifically prepared chitosan membranes. After 4 weeks of recovering, varying degrees of bone healing were observed beneath the chitosan membranes in comparison to the control group. The chitosan covered regions showed a clear boundary space between connective tissues and bony tissues. Apparently, this process resulted in a good cell occlusion and beneficial osteogenesis effect to the bone. As for the control group, the bone defect was filled with connective tissue, and a destruction of the integrity of newly formed bone was observed. Among the chitosan membranes tested in this study, Chi-NaOH membrane provided a higher percentage of new bone formation than those from the Chi-Na(5)P(3)O(10) and Chi-Na(2)SO(3) families.

  17. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

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    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  18. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

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    Skalny Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data

  19. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

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    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  20. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Ferreira, Leandra R; Alsaad, Mohammad; Verma, Shiv K; Alves, Derron A; Holland, Gary N; McConkey, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse. Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains) of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection) of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i.) to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25%) of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle. This study reevaluated in depth the

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

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    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  2. Targeted delivery using peptide-functionalised gold nanoparticles to white adipose tissues of obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Sibuyi, Nicole [Medical Research Council, Diabetes Research Group (South Africa); Meyer, Mervin [University of the Western Cape, Biotechnology Department, DST/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre (South Africa); Onani, Martin [University of the Western Cape, Chemistry Department (South Africa); Madiehe, Abram, E-mail: amadiehe@csir.co.za [Medical Research Council, Diabetes Research Group (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease of excessive fat accumulation. It is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of people. Current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to systemic drug toxicity and undesirable side effects. The current epidemic raises a serious need for development of safer drugs to treat obesity. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve therapeutic effects is currently an exciting field in cancer treatment. Drug delivery involves either modification of drug release profile, absorption, distribution and/or elimination, for the benefit of improving drug efficacy and safety. Therefore, nanotechnology holds promise in the treatment of diseases including obesity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalised with different biomolecules have been successfully used as drug delivery, labelling and imaging tools in biomedical research. In this study, the binding-specificity and targeting ability of adipose homing peptide (AHP)-functionalised GNPs (AHP-GNPs) were evaluated using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Caco-2 cells and rats fed either chow or a high-fat diet were treated with either unfunctionalised GNPs or AHP-GNPs. Cellular uptake of GNPs was detected in cells treated with AHP-GNPs and not those treated with GNPs alone. Binding of AHP to cells was both temperature- and concentration-dependent. Compared to rats treated with GNPs alone, treatment of obese rats with AHP-GNPs resulted in the targeted delivery of the GNPs to the white adipose tissue (WAT). This paper reports the successful targeting of AHP-functionalised GNPs to WAT of obese rats.

  3. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Inflammatory Reaction in Lung Tissues of Septic Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Pathway

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    Yuqing Wu

    2013-01-01

    and 20 μg/kg significantly decreased mortality and pulmonary inflammation of septic rats, as well as suppressed CLP-induced elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 and inhibited TLR4/MyD88 expression and NF-κB activation. These results suggest that dexmedetomidine may decrease mortality and inhibit inflammatory reaction in lung tissues of septic rats by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.

  4. Autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are involved in rat liver regeneration following repeat partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; MU, HONG; Shen, Zhongyang; SONG, ZHUOLUN; Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been considered to be attractive and readily available adult mesenchymal stem cells, and they are becoming increasingly popular for use in regenerative cell therapy, as they are readily accessible through minimally invasive techniques. The present study investigated whether autologous ADSC transplantation promoted liver regeneration following a repeat partial hepatectomy in rats. The rats were divided into three groups as follows: 70%...

  5. Organ and tissue level properties are more sensitive to age than osteocyte lacunar characteristics in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Nina; Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Birkbak, Mie Elholm

    2016-01-01

    lacunar properties in rat cortical bone. Femora of 14 to 42-week-old female Wistar rats were investigated using multiple complementary techniques including X-ray micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing. The body weight, femoral length, aBMD, load to fracture, tissue volume, bone volume......, and tissue density were found to increase rapidly with age at 14–30 weeks. At the age of 30–42 weeks, the growth rate appeared to decrease. However, no accompanying changes were found in osteocyte lacunar properties such as lacunar volume, ellipsoidal radii, lacunar stretch, lacunar oblateness, or lacunar...... orientation with animal age. Hence, the evolution of organ and tissue level properties with age in rat cortical bone is not accompanied by related changes in osteocyte lacunar properties. This suggests that bone microstructure and bone matrix material properties and not the geometric properties...

  6. [Effect of low-intensity ultrasound on endothelin-1 and nitrogen monoxide in uterine tissues of SD rats following abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Guo, Jufang; Lin, Chuan; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengzhi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low-intensity ultrasound on the contents of endothelin (ET-1) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) in uterine tissues of SD rats after abortion. Thirty female pregnant rats were randomly divided into treatment group and control group and received mifepristone and misoprostol to induce abortion. The rats in the treatment group were treated by low-intensity ultrasound for 30 min/day for 5 consecutive days, and those in the control group received sham treatment. The uterine tissue was then taken and homogenized for measurement of ET-1 and NO contents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemical testing. ET-1 content in the uterine tissues was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P0.05). Low-intensity ultrasound can promote the contraction of uterine smooth muscles by increasing the level of ET-1 to modulate the homeostasis of ET-1 and NO.

  7. Evaluation of peripheral vasodilative indices in skin tissue of type 1 diabetic rats by use of RGB images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a method to evaluate the arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats from RGB digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the dorsal reversed McFarlane skin flap are calculated based on the responses of change in the total blood concentration to occlusion of blood flow to and from the flap tissues at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin flap tissue were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic rat group compared with the non-diabetic rat group. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus.

  8. A comparison of tissue engineering based repair of calvarial defects using adipose stem cells from normal and osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ming; Li, Jingting; McConda, David B; Wen, Sijin; Clovis, Nina B; Danley, Suzanne S

    2015-09-01

    Repairing large bone defects presents a significant challenge, especially in those people who have a limited regenerative capacity such as in osteoporotic (OP) patients. The aim of this study was to compare adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both normal (NORM) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats in osteogenic potential using both in vitro and in vivo models. After successful establishment of a rat OP model, we found that ASCs from OVX rats exhibited a comparable proliferation capacity to those from NORM rats but had significantly higher adipogenic and relatively lower osteogenic potential. Thirty-two weeks post-implantation with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) alone or PLGA seeded with osteogenic-induced ASCs for critical-size calvarial defects, the data from Herovici's collagen staining and micro-computed tomography suggested that the implantation of ASC-PLGA constructs exhibited a higher bone volume density compared to the PLGA alone group, especially in the NORM rat group. Intriguingly, the defects from OVX rats exhibited a higher bone volume density compared to NORM rats, especially for implantation of the PLGA alone group. Our results indicated that ASC based tissue constructs are more beneficial for the repair of calvarial defects in NORM rats while implantation of PLGA scaffold contributed to defect regeneration in OVX rats.

  9. Fisetin averts oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Gopalan Sriram; Sundaram, Chinnakrishnan Shanmuga; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2013-10-01

    Persistent hyperglycemia is associated with chronic oxidative stress which contributes to the development and progression of diabetes-associated complications. The sensitivity of pancreatic β-cells to oxidative stress has been attributed to their low content of antioxidants compared with other tissues. Bioactive compounds with potent antidiabetic properties have been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that oral administration of fisetin (10 mg/Kg b.w.), a bioflavonoid found to be present in strawberries, persimmon, to STZ-induced experimental diabetic rats significantly improved normoglycemia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of fisetin in both in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fisetin was administered orally for 30 days. At the end of the study, all animals were killed. Blood samples were collected for the biochemical estimations. The antioxidant status was evaluated. Histological examinations were performed on pancreatic tissues. Fisetin treatment showed a significant decline in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), NF-kB p65 unit (in pancreas) and IL-1β (plasma), serum nitric oxide (NO) with an elevation in plasma insulin. The treatment also improved the antioxidant status in pancreas as well as plasma of diabetic rats indicating the antioxidant potential of fisetin. In addition, the results of DPPH and ABTS assays substantiate the free radical scavenging activity of fisetin. Histological studies of the pancreas also evidenced the tissue protective nature of fisetin. It is concluded that, fisetin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property and may be considered as an adjunct for the treatment of diabetes.

  10. A histological investigation on tissue responses to titanium implants in cortical bone of the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, A; Kusakari, H; Maeda, T; Takano, Y

    1997-03-01

    Implant materials are placed under various sites-including cortical bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow-at the same time according to the depth at implantation. Although cortical bone is an important site for the prognosis of implantation, detailed reports on tissue responses to implantation have been meager. The present study aims to reveal tissue responses to pure titanium implantation in rat femoris cortical bone. The rats received titanium bars surgically in their femurs and were sacrificed 1 day to 40 weeks post-implantation. The prepared tissue specimens were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further histochemical detections were performed. One day post-implantation, empty osteocytic lacunae indicating degeneration of osteocytes were found in pre-existing cortical bone around the implant. Such pre-existing bone was replaced by new bone, but remained in part even 40 weeks post-implantation. Light microscopy showed that direct contact between the implant and new bone was identified 12 weeks post-implantation. Chronological and ultrastructural observation showed that new bone deposition appeared to proceed toward the implant, and that the intervening layer at the interface was derived from the degenerated debris of multinucleated giant cells and/or osteoblasts. Furthermore, it seemed that the width of intervening layer varied in relation to the distance from the blood vessels. The cells showing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity possessed cytological features of osteoclasts under TEM; they were frequently observed in perivascular sites near the implants even after osseointegration, suggesting that bone remodeling took place steadily around the implant.

  11. Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum and wound fluid in relation to formation of granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Garbarsch, C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    1993-01-01

    of granulation tissue during pharmacological suppression. Granulation tissue was induced in rats by the implantation of viscose cellulose sponges. Pharmacological suppression was achieved by cyclophosphamide treatment. To distinguish between the isolated effect of cyclophosphamide and the influence of the weight...

  12. Up-regulation of prostaglandin E receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes in rat synovial tissues with adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Y; Endo, H; Akahoshi, T; Kondo, H

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the role of the prostaglandin E receptor (EP) subtypes in the development of inflammatory synovitis, we examined EP subtype mRNA distribution in the synovial tissue of rats with adjuvant arthritis and the effect of selective EP agonists on cytokine production by cultured rat synovial cells. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization to measure the level of EP subtype (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) mRNA expression in synovial tissues and cultured synovial cells from the arthritic joints of rats. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to analyse the effects of two selective EP agonists on IL-6 production by cultured rat synovial cells. EP2 and EP4 mRNA expression in inflamed synovial tissues was up-regulated. EP2 and EP4 mRNA were co-expressed in synovial macrophages and fibroblasts in inflamed tissues. EP4 and EP2 agonists both inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production. Our results suggest that prostaglandin E2 regulates the functions of synovial macrophages and fibroblasts through EP2 and EP4, which are induced by inflammatory stimuli in rats with adjuvant arthritis.

  13. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  14. High-fat diet feeding induces sex-dependent changes in inflammatory and insulin sensitivity profiles of rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, Maria E; Proenza, Ana M; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in rats of both sexes, the effect of HF diet feeding on the expression of adipokines involved in inflammatory status and insulin sensitivity and on the levels of proteins involved in lipid handling of retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (2.9% w/w fat) or an HF diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and inflammatory marker mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase were determined by Western blot. HF diet feeding did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain but did promote an increase in adiposity although only in male rats. HF diet impaired glucose tolerance and the expression of inflammatory and insulin sensitivity markers in adipose tissue of male rats, but not in female rats. Male rats seem to be more prone to disorders associated with an unbalanced composition of the diet, even in the absence of hyperphagia. In contrast, female rats counteract excessive fat intake by improving their ability to use lipid fuels, which limits adiposity and maintains insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Changes in gene expression MEDIA- 4 in ovarian tissue of rats with polycystic ovary experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Moradi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEDIA-4 is a new hormonethat has recently been identifiedby microarray technique in rat and human fat tissue. The highest expression of this hormone is in fat tissue and then respectively in the tissues of the pancreas, heart muscle and the brain. MEDA-4 hormone expressions in these tissues in females are more than males. The aim of this study suggests polycystic ovary induction effect on the fluctuation of MEDA-4 gene expression and its relation to metabolic factors changing. Due to identify new genes involved in the development of polycystic syndrome,new treatment programs have been proposed based on changes in expression of these genes or their receptors that have helped to treat this metabolic disorder. Therefore, newly discovered gene expression changes of MEDA-4 can be effective in designing treatment protocols based on variations of this gene in ovarian tissue. The evaluation results of the correlation between gene expression of overian MEDA-4 and measured factors in the group with PCOS shows there is a positive relation between changes in gene expression MEDA-4 and factors of glucose, insulin and BMI at the level of p≤0.05 and has a significant positive relation with the amount of plasma progesterone at the level of p.≥0.01. Moreover, MEDA-4 expression changes in patients with PCOS compared with healthy people are more and PCOS-induced lead to more gene expression of MEDA-4 and significantly increased the blood glucose. In comparing the fasting insulin between groups, the insulin in PCOS group was higher than the healthy group with a significant difference (p <0.05. Insulin resistance to HOMA-IR, the insulin resistance in PCOS group was significantly higher compared with the healthy group (p <0.05. Unlike total testosterone, Plasma progesterone level of PCOS group has not a significant difference compared with the healthy group (p <0.05.(

  16. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y T [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tian, W M [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yu, X [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Cui, F Z [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hou, S P [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Xu, Q Y [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.

  17. Ovariectomy and overeating palatable, energy-dense food increase subcutaneous adipose tissue more than intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloy Viktoria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA adipose tissue (AT. This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to environmentally stimulated overeating, in which IAAT and subcutaneous (S AT increase in similar proportions. The effect of menopause on adiposity is thought to be due to the decreased secretion of ovarian estrogens. Ovariectomy in rats and other animals is a commonly used model of menopause. It is well known that ovariectomy increases adiposity and that this can be reversed by estradiol treatment, but whether ovariectomy selectively increases IAAT has not been measured directly. Therefore, we used micro-computed tomography (microCT to investigate this question in both chow-fed and dietary-obese rats. Methods Ovariectomized, ovariectomized and estradiol treated, and sham-operated (intact rats were fed chow or chow plus Ensure (Abbott Nutrition; n = 7/group. Total (T AT, IAAT and SAT were measured periodically by microCT. Regional distribution of AT was expressed as IAAT as a percentage of TAT (%IAAT. Excesses in these measures were calculated with respect to chow-fed intact rats to control for normal maturational changes. Chemical analysis of fat was done in chow-fed intact and ovariectomized rats at study end. Data were analyzed by t-tests and planned comparisons. Results Body mass, TAT, total fat mass, fat-free body mass, and %IAAT all increased in chow-fed intact rats during the 41 d study. In chow-fed rats, ovariectomy increased excess body mass, TAT, fat mass, fat-free body mass, and SAT, but had little effect on IAAT, in chow-fed rats, leading to a decrease in %IAAT. Ensure feeding markedly increased SAT, IAAT and TAT and did not significantly affect %IAAT. Ovariectomy had similar effects in Ensure-fed rats as in chow-fed rats, although less statistically reliable. Estradiol treatment prevented all the effects of

  18. Effects of Gingko biloba Extract on Tissue Distribution of Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many concerns about the interactions of herbal products with conventional drugs, which are mostly used as multiple drug treatment approach. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term use of Ginkgo biloba extract (GK on the absorption and tissue distribution of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Materials and Methods: Forty-six Wistar rats are utilized and allocated into eight groups; 2 groups administered the vehicle and saved as control; 4 groups are treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of GK extract for 30 days; 2 groups are treated with 40mg/kg verapamil for 10 days. The liver, kidney and brain distribution of fluoxetine and venlafaxine were evaluated after single oral doses using HPLC method. Results: 200 mg/kg GK increases fluoxetine concentrations in all studied organs, while GK 100mg/kg increases venlafaxine levels in kidney tissue and not affected in the other two organs. Conclusion: Thirty days treatment with GK (100 mg/kg increases kidney availability of venlafaxine, while 200 mg GK dose increases fluoxetine availability in the liver, kidney and brain tissues after single oral doses. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 234-238

  19. L-Arginine Intake Effect on Adenine Nucleotide Metabolism in Rat Parenchymal and Reproductive Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kocic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine is conditionally essetcial amino acid, required for normal cell growth, protein synthesis, ammonia detoxification, tissue growth and general performance, proposed in the treatment of men sterility and prevention of male impotence. The aim of the present paper was to estimate the activity of the enzymes of adenine nucleotide metabolism: 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NU, adenosine deaminase (ADA, AMP deaminase, and xanthine oxidase (XO, during dietary intake of L-arginine for a period of four weeks of male Wistar rats. Adenosine concentration in tissues is maintained by the relative activities of the adenosine-producing enzyme, 5′-NU and the adenosine-degrading enzyme-ADA adenosine deaminase. Dietary L-arginine intake directed adenine nucleotide metabolism in liver, kidney, and testis tissue toward the activation of adenosine production, by increased 5′-NU activity and decreased ADA activity. Stimulation of adenosine accumulation could be of importance in mediating arginine antiatherosclerotic, vasoactive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects. Assuming that the XO activity reflects the rate of purine catabolism in the cell, while the activity of AMP deaminase is of importance in ATP regeneration, reduced activity of XO, together with the increased AMP-deaminase activity, may suggest that adenine nucleotides are presumably directed to the ATP regenerating process during dietary L-arginine intake.

  20. Subacute Tissue Response to 3D Graphene Oxide Scaffolds Implanted in the Injured Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dolado, Elisa; González-Mayorga, Ankor; Portolés, María Teresa; Feito, María José; Ferrer, María Luisa; Del Monte, Francisco; Gutiérrez, María Concepción; Serrano, María Concepción

    2015-08-26

    The increasing prevalence and high sanitary costs of lesions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) at the spinal cord are encouraging experts in different fields to explore new avenues for neural repair. In this context, graphene and its derivatives are attracting significant attention, although their toxicity and performance in the CNS in vivo remains unclear. Here, the subacute tissue response to 3D flexible and porous scaffolds composed of partially reduced graphene oxide is investigated when implanted in the injured rat spinal cord. The interest of these structures as potentially useful platforms for CNS regeneration mainly relies on their mechanical compliance with neural tissues, adequate biocompatibility with neural cells in vitro and versatility to carry topographical and biological guidance cues. Early tissue responses are thoroughly investigated locally (spinal cord at C6 level) and in the major organs (i.e., kidney, liver, lung, and spleen). The absence of local and systemic toxic responses, along with the positive signs found at the lesion site (e.g., filler effect, soft interface for no additional scaring, preservation of cell populations at the perilesional area, presence of M2 macrophages), encourages further investigation of these materials as promising components of more efficient material-based platforms for CNS repair.

  1. Inhibition of gastric motility by noxious chemical stimulation of interspinous tissues in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, B; Suzuki, A

    2000-05-12

    In urethane anesthetized, adult male Wistar rats, noxious chemical stimulation of the mid to lower thoracic interspinous tissues, in the form of capsaicin injection, was accompanied by a pronounced increase in gastric sympathetic nerve activity and inhibition of gastric motility. Much weaker effects on gastric sympathetic nerve activity and gastric motility were observed with similar stimulation of the lower lumbar interspinous tissues. The inhibitory response of gastric motility to thoracic stimulation was preserved in spinalized animals, somewhat diminished in vagotomized animals and was abolished in most animals from which the coeliac ganglion had been extirpated. In vagotomized animals, treatment with 1 mg/kg propranolol i.v. did not cause any further attenuation of the inhibitory reflex. However, the inhibitory reflex was extinguished in vagotomized animals which received 1 mg/kg propranolol plus 10 mg/kg phentolamine i.v. These results suggest that noxious chemical stimulation of the interspinous tissues elicits a segmentally organized reflex which is mediated principally at the spinal level and which expresses itself principally, but not exclusively via sympathetic efferents traversing the coeliac ganglion. The expression of the reflex response appears to be largely dependent upon the integrity of alpha adrenergic receptors.

  2. Effect of noise pollution on testicular tissue and hormonal assessment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadinia, P; Bigdeli, M; Akbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, M; Daneshi, A; Bargahi, A

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have focused on the effect of noise stress on the health. So far, few studies have been conducted on the effect of noise on reproductive system. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of noise pollution on morphometric parameters of testicular tissue and hormonal assessment (ACTH, cortisol and testosterone). In this study, 40 male rats were exposed to control, 95, 105 and 115 dB noise intensity for sixty days. At the end of study, blood sampling was performed and ACTH, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. The results showed that noise stress decreased testosterone levels in the 115 dB-treated group, while it increased the ACTH and cortisol levels. Histological sections of testis showed that the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and thickness of the germinal epithelium reduced compared to the control group. Also the ratio of the interstitial tissue area to the total testicular tissue area was increased significantly. Our study shows that noise stress may have negative influences on male fertility. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Tissue specific characteristics of cells isolated from human and rat tendons and ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scutt A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tendon and ligament injuries are common and costly in terms of surgery and rehabilitation. This might be improved by using tissue engineered constructs to accelerate the repair process; a method used successfully for skin wound healing and cartilage repair. Progress in this field has however been limited; possibly due to an over-simplistic choice of donor cell. For tissue engineering purposes it is often assumed that all tendon and ligament cells are similar despite their differing roles and biomechanics. To clarify this, we have characterised cells from various tendons and ligaments of human and rat origin in terms of proliferation, response to dexamethasone and cell surface marker expression. Methods Cells isolated from tendons by collagenase digestion were plated out in DMEM containing 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin/streptomycin and ultraglutamine. Cell number and collagen accumulation were by determined methylene blue and Sirius red staining respectively. Expression of cell surface markers was established by flow cytometry. Results In the CFU-f assay, human PT-derived cells produced more and bigger colonies suggesting the presence of more progenitor cells with a higher proliferative capacity. Dexamethasone had no effect on colony number in ACL or PT cells but 10 nM dexamethasone increased colony size in ACL cultures whereas higher concentrations decreased colony size in both ACL and PT cultures. In secondary subcultures, dexamethasone had no significant effect on PT cultures whereas a stimulation was seen at low concentrations in the ACL cultures and an inhibition at higher concentrations. Collagen accumulation was inhibited with increasing doses in both ACL and PT cultures. This differential response was also seen in rat-derived cells with similar differences being seen between Achilles, Patellar and tail tendon cells. Cell surface marker expression was also source dependent; CD90 was expressed at higher levels by PT

  4. Tissue distribution and excretion of the five components of Portulaca oleracea L. extract in rat assessed by UHPLC

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    Wenjie Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue distribution and excretion of five components of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE in rat following oral administration. A rapid, sensitive and specific ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC method with puerarin as the internal standard was used for the quantitative analysis of five components of POE, including caffeic acid (CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, ferulic acid (FA, quercitrin (QUER and hesperidin (HP in rat tissues including the liver, intestine, stomach, muscle, heart, lung, brain, kidney and spleen, urine and feces. The results show that onlyp-CA and FA were found in nearly all tissues with low cumulative ratios, and CA was higher in the intestine and stomach with a slightly higher cumulative ratio in the urine and feces after 24 h. HP and QUER were found at low levels in the tissues with low cumulative ratios.

  5. Expression of Resistin mRNA in Adipose Tissue of Rat Model with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞; 孙永玉; 邱红玉

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the insulin resistance (IR) of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) rat model induced by dehydroeplandrosterone (DHEA) and hormonal changes in the ovarium and the resistin mRNA levels in adipose tissue, 21-day-old female SD rats were divided into two groups in pairs. The rats in group 1 were injected daily (s. c) with DHEA for up to 20days and the rats in group 2 injected with oil at the same time. Ovarian weight, serum insulin levels and sex hormone levels in rat blood of both groups were determined. Oral glucose tolerance tests,light microscopic and electronic microscopic examination were performed. The levels of resistin mRNA in adipose tissue were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Our results showed that the ovarian weight in group 1 was greater than that in group 2 (P<0.05).The ovaria in group 1 showed multiple follicular cysts, The serum testeosterone and etrasdiol concentration were significantly higher in group 1 than those in group 2 (P<0. 001 and P<0.05 respectively), so as the fasting serum glucose (P<0. 001) and fasting serum insulin (P<0.05). The value of 1/FINS× FGC was significantly higher in group 1 than that in group 2 (P<0. 001). Moreover, the resistin mRNA level of white adipose tissue in the DHEA-induced group was significantly higher than that in the control rats (P<0.05). It is concluded that the DHEA-induced PCOS rat models were similar to those of the patients with PCOS, and the IR was observed. Resistin secreted by adipose tissue may mediate IR in PCOS, and it is likely involved in the pathogenesis and development of PCOS.

  6. The effect of aminoguanidine on blood and tissue lipid peroxidation in jaundiced rats with endotoxemia induced with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogetman, Zekai; Dirlik, Musa; Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Canbaz, Hakan; Karabacak, Tugba; Yaylak, Faik; Tamer, Lulufer; Kanik, Arzu; Aydin, Suha

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice (OJ) is a severe condition that leads to several complications. One of the important problems in OJ is the increased incidence of endotoxemia, which is the result of bacterial translocation (BT) and defective host immune response. Lipid peroxidation (LP) is an important problem in OJ and sepsis in which nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity are increased and antioxidative activity is decreased. Formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) anion leads to cellular damage and apoptosis. In this experimental study, we explore the effect of specific iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) on blood and tissue (liver and renal) LP and iNOS levels in jaundiced rats with endotoxemia induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were randomized into six groups; group A, sham; group B, obstructive jaundice (OJ); group C, OJ + LPS; group D, OJ + AG; group E, OJ + LPS + AG; group F, OJ + AG + LPS. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and liver and renal tissue MDA, MPO, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity levels were detected in biochemical methods. Liver and renal tissue iNOS levels were examined immunohistopathologically. Serum and tissue MDA and MPO levels and tissue iNOS expression were increased significantly in groups B, C, and E, while tissue ATPase levels were decreased significantly in the same groups. In the group treated with AG (group D), serum and tissue MDA and MPO levels and tissue iNOS expression were decreased while tissue ATPase levels were increased significantly. In group F, if AG was administrated before LPS, we observed that serum and tissue MDA and MPO levels and tissue iNOS expression were decreased while tissue ATPase levels were increased significantly. Thus, our study showed that AG had a protective effect when it was administrated before LPS, but it failed to prevent tissue iNOS expression and LP if there was established endotoxemia in OJ.

  7. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  8. Dynamic effects of point source electroporation on the rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Shirley; Last, David; Guez, David; Daniels, Dianne; Hjouj, Mohammad Ibrahim; Salomon, Sharona; Maor, Elad; Mardor, Yael

    2014-10-01

    In spite of aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme due to tumor infiltration into the surrounding brain as well as poor blood-brain barrier penetration of most therapeutic agents. In this paper we present a novel approach for a minimally invasive treatment and a non-invasive response assessment methodology consisting of applying intracranial point-source electroporation and assessing treatment effect volumes using magnetic resonance imaging. Using a unique setup of a single intracranial electrode and an external surface electrode we treated rats' brains with various electroporation protocols and applied magnetic resonance imaging to study the dependence of the physiological effects on electroporation treatment parameters. The extent of blood-brain barrier disruption and later volumes of permanent brain tissue damage were found to correlate significantly with the treatment voltages (r(2)=0.99, pelectroporation when planning a treatment for brain tumors.

  9. Rapid elongation of arteries and veins in rats with a tissue expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, G B; Hong, C; Futrell, J W

    1987-10-01

    The saphenous arteries and veins of 40 rats were elongated with 20-cc tissue expanders underlying the leg adductor muscles. The mean rate of successful elongation of the vessels was 84 +/- 47 percent SD, with a maximum gain of 140 percent. The fastest mean elongation velocity reached 45 percent per day. Thrombosis occurred only with stretching velocities of more than 10 percent per day, which seemed to be a safe margin. Distribution of the volume into many intervals was safer than infrequent high-volume injections. Histology showed no reduction in vessel wall diameter or loss intimal integrity. Subendothelial cellular proliferation was an indicator of this rapid regeneration. Microvascular anastomoses performed in elongated arteries and veins had the same patency rate (90 percent) as in controls.

  10. Effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Nabavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues. Animals were pretreated with silymarin at 20 and 10 mg/kg prior to sodium fluoride consumption (600 ppm through drinking water. Vitamin C at 10 mg/kg was used as standard antioxidant. There was a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level (59.36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tissue along with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity (64.27 ± 1.98 U/g tissue for superoxide dismutase activity and 29.17 ± 1.01 µmol/min/mg protein for catalase activity and reduced glutathione level (3.8 ± 0.15 µg/mg protein in the tissues homogenates of the sodium fluoride-intoxicated rats. Silymarin administration to animals before sodium fluoride consumption modified the levels of biochemical parameters.Este estudo objetiva avaliar o efeito protetor da silimarina em fluoreto de sódio induzida por estresse oxidativo em tecido cardíaco de ratos. Os animais foram pré-tratados com silimarina a 20 e 10 mg/kg antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio (600 ppm através da água de beber. A vitamina C a 10 mg/kg foi utilizada como antioxidante padrão. Houve um aumento significativo no nível de substâncias tiobarbitúrico reativo de ácido (59,36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tecido, juntamente com uma diminuição da atividade de enzimas antioxidantes (64,27 ± 1,98 U/g tecido para a atividade de superóxido dismutase e 29,7 ± 1,01 mmol/min/mg de proteína para a atividade da catalase e nível de glutationa reduzida (3,8 ± 0,15 mg/mg de proteína nos homogeneizados de tecidos dos fluoreto de sódio-intoxicados ratos. Administração de silimarina a animais, antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio modifou os níveis de parâmetros bioquímicos.

  11. Nuclear localization of the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P H; Fraher, L J; Hendy, G N; Chung, U I; Kisiel, M; Natale, B V; Hodsman, A B

    2000-06-01

    The localization of PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor (PTHR) has traditionally been performed by autoradiography. Specific polyclonal antibodies to peptides unique to the PTHR are now available, which allow a more precise localization of the receptor in cells and tissues. We optimized the IHC procedure for the rat PTHR using 5-microm sections of paraffin-embedded rat kidney, liver, small intestine, uterus, and ovary. Adjacent sections were analyzed for the presence of PTHR mRNA (by in situ hybridization) and PTHrP peptide. A typical pattern of staining for both receptor protein and mRNA was observed in kidney in cells lining the proximal tubules and collecting ducts. In uterus and gut, the receptor and its mRNA are present in smooth muscle layers (PTHrP target) and in glandular cuboidal cells and surface columnar epithelium. This suggests that PTH, or more likely PTHrP, plays a role in surface/secretory epithelia that is as yet undefined. In the ovary, PTHR was readily detectable in the thecal layer of large antral follicles and oocytes, and was present in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of granulosa cells, regions that also contained receptor transcripts. PTHR protein and mRNA were found in the liver in large hepatocytes radiating outward from central veins. Immunoreactive cells were also present around the periphery of the liver but not within two or three cell layers of the surface. Clear nuclear localization of the receptor protein was present in liver cells in addition to the expected cytoplasmic/peripheral staining. PTHR immunoreactivity was present in the nucleus of some cells in every tissue examined. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of PTHR transcripts in these same tissues. Examination of the hindlimbs of PTHR gene-ablated mice showed no reaction to this antibody, whereas hindlimbs from their wild-type littermates stained positively. The results emphasize that the PTHR is highly expressed in diverse tissues and, in addition, show that the receptor

  12. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 1; Rat Skin, Normal and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R.; Ashman, R.; Choy, V.; Durnova, G.; Graf, B.; Griffith, P.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Kolis, S.; Martinez, D.; Rao, J. S.; Rayford, A. R.; Reddy, B. R.; Sears, J.; Thielke, R.; Ulm, M.; Vanderby, R.

    1994-01-01

    The skin repair studies started to be problematic for the following reasons: (1) It was very difficult to locate the wound and many lesions were not of the same dimensions. A considerable amount of time was devoted to the identification of the wound using polarized light. We understand that this experiment was added on to the overall project. Marking of the wound site and standard dimensions should be recommended for the next flight experiment. (2) The tissue was frozen, therefore thawing and fixation caused problems with some of the immunocytochemical staining for obtaining better special resolution with light microscopy image processing. Despite these problems, we were unable to detect any significant qualitative differences for the following wound markers: (1) Collagen Type 3, (2) Hematotoxylin and Eosin, and (3) Macrophage Factor 13. All protein markers were isolated from rat sources and antibodies prepared and tested for cross reactivity with other molecules at the University of Wisconsin Hybridoma Facility. However, rat skin from the non lesioned site 'normal' showed interesting biochemical results. Skin was prepared for the following measurements: (1) DNA content, (2) Collagen content by hydroxyproline, and (3) uronic acid content and estimation of ground substance. The results indicated there was a non-significant increase (10%) in the DNA concentration of skin from flight animals. However, the data expressed as a ratio DNA/Collagen estimates the cell or nuclear density that supports a given quantity of collagen showed a dramatic increase in the flight group (33%). This means flight conditions may have slowed down collagen secretion and/or increased cell proliferation in adult rat skin. Further biochemical tests are being done to determine the crosslinking of elastin which will enhance the insight to assessing changes in skin turnover.

  13. Responses of the insulin signaling pathways in the brown adipose tissue of rats following cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wahl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The insulin signaling pathway is critical for the control of blood glucose levels. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been implicated as important in glucose homeostasis. The effect of short-term cold exposure on this pathway in BAT has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of 4 hours of cold exposure on the insulin pathway in the BAT of rats. Whole genomic microarray chips were used to examine the transcripts of the pathway in BAT of rats exposed to 4°C and 22°C for 4 hours. The 4 most significantly altered pathways following 4 hours of cold exposure were the insulin signaling pathway, protein kinase A, PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was the most affected. In the documented 142 genes of the insulin pathway, 42 transcripts (29.6%) responded significantly to this cold exposure with the least false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg Multiple Testing: -log10 (p-value)  = 7.18). Twenty-seven genes (64%) were up-regulated, including the insulin receptor (Insr), insulin substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2). Fifteen transcripts (36%) were down-regulated. Multiple transcripts of the primary target and secondary effector targets for the insulin signaling were also up-regulated, including those for carbohydrate metabolism. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that the cold induced higher Irs2, Irs1, and Akt-p protein levels in the BAT than in the BAT of controls maintained at room temperature, and higher Akt-p protein level in the muscle. this study demonstrated that 4 hours of cold exposure stimulated the insulin signaling pathway in the BAT and muscle of overnight fasted rats. This raises the possibility that acute cold stimulation may have potential to improve glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity.

  14. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie, Xin, E-mail: dr.xinnie@gmail.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  15. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 1; Rat Skin, Normal and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R.; Ashman, R.; Choy, V.; Durnova, G.; Graf, B.; Griffith, P.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Kolis, S.; Martinez, D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    The skin repair studies started to be problematic for the following reasons: (1) It was very difficult to locate the wound and many lesions were not of the same dimensions. A considerable amount of time was devoted to the identification of the wound using polarized light. We understand that this experiment was added on to the overall project. Marking of the wound site and standard dimensions should be recommended for the next flight experiment. (2) The tissue was frozen, therefore thawing and fixation caused problems with some of the immunocytochemical staining for obtaining better special resolution with light microscopy image processing. Despite these problems, we were unable to detect any significant qualitative differences for the following wound markers: (1) Collagen Type 3, (2) Hematotoxylin and Eosin, and (3) Macrophage Factor 13. All protein markers were isolated from rat sources and antibodies prepared and tested for cross reactivity with other molecules at the University of Wisconsin Hybridoma Facility. However, rat skin from the non lesioned site 'normal' showed interesting biochemical results. Skin was prepared for the following measurements: (1) DNA content, (2) Collagen content by hydroxyproline, and (3) uronic acid content and estimation of ground substance. The results indicated there was a non-significant increase (10%) in the DNA concentration of skin from flight animals. However, the data expressed as a ratio DNA/Collagen estimates the cell or nuclear density that supports a given quantity of collagen showed a dramatic increase in the flight group (33%). This means flight conditions may have slowed down collagen secretion and/or increased cell proliferation in adult rat skin. Further biochemical tests are being done to determine the crosslinking of elastin which will enhance the insight to assessing changes in skin turnover.

  16. Tissue-specific regulation of IRS-1 in unilaterally nephrectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasse A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor, resulting in the phosphorylation of its cytosolic substrate, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1. IRS-1 is also a substrate for different peptides and growth factors, and a transgenic mouse "knockout" for this protein does not have normal growth. However, the role of IRS-1 in kidney hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia was not investigated. In the present study we investigated IRS-1 protein and tyrosine phosphorylation levels in the remnant kidney after unilateral nephrectomy (UNX in 6-week-old male Wistar rats. After insulin stimulation the levels of insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were reduced to 79 ± 5% (P<0.005 and 58 ± 6% (P<0.0001, respectively, of the control (C levels, in the remnant kidney. It is possible that a circulating factor and/or a local (paracrine factor playing a role in kidney growth can influence the early steps of insulin action in parallel. To investigate the hypothesis of a circulating factor, we studied the early steps of insulin action in liver and muscle of unilateral nephrectomized rats. There was no change in pp185 tyrosine phosphorylation levels in liver (C 100 ± 12% vs UNX 89 ± 9%, NS and muscle (C 100 ± 22% vs UNX 91 ± 17%, NS, and also there was no change in IRS-1 phosphorylation levels in both tissues. These data demonstrate that after unilateral nephrectomy there is a decrease in insulin-induced insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation levels in kidney but not in liver and muscle. It will be of interest to investigate which factors, probably paracrine ones, regulate these early steps of insulin action in the contralateral kidney of unilaterally nephrectomized rats.

  17. Effects of resistance training and estrogen replacement on adipose tissue inflammation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; Ferreira, Fabiano Candido; Silva-Magosso, Natália Santanielo; Barbosa, Marina Rodrigues; Souza, Markus Vinicius Campos; Domingos, Mateus Moraes; Canevazzi, Gustavo Henrique Rigo; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Peviani, Sabrina Messa; de Lira, Fábio Santos; Selistre de Araújo, Heloísa Sobreiro; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency is directly related to central obesity and low-grade inflammation. Hormonal replacement and exercise training are both able to decrease fat accumulation and inflammation in postmenopausal women. However, the efficiency of resistance training (RT) and estrogen replacement (ER) in minimizing adiposity and inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of ovariectomized (OVX) rats has not yet been elucidated. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: sham-operated sedentary (Sham-Sed), OVX-Sed, Sham-RT, OVX-RT, OVX-Sed-ER, and OVX-RT-ER groups. ER was performed by implanting silastic capsules containing 17β-estradiol. For RT, the animals were required to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with conical flasks containing weights attached to their tails for 12 weeks. Histological analyses were used to evaluate morphological changes. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein concentrations were determined using Multiplex/Luminex assays. Ovariectomy increased the body mass (BM), adipocyte area, and inflammation in the VAT, the latter of which was indicated by reduced interleukin-10 (48%) and increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration (∼3%). RT efficiently decreased BM, adipocyte area, and inflammation in the OVX groups. The combination of RT and ER decreased BM (19%) and the TNF-α concentration (18%) and increased the gene and protein expression levels of adiponectin (173% and 18%). These results indicate that RT and the combination of RT and ER are efficient strategies for reducing the BM and improving the inflammatory status of OVX rats.

  18. Augmentation of the rat jaw with autogeneic cortico-cancellous bone grafts and guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of augmenting the maxillary alveolar ridge and the lateral aspect of the mandible with onlay autogeneic cortico-cancellous bone grafts that were covered with e-PTFE membranes. The experiment was carried out in 51 rats. In 15 rats, the edentulous maxillary jaw between the incisor and the first molar was augmented by means of an autogeneic ischiac bone graft that was fixed with a gold-coated microimplant. In one side, the graft was covered with an e-PTFE membrane, while the other side, which served as control, was treated without a membrane. In the other 36 rats, the lateral aspect of the mandible was augmented in both sides by means of an autogeneic ischiac bone graft that was fixed with a gold-coated or a titanium microimplant. In one side, the augmented area was covered with an e-PTFE membrane, while the contralateral side was treated without a membrane. Histological analysis at 60, 120 and 180 days after augmentation of the maxilla showed that, in the case of the test sites (where most of the membranes were either exposed or lost), the bone grafts presented extensive resorption and there was a lack of bone continuity between the graft and the recipient site. Similar findings were made at the non-membrane-treated control sides. In the case of augmentation of the mandible with membranes, the bone grafts were not resorbed, but were integrated into newly formed bone at the recipient site. In the control sides, the grafts presented varying degrees of resorption and integration into the recipient bone. It is concluded that, in comparison to bone grafting alone, onlay ischiac bone grafting combined with guided tissue regeneration eliminates the risk of bone graft resorption and ensures integration of the graft into newly formed bone at the recipient site, provided that closure of the operated area can be maintained during healing.

  19. Effects of resveratrol on obesity-related inflammation markers in adipose tissue of genetically obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Lasa, Arrate; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bujanda, Luis; Portillo, María P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol might represent a promising therapeutic tool with which to combat adipose tissue chronic inflammation in a model of genetic obesity and to link its anti-inflammatory activity with its effect on body fat reduction. Twenty 6-wk-old male Zucker (fa/fa) rats were randomly distributed into two experimental groups. Resveratrol (RSV) was given orally (15 mg/kg body weight/d in RSV group) by means of an orogastric catheter for 6 wk. Enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically or fluorimetrically. Gene and protein expressions were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot respectively. Cytokine concentrations and the activity of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated β cells (NF-κB) were measured by using commercial kits. RSV reduced the weight of internal adipose tissues. In epididymal depot glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activities, as well as lipoprotein lipase expression and activity were reduced by RSV. The expression of hormone-sensitive lipase was increased, and that of the cluster of differentiation 36 was reduced. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and C-reactive protein were lower in the RSV-treated group than in the control group. Protein expression of interleukin-6 and the activity of NF-κB, were decreased by RSV. The present results provide evidence that fatty acid uptake and lipolysis are metabolic pathways involved in the response of adipose tissue to RSV. This polyphenol modulates plasma cytokine levels partially by reducing macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and inhibiting NF-κB activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermostability of bone tissue after immobilization induced osteopenia in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wójtowicz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of load-bearing bones results in imbalance of bone turnover followed by bone loss and impairment of its mechanical function. The question is whether immobilization induced bone loss is accompanied by deterioration of properties of the bone tissue components. Thermally induced transformations of collagen reflect the overall condition of the structure and cross-links in collagen network. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether immobilization induced osteopenia effects stability of collagen in bone tissue. Bone loss was developed by unilateral hindlimb immobilization in adult rats. Effects of unloading on cortical tissue from tibiae were studied after three weeks of unloading (I3R0 and four weeks after remobilization and free convalescence (I3R4 in both tibiae. Thermodynamic parameters of collagen degradation in bone were determined from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis of partially dehydrated cortical bone samples from tibiae in the range of temperatures from 60 degrees C up to 300 degrees C. All bone samples were thermally very stable showing first clear endothermal process with a peak temperature within a range from 150 degrees C to 169 degrees C, for different samples. The next endotherm, wider and flatter, was observed between 245-298 degrees C with a peak at 255 degrees C - 260 degrees C. There were significant side-to-side (right to left differences for both endothermal processes in tibiae samples from experimental groups: I3R0 and I3R4. Immobilization of load-bearing bones influences stability of collagen in bone tissue. Free remobilization was not sufficient for recovery of thermal parameters of bone.

  1. METOVITAN PREVENTS THE ACCUMULATION OF THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE OXIDIZED FORM IN RAT TISSUES UNDER IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhomenko Yu. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the ability of the drug "Metovitan" to prevent the redox balance disturbance in the tissues and thiamine diphosphate irreversible oxidation upon exposure of ionizing radiation on the body. The rats were subjected to a single exposure of the X-ray therapeutic instrument RUM-17 to create a dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 Gray. Preparation "Metovitan" was administered at a dose of 25 mg per 1 kg body weight for 22–24 h before irradiation. Contents of thiamine diphosphate, reduced SH-groups and reactive oxygen species in blood and brain were determined using previously described methods. It has been shown that the active form of the thiamine diphosphate content in the blood was decreased depending on the doses (from 0.5 to 5.0 Gray. At the same time the content of thiamine diphosphate oxidized form was increased. Furthermore the critical changes occurred in metabolic processes redox state parameters, namely, the level of free SH-groups was reduced and the level of reactive oxygen species was increased. Similar changes were observed in the brain tissue. The Metovitan single administration to the animals the day before irradiation, at 25 mg per 1 kg of body weight dose, promotes the protection of the intracellular thiamine diphosphate and redox status in animal tissues (blood, brain tissue from the negative influence of irradiation (at 0.5; 1.0 Gray doses. These results give reason to recommend the drug for treating of the staff that is involved in the elimination of radioactive contamination. To provide the protection from the higher doses, other scheme of the treatment should be probably recommended.

  2. Phthalate is associated with insulin resistance in adipose tissue of male rat: role of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Parsanathan; Sathish, Sampath; Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2013-03-01

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer, commonly used in a variety of products, including lubricants, perfumes, hairsprays and cosmetics, construction materials, wood finishers, adhesives, floorings and paints. DEHP is an endocrine disruptor and it has a continuum of influence on various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. However, specific effects of DEHP on insulin signaling in adipose tissue are not known. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups. Control, DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubations for 30 days) and DEHP + vitamin E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubations for 30 days. After the completion of treatment, adipose tissue was dissected out to assess various parameters. DEHP treatment escalated H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radical levels as well as lipid peroxidation in the adipose tissue. DEHP impaired the expression of insulin signaling molecules and their phosphorelay pathways leading to diminish plasma membrane GLUT4 level and thus decreased glucose uptake and oxidation. Blood glucose level was elevated as a result of these changes. Supplementation of vitamins (C & E) prevented the DEHP-induced changes. It is concluded that DEHP-induced ROS and lipid peroxidation disrupts the insulin signal transduction in adipose tissue and favors glucose intolerance. Antioxidant vitamins have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tissue stiffness induced by prolonged immobilization of the rat knee joint and relevance of AGEs (pentosidine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sachiko; Sakurai, Takashi; Ohsako, Masafumi; Saura, Ryuichi; Hatta, Hideo; Atomi, Yoriko

    2010-12-01

    Joints, connective tissues consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) with few blood vessels, transfer tension to the skeleton in response to environmental demand. Therefore, joint immobilization decreases active and passive mechanical stress, resulting in increased joint stiffness and tissue degeneration; however, the cause of joint stiffness is obscure. Using a rat knee immobilization model, we examined the relationship between range of motion (ROM) and cell numbers and ECM cross-links by accumulation of advanced glycation end products, pentosidine, in the posterior joint capsule of immobilized joints during 16 weeks of immobilization. The left knee joint was immobilized by internal fixation and compared with the non-immobilized right leg. As early as 2 weeks of immobilization, joint ROM and torque significantly decreased and in parallel, disordered alignment of collagen fiber bundles significantly increased, compared with non-immobilized joints. Those changes continued until 16 weeks of immobilization. Significant increases in pentosidine-positive areas after 8 weeks and significantly decreased cell numbers after 16 weeks of immobilization were also observed compared to the contralateral side. A significant negative correlation between tissue stiffness measured by restriction of ROM and accumulation of pentosidine was observed. This study is the first to show that immobilization of knee joints induces articular contracture associated with sequential changes of ECM alignment, influencing ROM and later pentosidine accumulation and decreased cell numbers during the 16-week immobilization period. Pentosidine appears to be an indicator toward a chronic tissue stiffness leading to decreased cell number rather than a cause of ROM restriction induced by joint immobilization.

  4. White adipose tissue genome wide-expression profiling and adipocyte metabolic functions after soy protein consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigolet, Maria E; Torres, Nimbe; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel, Claudia; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Tovar, Armando R

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose tissue mass due to an imbalance between high dietary energy intake and low physical activity; however, the type of dietary protein may contribute to its development. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of soy protein versus casein on white adipose tissue genome profiling, and the metabolic functions of adipocytes in rats with diet-induced obesity. The results showed that rats fed a Soy Protein High-Fat (Soy HF) diet gained less weight and had lower serum leptin concentration than rats fed a Casein High-Fat (Cas HF) diet, despite similar energy intake. Histological studies indicated that rats fed the Soy HF diet had significantly smaller adipocytes than those fed the Cas HF diet, and this was associated with a lower triglyceride/DNA content. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes was reduced by the amount of fat consumed but not by the type of protein ingested. Expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation increased in adipose tissue of rats fed Soy diets; microarray analysis revealed that Soy protein consumption modified the expression of 90 genes involved in metabolic functions and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Network analysis showed that the expression of leptin was regulated by the type of dietary protein and it was identified as a central regulator of the expression of lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue. Thus, soy maintains the size and metabolic functions of adipose tissue through biochemical adaptations, adipokine secretion, and global changes in gene expression.

  5. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease.

  6. Distribution of chiral PCBs in selected tissues in the laboratory rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmler, H.J.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Robertson, L.W. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health; Avants, J.K.; Garrison, W.A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sulkowski, W.W. [Silesian Univ., Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured for a large number of technical applications including for use in transformers and capacitors. The widespread commercial utilization of PCBs and their persistence in the environment have resulted in their worldwide distribution. Physicochemical characteristics, such as lipophilicity and stability towards biological and thermal degradation, have resulted in their accumulation in the food chain, raising concerns about human health effects. Animal and epidemiological studies have implicated PCBs in a number of human disease processes, such as carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis. However, mechanisms of PCB toxicity are still poorly understood, partly because technical PCB products contain a complex mixture of the possible 209 PCB derivatives or congeners. One of the most intriguing, but frequently overlooked, aspects of PCB toxicity is related to the existence of chiral PCB congeners, possessing at least three ortho (to the biphenyl bridge) chlorine atoms. Racemic PCBs in this group have been implicated in developmental and neurotoxic effects. Two studies with individual congeners have shown that the (+)-enantiomer of PCB 844 and 1395 are selectively enriched in tissues, e.g. the liver, of laboratory animals. However, nothing is currently known about the distribution and enrichment of chiral PCBs after administration of a complex PCB mixture to laboratory animals such as the rat. The present study investigates the enantiomeric fraction of PCBs 91, 95 and 149 in male rats after administration of (a) Aroclor 1254 and (b) an environmental mixture obtained from soil contaminated with Chlorofen, a Polish PCB mixture.

  7. Tissue distribution, intracellular localization and proteolytic processing of rat 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Søren; Aarenstrup, Lene; Tornehave, Ditte; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Roepstorff, Peter; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD) is an important enzyme involved in tyrosine catabolism. HPD was shown to be identical to a protein named the F-antigen, exploited by immunologists because of its unique immunological properties. Congenital HPD deficiency is a rare, relatively benign condition known as hereditary type III tyrosinemia. Decreased expression of HPD is often observed in association with the severe type I tyrosinemia, and interestingly, inhibition of HPD activity seems to ameliorate the clinical symptoms of type I tyrosinemia. In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression and intracellular localization of HPD in the rat. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we confirm previously known sites of expression in liver and kidney. In addition, we show that HPD is abundantly expressed in neurons in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. By using immunoelectron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we provide evidence that HPD contrary to earlier assumptions specifically localizes to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Detailed mass spectrometric analyses of HPD purified from rat liver revealed N-terminal and C-terminal processing of HPD, and expression of recombinant HPD suggested that C-terminal processing enhances the enzymatic activity.

  8. Nerve Tissue Prefabrication Inside the Rat Femoral Bone: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Zuhtu; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Ozatik, Orhan; Soztutar, Erdem; Ozkara, Emre; Kose, Aydan; Arslantas, Ali; Cetin, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether nerve regeneration can be induced in the tubular bone between distal and proximal cut nerve ends. Twenty adult Wistar rats were used for the study. Rats were divided into three groups; femoral bone conduit group, nerve transection group, sham group. The sciatic nerve was surgically cut and from both ends inserted into the adjacent femoral bone tunnel in the femoral bone conduit group. The sciatic nerve was cut transversely in the nerve transection group. In the Sham group, only sciatic nerve exploration was performed, without a nerve cut. The groups were evaluated functionally and morphologically. All results showed that axonal growth existed through the osseous canal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate neural regeneration inside the bone. We can speculate that the bone marrow provides a convenient microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to prefabricating peripheral nerves, this novel model may help to establish further strategies for engineering of other tissues in the bone marrow.

  9. Positive influence of Centchroman on cardiovascular system and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatwa, Rameshwar; Kar, Anand

    2007-11-01

    Centchroman, a nonsteroidal oral contraceptive, was evaluated for its hitherto unstudied effect on cardiovascular system, thyroid function and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats. Wistar sperm-positive female rats were treated with Centchroman (1.5 mg/kg per day, po) for 10 days and the alterations in serum concentration of thyroid hormones [triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4))], insulin, glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phospahatase (ALP) activity, hepatic type-1 iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) enzyme activity and hepatic, renal, cardiac and serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) were studied. Simultaneously, alterations in endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)], relative risk ratio (RR), atherogenic index (AI) and daily rate of food and water consumption were also investigated as supportive parameters. Centchroman administration resulted in the complete inhibition of pregnancy. It increased serum T(4) marginally and HDL-C levels, hepatic SOD, CAT and GSH; cardiac SOD and GSH and renal SOD and CAT activity significantly. However, it reduced LPO in all tissues; concentrations of other serum lipids; AI; RR and activity of ALP. As Centchroman administration did not alter the concentrations of most active thyroid hormone, T(3), serum insulin and glucose, it appears that the drug has no side effect on thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Rather, it possesses cardiovascular and anti-peroxidative benefits.

  10. A novel pungency biosensor prepared with fixing taste-bud tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lixin; Jiao, Lihua; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2015-06-15

    A novel taste biosensor based on ligand-receptor interaction was developed through fixing taste-bud tissues of SD rats to a glassy carbon electrode. Using the sodium alginate-starch gel as a fixing agent, taste-bud tissues of SD rats were fixed between two nuclear microporous membranes to make a sandwich-type sensing membrane. With the taste biosensor, the response current induced by capsaicin and gingerol stimulating the corresponding receptors was measured. The results showed that the lowest limit of detection of this biosensor to capsaicin was 1×10(-13) mol/L and the change rate of response current was the highest at the concentration of 9×10(-13) mol/L, indicating that the capsaicin receptor was saturated at this point. The lowest limit of detection of this biosensor to gingerol was 1×10(-12) mol/L, and the gingerol receptor was saturated when the concentration of gingerol was 3×10(-11) mol/L. It was demonstrated that the interaction curves of capsaicin and gingerol with their respective receptors exhibited high correlation (R(2): 0.9841 and 0.9904). The binding constant and dissociation constant of gingerol with its receptor were 1.564×10(-11) and 1.815×10(-11) respectively, which were all higher than those of capsaicin with its receptor (1.249×10(-12) and 2.078×10(-12)). This study, for the first time, made it possible to quantitatively determine the interaction of the taste receptor and pungent substances with a new biosensor, thus providing a simple approach for monitoring pungent substances and investigating the mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction.

  11. Smooth muscle myosin regulation by serum and cell density in cultured rat lung connective tissue cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, P; Zhao, J; White, S; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Periasamy, M; Low, R B

    1993-08-01

    RNA and protein analyses were used to detect expression of SM1 and SM2 smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) in cultured adult rat lung connective tissue cells (RL-90). Smooth muscle MHC mRNA expression in confluent cells grown in 10% serum was approximately 50% of the level in adult stomach. Similar results were obtained in cells cultured at low density (25% confluency) in 1% serum. However, in low-density cultures transferred to 10% serum for 24 h, the level of MHC mRNA decreased to approximately 20% of that in adult stomach. Smooth muscle alpha-actin showed a pattern of expression similar to that for smooth muscle MHC. Expression of nonmuscle MHC-A mRNA was higher in all culture conditions compared to stomach. MHC-A mRNA expression was less in low-density cultures in low serum and increased when low-density cultures were transferred to 10% serum for 24 h. MHC-B mRNA expression was less in low- vs. high-density cultures. In contrast to MHC-A, however, MHC-B mRNA expression in low-density cultures was higher in low serum. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting with SM1-specific antibody demonstrated the presence of the SM1 protein isoform as well as reactivity to a protein band migrating slightly faster than SM2. These results demonstrate that cultured rat lung connective tissue cells express smooth muscle MHC and that expression is modulated by culture conditions.

  12. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  13. Effects of Berberine on Adipose Tissues and Kidney Function in 3T3-L1 Cells and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Aya; Dong, Shi-Fen; Negishi, Hiroko; Yasui, Naomi; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on adipose tissues, as well as its effect on renal injury in 3T3-L1 cells and spontaneously hypertensive rats. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured and treated with berberine (5-20 pM) from days 3 to 8. Berberine added to the cultured medium could significantly down-regulate transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a, and peroxisome pro liferator-activated receptor y, and suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fatty acid synthase, and inhibit 3T3-Ll fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received either 150 mg/day of berberine or saline orally for 8 weeks. Compared with the control, berberine-treated rats exhibited significant reductions in body weight gain (p Berberine-treated rats significantly decreased urinary albumin excretion, a marker of renal injury (p berberine decreased the adipose tissues weight and attenuated renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Based on these results, berberine has an important role in regulating adipose tissues. These results suggest the protective effect of berberine on metabolic syndrome related diseases, such as renal injury.

  14. Modulation of lipid peroxidation, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats by fibre - Enriched biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko L Erukainure; Folasade O Adeboyejo; Gloria N Elemo; Osaretin AT Ebuehi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of feeding fibre - enriched biscuit on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Treatment lasted for 14 d, after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were used for the assessment of GSH, catalase, SOD and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles. Result: Induction of diabetes led to a significant decrease in GSH level, elevated SOD and catalase activities. These were significantly modified by the biscuits. There was an elevated level of malondialdehyde in the brain tissues of the untreated diabetic rats; this was significantly reduced by the biscuits. There was a significant decrease in HDL and a significant increase in LDL levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the untreated (diabetic) rats. Feeding with fibre - enriched biscuits led to decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL - cholesterol and caused a significant increase in the levels of HDL. Conclusions: These results suggest a therapeutic and protective effect of the fibre -enriched biscuits against diabetic - induced brain toxicity in rats.

  15. cav-p60 expression in rat muscle tissues. Distribution of caveolar proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M.; Vinten, Jørgen; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)......Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)...

  16. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Mehmet; Kilinç, Ibrahim; Oncu, Meral; Karaoz, Erdal; Delibas, Namik

    2003-04-01

    Peppermint plants have been used as a herbal medicine for many conditions, including loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea, vomiting and indigestion. This study is aimed at investigating the biochemical and histological effects of Mentha piperita L., growing in the Yenisar Bademli town of Isparta City, and Mentha spicata L., growing on the Anamas high plateau of Isparta City, on rat kidney tissue. Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for this study. Animals were divided into four experimental groups, each with 12 rats, as follows: control group (group I); 20 g/L M. piperita tea (group II); 20 g/L M. spicata tea (group III); 40 g/L M. spicata tea (group IV). The control group rats were given commercial drinking water (Hayat DANONESA water). The tea for the other groups was prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats during 30 days as drinking water. Plasma urea and creatinine levels were determined, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in the homogenates of kidney tissue. The levels of plasma urea and creatinine were increased significantly (P spicata presents markedly nephrotoxic changes in rats.

  17. Protective Nature of Mangiferin on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Kamalraj, Subban; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of diabetes complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of oral administration of mangiferin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by measuring the oxidative indicators in liver and kidney as well as the ameliorative properties. Administration of mangiferin to diabetic rats significantly decreased blood glucose and increased plasma insulin levels. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased while increases in the levels of lipidperoxidation (LPO) markers were observed in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic control rats as compared to normal control rats. Oral treatment with mangiferin (40 mg/kg b.wt/day) for a period of 30 days showed significant ameliorative effects on all the biochemical and oxidative parameters studied. Diabetic rats treated with mangiferin restored almost normal architecture of liver and kidney tissues, which was confirmed by histopathological examination. These results indicated that mangiferin has potential ameliorative effects in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimentally induced diabetic rats. PMID:24167738

  18. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells repair germinal cells of seminiferous tubules of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs are less invasive than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to obtain for cell therapy. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the germinal cells characteristics and repairs in seminiferous tubules of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats after AT-MSCs transplantation. Settings and Design: Experimental case-control study. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, donors AT-MSCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The recipients (n = 5 were received two doses of 10 mg/kg of busulfan with 21 days interval to stop endogenous spermatogenesis. After induction of azoospermia by busulfan, rats were injected with the AT-MSCs into the efferent duct of right testes. After 60 days, the right testes were injected AT-MSCs were compared to left azoospermic testes. Five untreated male rats served as negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Stereological indices were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc test. The spermatogenesis index was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: After stereological analyses, the seminiferous tubules treated with AT-MSCs had normal morphology. The untreated seminiferous tubules were empty. Spermatogenesis was observed in most cell-treated seminiferous tubules. Conclusions: The testis of busulfan-induced azoospermic rats accepted transplanted AT-MSCs. The transplanted AT-MSCs could induce spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of the rat.

  19. Measurement of peroxiredoxin-4 serum levels in rat tissue and its use as a potential marker for hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ritsu; Takahashi, Motoko; Ihara, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Fujii, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    2012-08-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx)-4, a secretable endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident isoform of the mammalian Prx family, functions as a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase. It is acknowledged that Prx-4 plays a role in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, and potentially other peroxides, which may be generated during the oxidative folding of proteins and oxidative stress in the ER. The present study was undertaken in order to specifically quantify the tissue levels of Prx-4. To accomplish this, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed using a specific polyclonal antibody produced by immunizing a rabbit with native recombinant rat Prx-4 protein. The assay was used to detect Prx-4 in the range of 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, and to investigate tissue distribution in rats. Using this immunoassay, we found that the serum levels of Prx-4 were substantially lower in asymptomatic Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, a rat model of Wilson's disease, compared to normal rats. In addition, the treatment of rat hepatoma cells with N-acetylcysteine led to a significant increase in the release of Prx-4 protein into the medium; thus, it appears likely that the secretion of Prx-4 is associated with the redox state within cells. These results suggest that serum Prx-4 has potential for use as a biomarker for hepatic oxidative stress.

  20. Protective effects of protocatechuic acid on TCDD-induced oxidative and histopathological damage in the heart tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Osman; Disli, Olcay Murat; Timurkaan, Necati

    2013-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that causes severe toxic effects in animal and human. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of TCDD and the preventive effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA), a widespread phenolic compound, in the heart tissue of rats. For this purpose, 3-4 months old 28 rats with 280-310 g body weights were equally divided into 4 groups (control, TCDD, PCA, TCDD + PCA group). A 2 μg/kg dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 100 mg/kg dose of PCA were dissolved in corn oil and given orally to the rats for 45 days. The results indicated that TCDD induced oxidative stress by increasing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and by decreasing the levels of glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the heart tissue of rats. In contrast, PCA treatment prevents the toxic effects of TCDD on oxidative stress. In addition, histopathological alterations such as necrosis and hemorrhage occurred in TCDD group, and PCA treatment partially prevents these alterations in heart tissue. In this study, it was concluded that TCDD exposure led to toxic effects in heart tissue and PCA treatment could prevent the toxicity of TCDD.

  1. Tissue-engineering with muscle fiber fragments improves the strength of a weak abdominal wall in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP...

  2. Abnormal expression of stathmin 1 in brain tissue of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenghua; Hu, Yida; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaogang; Luo, Jing; Xu, Yali; Wang, Xuefeng

    2012-09-01

    Microtubule dynamics have been shown to contribute to neurite outgrowth, branching, and guidance. Stathmin 1 is a potent microtubule-destabilizing factor that is involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and plays an essential role in neurite elongation and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigate the expression of stathmin 1 in the brain tissues of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and experimental animals using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. We obtained 32 temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with intractable TLE and 12 histologically normal temporal lobe tissues as controls. In addition, 48 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, including one control group and five groups with epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. Hippocampal and temporal lobe tissues were obtained from control and epileptic rats on Days 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 after kindling. Stathmin 1 was mainly expressed in the neuronal membrane and cytoplasm in the human controls, and its expression levels were significantly higher in patients with intractable TLE. Moreover, stathmin 1 was also expressed in the neurons of both the control and the experimental rats. Stathmin 1 expression was decreased in the experimental animals from 1 to 14 days postseizure and then significantly increased at Days 30 and 60 compared with the control group. Many protruding neuronal processes were observed in the TLE patients and in the chronic stage epileptic rats. These data suggest that stathmin 1 may participate in the abnormal network reorganization of synapses and contribute to the pathogenesis of TLE.

  3. Endurance exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Gabrielle; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Silva, Sabrina; Vitto, Marcelo F; Cesconetto, Patricia A; de Pinho, Ricardo A; Pauli, José R; Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2011-09-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to underlie the induction of obesity-induced JNK and NF-κB activation inflammatory responses, and generation of peripheral insulin resistance. On the other hand, exercise has been used as a crucial tool in obese and diabetic patients, and may reduce inflammatory pathway stimulation. However, the ability of exercise training to reverse endoplasmatic reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obesity has not been investigated in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that exercise training ameliorates ER stress and insulin resistance in DIO-induced rats. Rats were fed with standard rodent chow (3,948 kcal kg(-1)) or high-fat diet (5,358 kcal kg(-1)) for 2 months. After that rats were submitted to swimming training (1 h per day, 5 days for week with 5% overload of the body weight for 8 weeks). Samples from epididymal fat and liver were obtained and western blot analysis was performed. Our results showed that swimming protocol reduces pro-inflammatory molecules (JNK, IκB and NF-κB) in adipose and hepatic tissues. In addition, exercise leads to reduction in ER stress, by reducing PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation in these tissues. In parallel, an increase in insulin pathway signaling was observed, as confirmed by increases in IR, IRSs and Akt phosphorylation following exercise training in DIO rats. Thus, results suggest that exercise can reduce ER stress, improving insulin resistance in adipose and hepatic tissue.

  4. Identification of stable and oestrus cycle-independent housekeeping genes in the rat mammary gland and other tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Ekstrøm, Claus T; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    of stably expressed genes across oestrus cycle phases. For normalization between samples from the entire panel of rat tissues, eight HKGs (Rps18, Eef1a1, B2m, Actb, Tbp, Hprt, Pgk1, and Sdha) were identified as the optimal combination. These HKGs are of general relevance for studies comparing gene...

  5. Evaluation of 2-year-old intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation into host organs like the spleen may possibly provide a temporary relief after extensive liver resection or severe liver disease or may enable treatment of an enzyme deficiency. With time, however, dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of the ectopically transplanted cells may be possible. Thus, in the present study syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleen of adult male rats and evaluated 2 years thereafter in comparison to orthotopic livers for histopathological changes and (as markers for preneoplastic transformation) for cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression. Because inducibility of P450 and GST isoforms may be changed in preneoplastic foci, prior to sacrifice animals were additionally treated either with beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, or the respective solvent. In the 2-year-old grafts more than 70% of the spleen mass was occupied by the transplant. The transplanted hepatocytes were arranged in cord-like structures. Also few bile ducts were present. Morphologically, no signs of malignancy were visible. With all rats, transplant recipients as well as controls, however, discrete nodular structures were seen in the livers. Due to age, both livers and transplants displayed only a low P450 2B1 and 3A2 and GST class alpha and mu isoform expression. No immunostaining for P450 1A1 was visible. At both sites, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone treatment enhanced P450 1A1, P450 2B1 and 3A2, or P450 3A2 expression, respectively. No immunostaining for GST class pi isoforms was seen in the transplants. The livers of both transplant recipients and control rats, however, displayed GST pi-positive foci, corresponding to the nodular structures seen histomorphologically. Compared to the surrounding tissue, these foci also exhibited a more pronounced staining for GST class alpha and mu isoforms and a stronger inducibility of the P450 1A

  6. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Dasdag, Suleyman; Canturk, Fazile; Karabulut, Derya; Caner, Yusuf; Adalier, Nur

    2016-09-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) providers have become essential in our daily lives, as wireless technology is evolving at a dizzying pace. Although there are different frequency generators, one of the most commonly used Wi-Fi devices are 2.4GHz frequency generators. These devices are heavily used in all areas of life but the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation emission on users is generally ignored. Yet, an increasing share of the public expresses concern on this issue. Therefore, this study intends to respond to the growing public concern. The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats. The study was conducted on 16 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. The rats in the experimental group (n=8) were exposed to 2.4GHz frequency radiation for over a year. The rats in the sham control group (n=8) were subjected to the same experimental conditions except the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. After the exposure period was complete the possible DNA damage on the rat's brain, liver, kidney, skin, and testicular tissues was detected through the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet) method. The amount of DNA damage was measured as percentage tail DNA value. Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the% tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05). However the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (pWi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation.

  7. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, T F

    1974-11-01

    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  8. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    improvements in terms of significant reductions in amphetamine-induced rotations were observed in rats grafted with FFRT cultures (127%) and rats grafted with cell suspensions (122%), while control animals showed no normalization of rotational behavior. At 84 days after transplantation, there were similar...... days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...... numbers of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in grafts of cultured tissue (775 +/- 98, mean +/- SEM) and grafts of fresh, dissociated cell suspension (806 +/- 105, mean +/- SEM). Cell counts in fresh explants, 7-day-old cultures, and grafted cultures revealed a 68.2% loss of TH-ir cells 7 days after...

  9. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  10. Effect of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Seo, Eul Won [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Tae Jeong [Kaya Univ., Goryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation. It was shown that the number of white blood cell in X-ray irradiated group supplemented with propolis increased as much to those of the control group and also the GOT activities among the blood components were decreased after propolis feeding. The mineral contents such as Mg, Fe, Ca, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, As in liver were increased as compared with those of the control group but maintained lower level than those of only irradiated groups, implying that the propolis feeding elevated the recovery capability of white blood cell effectively and propolis have a potential resistance to cell damage by X-ray. According to histological observations of the testis, intestine and liver tissues which are irradiated after feeding propolis, the numbers of damaged undifferentiated cells were decreased in testis and the shape of the goblet cells and inner and outer muscular layers in intestine were restored to the original state and the hepatocytes and interlobular veins were shown intact in liver, suggesting that propolis has a potential capacity to restore cell shapes or resist deformation of cell.

  11. Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezelli José D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old. Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues.

  12. Effects of Pristane on Cytochrome P450 Isozyme Expression in Rat Tissues

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    Marvin A. Cuchens

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogenesis studies are powerful tools to obtain information on potential mechanisms of chemical factors for malignancies. In this study Western blot analyses, using monoclonal antibodies specific for three different cytochrome P450 (CYP isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B, were employed to examine the effect(s of 3-methylcholanthrene and/or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane on the basal and inducible levels of expression of CYP proteins within Copenhagen rat tissues. Pristane exposure led to tissue specific differences in the CYP isozymes expressed and elicited increased CYP protein expression over 3-methylcholanthrene induced levels in microsomes isolated from liver, Peyer's Patches, and thymus. Within the context of the chemical carcinogenesis model employed in this study, these observations correlated with the induction of B-cell malignancies by low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and of thymic lymphomas by a high 3-methylcholanthrene dose. The data suggest that pristane treatment affects CYP isozyme expression. This pristane-mediated effect clearly could be a contributing factor in the chemical carcinogenesis of the previously observed lymphoid malignancies, and a possible basis for the tumor enhancing effects of pristane.

  13. Plasma, tissue and urinary levels of aloin in rats after the administration of pure aloin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Aloin is a physiologically active anthraquinone present in aloe. There are two isomers of aloin, aloin A and aloin B, occurring as a mixture of diastereomers. The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and tissue distribution of aloin. Rats were gavaged with 11.8g/kg aloin, and the levels of aloin and its conjugates were measured in plasma, tissues, and urine. Plasma aloin level showed a peak at 1hr after the administration and the concentration was 59.07+/-10.5 ng/ml. The 24 h cumulated urinary aloin was 0.03% of the initial dose. These results suggest that aloin is absorbed and reaches a peak plasma level within 1-1.5 h after the administration and a significant portion is possibly metabolized or is excreted in feces. These results can apply to the determination of the adequate intake level of aloe and aloe products to achieve the desired biological effect, and to interprete in vitro study results.

  14. Surface fluorescence studies of tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rat lungs.

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    Staniszewski, Kevin; Audi, Said H; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-04-01

    We designed a fiber-optic-based optoelectronic fluorometer to measure emitted fluorescence from the auto-fluorescent electron carriers NADH and FAD of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The ratio of NADH to FAD is called the redox ratio (RR = NADH/FAD) and is an indicator of the oxidoreductive state of tissue. We evaluated the fluorometer by measuring the fluorescence intensities of NADH and FAD at the surface of isolated, perfused rat lungs. Alterations of lung mitochondrial metabolic state were achieved by the addition of rotenone (complex I inhibitor), potassium cyanide (KCN, complex IV inhibitor) and/or pentachlorophenol (PCP, uncoupler) into the perfusate recirculating through the lung. Rotenone- or KCN-containing perfusate increased RR by 21 and 30%, respectively. In contrast, PCP-containing perfusate decreased RR by 27%. These changes are consistent with the established effects of rotenone, KCN, and PCP on the redox status of the ETC. Addition of blood to perfusate quenched NADH and FAD signal, but had no effect on RR. This study demonstrates the capacity of fluorometry to detect a change in mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused lungs, and suggests the potential of fluorometry for use in in vivo experiments to extract a sensitive measure of lung tissue health in real-time.

  15. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Effects of epidural hypothermic saline infusion on locomotor outcome and tissue preservation after moderate thoracic spinal cord contusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Carlos E; Herrera, Loren P; Prusmack, Chad; Ruenes, Gladys; Marcillo, Alexander; Guest, James D

    2005-03-01

    Regionally delivered hypothermia has advantages over systemic hypothermia for clinical application following spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of local hypothermia on tissue sparing, neuronal preservation, and locomotor outcome were studied in a moderate thoracic spinal cord contusion model. Rats were randomized to four treatment groups and data were collected and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Chilled saline was perfused into the epidural space 30 minutes postcontusion to achieve the following epidural temperatures: 24 +/- 2.3 degrees C (16 rats), 30 +/- 2.4 degrees C (13 rats), and 35 +/- 0.9 degrees C (13 rats). Hypothermia was continued for 3 hours when a 45-minute period of rewarming was instituted. In a fourth group a moderate contusion only was induced in 14 animals. Rectal (core) and T9-10 (epidural) temperatures were measured continuously. Locomotor testing, using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (Ba-Be-Br) scale, was performed for 6 weeks, and rats were videotaped for subsequent analysis. The lesion/preserved tissue ratio was calculated throughout the entire lesion cavity and the total lesion, spinal cord, and spared tissue volumes were determined. The rostral and caudal extent of gray matter loss was also measured. At 6 weeks locomotor recovery was similar in all groups (mean Ba-Be-Br Scale scores 14.88 +/- 3.71, 14.83 +/- 2.81, 14.50 +/- 2.24, and 14.07 +/- 2.39 [p = 0.77] for all four groups, respectively). No significant differences in spared tissue volumes were found when control and treatment groups were compared, but gray matter preservation was reduced in the infusion-treated groups. Regional cooling applied 30 minutes after a moderate contusive SCI was not beneficial in terms of tissue sparing, neuronal preservation, or locomotor outcome. This method of cooling may reduce blood flow in the injured spinal cord and exacerbate secondary injury.

  17. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  18. Tissue differences in vascular permeability induced by leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenson, W.F.; Chang, K.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    The activity of synthetic LTB4 and PGE2, in increasing vascular permeability was tested simultaneously in seventeen different organs in the rat. Rats were injected in the aortic arch through a cannula in the carotid artery with /sup 125/I-albumin, /sup 51/Cr-erythrocytes, and /sup 57/Co-EDTA. The rats were then injected through the carotid artery cannula with LTB4, PGE2 or a combination of LTB4 and PGE2. Eight minutes later the rats were killed and the activity of /sup 125/I, /sup 51/Cr, and /sup 57/Co measured in different organs. Changes in vascular permeability were inferred from changes in the ratios of the isotope activities. LTB4 (15 micrograms/kg) induced enhanced permeability in caecum, small bowel, skin, fat pad, stomach, pancreas, and aorta, but not in the heart, brain, colon, testes, diaphragm, forelimb, cremaster muscle, lung, kidney or eye. A lower dose of LTB4, 3 micrograms/kg, enhanced vascular permeability in caecum, small bowel, skin, stomach, and aorta. PGE2 (1 microgram/kg) enhanced vascular permeability only in the caecum. A combination of LTB4 (3 micrograms/kg) and PGE2 (1 microgram/kg) was more potent than either alone. Rats depleted of neutrophils with anti-neutrophil serum were less sensitive to LTB4 than intact rats. These findings suggest that the vasculatures of different tissues in the rat vary markedly in their susceptibility to LTB4 induced increases in permeability.

  19. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  20. Electrical stimulation structurally affects the tissues of the rectum and anus of nulliparous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Hugo Alves; Silva, Maria da Glória da; Barbosa, Keyla de Paula; Vianna, Leonora Maciel de Souza; Pacheco, Yolanda Galindo; de Godoy, José Roberto Pimenta; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2017-09-01

    Considering that the muscles of the anus perform a critical role in maintaining continence, losses in their structure can negatively affect the physiological control of the intestinal contents. Anorectal electro-stimulation (ARES) has been reported to have a positive effect on the functionality of treated patients, but how ARES affects the structural tissues of the anorectal segment remains unknown. Because the study of how ARES structurally affects human tissues is not possible, this study aimed to clarify these effects in a murine model, which has a similar anorectal segment (structure and physiology) to humans. For the descriptive and comparative study, randomly selected nulliparous adult Wistar rats (n = 5) were submitted to 30 anorectal sessions of ARES with a biphasic current (700 μs, 50 Hz from 2 to 4 mA). After treatment, the animals were euthanized, and the anorectal segments were dissected and processed for histopathological analysis. Our results showed that ARES increased the widths of the mucosal, submucosal and muscle layers of the rectum, as well as the number of leukocytes in the mucosa. ARES also caused hyperplasia of the smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter and hypertrophy of the external anal sphincter muscle. In conclusion, our results showed that ARES had not only a positive effect on the structure (morphology) of all tissues associated with the rectum and anus but, more importantly, on the structural gain of the muscles (hyperplasia and hypertrophy), which could point to a functional gain of the anal sphincter, reinforcing the applicability of ARES as a non-invasive treatment for anal incontinence. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  1. Tissue distribution of berberine and its metabolites after oral administration in rats.

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    Xiang-Shan Tan

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR has been confirmed to have multiple bioactivities in clinic, such as cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetes, cardiovascular protection and anti- inflammation. However, BBR's plasma level is very low; it cannot explain its pharmacological effects in patients. We consider that the in vivo distribution of BBR as well as of its bioactive metabolites might provide part of the explanation for this question. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n-IT-TOF as well as liquid chromatography that coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used for the study of tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of BBR in rats after oral administration (200 mg/kg. The results indicated that BBR was quickly distributed in the liver, kidneys, muscle, lungs, brain, heart, pancreas and fat in a descending order of its amount. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated that BBR's level in most of studied tissues was higher (or much higher than that in plasma 4 h after administration. BBR remained relatively stable in the tissues like liver, heart, brain, muscle, pancreas etc. Organ distribution of BBR's metabolites was also investigated paralleled with that of BBR. Thalifendine (M1, berberrubine (M2 and jatrorrhizine (M4, which the metabolites with moderate bioactivity, were easily detected in organs like the liver and kidney. For instance, M1, M2 and M4 were the major metabolites in the liver, among which the percentage of M2 was up to 65.1%; the level of AUC (0-t (area under the concentration-time curve for BBR or the metabolites in the liver was 10-fold or 30-fold higher than that in plasma, respectively. In summary, the organ concentration of BBR (as well as its bioactive metabolites was higher than its concentration in the blood after oral administration. It might explain BBR's pharmacological effects on human diseases in clinic.

  2. Tissue-Engineered Tendon for Enthesis Regeneration in a Rat Rotator Cuff Model

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    Michael J. Smietana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healing of rotator cuff (RC injuries with current suture or augmented scaffold techniques fails to regenerate the enthesis and instead forms a weaker fibrovascular scar that is prone to subsequent failure. Regeneration of the enthesis is the key to improving clinical outcomes for RC injuries. We hypothesized that the utilization of our tissue-engineered tendon to repair either an acute or a chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tear would regenerate a functional enthesis and return the biomechanics of the tendon back to that found in native tissue. Engineered tendons were fabricated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells utilizing our well-described fabrication technology. Forty-three rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus tendon followed by acute (immediate or chronic (4 weeks retracted repair by using either our engineered tendon or a trans-osseous suture technique. Animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Biomechanical and histological analyses of the regenerated enthesis and tendon were performed. Statistical analysis was performed by using a one-way analysis of variance with significance set at p < 0.05. Acute repairs using engineered tendon had improved enthesis structure and lower biomechanical failures compared with suture repairs. Chronic repairs with engineered tendon had a more native-like enthesis with increased fibrocartilage formation, reduced scar formation, and lower biomechanical failure compared with suture repair. Thus, the utilization of our tissue-engineered tendon showed improve enthesis regeneration and improved function in chronic RC repairs compared with suture repair. Clinical Significance: Our engineered tendon construct shows promise as a clinically relevant method for repair of RC injuries.

  3. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

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    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  4. Attenuation of oxidative stress and alteration of hepatic tissue ultrastructure by D-pinitol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Selvaraj; Palsamy, Periyasamy; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2010-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of D-pinitol on hyperglycaemia mediated oxidative stress by analysing the hepatic antioxidant competence, pro-inflammatory cytokines and ultrastructural changes in liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of D-pinitol (50 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in significant (p pinitol instigated a significant escalation in the levels of hepatic tissue non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activities enzymatic antioxidants of diabetic rats with significant (p pinitol on the hepatic tissues from oxidative stress-induced liver damage. These biochemical observations were complemented by histological and ultrastructural examination of liver section. Thus, the present study demonstrates the hepatoprotective nature of D-pinitol by attenuating hyperglycaemia-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

  5. Amygdalin (Laetrile) and prunasin beta-glucosidases: distribution in germ-free rat and in human tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, J; Brady, R O; Grimley, P M; Gal, A E; Waller, S G; Thistlethwaite, J R

    1981-01-01

    Amygdalin, the gentiobioside derivative of mandelonitrile commonly referred to as Laetrile, is presently under intensive investigation as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Because of this interest, we investigated the activity of beta-glucosidases that cleave glucose from amygdalin and from prunasin (mandelonitrile monoglucoside) in tissues from germ-free rats and in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Rat and human small intestinal mucosa contain high levels of activity of glucosidases that act on both of these cyanogenic glucosides. Release of glucose from these compounds was not detected in any of the human neoplastic tissues examined in the present study. These observations are consistent with reports of cyanide toxicity through the oral use of amygdalin or prunasin and pose serious questions concerning the alleged tumoricidal effect of amygdalin. PMID:6796962

  6. [Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on RBP4 of liver and adipose tissues in adolescent obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianfei; Bai, Youping; Li, Meng; Xu, Xiaodong; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To exploer effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on RBP4 of liver and adipose tissues in adolescent obese rats. 8 adolescent SD rats were selected as blank control (C) with normal diet. Obese rats were modeled with high fat feeding for 7 weeks. 32 obese rats were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (OC), CLA group ( OCC), exercise group (OM), exercise combined with CLA group (OMC). Exercise treatment were performed on animal treadmill with running speed of 21 - 25 m/min, 60 min/every time. For CLA treatment, each rat was fed 1.6 g/kg, one time/day, 5 times/week, for 8 weeks. Animals were anesthesia treated after experiment, blood and body tissues were collected. The content of blood glucose was measured, the insulin sensitivity was calculated, testing the expression of RBP4 mRNA in visceral adipose tissue, expression of RBP4 protein in liver cells and plasma RBP4 concentration. (1) Weight, weight growth rate and body fat percentage of OM, OMC groups were lower than OC, OCC groups (P OMC groups were significantly lower than OC, OCC groups (P OMC groups was higher than OC, OCC groups (P OMC groups in visceral adipose tissue was lower than OC, OCC groups (P OMC groups in liver cells was significantly lower than OC, OCC groups. RBP4 concentration in plasma of OM, OMC groups was lower than OC, OCC groups (P OMC group were higher than OM group, but the percentage of body fat, blood glucose content and the expression of RBP4 were lower than OM group, there were no significant differences between them. Simple exercise and exercise combined with CLA conld significantly reduced adolescent obese rats weight, weight growth rate, percentage of body fat, blood glucose content and also reduced RBP4 mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, RBP4 protein expression in liver tissue, RBP4 level in plasma,but can increase sensitivity to insulin, in a word, the treatment of exercise and exercise combine with CLA is better than the simple complement

  7. Determination of 6258-70, a new semi-synthetic taxane, in rat plasma and tissues: Application to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study

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    Simin Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of death all over the world. Among the chemotherapy drugs, taxanes play an important role in cancer treatment. 6258-70 is a new semi-synthetic taxane which has a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. A fast and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for quantification of 6258-70 in rat plasma and tissues in this paper. After extraction by liquid-liquid extraction method with methyl tert-butyl ether, the samples were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm, 2.6 µm, Phenomenex, USA within 3 min. The method was fully validated with the matrix effect between 87.7% and 99.5% and the recovery ranging from 80.3% to 90.1%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 9.5% and the accuracy ranged from −3.8% to 6.5%. The reliable method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies of 6258-70 after intravenous administration in rats. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the pharmacokinetic behavior of 6258-70 in rats was in accordance with linear features within tested dosage of 1 to 4 mg/kg, and there was no significant difference between the two genders. The tissue distribution study showed that 6258-70 had an effective penetration, spread widely and rapidly and could cross blood-brain barrier. The results of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution may provide a guide for future study.

  8. Expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB in brain tissue after acute renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Gen-Yang Cheng; Xian-Zhi Liu; Feng-Jiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of acute renal ischemia reperfusion on brain tissue. Methods:Fourty eight rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=12): sham operation group,30 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group,60 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group, and 120 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group.The brain tissues were taken after the experiment. TUNEL assay was used to detect the brain cell apoptosis, and western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors.Results:Renal ischemia-reperfusion induced apoptosis of brain tissues, and the apoptosis increased with prolongation of ischemia time.The detection at the molecular level showed decreasedBcl-2 expression, increasedBax expression, upregulated expression ofNF-κB and its downstream factor COX-2/PGE2.Conclusions:Acute renal ischemia-reperfusion can cause brain tissue damage, manifested as induced brain tissues apoptosis and inflammation activation.

  9. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Endogenous Lipids from Rat Brain Tissue Implanted with Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ludovic; Baldwin, Kathrine; Barbacci, Damon C.; Jackson, Shelley N.; Roux, Aurélie; Balaban, Carey D.; Brinson, Bruce E.; McCully, Michael I.; Lewis, Ernest K.; Schultz, J. Albert; Woods, Amina S.

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of tissue implanted with silver nanoparticulate (AgNP) matrix generates reproducible imaging of lipids in rodent models of disease and injury. Gas-phase production and acceleration of size-selected 8 nm AgNP is followed by controlled ion beam rastering and soft landing implantation of 500 eV AgNP into tissue. Focused 337 nm laser desorption produces high quality images for most lipid classes in rat brain tissue (in positive mode: galactoceramides, diacylglycerols, ceramides, phosphatidylcholines, cholesteryl ester, and cholesterol, and in negative ion mode: phosphatidylethanolamides, sulfatides, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelins). Image reproducibility in serial sections of brain tissue is achieved within lipid types having the fatty acid as a subunit. Almost no argentated intact fatty acid ions come from the pure fatty acid standard on tissue.

  10. EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON HISTOARCHITECTONICS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF BONE TISSUE OF THE VERTEBRAL BODY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lukanina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with study an influence of the oxidative stress on morphofunctional characteris-tics and elemental composition of bone tissue of the vertebral body rats.Material and methods. The research carried out on male rats of the Wistar line with weight 250–300 g. All rats were categorized into 4 groups with 10 ones in each: 1 – intact group; 2 and 3 – experimental groups; 4 – control group. Rats from groups 2–4 were under the development of oxidized stress which caused by daily stomach-pump injection (during fortnight with aqua suspension of synthetic glucocorticoid “Prednisolone” in dose 50 mg/kg. Through three hours after “Prednisolone” the antioxidant “Tiophan” was injected by stomach-pump (dose 100 mg/kg, which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of vegetation oil to laboratory animals from the group 2. Rats from control group got only solvent (vegetative oil 0.2 ml according the same scheme. Three hours after “Prednisolone” to rats from group 3 were injected of 0.2 ml aquaFontana. It was made for purity the experiment and standartization of manipulations, which are connected with injections into rats’ organisms. The peculiarities of structure of bone tissue of vertebra have been studied by methods of morphohystochemical analysis. The elemental composition of bone tissue was defined by atom-emission analysis method with inductive coupled plasma (spectrometer OPTIMA, code of methodics KHA: MUK.4.1.1482-03.Results. A development of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress results to infraction the histoarchitectonics of bone tissue of vertebra and decreasing the content of cations, which are included to the composition of active centres of pherments of antioxidant protection and prosthetic groups of proteins with an antioxidant activity. Using the antioxidant “Tiophan” proved an existence of its expressed osteoprotective properties. This can be seen from decreasing a level of resorbtion of bone tissue of

  11. [Effects of PRF and released three growth factors on migration of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Ming-guo; Yang, Shuai; Li, Xiu-mei; Yang, Shi-mao; Li, Xue

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the effects of PRF and released three growth factors on migration of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells and to investigate the mechanism of migration. The inguinal adipose tissue of rat was excised at aseptic condition to obtain primary ADSCs by enzyme digestion. Multi-directional differentiation was used to identify the ADSCs. PRF membrane was acquired through one time centrifuge. The cell migration was examined by Transwell assay and wound healing assay. The mRNA expression of MMP2 and MT1-MMP was tested by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. Cell migration test showed that the migration of rat ADSCs in PRF group were significantly higher than those in the negative group(PPRF group than control group (PPRF and three growth factors consistently enhanced the migration of rat ADSCs in a dose-response manner. The migration increase of rat ADSCs may be associated with the up-regulation of MMP2 and MT1-MMP gene expression.

  12. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Alfredo Martínez, J; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-03-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK has been considered as a target to reverse the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LA on AMPK phosphorylation and adiponectin production in adipose tissue of low-fat (control diet) and high-fat diet-fed rats. Dietary supplementation with LA reduced body weight and adiposity in control and high-fat-fed rats. LA also reduced basal hyperinsulinemia as well as the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels, an index of insulin resistance, in high-fat-fed rats, which was in part independent of their food intake lowering actions. Furthermore, AMPK phosphorylation was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from LA-treated rats as compared with pair-fed animals. Dietary supplementation with LA also upregulated adiponectin gene expression in WAT, while a negative correlation between adiposity-corrected adiponectin levels and HOMA index was found. Our present data suggest that the ability of LA supplementation to prevent insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats might be related in part to the stimulation of AMPK and adiponectin in WAT.

  13. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  14. Isoprenaline increases serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI He-ping; ZHANG Meng-zhen; YANG Xiang-yu; HOU Xing-hua; LIN Qiu-xiong; YANG Min; ZHONG Shi-long

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist Isoprenaline (ISO) results in cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.In the present work,we aimed to study the in vivo effects of ISO on serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ in Wistar rats.Methods ISO (5 mg· kg-1) or Saline were injected subcutaneously into Wistar rats once a day for 3 or 7 consecutive days.Ventricular remodeling and cardiac function were evaluated by echocardiography.Sections of heart were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) for histopathology or with Masson's trichrome for collagen visualization.In addition,heart tissue immunohistochemistry for α-SMA was also analyzed.The serum levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ (TIMP-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by Luminex multiplex technology.Results ISO induced cardiac dysfunction in rats after 3 or 7 days of treatment.ISO caused significant increase of myocardial disorder and fibrosis withincreased α-SMA expression.ISO treated aats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of TIMP-1 and MCP-1.Conclusions Our study suggests that ISO induces profound cardiac remodeling accompanied with increase of serum TIMP-1 and MCP-1.

  15. Effects of endurance exercise training, metformin, and their combination on adipose tissue leptin and IL-10 secretion in OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathan T; Padilla, Jaume; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Bayless, David S; Martin, Jeffrey S; Leidy, Heather J; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott; Laughlin, M Harold

    2012-12-15

    Adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The interactive effects of exercise training and metformin, two first-line T2DM treatments, on adipose tissue inflammation are not known. Using the hyperphagic, obese, insulin-resistant Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model, we tested the hypothesis that treadmill training, metformin, or a combination of these reduces the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats (L-Sed), sedentary OLETF (O-Sed) animals secreted significantly greater amounts of leptin from retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Conversely, secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 by O-Sed adipose tissue was lower than that in L-Sed animals. Examination of leptin and IL-10 secretion from adipose tissue in OLETF groups treated with endurance exercise training (O-EndEx), metformin treatment (O-Met), and a combination of these (O-E+M) from 20 to 32 wk of age indicated that 1) leptin secretion from adipose tissue was reduced in O-Met and O-E+M, but not O-EndEx animals; 2) adipose tissue IL-10 secretion was increased in O-EndEx and O-E+M but not in O-Met animals; and 3) only the combined treatment (O-E+M) displayed both a reduction in leptin secretion and an increase in IL-10 secretion. Leptin and IL-10 concentrations in adipose tissue-conditioned buffers were correlated with their plasma concentrations, adipocyte diameters, and total adiposity. Overall, this study indicates that exercise training and metformin have additive influences on adipose tissue secretion and plasma concentrations of leptin and IL-10.

  16. Royal Jelly Prevents Osteoporosis in Rats: Beneficial Effects in Ovariectomy Model and in Bone Tissue Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Hidaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX given 0.5% (w/w raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w protease-treated RJ (pRJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w pRJ, OVX given 17β-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD by 24%. Administration of 17β-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w RJ and 0.5–2.0% (w/w pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  17. Tissue sites of degradation of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-IV in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Van ' t Hooft, F.M.; Van Tol, A.

    1986-05-01

    The in vivo metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL), labeled by incorporation of /sup 125/I-apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, was studied in the rat and compared with the metabolism of HDL labeled with 131I-apo A-I. The /sup 125/I-apo A-IV labeled HDL was obtained by adding small amounts of radioiodinated apo A-IV to rat serum, followed by separation of the different lipoprotein fractions by chromatography on 6% agarose columns in order to avoid stripping of apolipoproteins by ultracentrifugation. Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, the /sup 125/I-apo A-IV remained an integral component of HDL and was not exchanged to other lipoproteins, including the free apo A-IV fraction. The serum half-life, measured at between 8 and 28 hours after intravenous injection of labeled HDL, was 8.5 +/- 0.5 hours for HDL apo A-IV and 10.2 +/- 0.7 hours for HDL apo A-I. The tissue sites of catabolism of HDL apo A-IV and HDL apo A-I were analyzed in the leupeptin-model. Only the kidneys and liver showed a significant leupeptin-dependent accumulation of radioactivity. At 4 hours after injection of 125I-apo A-IV/131I-apo A-I labeled HDL, 3.5% +/- 1.0% and 8.4% +/- 2.0% of HDL apo A-IV and 4.6% +/- 1.3% and 2.6% +/- 0.6% of the HDL apo A-I were accumulated in a leupeptin-dependent process in the kidneys and liver, respectively. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the renal localization of apo A-IV was intracellular and confined to the epithelial cells of the proximal tubuli.

  18. Cloning and regulation of rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, T. F.; Burke, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was cloned from a UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cDNA library. The 969-bp full-length clone demonstrates 98 and 86% sequence identity to human TIMP-2 at the amino acid and nucleic acid levels, respectively. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), at 10(-8) M, stimulates an approximately twofold increase in both the 4.2- and 1.0-kb transcripts over basal levels in UMR cells after 24 h of exposure. The PTH stimulation of TIMP-2 transcripts was not affected by the inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide (10(-5) M), suggesting a primary effect of the hormone. This is in contradistinction to regulation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) by PTH in these same cells. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that PTH causes an increase in TIMP-2 transcription that parallels the increase in message levels. Parathyroid hormone, in its stimulation of TIMP-2 mRNA, appears to act through a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase A (PKA) since the increase in TIMP-2 mRNA is reproduced by treatment with the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (5 x 10(-3) M). The protein kinase C and calcium pathways do not appear to be involved due to the lack of effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (2.6 x 10(-6) M) and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (10(-7) M), on TIMP-2 transcript abundance. In this respect, regulation of TIMP-2 and collagenase in osteoblastic cells by PTH are similar. However, we conclude that since stimulation of TIMP-2 transcription is a primary event, the PKA pathway must be responsible for a direct increase in transcription of this gene.

  19. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  20. The effect of exercise intensity on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Rozita; Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh

    2010-12-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training and feeding status on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight-week-old male Wistar rats (185±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ~80-85% VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ~70-75% VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ~50-55% VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED) groups. All experimental groups performed a 12-week exercise program consisting of treadmill running on a 0° slope for 1 h/day, 5 days/week at their respective training intensity. Twenty four hours following the last training session the animals completed a 12h fast. Rats were then killed, blood was collected and plasma separated; the fundus and soleus muscle were excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Fasting levels of circulating acyl ghrelin and acyl ghrelin content in the soleus muscle and fundus, as well as glycogen in the soleus muscle were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results demonstrated that 12 weeks of exercise training combined with a 12h fast significantly increased plasma as well as soleus muscle concentrations of acyl ghrelin in the HI and MI groups (pghrelin concentrations in the fundus (pexercise training enhances fasting plasma acyl ghrelin in an intensity-dependent manner which is accompanied by a significant increase in soleus muscle and reduction in fundus acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloning and regulation of rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, T. F.; Burke, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was cloned from a UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cDNA library. The 969-bp full-length clone demonstrates 98 and 86% sequence identity to human TIMP-2 at the amino acid and nucleic acid levels, respectively. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), at 10(-8) M, stimulates an approximately twofold increase in both the 4.2- and 1.0-kb transcripts over basal levels in UMR cells after 24 h of exposure. The PTH stimulation of TIMP-2 transcripts was not affected by the inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide (10(-5) M), suggesting a primary effect of the hormone. This is in contradistinction to regulation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) by PTH in these same cells. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that PTH causes an increase in TIMP-2 transcription that parallels the increase in message levels. Parathyroid hormone, in its stimulation of TIMP-2 mRNA, appears to act through a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase A (PKA) since the increase in TIMP-2 mRNA is reproduced by treatment with the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (5 x 10(-3) M). The protein kinase C and calcium pathways do not appear to be involved due to the lack of effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (2.6 x 10(-6) M) and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (10(-7) M), on TIMP-2 transcript abundance. In this respect, regulation of TIMP-2 and collagenase in osteoblastic cells by PTH are similar. However, we conclude that since stimulation of TIMP-2 transcription is a primary event, the PKA pathway must be responsible for a direct increase in transcription of this gene.

  2. Valproate and copper accelerate TRH-like peptide synthesis in male rat pancreas and reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekary, A E; Stevens, S A; Sattin, A

    2006-11-01

    Treatment with valproate (Valp) facilitates the synthesis of TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2)) in rat brain where "X" can be any amino acid residue. Because high levels of TRH-like peptides occur in the pancreas and pGlu-Glu-Pro-NH(2) (Glu-TRH) has been shown to be a fertilization promoting peptide, we hypothesized that these peptides mediate some of the metabolic and reproductive side effects of Valp. Male WKY rats were treated with Valp acutely (AC), chronically (CHR) or chronically followed by a 2 day withdrawal (WD). AC, CHR and WD treatments significantly altered TRH and/or TRH-like peptide levels in pancreas and reproductive tissues. Glu-TRH was the predominant TRH-like peptide in epididymis, consistent with its fertilization promoting activity. Glu-TRH levels in the epididymis increased 3-fold with AC Valp. Phe-TRH, the most abundant TRH-like peptide in the pancreas, increased 4-fold with AC Valp. Phe-TRH inhibits both basal and TRH-stimulated insulin release. Large dense core vesicles (LDCV's) contain a copper-dependent enzyme responsible for the post-translational processing of precursors of TRH and TRH-like peptides. Copper (500 microM) increased the in vitro C-terminal amidation of TRH-like peptides by 8- and 4-fold during 24 degrees C incubation of homogenates of pancreas and testis, respectively. Valp (7 microM) accelerated 3-fold the processing of TRH and TRH-like peptide precursors in pancreatic LDCV's incubated at 24 degrees C. We conclude that copper, an essential cofactor for TRH and TRH-like peptide biosynthesis that is chelated by Valp, mediates some of the metabolic and reproductive effects of Valp treatment via acceleration of intravesicular synthesis and altered release of these peptides.

  3. Proteomic study of periovarian adipose tissue in 17β-estradiol-treated and untreated ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual-Cladera, Emilia; Capllonch-Amer, Gabriela; Lladó, Isabel; Gianotti, Magdalena; Proenza, Ana M

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the sexual dimorphism previously found in white adipose tissue (WAT) regarding mitochondrial function and biogenesis, as well as insulin sensitivity, the aim of this study was to go further into the role of sex hormones in this dimorphism. To achieve this objective, we used ovariectomized rats and performed a screening by means of proteomic analyses of the periovarian WAT, combined with a study of the protein levels of specific factors involved in mitochondrial function. Rats were ovariectomized at 5 weeks of age and subcutaneously injected every 48 h with corn-oil (OVX group) or with 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 μg/kg body mass; OVX + E2 group) for 4 weeks prior to sacrifice. Beside proteomic analysis, protein levels of Transcription Factor A, Mitochondrial (TFAM), cytochrome oxidase (COX)II, and COXIV were determined by Western blot, and mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, ERα, ERβ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and adiponectin were quantified by real-time PCR. Our results show that ovariectomy leads to an increase in anabolic processes and inflammatory protein levels as well as to a decrease in some of the markers of mitochondrial function, which are restored, at least in part, by E2 supplementation. Indeed, this E2 supplementation seems to be counteracted by a decline in ERα and in the ERα to ERβ ratio values that could be directed to avoid an over-stimulation of the E2 signaling pathway, given the possibility of an activation of extra-gonadal steroid biosynthetic pathways.

  4. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  5. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Suélem A; dos Santos, Maísa P; Przygodda, Franciele; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Magalhães, Diego A; Bezerra, Kalinne S; Colodel, Edson M; Flouris, Andreas D; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Kawashita, Nair H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process. Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student's t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group. The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

  6. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    OpenAIRE

    Janle, Elsa M.; Helene Freiser; Christopher Manganais; Tzu-Ying Chen; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single ora...

  7. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  8. Alteration of phospholipase D activity in the rat tissues by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, Y. J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, M. U. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Natural Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Recently, PLD has been drawing much attentions and considered to be associated with cancer process since it is involved in cellular signal transduction. In this experiment, oleate-PLD activities were measured in various tissues of the living rats after whole body irradiation. The reaction mixture for the PLD assay contained 0.1{mu}Ci 1,2-di[1-{sup 14}C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 0.5mM phosphatidylcholine, 5mM sodium oleate, 0.2% taurodeoxycholate, 50mM HEPES buffer(pH 6.5), 10mM CaCl{sub 2}, and 25mM KF. phosphatidic acid, the reaction product, was separated by TLC and its radioactivity was measured with a scintillation counter. The whole body irradiation was given to the female Wistar rats via Cobalt 60 Teletherapy with field size of 10cm x 10cm and an exposure of 2.7Gy per minute to the total doses of 10Gy and 25Gy. Among the tissues examined, PLD activity in lung was the highest one and was followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and liver. Upon irradiation, alteration of PLD activity was observed in thymus, spleen, lung, and bone marrow. Especially PLD activities of the spleen and thymus revealed the highest sensitivity toward {gamma}-ray with more than two times amplification in their activities. In contrast, the PLD activity of bone marrow appears to be reduced to nearly 30%. Irradiation effect was hardly detected in liver which showed the lowest PLD activity. The PLD activities affected most sensitively by the whole-body irradiation seem to be associated with organs involved in immunity and hematopoiesis. This observation strongly indicates that the PLD is closely related to the physiological function of these organs. Furthermore, radiation stress could offer an important means to explore the phenomena covering from cell proliferation to cell death on these organs. (author).

  9. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  10. HPLC determination of strychnine and brucine in rat tissues and the distribution study of processed semen strychni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Hou, Ting; Fang, Yun; Chen, Zhi-peng; Liu, Xiao; Cai, Hao; Lu, Tu-lin; Yan, Guo-jun; Cai, Bao-chang

    2011-01-01

    A simple and low-cost HPLC method with UV absorbance detection was developed and validated to simultaneously determine strychnine and brucine, the most abundant alkaloids in the processed Semen Strychni, in rat tissues (kidney, liver, spleen, lung, heart, stomach, small intestine, brain and plasma). The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. The LOQs were in the range of 0.039-0.050 µg/ml for different tissue or plasma samples. The extraction recoveries varied from 71.63 to 98.79%. The linear range was 0.05-2 µg/ml with correlation coefficient of over 0.991. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15%. Then the method was used to measure the tissue distribution of strychnine and brucine after intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg crude alkaloids fraction (CAF) extracted from the processed Semen Strychni. The results revealed that strychnine and brucine possessed similar tissue distribution characterization. The highest level was observed in kidney, while the lowest level was found in brain. It was indicated that kidney might be the primary excretion organ of prototype strychnine and brucine. It was also deduced that strychnine and brucine had difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, no long-term accumulation of strychnine and brucine was found in rat tissues.

  11. Oxidant-antioxidant balance in the blood and tissues of gum of the rats with experimental gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko O.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the initial changes in the periodontal tissues in diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, the study of the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the gum tissue and serum of rats with experimental gastro¬duo¬denitis was conducted. Increase in MDA in homogenates of the gums and blood serum by 1,5 and 2 times, and the level of catalase by the 3,9 and 1,6 times, respectively was registered. The level of superoxide dismutase in gin¬gival tissues and serum of rats with gastroduodenitis did not changeas com¬pared to control animals. Such changes are characteristic of hypoxia state. Activation of free radical oxidation of lipids in gum homogenates is not accompanied by increased oxidative modification of proteins, which is manifested by absence of significant changes in the main marker and aldehydphenilhydrazons ketonphenilhydrazons. When malondialdehyde content in the gum tissue a blood serum of rats increases in the experiment relative intensity and compensation of antiperoxid protection is observed, leading to the formation of endogenous oxygen that keeps cells activity in hypoxic conditions. With increase of intensity of oxidative stress, obviously, decompensation of antiperoxid protection and partial loss of the barrier function by epithelial cells occurs; this increases the possibility of inflammation development in the gums.

  12. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus L., protects rat tissues against oxidative damage after acute ethanol administration

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    Carmen Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol-mediated free radical generation is directly involved in alcoholic liver disease. In addition, chronic alcohol bingeing also induces pathological changes and dysfunction in multi-organs. In the present study, the protective effect of xanthohumol (XN on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated by determining antioxidative parameters and stress oxidative markers in liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain of rats. An acute treatment (4 g/kg b.w. of ethanol resulted in the depletion of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content. This effect was accompanied by the increased activity of tissue damage marker enzymes (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Pre-treatment with XN protected rat tissues from ethanol-induced oxidative imbalance and partially mitigated the levels to nearly normal levels in all tissues checked. This effect was dose dependent, suggesting that XN reduces stress oxidative and protects rat tissues from alcohol-induced injury.

  14. The effects of low and high doses of sugammadex on kidney tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, G; Turgut, H C; Alkan, M; Aydin, M E; Erbatur, M E; Kiraz, H A; Kartal, S; Boyunaga, H; Comu, F M; Erdem, O; Arslan, M; Unal, Y

    2015-01-01

    Sugammadex is primarily excreted via renal route. We investigated effects of low and high doses of sugammadex (16 mg/kg versus 96 mg/kg) on renal tissue samples of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group C (control - 0.9 % NaCl), Group DC (diabetes control; 55 mg/kg streptozotocin, IP, only), Group DR-16S (diabetes-rocuronium - 16 mg sugammadex, IV.) and Group DR-96S (diabetes- rocuronium - 96 mg sugammadex, IV). Renal tissue histopathological evaluation and antioxidant status (measurements of MDA levels and NO activities) were studied. Significantly higher levels of all inflammation parameters (inflammation, degeneration/necrosis, tubular dilatation, tubular cell degeneration, dilatation in Bowman's space, tubular hyaline casts, and lymphocyte infiltration) were found in the 96 mg/kg sugammadex group. Higher MDA tissue levels and lower NO activity were found in the 96 mg/kg sugammadex group. We can conclude that high-dose (96 mg/kg) sugammadex administration resulted in significant renal tissue damage in diabetic rats. As a consequence, low doses of sugammadex have to be preferred in diabetic patients (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 26).

  15. Oxidative effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field and radio frequency radiation on testes tissues of diabetic and healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, D; Ozer, C; Sirav, B; Canseven, A G; Seyhan, N

    2017-01-01

    With the development of technology, people are increasingly under the exposure of electromagnetic fields. Individuals with chronic diseases such as diabetes are now long-term exposed to Radio Frequency-RF radiation and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). The purpose of this present study is to investigate oxidative effects and antioxidant parameters of ELF MFs and RF radiation on testis tissue in diabetic and healthy rats. Wistar male rats were divided into 10 groups. Intraperitoneal single dose STZ (65 mg/kg) dissolved in citrate buffer (0.1M (pH 4.5)) was injected to diabetes groups. ELF MFs and RF radiation were used as an electromagnetic exposure for 20 min/day, 5 days/week for one month. Testis tissue oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidants glutathione (GSH), and total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were determined. The results of ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were compared; p radiation resulted in an increase in testicular tissue MDA and NOX levels (p radiation practices increased the oxidative stress in testis tissue while causing a decrease in antioxidant level which was more distinctive in diabetic rats (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 30).

  16. Pancreatic tissue protective nature of D-Pinitol studied in streptozotocin-mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Selvaraj; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2009-11-10

    The present study was aimed to investigate the possible pancreatic tissue protective nature of D-Pinitol, a cyclitol present in soybean, against free radical-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assaying the activity of pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ceruloplasmin and reduced glutathione (GSH). To assess the extent of oxidative stress, the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydroperoxides in both plasma and pancreatic tissues were also measured. A significant increase in the levels of both lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides with a concomitant decrease in antioxidant status was observed in the diabetic rats when compared to control rats. Oral administration of D-Pinitol (50 mg/kg b.w./day for 30 days), a major cyclitol present in soybean, ameliorates the free radical-mediated alterations to near normalcy. The pancreatic tissue protective nature of D-Pinitol was further evidenced by histological observations. The results were statistically comparable with glyclazide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that D-Pinitol protects the pancreatic tissue from free radical-mediated oxidative stress in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  17. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  18. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  19. Effects of sinusoidal endothelial cell conditioned medium on the expressionof connective tissue growth factor in rat hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jing Liu; Fang Liu; Wen Jun Xiao; Ming Hui Huang; Song Min Huang; Yi Ping Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) conditioned medium on the expression ofconnective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC).METHODS By in situ collagenase perfusion and two-step Percoll gradient centrifugation, SECs wereisolated and cultured from normally and CCl4-treated Wistar rats, and the SEC conditioned media werecollected. HSCs were prepared from Wistar rats by in situ perfusion and single-step Nycodenz gradient, andwere cultured with SEC conditioned media. Expression of CTGF in HSC was assessed using reversetranscription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS Expression of CTGF was not found in freshly isolated HSC and in primary culture of HSC onday 4 with SEC conditioned media from normal rats, but was present in primary culture of HSC on day 4 withSEC conditioned media from CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats. Expression of CTGF was observed in culture-activated HSCs, and the effect of SEC conditioned media from CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats on theexpression of CTGF gene in activated HSCs was not significant.CONCLUSION Expression of CTGF might be relative to the activation of HSC and the liver fibrogenesis,and damaged SECs play a very important role in the early stage of activation of HSC.

  20. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  1. In vivo corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy in association with surrounding tissue response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Chieko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Imai, Yoshimichi; Mukai, Toshiji; Yamamoto, Akiko; Sano, Yuya; Ikeo, Naoko; Isozaki, Shuji; Takahashi, Toru; Oikawa, Miho; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Tachi, Masahiro

    2016-03-07

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys are the most promising candidates for osteosynthesis devices. However, their in vivo corrosion behaviour has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of the physiological environment surrounding Mg alloys on their corrosion behaviour. A Mg-1.0Al alloy with a fine-grained structure was formed into plates using titanium (Ti) as a control. These plates were implanted into the subperiosteum in the head, subcutaneous tissue of the back, and in the muscle of the femur of rats for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The volumes of the remaining Mg alloy and of the insoluble salt deposition and gas cavities around the Mg alloy were determined by microtomography, and the volume losses were calculated. Then, the tissue response around the plates in each implantation site was examined histopathologically, and its relation to the respective volume loss was analyzed. These analyses determined that the Mg alloy was corroded fastest in the head, at an intermediate level in the back, and slowest in the femur. The insoluble salt deposition at the Mg alloy surface had no influence on the volume loss. Gas cavities formed around the Mg alloy at all implantation sites and decreased after 4 weeks. Histopathological examination revealed that the Mg alloy exhibited good biocompatibility, as was seen with Ti. In addition, vascularized fibrous capsules formed around the plates and became mature with time. Notably, the volume loss in the different anatomical locations correlated with capsule thickness. Together, our results suggest that, to facilitate the successful clinical application of Mg alloys, it will be necessary to further comprehend their interactions with specific in vivo environments.

  2. Functional improvement and maturation of rat and human engineered heart tissue by chronic electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Marc N; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Mitchell, Alice; Schaaf, Sebastian; Börnchen, Christian; Müller, Christian; Schulz, Herbert; Hubner, Norbert; Stenzig, Justus; Stoehr, Andrea; Neuber, Christiane; Eder, Alexandra; Luther, Pradeep K; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Spontaneously beating engineered heart tissue (EHT) represents an advanced in vitro model for drug testing and disease modeling, but cardiomyocytes in EHTs are less mature and generate lower forces than in the adult heart. We devised a novel pacing system integrated in a setup for videooptical recording of EHT contractile function over time and investigated whether sustained electrical field stimulation improved EHT properties. EHTs were generated from neonatal rat heart cells (rEHT, n=96) or human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (hEHT, n=19). Pacing with biphasic pulses was initiated on day 4 of culture. REHT continuously paced for 16-18 days at 0.5Hz developed 2.2× higher forces than nonstimulated rEHT. This was reflected by higher cardiomyocyte density in the center of EHTs, increased connexin-43 abundance as investigated by two-photon microscopy and remarkably improved sarcomere ultrastructure including regular M-bands. Further signs of tissue maturation include a rightward shift (to more physiological values) of the Ca(2+)-response curve, increased force response to isoprenaline and decreased spontaneous beating activity. Human EHTs stimulated at 2Hz in the first week and 1.5Hz thereafter developed 1.5× higher forces than nonstimulated hEHT on day 14, an ameliorated muscular network of longitudinally oriented cardiomyocytes and a higher cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio. Taken together, continuous pacing improved structural and functional properties of rEHTs and hEHTs to an unprecedented level. Electrical stimulation appears to be an important step toward the generation of fully mature EHT.

  3. Benzofuran derivatives inhibit 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaga, Daisuke; Tagawa, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Midori; Kogure, Toshiaki; Ueda, Masafumi; Miyata, Okiko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoids promote visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The main regulator of intracellular glucocorticoid levels are 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive glucocorticoid into bioactive glucocorticoid such as cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents; therefore, the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 has considerable therapeutic potential for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Benzofuran is a key structure in many biologically active compounds such as benzbromarone, malibatol A and (+)-liphagal. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of benzofuran derivatives on 11β-HSD1 in mesenteric adipose tissue from rodents. 11β-HSD1 activity was determined by incubation of rat mesenteric adipose tissue microsomes in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) with and without benzofuran derivatives (Compounds 1-14). The corticosterone produced was measured by HPLC. More than 40% of 11β-HSD1 inhibition was observed in Compounds 1, 5, 7 and 8. Moreover, Compounds 7 and 8 inhibited the 11β-HSD1 activity in adipose microsomes dose- and time-dependently, as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compounds 7 and 8 did not inhibit 11β-HSD type 2 (11β-HSD2), whereas Compounds 1 and 5 inhibited 11β-HSD2 by 18.7% and 56.3%, respectively. Further, a kinetic study revealed that Compounds 7 and 8 acted as non-competitive inhibitors of 11β-HSD1. Ki (nmol/h/mg protein) values of Compounds 7 and 8 were 17.5 and 24.0, respectively, with IC50 (µM) of 10.2 and 25.6, respectively. These data indicate that Compounds 7 and 8 are convincing candidates for seed compounds as specific inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 and have the potential to be developed as anti-obesity drugs.

  4. Gender differences in the activities of aspirin-esterases in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-esterases were measured in several tissues (liver, kidney, adrenal glands, brain and serum from adult male and female Wistar rats. In males, both aspirin-esterase I (assayed at pH 5.5 and II (assayed at pH 7.4 activities were higher in liver homogenates when compared to females (aspirin-esterase I: males 48.9 ± 4.8 (N = 8 and females 29.3 ± 4.2 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 41.4 ± 4.1 (N = 8 and females 26.1 ± 4.5 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In serum, enzyme activity was higher in females than in males (aspirin-esterase I: males 0.85 ± 0.06 (N = 6 and females 1.18 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 1.03 ± 0.13 (N = 6 and females 1.34 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In the other tissues assayed, no statistically significant difference between males and females was found. There were no statistically significant differences when the enzymes were assayed in different phases of the estrous cycle in liver and serum. These results show that the differences in aspirin-esterase activity observed between males and females are not due to the estrous cycle. The gender difference obtained in our study may indicate an involvement of gonadal hormones in the control of the hydrolysis of aspirin. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  5. Through metal binding, curcumin protects against lead- and cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sheril; Limson, Janice L; Dairam, Amichand; Watkins, Gareth M; Daya, Santy

    2004-02-01

    Curcumin, the major constituent of turmeric is a known, naturally occurring antioxidant. The present study examined the ability of this compound to protect against lead-induced damage to hippocampal cells of male Wistar rats, as well as lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The thiobarbituric assay (TBA) was used to measure the extent of lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The results show that curcumin significantly protects against lipid peroxidation induced by both these toxic metals. Coronal brain sections of rats injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (20 mg/kg) in the presence and absence of curcumin (30 mg/kg) were compared microscopically to determine the extent of lead-induced damage to the cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, and to establish the capacity of curcumin to prevent such damage. Lead-induced damage to the neurons was significantly curtailed in the rats injected with curcumin. Possible chelation of lead and cadmium by curcumin as its mechanism of neuroprotection against such heavy metal insult to the brain was investigated using electrochemical, ultraviolet spectrophotometric and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The results of the study show that there is an interaction between curcumin and both cadmium and lead, with the possible formation of a complex between the metal and this ligand. These results imply that curcumin could be used therapeutically to chelate these toxic metals, thus potentially reducing their neurotoxicity and tissue damage.

  6. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide Against Ethanol-Induced Injury in Rat Adipose Tissue and Primary Human Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kema, Venkata Harini; Khan, Imran; Jamal, Reshma; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Lakki Reddy, Chandrakala; Parwani, Kirti; Patel, Farhin; Patel, Dhara; Khan, Aleem A; Mandal, Palash

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol-mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol-induced tissue damage. This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol-induced outcomes on adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed with 36% Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) for 4 weeks. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric diet containing maltodextrin instead of EtOH. During the last week of feeding protocol, the EtOH-fed rat group was given 200 mg/kg body weight of DAS through diet. We also studied DAS effect on isolated human primary adipocytes. Viability of human primary adipocytes on DAS treatment was assessed by MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, was measured by HPLC and the thiobarbituric acid method. Expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes was studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Serum inflammatory gene expression was studied by ELISA. Our study results showed that DAS could alleviate EtOH-induced expression levels of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes and improve adipose tissue mass and adipocyte morphology in male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6% EtOH. Further, we showed that DAS reduced the expression of lipogenic genes and improved lipid accumulation and adipocyte mass in human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH. Subsequently, we also showed that oxidative stress, as measured by the changes in MDA levels, was reduced in both male Wistar rats and human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH plus DAS. Our study results prove that DAS is effective in ameliorating EtOH-induced damage to adipose tissue as evidenced by the reduction brought about by DAS in oxidative stress

  7. A HPLC-MS/MS method for determination of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues: Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Longdong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Ke; Zhou, Hongjian; Duan, Yayun; Zheng, Wei; Xie, Wenlin

    2016-03-20

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues with puerarin as the internal standard. The separation was performed on a Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was performed by MRM with m/z [M-H](-) 783.3→427.2 for 6'''-feruloylspinosin and m/z [M-H](-) 415.4→295.4 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves covered over a concentration range of 20-2000 ng/mL in plasma and various tissues samples (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, cerebrum and cerebellum) with good linearity (r(2)≥0.9914). Both the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.70%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -5.80% to 4.93%. The extraction recoveries were within 75.21-92.96%, and the matrix effect ranged from 87.21% to 113.44%. Compared with spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin was distributed in rats faster whereas more slowly eliminated from the plasma. 6'''-Feruloylspinosin could be distributed rapidly and widely in various tissues, and transfer across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, both 6'''-feruloylspinosin and spinosin could enhance the expression of GABAAα1, GABAAα5, GABABR1 mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons significantly, indicating the bioactivity mechanism of 6'''-feruloylspinosin was involved in the GABA receptors.

  8. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

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    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  9. Analysis of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Mediated Decline in Contractile Force in Rat Engineered Heart Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Friederike; Luther, Pradeep; Schulze, Thomas; Eder, Alexandra; Streichert, Thomas; Mannhardt, Ingra; Hirt, Marc N.; Schaaf, Sebastian; Stenzig, Justus; Force, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Left ventricular dysfunction is a frequent and potentially severe side effect of many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). The mode of toxicity is not identified, but may include impairment of mitochondrial or sarcomeric function, autophagy or angiogenesis, either as an on-target or off-target mechanism. Methods and Results We studied concentration-response curves and time courses for nine TKIs in three-dimensional, force generating engineered heart tissue (EHT) from neonatal rat heart cells. We detected a concentration- and time-dependent decline in contractile force for gefitinib, lapatinib, sunitinib, imatinib, sorafenib, vandetanib and lestaurtinib and no decline in contractile force for erlotinib and dasatinib after 96 hours of incubation. The decline in contractile force was associated with an impairment of autophagy (LC3 Western blot) and appearance of autophagolysosomes (transmission electron microscopy). Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility to study TKI-mediated force effects in EHTs and identifies an association between a decline in contractility and inhibition of autophagic flux. PMID:26840448

  10. Topical Hypericum perforatum Improves Tissue Regeneration in Full-Thickness Excisional Wounds in Diabetic Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Chavoshi-Nejad, Mehdi; Jangholi, Ehsan; Nekouyian, Noushin; Hosseini, Sahar; Seifaee, Amin; Rafiee, Shima; Karimi, Hossein; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Parsa, Yekta; Mohsenikia, Maryam

    2015-01-01<