Sample records for rat islets encapsulated

  1. Long-term graft function of cryostored alginate encapsulated rat islets

    Schneider Stephan


    Full Text Available Abstract Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets before transplantation is a promising approach to enable graft function in an immunocompetent recipient without immunosuppression. However, the insufficient availability of allogenic islet tissue is a major problem. One concept to overcome these shortcomings is the cryopreservation of encapsulated allogenic islets. Recently, we reported a gentle cryopreservation protocol for rat islets encapsulated in an alginate-based microcapsule system. Here, we report for the first time long-term transplantation data of these cryopreserved microencapsulated islets. We detected a stable graft function for more than 12 month (experiments still continuing after transplantation of 2500 cryopreserved microencapsulated CD rat islets in streptozotocin-diabetic Wistar rats. Moreover, the glucose clearance rate during an IPGTT was well preserved up to 56 weeks after transplantation. In addition, hyperglycemic blood glucose levels after removal of rat islet grafts 12 and 56 weeks after transplantation confirmed the efficacy of the encapsulated islets. Finally, the retrieved encapsulated rat islets responded well with a 7-fold increase of insulin secretion to a glucose stimulus (12 and 56 weeks. In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that cryopreservation of encapsulated rat islets is possible without substantial losses on graft function for a very long time.

  2. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D


    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  3. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  4. Long-term function of islets encapsulated in a re-designed alginate microcapsule construct in omentum pouches of immune-competent diabetic rats

    Pareta, Rajesh; McQuilling, John P; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Jenkins, Randy; Bowden, Stephen; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C; Brey, Eric M; Opara, Emmanuel C


    Objectives Our study aim was to determine encapsulated islet graft viability in an omentum pouch and the effect of FGF-1 released from our redesigned alginate microcapsules on the function of the graft. Methods Isolated rat islets were encapsulated in an inner core made with 1.5% low-viscosity high-mannuronic acid (LVM) alginate followed by an external layer made with 1.25% low-viscosity high-guluronic acid (LVG) alginate with or without FGF-1, in microcapsules measuring 300 – 400 μm in diameter. The two alginate layers were separated by a perm-selective membrane made with 0.1 % Poly-L-Ornithine (PLO), and the inner LVM core was partially chelated using 55 mM sodium citrate for 2 min. Results A marginal mass of encapsulated islet allografts (~2000 islets/kg) in Streptozotocin-diabetic Lewis rats caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels similar to the effect observed with encapsulated islet isografts. Transplantation of allo-islets co-encapsulated with FGF-1 did not result in better glycemic control, but induced greater body weight maintenance in transplant recipients compared to those that received only allo-islets. Histological examination of the retrieved tissue demonstrated morphologically and functionally intact islets in the microcapsules, with no signs of fibrosis. Conclusion We conclude that the omentum is a viable site for encapsulated islet transplantation. PMID:24681880

  5. Islet transplantation in rodents: do encapsulated islets really work?

    Yngrid Ellyn Dias Maciel de Souza


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus type I affects around 240 million people in the world and only in the USA 7.8% of the population. It has been estimated that the costs of its complications account for 5% to 10% of the total healthcare spending around the world. According to World Health Organization, 300 million people are expected to develop diabetes mellitus by the year 2025. The pancreatic islet transplantation is expected to be less invasive than a pancreas transplant, which is currently the most commonly used approach. OBJECTIVES: To compare the encapsulated and free islet transplantation in rodents looking at sites of islet implantation, number of injected islets, viability and immunosuppression. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PUBMED and SCIELO with terms about islet transplantation in the rodent from 2000 to 2010. We found 2,636 articles but only 56 articles from 2000 to 2010 were selected. RESULTS: In these 56 articles used, 34% were encapsulated and 66% were nonencapsulated islets. Analyzing both types of islets transplantation, the majority of the encapsulated islets were implanted into the peritoneal cavity and the nonencapsulated islets into the liver, through the portal vein. In addition, the great advantage of the peritoneal cavity as the site of islet transplantation is its blood supply. Both vascular endothelial cells and vascular endothelial growth factor were used to stimulate angiogenesis of the islet grafts, increasing the vascularization rapidly after implantation. It also has been proven that there is influence of the capsules, since the larger the capsule more chances there are of central necrosis. In some articles, the use of immunosuppression demonstrated to increase the life expectancy of the graft. CONCLUSION: While significant progress has been made in the islets transplantation field, many obstacles remain to be overcome. Microencapsulation provides a means to transplant islets without

  6. Progress in Clinical Encapsulated Islet Xenotransplantation.

    Cooper, David K C; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Abalovich, Adrian; Itoh, Takeshi; Mourad, Nizar I; Gianello, Pierre R; Wolf, Eckhard; Cozzi, Emanuele


    At the 2015 combined congress of the Cell Transplant Society, International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association, and International Xenotransplantation Association, a symposium was held to discuss recent progress in pig islet xenotransplantation. The presentations focused on 5 major topics - (1) the results of 2 recent clinical trials of encapsulated pig islet transplantation, (2) the inflammatory response to encapsulated pig islets, (3) methods to improve the secretion of insulin by pig islets, (4) genetic modifications to the islet-source pigs aimed to protect the islets from the primate immune and/or inflammatory responses, and (5) regulatory aspects of clinical pig islet xenotransplantation. Trials of microencapsulated porcine islet transplantation to treat unstable type 1 diabetic patients have been associated with encouraging preliminary results. Further advances to improve efficacy may include (1) transplantation into a site other than the peritoneal cavity, which might result in better access to blood, oxygen, and nutrients; (2) the development of a more biocompatible capsule and/or the minimization of a foreign body reaction; (3) pig genetic modification to induce a greater secretion of insulin by the islets, and/or to reduce the immune response to islets released from damaged capsules; and (4) reduction of the inflammatory response to the capsules/islets by improvements in the structure of the capsules and/or in genetic engineering of the pigs and/or in some form of drug therapy. Ethical and regulatory frameworks for islet xenotransplantation are already available in several countries, and there is now a wider international perception of the importance of developing an internationally harmonized ethical and regulatory framework.

  7. Intracerebral xenotransplantation of semipermeable membrane- encapsuled pancreatic islets

    Zhao-Liang Xin; Song-Lin Ge; Xiao-Kang Wu; Yan-Jie Jia; Han-Tao Hu


    AIM: To identify the decreasing effect of xenotransplantion in combination with privileged sites on rejection and death of biological semipermeable membrane-(BSM) encapsulated implanted islets.METHODS: After the BSM experiment in vitro, BSMencapsulated SD rat's islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) were xenotransplanted into normal dog's brain. Morphological changes were observed under light and transmission electron microscope. The islets and apoptosis of implanted B cells were identified by insulin-TUNEL double staining.RESULTS: The BSM used in our study had a favorable permeability, some degree of rigidity, lighter foreign body reaction and toxicity. The grafts consisted of epithelioid cells and loose connective tissue. Severe infiltration of inflammatory cells was not observed. The implanted ICCs were identified 2 mo later and showed typical apoptosis.CONCLUSION: BSM xenotransplantation in combination with the privileged site can inhibit the rejection of implanted heterogeneous ICCs, and death of implanted heterogeneous B cells is associated with apoptosis.

  8. The influence of intraperitoneal transplantation of free and encapsulated Langerhans islets on the second set phenomenon.

    Orłowski, Tadeusz; Godlewska, Ewa; Mościcka, Maria; Sitarek, Elzbieta


    To protect the allografts or xenografts against transplant rejection special semipermeable membranes are applied. So far, there are only a few studies on the influence of an immunoisolated graft on the recipient immune system. Therefore, the possibility that an intraperitoneally grafted alginate/poly L-lysine/alginate (APA) coated pancreatic islets graft can effectively sensitize the recipient and provoke second set phenomenon was studied. C3H male mice and male WAG rats were used as donors of full-thickness skin and of free or encapsulated islet intraperitoneal grafts. Male BALB/c mice served as recipients. Skin grafts were performed following the method of Billingham and Medawar. The length of the second skin graft survival time served as the criterion for the sensitizing capacity of the primary graft. APA encapsulation of islets delayed but has not prevented the development of the second set phenomenon. However, the second skin graft rejection time was significantly longer after grafting of encapsulated islets than after free islets transplantation. APA microencapsulation of intraperitoneally transplanted islets delayed but did not prevent the development of the second set phenomenon. Encapsulation does not ensure complete immunoisolation, but only creates "an artificially immunoprivileged site of transplantation."

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated in Alginate

    Johnson, Amy S.; O'Sullivan, Esther; D'Aoust, Laura N.; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Fisher, Robert J.; Weir, Gordon C.


    Improved methods have recently been developed for assessing islet viability and quantity in human islet preparations for transplantation, and these measurements have proven useful for predicting transplantation outcome. The objectives of this study were to adapt these methods for use with microencapsulated islets, to verify that they provide meaningful quantitative measurements, and to test them with two model systems: (1) barium alginate and (2) barium alginate containing a 70% (w/v) perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, which presents challenges to use of these assays and is of interest in its own right as a means for reducing oxygen supply limitations to encapsulated tissue. Mitochondrial function was assessed by oxygen consumption rate measurements, and the analysis of data was modified to account for the increased solubility of oxygen in the PFC-alginate capsules. Capsules were dissolved and tissue recovered for nuclei counting to measure the number of cells. Capsule volume was determined from alginate or PFC content and used to normalize measurements. After low oxygen culture for 2 days, islets in normal alginate lost substantial viable tissue and displayed necrotic cores, whereas most of the original oxygen consumption rate was recovered with PFC alginate, and little necrosis was observed. All nuclei were recovered with normal alginate, but some nuclei from nonrespiring cells were lost with PFC alginate. Biocompatibility tests revealed toxicity at the islet periphery associated with the lipid emulsion used to provide surfactants during the emulsification process. We conclude that these new assay methods can be applied to islets encapsulated in materials as complex as PFC-alginate. Measurements made with these materials revealed that enhancement of oxygen permeability of the encapsulating material with a concentrated PFC emulsion improves survival of encapsulated islets under hypoxic conditions, but reformulation of the PFC emulsion is needed to reduce toxicity

  10. In vivo selection of biocompatible alginates for islet encapsulation and subcutaneous transplantation.

    Vériter, Sophie; Mergen, Julien; Goebbels, Rose-Marie; Aouassar, Najima; Grégoire, Charles; Jordan, Bénédicte; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard; Gianello, Pierre; Dufrane, Denis


    Islet encapsulation requires several properties including (1) biocompatibility, (2) immunoprotection, and (3) oxygen diffusion for islet survival and diabetes correction. New chemical alginates were tested in vivo and compared with traditional high-mannuronate and -guluronate alginates. New alginates with coupled peptide sequence (sterile lyophilized high mannuronate [SLM]-RGD3% and sterile lyophilized high guluronate [SLG]-RGD3%), to improve encapsulated cell adherence in the matrix, and alginates with a very low viscosity (VLDM7% and VLDG7%), to reduce implant size by loading a higher number of islets per volume of polymer, were implanted subcutaneously in 70 Wistar rats for comparison with alginates of high viscosity and high content of mannuronic (SLM3%) or guluronic acids (SLG3%). Permeability of alginates to 36-, 75-, and 150-kDa lectins coupled to fluorescein isothiocynate was quantified before implantation and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after implantation. Biocompatibility (fibrosis, graft stability, immunologic infiltration by CD3/CD68 cells, and neovascularization) was assessed at each explantation time. Permeability to small molecules was found for all alginates. Impermeability to 150-kDa molecules, such as IgG, was observed only for SLM3% before implantation and was maintained up to 12 weeks after implantation. SLM3% and SLG3% demonstrated better graft stability with lower CD3/CD68 recruitment and fibrosis than the other alginates. SLM3% induced a significantly higher angiogenesis and maintained oxygen pressure at approximately 40 mm Hg for up to 4 weeks after implantation as measured by in vivo electronic paramagnetic resonance oximetry. SLM-encapsulated pig islets implanted subcutaneously in rats demonstrated no inflammatory/immunologic reactions and islets functioned for up to 60 days without immunosuppression. A traditional alginate made of high mannuronic content (SLM3%) is an adapted material to immunoprotect islets in subcutaneous tissue. No

  11. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G


    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  12. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G


    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory min

  13. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)


    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  14. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M


    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules.

  15. Enzymes for Pancreatic Islet Isolation Impact Chemokine-Production and Polarization of Insulin-Producing β-Cells with Reduced Functional Survival of Immunoisolated Rat Islet-Allografts as a Consequence.

    de Vos, Paul; Smink, Alexandra M; Paredes, Genaro; Lakey, Jonathan R T; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N G; de Haan, Bart J; Faas, Marijke M


    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether normal variations in enzyme-activities of collagenases applied for rat-islet isolation impact longevity of encapsulated islet grafts. Also we studied the functional and immunological properties of rat islets isolated with different enzyme preparations to determine whether this impacts these parameters. Rat-islets were isolated from the pancreas with two different collagenases with commonly accepted collagenase, neutral protease, and clostripain activities. Islets had a similar and acceptable glucose-induced insulin-release profile but a profound statistical significant difference in production of the chemokines IP-10 and Gro-α. The islets were studied with nanotomy which is an EM-based technology for unbiased study of ultrastructural features of islets such as cell-cell contacts, endocrine-cell condition, ER stress, mitochondrial conditions, and cell polarization. The islet-batch with higher chemokine-production had a lower amount of polarized insulin-producing β-cells. All islets had more intercellular spaces and less interconnected areas with tight cell-cell junctions when compared to islets in the pancreas. Islet-graft function was studied by implanting encapsulated and free islet grafts in rat recipients. Alginate-based encapsulated grafts isolated with the enzyme-lot inducing higher chemokine production and lower polarization survived for a two-fold shorter period of time. The lower survival-time of the encapsulated grafts was correlated with a higher influx of inflammatory cells at 7 days after implantation. Islets from the same two batches transplanted as free unencapsulated-graft, did not show any difference in survival or function in vivo. Lack of insight in factors contributing to the current lab-to-lab variation in longevity of encapsulated islet-grafts is considered to be a threat for clinical application. Our data suggest that seemingly minor variations in activity of enzymes applied for islet

  16. Encapsulation of pancreatic islets within nano-thin functional polyethylene glycol coatings for enhanced insulin secretion.

    Kizilel, Seda; Scavone, Andrew; Liu, Xiang; Nothias, Jean-Manuel; Ostrega, Diane; Witkowski, Piotr; Millis, Michael


    Covalent attachment of polymers to cells and tissues could be used to solve a variety of problems associated with cellular therapies. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a disease resulting from the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Transplantation of islets into diabetic patients is an attractive form of treatment, provided that the islets could be protected from the host's immune system to prevent graft rejection, and smaller numbers of islets transplanted in smaller volumes could be sufficient to reverse diabetes. Therefore, a need exists to develop islet encapsulation strategies that minimize transplant volume. In this study, we demonstrate the formation of nano-thin, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-rich functional conformal coatings on individual islets via layer-by-layer assembly technique. The surface of the islets is modified with biotin-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and the islets are further covered by streptavidin (SA) and biotin-PEG-peptide conjugates using the layer-by-layer method. An insulinotropic ligand, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is conjugated to biotin-PEG-NHS. The insulinotropic effect of GLP-1 is investigated through layer-by-layer encapsulation of islets using the biotin-PEG-GLP-1 conjugate. The effect of islet surface modification using the biotin-PEG-GLP-1 conjugate on insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge is compared via static incubation and dynamic perifusion assays. The results show that islets coated with the functional PEG conjugate are capable of secreting more insulin in response to high glucose levels compared to control islets. Finally, the presence of SA is confirmed by indirect fluorescent staining with SA-Cy3, and the presence of PEG-peptide on the surface of the islets after treatment with biotin-PEG-GLP-1 is confirmed by indirect fluorescent staining with biotin-PEG-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and separately with an anti-GLP-1 antibody. This work

  17. Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats

    Weber, C.; Weil, R. III; McIntosh, R.; Hogle, H.; Warden, G.; Reemtsma, K.


    Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats usually lowers the blood sugar level of the recipient. The duration of this effect is prolonged by irradiation of the host or by enclosing donor tissue in synthetic envelopes. This prolongation appears to be related to interference with the host's ability to reject the graft; the duration of the prolongation may be limited by the host tissue reaction surrounding the envelope. The availability of anatomically separate piscine islet tissue makes it potentially useful for xenotransplantation into mammals.

  18. Effects of Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection on Rat Islet Allograft Survival

    Smelt, M. J.; Faas, M. M.; Melgert, B. N.; de Vos, P.; de Haan, Bart; de Haan, Aalzen


    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is a promising therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, long-term islet graft survival rates are still unsatisfactory low. In this study we investigated the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in islet allograft failure. STZ-diabetic rats receive

  19. Silicon nanopore membrane (SNM) for islet encapsulation and immunoisolation under convective transport

    Song, Shang; Faleo, Gaetano; Yeung, Raymond; Kant, Rishi; Posselt, Andrew M.; Desai, Tejal A.; Tang, Qizhi; Roy, Shuvo


    Problems associated with islet transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) such as shortage of donor cells, use of immunosuppressive drugs remain as major challenges. Immune isolation using encapsulation may circumvent the use of immunosuppressants and prolong the longevity of transplanted islets. The encapsulating membrane must block the passage of host’s immune components while providing sufficient exchange of glucose, insulin and other small molecules. We report the development and characterization of a new generation of semipermeable ultrafiltration membrane, the silicon nanopore membrane (SNM), designed with approximately 7 nm-wide slit-pores to provide middle molecule selectivity by limiting passage of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the use of convective transport with a pressure differential across the SNM overcomes the mass transfer limitations associated with diffusion through nanometer-scale pores. The SNM exhibited a hydraulic permeability of 130 ml/hr/m2/mmHg, which is more than 3 fold greater than existing polymer membranes. Analysis of sieving coefficients revealed 80% reduction in cytokines passage through SNM under convective transport. SNM protected encapsulated islets from infiltrating cytokines and retained islet viability over 6 hours and remained responsive to changes in glucose levels unlike non-encapsulated controls. Together, these data demonstrate the novel membrane exhibiting unprecedented hydraulic permeability and immune-protection for islet transplantation therapy.

  20. Pravastatin Improves Glucose Regulation and Biocompatibility of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets following Transplantation into Pancreatectomized Dogs

    Lawrence S. Gazda


    Full Text Available The encapsulation of porcine islets is an attractive methodology for the treatment of Type I diabetes. In the current study, the use of pravastatin as a mild anti-inflammatory agent was investigated in pancreatectomized diabetic canines transplanted with porcine islets encapsulated in agarose-agarose macrobeads and given 80 mg/day of pravastatin (n=3 while control animals did not receive pravastatin (n=3. Control animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 18, 19, and 32. Pravastatin-treated animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 22, 27, and 50. Two animals from each group received a second macrobead implant: control animals remained insulin-free for 15 and 21 days (AUC = 3003 and 5078 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 62 and 131. Pravastatin treated animals remained insulin-free for 21 and 34 days (AUC = 1559 and 1903 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15 and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 38 and 192. Total incidence (83.3% versus 64.3% and total severity (22.7 versus 18.3 of inflammation on tissue surfaces were higher in the control group at necropsy. These findings support pravastatin therapy in conjunction with the transplantation of encapsulated xenogeneic islets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Mold-casted non-degradable, islet macro-encapsulating hydrogel devices for restoration of normoglycemia in diabetic mice.

    Rios, Peter Daniel; Zhang, Xiaomin; Luo, Xunrong; Shea, Lonnie D


    Islet transplantation is a potential cure for diabetic patients, however this procedure is not widely adopted due to the high rate of graft failure. Islet encapsulation within hydrogels is employed to provide a three-dimensional microenvironment conducive to survival of transplanted islets to extend graft function. Herein, we present a novel macroencapsulation device, composed of PEG hydrogel, that combines encapsulation with lithography techniques to generate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds. PEG solutions are mixed with islets, which are then cast into PDMS molds for subsequent crosslinking. The molds can also be employed to provide complex architectures, such as microchannels that may allow vascular ingrowth through pre-defined regions of the hydrogel. PDMS molds allowed for the formation of stable gels with encapsulation of islets, and in complex architectures. Hydrogel devices with a thickness of 600 μm containing 500 islets promoted normoglycemia within 12 days following transplantation into the epididymal fat pad, which was sustained over the two-month period of study until removal of the device. The inclusion of microchannels, which had a similar minimum distance between islets and the hydrogel surface, similarly promoted normoglycemia. A glucose challenge test indicated hydrogel devices achieved normoglycemia 90 min post-dextrose injections, similar to control mice with native pancreata. Histochemical staining revealed that transplanted islets, identified as insulin positive, were viable and isolated from host tissue at 8 weeks post-transplantation, yet devices with microchannels had tissue and vascular ingrowth within the channels. Taken together, these results demonstrate a system for creating non-degradable hydrogels with complex geometries for encapsulating islets capable of restoring normoglycemia, which may expand islet transplantation as a treatment option for diabetic patients. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2485-2495. © 2016 Wiley

  2. Remodelling sympathetic innervation in rat pancreatic islets ontogeny

    Hiriart Marcia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic islets are not fully developed at birth and it is not clear how they are vascularised and innervated. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is required to guide sympathetic neurons that innervate peripheral organs and also in cardiovascular system and ovary angiogenesis. Pancreatic beta cells of a transgenic mouse that over-expressed NGF in attracts sympathetic hyper-innervation towards them. Moreover, we have previously demonstrated that adult beta cells synthesize and secrete NGF; however, we do not know how is NGF secreted during development, nor if it might be trophic for sympathetic innervation and survival in the pancreas. We analyzed sympathetic innervation and vasculature development in rat pancreatic islets at different developmental stages; foetal (F19, early postnatal (P1, weaning period (P20 and adults. We temporarily correlated these events to NGF secretion by islet cells. Results Sympathetic fibres reached pancreatic islets in the early postnatal period, apparently following blood vessels. The maximal number of sympathetic fibres (TH immunopositive in the periphery of the islets was observed at P20, and then fibres entered the islets and reached the core where beta cells are mainly located. The number of fibres decreased from that stage to adulthood. At all stages studied, islet cells secreted NGF and also expressed the high affinity receptor TrkA. Foetal and neonatal isolated islet cells secreted more NGF than adults. TrkA receptors were expressed at all stages in pancreatic sympathetic fibres and blood vessels. These last structures were NGF–immunoreactive only at early stages (foetal and P0. Conclusion The results suggest that NGF signalling play an important role in the guidance of blood vessels and sympathetic fibres toward the islets during foetal and neonatal stages and could also preserve innervation at later stages of life.

  3. C-peptide responses alter meal challenge in mice transplanted with microencapsulated rat islets

    Tatarkiewicz, K; Garcia, M; Omer, A; Weir, GC; De Vos, P


    Aims/hypothesis. This study aimed to assess a response of microencapsulated rat islets to a meal challenge after being transplanted intraperitoneally into diabetic mice. Methods. Microencapsulated rat: islets or control naked syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted intraperitoneally into mice with

  4. Study of the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on rat islets allograft survival

    Mei Zhang; Chao Liu; Cuiping Liu; Youwen Qin; Zhaosun Zhen


    Objective: To evaluate the immunoisolating effects of barium-alginate microencapsulation on islets allograft survival. Methods: The nonmicroencapsulated and microencapsulated islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule or intraperitoneally into Wistar rat with STZ-induced diabetes. The blood glucose and insulin secretion of grafts were observed. Graft function was tested by oral rats was associated with normal glucose and insulin profiles in response to OGTT. Conclusion: Microencapsulation with barium-alginate membrane can prolong islet survival and protect islets against allorejection.

  5. Pancreatic islet insulin secretion and metabolism in adult rats malnourished during neonatal life

    Barbosa, Francisco B; Capito, Kirsten; Kofod, Hans;


    Pancreatic islets were isolated from rats that had been nursed by dams fed with a control or an 8.7% protein diet during the first 12 d of the lactation period. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from islets in the 8.7% protein group was reduced 50%. The islet insulin and DNA content were similar,...

  6. Automated recognition and quantification of pancreatic islets in Zucker diabetic fatty rats treated with exendin-4.

    Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Kimata, Hirotaka; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Fukunari, Atsushi; Utsumi, Hiroyuki


    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Quantification of the islet area in addition to the insulin-positive area is important for detailed understanding of pancreatic islet histopathology. Here we show computerized automatic recognition of the islets of Langerhans as a novel high-throughput method to quantify islet histopathology. We utilized state-of-the-art tissue pattern recognition software to enable automatic recognition of islets, eliminating the need to laboriously trace islet borders by hand. After training by a histologist, the software successfully recognized even irregularly shaped islets with depleted insulin immunostaining, which were quite difficult to automatically recognize. The results from automated image analysis were highly correlated with those from manual image analysis. To establish whether this automated, rapid, and objective determination of islet area will facilitate studies of islet histopathology, we showed the beneficial effect of chronic exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, treatment on islet histopathology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Automated image analysis provided qualitative and quantitative evidence that exendin-4 treatment ameliorated the loss of pancreatic insulin content and gave rise to islet hypertrophy. We also showed that glucagon-positive α-cell area was decreased significantly in ZDF rat islets with disorganized structure. This study is the first to demonstrate the utility of automatic quantification of digital images to study pancreatic islet histopathology. The proposed method will facilitate evaluations in preclinical drug efficacy studies as well as elucidation of the pathophysiology of diabetes.

  7. [Effects of chemical constituents of Crossostephium chinense on insulin secretion in rat islets in vitro].

    Zou, Lei; Wu, Qi; Yang, Xiuwei; Fu, Dexian


    To investigate the effects of the chemical constituents of the whole herbs of Crossostephium chinense on insulin secretion in rat islets. Islets were isolated from rat pancreata, cultured in vitro, and measured by color signals of dithizone stained digestion solution for detection of pancreatic islets. The morphological observation of islets was carried out by inverted microscope. The effects of test compounds, scopoletin (1), scopolin (2), tanacetin (3), quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether (4) and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol (5) isolated from the whole herbs of C. chinense, on the insulin secreting level from islets were compared with those of glybenclamide as a positive control substances, and the difference in insulin secreting level from islets between the presence and absence of test compounds was assayed. There was no difference in basal insulin secretion before and after 2 h incubation period of rat islets. The islets treated with quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether have about 2-fold higher insulin secreting level (P < 0.01) compared a normal control group. The islets treated with 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol have about 1.5-fold higher insulin secreting level (P < 0.05) compared to a normal control group. Whereas the islets treated with scopoletin show about 1.9-fold lower basal insulin secreting level (P < 0.05) than a normal control group. In this paper the developed cultivation method of isolated pancreatic islets from rat can be used as a kind of islet-based drug screening model for diabetes mellitus in vitro. Quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol could enhance rat islet insulin secretion and further in vivo studies are needed to clarify the nature of such an observation. However, scopletin suppress rat islet insulin secretion.

  8. Rat pancreatic islet function during prolonged glucose stimulation in vitro : Effect of sex and reproductive state

    Moes, H; Koiter, TR


    Prolonged stimulation with glucose may induce desensitisation of pancreatic beta-cell function in male rats. The effects of such a treatment on pancreatic islets of pregnant (P) rats, in which beta-cell function is enhanced, were studied in a perifusion design and compared with the effects on islets

  9. Effect of interleukin-1 on the biosynthesis of proinsulin and insulin in isolated rat pancreatic islets

    Hansen, Birgit Sehested; Linde, S; Spinas, G A


    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is often preceded or associated with lymphocytic infiltration in the islets of Langerhans (insulitis). We recently demonstrated that interleukin-1 (IL-1) produced by activated macrophages exerts a bimodal effect on insulin release and biosynthesis...... in isolated rat islets. In the present study we have further analysed the effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1) on the biosynthesis and conversion of proinsulin 1 and 2 in rat islets. By RP-HPLC-analysis of islets labelled with [3H]leucine we found that exposure to 6 ng/ml of IL-1 for 24 h...

  10. Protection of rat islet viability following heme oxygenase-1 gene transfection via adenoviral vector in vitro

    Xiaobo Chen; Yongxiang Li; Weiping Dong; Yang Jiao; Jianming Tan


    Objective: To investigate the effect of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene transfection on the viability of cultured rat islets, and to explore the potential value of HO-1 gene in islet transplantation. Methods:Recombinant adenovirus vector containing human HO-1 gene(Ad-HO-1 ) or enhanced green fluorescent protein gene(Ad-EGFP) was generated by using AdEasy system respectively.The rat islets were transfected with Ad-HO-1, Ad-EGFP or blank vector and then cultured for 7 days. Transfection was confirmed by expression of EGFP and human HO-1 protein detected by fluorescence photographs and western blot, respectively. The insulin release upon different concentration of glucose stimulation was detected using insulin radioimmunoassay kit, and stimulation index (SI) was calculated. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was usedto assess islet viability. Results:Adenovirus vector successfully transferred HO-1 gene to rat islet cells in vitro, and the insulin release upon high level of glucose stimulation and stimulation index(SI) of Ad-HO-1-infected islets were significantly higher than those of Ad-EGFP-infected islets and control islets(P < 0.05).Conclusion: Adenovirus-mediated HO-1 gene transfection is a feasible strategy to confer cytoprotection and therefore protect the viability of cultured rat islets.

  11. Gastrin gene expression and regulation in rat islet cell lines.

    Brand, S J; Wang, T C


    Gastrin gene expression was observed in two permanent rat insulinoma (RIN) cell lines derived from a rat insulinoma. Gastrin expression was selective; highest expression was seen in a cell line which did not express other islet cell hormones. Gastrin mRNA transcription initiated from the same promoter as antral gastrin mRNA. DNA transfection studies with a gastrin chloramphenicol acetyltransferase chimeric gene showed higher expression in gastrin-expressing RIN cells than non-gastrin-expressing islet cells. This implies that gastrin-expressing RIN cells selectively express a trans-acting transcriptional activator which binds to cis-acting regulatory sequences within the 5'-flanking DNA sequence and first exon of the gastrin gene. The gastrin peptide precursor synthesized in these RIN cell lines is subject to the same repertoire of posttranslational modifications within the cell's secretory apparatus (endoproteolytic cleavage, tyrosine sulfation, and C-terminal amidation) as seen in antral G cells. Gastrin mRNA levels in these RIN cells were selectively increased by increasing the extracellular calcium concentration. Membrane depolarization also stimulated gastrin mRNA levels, probably through activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Thus, these gastrin-expressing RIN cell lines provide permanent cell lines useful in analyzing the cellular regulation of gastrin gene expression.

  12. Islet Stellate Cells Isolated from Fibrotic Islet of Goto-Kakizaki Rats Affect Biological Behavior of Beta-Cell

    Feng-Fei Li


    Full Text Available We previously isolated islet stellate cells (ISCs from healthy Wistar rat islets. In the present study, we isolated “already primed by diabetic environment” ISCs from islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, determined the gene profile of these cells, and assessed the effects of these ISCs on beta-cell function and survival. We detected gene expression of ISCs by digital gene expression. INS-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin production were measured after being treated with ISCs supernatant (SN. We observed the similar expression pattern of ISCs and PSCs, but 1067 differentially expressed genes. Insulin production in INS-1 cells cultured with ISC-SN was significantly reduced. The 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine-positive INS-1 cells treated with ISC-SN were decreased. Propidium iodide- (PI- positive INS-1 cells were 2.6-fold higher than those in control groups. Caspase-3 activity was increased. In conclusion, ISCs presented in fibrotic islet of GK rats might be special PSCs, which impaired beta-cell function and proliferation and increased beta-cell apoptosis.

  13. No Evidence of Viral Transmission following Long-Term Implantation of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets in Diabetic Dogs

    Lawrence S. Gazda


    Full Text Available We have previously described the use of a double coated agarose-agarose porcine islet macrobead for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the long-term viral safety of macrobead implantation into pancreatectomized diabetic dogs treated with pravastatin (n=3 was assessed while 2 dogs served as nonimplanted controls. A more gradual return to preimplant insulin requirements occurred after a 2nd implant procedure (days 148, 189, and >652 when compared to a first macrobead implantation (days 9, 21, and 21 in all macrobead implanted animals. In all three implanted dogs, porcine C-peptide was detected in the blood for at least 10 days following the first implant and for at least 26 days following the second implant. C-peptide was also present in the peritoneal fluid of all three implanted dogs at 6 months after 2nd implant and in 2 of 3 dogs at necropsy. Prescreening results of islet macrobeads and culture media prior to transplantation were negative for 13 viruses. No evidence of PERV or other viral transmission was found throughout the study. This study demonstrates that the long-term (2.4 years implantation of agarose-agarose encapsulated porcine islets is a safe procedure in a large animal model of type I diabetes mellitus.

  14. Electrofusion of mesenchymal stem cells and islet cells for diabetes therapy: a rat model.

    Goichi Yanai

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is a minimally invasive treatment for severe diabetes. However, it often requires multiple donors to accomplish insulin-independence and the long-term results are not yet satisfying. Therefore, novel ways to overcome these problems have been explored. Isolated islets are fragile and susceptible to pro-apoptotic factors and poorly proliferative. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are highly proliferative, anti-apoptotic and pluripotent to differentiate toward various cell types, promote angiogenesis and modulate inflammation, thereby studied as an enhancer of islet function and engraftment. Electrofusion is an efficient method of cell fusion and nuclear reprogramming occurs in hybrid cells between different cell types. Therefore, we hypothesized that electrofusion between MSC and islet cells may yield robust islet cells for diabetes therapy. We establish a method of electrofusion between dispersed islet cells and MSCs in rats. The fusion cells maintained glucose-responsive insulin release for 20 days in vitro. Renal subcapsular transplantation of fusion cells prepared from suboptimal islet mass (1,000 islets that did not correct hyperglycemia even if co-transplanted with MSCs, caused slow but consistent lowering of blood glucose with significant weight gain within the observation period in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the fusion cells between rat islet cells and mouse MSCs, RT-PCR showed new expression of both rat MSC-related genes and mouse β-cell-related genes, indicating bidirectional reprogramming of both β-cell and MSCs nuclei. Moreover, decreased caspase3 expression and new expression of Ki-67 in the islet cell nuclei suggested alleviated apoptosis and gain of proliferative capability, respectively. These results show that electrofusion between MSCs and islet cells yield special cells with β-cell function and robustness of MSCs and seems feasible for novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes

  15. Impact of Pancreatic Rat Islet Density on Cell Survival during Hypoxia

    A. Rodriguez-Brotons


    Full Text Available In bioartificial pancreases (BP, the number of islets needed to restore normoglycaemia in the diabetic patient is critical. However, the confinement of a high quantity of islets in a limited space may impact islet survival, particularly in regard to the low oxygen partial pressure (PO2 in such environments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of islet number in a confined space under hypoxia on cell survival. Rat islets were seeded at three different concentrations (150, 300, and 600 Islet Equivalents (IEQ/cm2 and cultured in normal atmospheric pressure (160 mmHg as well as hypoxic conditions (15 mmHg for 24 hours. Cell viability, function, hypoxia-induced changes in gene expression, and cytokine secretion were then assessed. Notably, hypoxia appeared to induce a decrease in viability and increasing islet density exacerbated the observed increase in cellular apoptosis as well as the loss of function. These changes were also associated with an increase in inflammatory gene transcription. Taken together, these data indicate that when a high number of islets are confined to a small space under hypoxia, cell viability and function are significantly impacted. Thus, in order to improve islet survival in this environment during transplantation, oxygenation is of critical importance.

  16. Short-term glucosamine infusion increases islet blood flow in anesthetized rats.

    Gao, Xiang; Jansson, Leif; Persson, A Erik G; Sandberg, Monica


    Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in rodents are associated with increased islet blood flow. If this is important for modulation of the endocrine function is at present unknown. We evaluated if glucosamine infusion, which induces peripheral insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, could be used to acutely increase islet blood flow. We infused anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 h with glucosamine (6 mg/kg body weight), in some cases followed by glucose administration. The former induced a 2-fold increase in serum insulin concentrations while plasma glucose remained unchanged. In vitro an augmented insulin response to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin content in batch type islet incubations with glucosamine for 24 h were seen. After 2 h glucosamine exposure in vitro, insulin release was decreased. In vivo glucosamine infusion increased islet blood flow, without affecting other regional blood flow values. Glucose increased islet blood flow to the same extent in control and glucosamine-infused rats. When exposed to 10 mmol/L glucosamine arterioles of isolated perfused islets showed a 10% dilation of their vascular smooth muscle. Thus, application of this model leads to acute hyperinsulinemia in vivo but a decreased insulin release in vitro, which suggests that effects not located to β cells are responsible for the effects seen in vivo. An increased islet blood flow in previously healthy animals was also seen after glucose administration, which can be used to further dissect the importance of blood flow changes in islet function.

  17. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    I Nyoman Suarsana


    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  18. Differential expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat and human islets

    Petersen, J S; Russel, S; Marshall, M O;


    The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat isl...

  19. Progressive histopathological changes in pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    Janssen, S.W.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lange, W.; Knijnenburg, Q.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Martens, G.J.M.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.


    Thus far, histopathological changes in the pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), have only been studied in male rats and in 18-weeks old rats or younger. In this study, we have examined in both

  20. Interleukin-1beta induced changes in the protein expression of rat islets: a computerized database

    Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, Peter Mose


    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The cytokine interleukin 1 inhibits insulin release and is selectively cytotoxic to beta-cells in isolated pancreatic rat islets. The antigen(s) triggering the immune response...... as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of interleukin 1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity are unknown. However, previous studies have found an association of beta-cell destruction with alterations in protein synthesis. Thus, two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis of pancreatic islet proteins......% of %IOD was 45.7% in the NEPHGE gels. Addition of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) to the cultures resulted in statistically significant modulation or de novo synthesis of 105 proteins in the 10% gels. In conclusion, we present the first 10% and 15% acrylamide 2-D gel protein databases of neonatal rat islets...

  1. Noninvasive evaluation of the vascular response to transplantation of alginate encapsulated islets using the dorsal skin-fold model.

    Krishnan, Rahul; Arora, Rajan P; Alexander, Michael; White, Sean M; Lamb, Morgan W; Foster, Clarence E; Choi, Bernard; Lakey, Jonathan R T


    Alginate encapsulation reduces the risk of transplant rejection by evading immune-mediated cell injury and rejection; however, poor vascular perfusion results in graft failure. Since existing imaging models are incapable of quantifying the vascular response to biomaterial implants after transplantation, in this study, we demonstrate the use of in vivo laser speckle imaging (LSI) and wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) to monitor the microvascular environment surrounding biomaterial implants. The vascular response to two islet-containing biomaterial encapsulation devices, alginate microcapsules and a high-guluronate alginate sheet, was studied and compared after implantation into the mouse dorsal window chamber (N = 4 per implant group). Images obtained over a 14-day period using LSI and WiFI were analyzed using algorithms to quantify blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density. Using our method, we were able to monitor the changes in the peri-implant microvasculature noninvasively without the use of fluorescent dyes. Significant changes in blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density were noted as early as the first week post-transplant. The dorsal window chamber model enables comparison of host responses to transplanted biomaterials. Future experiments will study the effect of changes in alginate composition on the vascular and immune responses.

  2. Increased dye coupling in pancreatic islets from rats in late-term pregnancy.

    Sheridan, J D; Anaya, P A; Parsons, J A; Sorenson, R L


    Our previous studies have suggested that elevated lactogen, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased beta-cell coupling are associated. To determine whether this association occurs under conditions of physiologically increased lactogen, we have studied the extent of dye coupling in rat islets during the later stage of pregnancy. These animals have high plasma lactogen levels in the form of placental lactogen, increased plasma insulin, and decreased plasma glucose. The fluorescent tracer, Lucifer yellow CH, was microinjected into central cells of islets from both pregnant and virgin rats, and the extent of transfer was quantitated by determining the projected area of dye spread. Two area measurements were made for each injection, one around the entire discernible fluorescent region ("outer") and another around the distinct brighter region of cells surrounding the injected cell ("inner"). Pregnancy increased dye transfer, as determined by both measurements. The outer area of dye transfer was 9047 +/- 775 microns2 for the islets from pregnant rats and 4699 +/- 391 microns2 for the islets from virgin rats (P less than .001). Similarly, pregnancy increased the inner area of dye transfer, 1447 +/- 161 microns2 for the islets from pregnant rats and 795 +/- 80 microns2 for the islets from virgin rats (P less than .001). These results support the hypothesis that elevated lactogen, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased beta-cell dye coupling are associated under physiological conditions. The study indicates that enhanced beta-cell coupling is part of the structural and functional adaptation that the islets undergo during a subject's pregnancy and demonstrates that the extent of beta-cell coupling is regulated by a physiological condition.

  3. Biosynthesis and release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat pancreatic islets in organ culture. Effects of age, glucose, and streptozotocin

    Dolva, L O; Welinder, B S; Hanssen, K F;


    /islet) than in adult rat islets, which, however, increased their content from 1.3 +/- 0.5 to 7.0 +/- 0.5 fmol/islet during the first 3 d of culture. Adult rat islets maintained in medium with 20 mM glucose released significantly more TRH-IR than islets in 3.3 mM glucose medium (13.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 0...

  4. Rat Islet Isograft Function. Effect of Graft Volume and Transplantation Site

    Suylichem, Paul T.R. van; Strubbe, Jan H.; Houwing, Harmina; Wolters, Gerrit H.J.; Schilfgaarde, Reinout van


    Islet isograft function was analyzed after transplantation of 4 well-defined endocrine volumes (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the endocrine volume in the normal adult rat pancreas) to 3 different sites (kidney, liver, and spleen). Graft function was tested in unanesthetized, unstressed rats by the re

  5. Interleukin 1 dose-dependently affects the biosynthesis of (pro)insulin in isolated rat islets of Langerhans

    Spinas, G A; Hansen, B S; Linde, S


    Human crude and recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) was found to dose- and time-dependently affect the biosynthesis of (pro)insulin in isolated rat islets of Langerhans. Incubation of rat islets with either 0.5 U/ml or 5 U/ml of crude IL-1 for 1 h had no detectable effect on (pro)insulin biosynthesis...

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

    YH Huang


    Full Text Available We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells and PP-cells (PPsecreting cells were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

  7. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)


    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  8. Functional Improvement in Rats' Pancreatic Islets Using Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Through Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Pathways.

    Moeini-Nodeh, Shermineh; Rahimifard, Mahban; Baeeri, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    According to undiscovered toxicity and safety of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in isolated pancreatic islet cells, this study was designed to examine the effects of its various concentrations on a time-course basis on the oxidative stress, viability, and function of isolated islets of rat's pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated and exposed to different MgO NP (oxidative stress biomarkers were investigated and the best exposure time was selected. Then, safety of MgO NPs was investigated by flow cytometry and fluorescent staining, and levels of insulin secretion and caspase activity were measured. The results illustrated a considerable decrease in oxidative stress markers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of pancreatic islets which were treated by MgO NPs for 24 h. Also, in that time of exposure, cell apoptosis investigation by flow cytometry and insulin test showed that MgO NPs, in a concentration of 100 μg/ml, decreased the rate of apoptotic cells via inhibiting caspase-9 activity and made a significant increase in the level of insulin secretion. Data of function and apoptosis biomarkers correlated with each other. It is concluded that the use of MgO NPs in concentration of as low as 100 μg/ml can induce antiapoptotic, antioxidative, and antidiabetic effects in rat pancreatic islets, which support its possible benefit in islet transplantation procedures.

  9. Fentanyl inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release from β-cells in rat pancreatic islets

    Tao-Lai Qian; Xin-Hua Wang; Sheng Liu; Liang Ma; Ying Lu


    AIM:To explore the effects of fentanyl on insulin release from freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets in static culture.METHODS: Islets were isolated from the pancreas of mature Sprague Dawley rats by common bile duct intraductal collagenase V digestion and were purified by discontinuous Ficoll density gradient centrifugation.The islets were divided into four groups according to the fentanyl concentration: control group (0 ng/mL),group Ⅰ (0.3 ng/mL), group Ⅱ (3.0 ng/mL), and group Ⅲ (30 ng/mL). In each group, the islets were co-cultured for 48 h with drugs under static conditions with fentanyl alone, fentanyl + 0.1 μg/mL naloxone or fentanyl + 1.0 μg/mL naloxone. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. Insulin release in response to low and high concentrations (2.8 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L,respectively) of glucose was investigated and electron microscopy morphological assessment was performed.RESULTS: Low- and high-glucose-stimulated insulin release in the control group was significantly higher than in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ (62.33 ±9.67 μIU vs 47.75 ±96.17 ± 14.17 μIU, 75.17 ± 13.57 μIU, respectively, P <0.01) and was lowest in group Ⅲ ( P < 0.01). After adding 1 μg/mL naloxone, insulin release in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ was not different from the control group. Electron microscopy studies showed that the islets were damaged by 30 ng/mL fentanyl.CONCLUSION: Fentanyl inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release from rat islets, which could be prevented by naloxone. Higher concentrations of fentanyl significantly damaged β-cells of rat islets.howed that the isl

  10. St. John's wort extract and hyperforin protect rat and human pancreatic islets against cytokine toxicity.

    Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; Menegazzi, Marta; De Tata, Vincenzo; Martino, Luisa; Sgarbossa, Anna; Porozov, Svetlana; Pippa, Anna; Masini, Matilde; Marchetti, Piero; Masiello, Pellegrino


    The extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort, SJW) and its component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and nuclear factor κB and prevent apoptosis in a cultured β-cell line. Objective of this study was to assess the protection exerted by SJW and HPF on isolated rat and human islets exposed to cytokines in vitro. Functional, ultrastructural, biomolecular and cell death evaluation studies were performed. In both rat and human islets, SJW and HPF counteracted cytokine-induced functional impairment and down-regulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory target genes, such as iNOS, CXCL9, CXCL10, COX2. Cytokine-induced NO production from cultured islets, evaluated by nitrites measurement in the medium, was significantly reduced in the presence of the vegetal compounds. Noteworthy, the increase in apoptosis and necrosis following 48-h exposure to cytokines was fully prevented by SJW and partially by HPF. Ultrastructural morphometric analysis in human islets exposed to cytokines for 20 h showed that SJW or HPF avoided early β-cell damage (e.g., mitochondrial alterations and loss of insulin granules). In conclusion, SJW compounds protect rat and human islets against cytokine effects by counteracting key mechanisms of cytokine-mediated β-cell injury and represent promising pharmacological tools for prevention or limitation of β-cell dysfunction and loss in type 1 diabetes.

  11. Direct long-term effects of L-asparaginase on rat and human pancreatic islets

    Clausen, Niels; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    L-Asparaginase, an effective agent in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, may induce a diabetic state. The pathogenesis of the diabetogenic effect was studied in cultured pancreatic islets. Mean serum concentrations in three children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were 2.4 U/mL (range...... 1.4-4.5) before and 31.5 U/mL (range 18.6-51.8) immediately after an intravenous injection of 1000 U/kg L-asparaginase. Glucose-induced insulin release from pancreatic islets of rat and man was measured after 3 and 7 days of culture in media with or without clinically relevant concentrations...... of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (0.01-100 U/mL). After culture, the remaining insulin, glucagon, and DNA in the islets were determined. After 7 days of culture of adult rat or human islets, both the accumulation of insulin in the medium and the content of insulin and glucagon in the islets were significantly...

  12. Stress increased ghrelin secretion from pancreatic isolated islets in male rats.

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Zardooz, Homeira; Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Baveisi, Mahyar; Hedayati, Mehdi


    It has been demonstrated that plasma ghrelin is likely affected by stress, but little attention has been paid to the effect of stress on ghrelin release from pancreatic islets. This study investigates the effect of stress on ghrelin secretion from pancreatic islets in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups. The stressed group was further divided into foot-shock and psychological stress subgroups. Stress was induced by a communication box. After stress exposure, blood sampling was performed to determine the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, and ghrelin. Then the animals' pancreatic islets were isolated to assess their ghrelin output at 5.6, 8.3, and 16.7 mM glucose concentrations. Acute exposure to foot-shock and psychological stress both increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Moreover, plasma glucose concentration increased in the foot-shock stress group. Chronic exposure to foot-shock decreased plasma ghrelin concentration, whereas acute exposure had no significant effect. Acute and chronic exposure to foot-shock and psychological stress increased ghrelin secretion from isolated islets in the presence of different glucose concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that ghrelin secretion from isolated islets is not glucose-dependent. However, ghrelin secretion appears to be intensely responsive to both acute and chronic stress.

  13. Oxidation of [1,12-14C]dodecanedioic acid by rat pancreatic islets.

    Malaisse, W J; Greco, A V; Mingrone, G


    Several aliphatic dioic acids were recently reported to stimulate insulin release in isolated rat pancreatic islets incubated at close-to-physiological D-glucose concentrations. In order to gain insight into the mode of action of these acids in pancreatic islet B-cells, the oxidation of [1,12-14C]dodecanedioic acid (5.0 mM) was now measured in rat islets. Expressed as pmol of [1, 12-14C]dodecanedioic acid equivalent, the production of 14CO2 was close to 1.0 pmol/islet per 120 min, representing about 8% of that attributable to the oxidation of D-[U-14C]-glucose (8.3 mM). The dioic acid and the hexose failed to exert any significant reciprocal effect upon their respective oxidation rate. These findings support the view that the insulinotropic action of dodecanedioic acid, and presumably other aliphatic dioic acids, is causally linked to their capacity to act as nutrients in pancreatic islet cells.

  14. Determination of the specific interaction between sulfonylurea-incorporated polymer and rat islets.

    Park, Keun-Hong; Song, Soo Chang; Akaike, Toshihiro


    A SU derivative, mimicking glibenclamide in chemical structure, was synthesized to incorporate it into a water-soluble polymeric backbone as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. The ability of insulin secretion was examined with different glucose concentrations (3.3 and 11.6 mM). Although the vinylated SU did not exhibit significant activity compared to the control, the SU-incorporated copolymer could enhance insulin secretion as much as or more than glibenclamide did. In this study, a polymer fluorescence-labeled with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions and we found that the labeled polymer was strongly absorbed to rat islets, probably due to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-incorporated copolymer and rat islets, cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K+ channel opener), before adding the incorporated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on rat islets. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results of this study provided evidence that the SU-incorporated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion through specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with rat islets.



    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose




    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose concentra




    We have analysed the graft function of rat islet isografts of identical and well-defined endocrine volumes after transplantation to three different sites (kidney, liver and spleen). Graft endocrine mass was determined by measuring the total islet volume prior to transplantation and was chosen to be

  18. Insulin secretion by rat islet isografts of a defined endocrine volume after transplantation to three different sites

    Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Houwing, H.; Wolters, G.H.J.; Schilfgaarde, R. van


    We have analysed the graft function of rat islet isografts of identical and well-defined endocrine volumes after transplantation to three different sites (kidney, liver and spleen). Graft endocrine mass was determined by measuring the total islet volume prior to transplantation and was chosen to be

  19. Differentiation of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells into pancreatic islet beta-cells

    Li-Bo Chen; Xiao-Bing Jiang; Lian Yang


    AIM: To explore the possibility of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)in vitro differentiating into functional isletlike cells and to test the diabetes therapeutic potency of Islet-like cells.METHODS: Rat MSCs were isolated from Wistar rats and cultured. Passaged MSCs were induced to differentiate into islet-like cells under following conditions: pre-induction with L-DMEM including 10 mmol/L nicotinamide+1 mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol+200 mL/L fetal calf serum (FSC) for 24 h,followed by induction with serum free H-DMEM solution including 10 mmol/L nicotinamide+ 1 mmol/L,β-mercaptoethanol for 10 h. Differentiated cells were observed under inverse microscopy, insulin and nestin expressed in differentiated cells were detected with immunocytochemistry. Insulin excreted from differentiated cells was tested with radioimmunoassay. Rat diabetic models were made to test in vivo function of differentiated MSCs.RESULTS: Typical islet -like clustered cells were observed.Insulin mRNA and protein expressions were positive in differentiated cells, and nestin could be detected in predifferentiated cells. Insulin excreted from differentiated MSCs (446.93±102.28 IU/L) was much higher than that from pre-differentiated MSCs (2.45±0.81 IU/L (P<0.01).Injected differentiated MSCs cells could down-regulate glucose level in diabetic rats.CONCLUSION: Islet-like functional cells can be differentiated from marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which may be a new procedure for clinical diabetes stem -cell therapy, these cells can control blood glucose level in diabetic rats. MSCs may play an important role in diabetes therapy by islet differentiation and transplantation.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of chitooligosaccharides on pancreatic islet cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Bing Liu; Wan-Shun Liu; Bao-Qin Han; Yu-Ying Sun


    AIM: To investigate the effect of chitooligosaccharides on proliferation of pancreatic islet cells, release of insulin and 2 h plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.METHODS: In vitro, the effect of chitooligosaccharides on proliferation of pancreatic islet cells and release of insulin was detected with optical microscopy, colorimetric assay, and radioimmunoassay respectively. In vivo, the general clinical symptoms, 2 h plasma glucose, urine glucose, oral glucose tolerance were examined after sixty days of feeding study to determine the effect of chitooligosaccharides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.RESULTS: Chitooligosaccharides could effectively accelerate the proliferation of pancreatic islet cells. Chitooligosaccharides (100 mg/L) had direct and prominent effect on pancreastic β cells and insulin release from islet cells. All concentrations of chitooligosaccharides could improve the general clinical symptoms of diabetic rats, decrease the 2 h plasma glucose and urine glucose, and normalize the disorders of glucose tolerance.CONCLUSION: Chitooligosaccharides possess various biological activities and can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Reversal of Early Diabetic Nephropathy by Islet Transplantation under the Kidney Capsule in a Rat Model

    Yunqiang He


    Full Text Available Objective. Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and insulin therapy has many side effects in the treatment of DN. Islet transplantation has emerged as a promising therapy for diabetic patients. This study was established to investigate its advantageous effects in a rat model of early DN. Methods. Streptozotocin was administered to the rats to induce diabetes. Twelve weeks later, the diabetic rats were divided into 3 groups: the islet-transplanted group (IT group, the insulin-treated group (IN group, and the untreated group (DN group. Renal injury and kidney structure were assessed by urinalysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM detection. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were performed to assess renal fibrosis levels. Results. The early DN features were reversed and the glomerular filtration barrier and basement membrane structures were improved at 4 weeks after islet transplantation. The urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, protein-to-creatinine ratio, and mean thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM were significantly decreased in the IT group. The expression of renal fibrotic factors was also significantly decreased. Conclusions. These data suggest that early DN can be reversed after islet transplantation, and they may facilitate the development of a clinical therapeutic strategy for human diabetes mellitus.

  2. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Unit 30), Paris (France))


    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I.

  3. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    César Tadeu Spadella


    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  4. Effect of micro- and macroencapsulation on oxygen consumption by pancreatic islets.

    Cornolti, Roberta; Figliuzzi, Marina; Remuzzi, Andrea


    Immunoisolation of pancreatic islets is extensively investigated for glycemic control in diabetic experimental animals. We previously reported that subcutaneous xenotransplantation of bovine islets protected by a selective polysulfone membrane successfully controlled glycemia in diabetic rats for up to 20 days. We then wondered whether immunoisolated islets have adequate oxygen supply in this device, where only diffusive transport allows cell function and survival. Here we set up an experimental technique to measure oxygen consumption rate (OCR) using a Clark's electrode inserted in a glass thermostated chamber connected to a data recorder and acquisition system. Bovine islets were isolated from 6-month-old calves, encapsulated in sodium alginate microcapsules or inserted in polysulfone hollow fibers. After 1 and 2 days in culture a series of measurements was performed using free islets (at normal or high-glucose concentration), islets encapsulated in microcapsules, or in hollow fibers. In free islets OCR averaged from 2.0 +/- 0.8 pmol/IEQ/min at low-glucose concentration and from 2.5 +/- 1.0 pmol/IEQ/min at high-glucose concentration (p hollow fibers was comparable, and not significantly different from that measured in free islets. Two days after isolation OCR averaged 2.3 +/- 0.6 in free islets, 2.3 +/- 0.9 in alginate microcapsules, and 2.2 +/- 0.7 pmol/IEQ/min in hollow fibers. These results show that OCR by bovine islets is comparable to that previously reported for other species. OCR increases in islets stimulated with high glucose and may be considered as a functional index. Moreover, islet encapsulation in alginate microcapsule, as well as in hollow fiber membranes, did not significantly affect in vitro OCR, suggesting adequate islet oxygenation in these conditions.

  5. An intravascular bioartificial pancreas device (iBAP) with silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) for islet encapsulation under convective mass transport.

    Song, Shang; Blaha, Charles; Moses, Willieford; Park, Jaehyun; Wright, Nathan; Groszek, Joey; Fissell, William; Vartanian, Shant; Posselt, Andrew M; Roy, Shuvo


    Diffusion-based bioartificial pancreas (BAP) devices are limited by poor islet viability and functionality due to inadequate mass transfer resulting in islet hypoxia and delayed glucose-insulin kinetics. While intravascular ultrafiltration-based BAP devices possess enhanced glucose-insulin kinetics, the polymer membranes used in these devices provide inadequate ultrafiltrate flow rates and result in excessive thrombosis. Here, we report the silicon nanopore membrane (SNM), which exhibits a greater hydraulic permeability and a superior pore size selectivity compared to polymer membranes for use in BAP applications. Specifically, we demonstrate that the SNM-based intravascular BAP with ∼10 and ∼40 nm pore sized membranes support high islet viability (>60%) and functionality (insulin response to glucose stimulation) at clinically relevant islet densities (5700 and 11 400 IE per cm(2)) under convection in vitro. In vivo studies with ∼10 nm pore sized SNM in a porcine model showed high islet viability (>85%) at clinically relevant islet density (5700 IE per cm(2)), c-peptide concentration of 144 pM in the outflow ultrafiltrate, and hemocompatibility under convection. These promising findings offer insights on the development of next generation of full-scale intravascular devices to treat T1D patients in the future.

  6. Experimental Study of Rat Beta Islet Cells Cultured under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    ChunSONG; Xiu-QingDUAN; XiLI; Li-OuHAN; PingXU; Chun-FangSONG:; Lian-HongJIN


    To observe the effects of simulated microgravity on beta islet cell culture, we have compared the survival rates and the insulin levels of the isolated rat islet cells cultured at micro- and normal gravity conditions. The survival rates of the cells cultured were determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide double-staining on day 3,7 and 14. The morphology of the cells was observed by electron microscopy.Insulin levels were measured by radio immuno assays. Our results show that the cell number cultured underthe microgravity condition is significantly higher than that under the routine condition (P<0.01). Some tubular structure shown by transmission electron microscopy, possibly for the transport of nutrients, were formed intercellularly in the microgravity cultured group on day 7. There were also abundant secretion particles and mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that there were holes formed between each islet, possibly connecting with the nutrient transport tubules. The microgravity cultured group also has higher insulin levels in the media as compared with the control group (P<0.01). Our results indicate that microgravity cultivation of islet cells has advantages over the routine culture methods.

  7. Experimental Study of Rat Beta Islet Cells Cultured under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    Chun SONG; Xiu-Qing DUAN; Xi LI; Li-Ou HAN; Ping XU; Chun-Fang SONG; Lian-Hong JIN


    To observe the effects of simulated microgravity on beta islet cell culture, we have compared the survival rates and the insulin levels of the isolated rat islet cells cultured at micro- and normal gravity conditions. The survival rates of the cells cultured were determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide double-staining on day 3, 7 and 14. The morphology of the cells was observed by electron microscopy.Insulin levels were measured by radio immuno assays. Our results show that the cell number cultured under the microgravity condition is significantly higher than that under the routine condition (P<0.01). Some tubular structure shown by transmission electron microscopy, possibly for the transport of nutrients, were formed intercellularly in the microgravity cultured group on day 7. There were also abundant secretion particles and mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that there were holes formed between each islet, possibly connecting with the nutrient transport tubules. The microgravity cultured group also has higher insulin levels in the media as compared with the control group(P<0.01). Our results indicate that microgravity cultivation of islet cells has advantages over the routine culture methods.

  8. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of insulin biosynthesis in isolated rat and mouse islets

    Linde, S; Hansen, Bruno A.; Welinder, B S


    Two RP-HPLC systems were developed for the separation of the products of the conversion of proinsulin into insulin in rat and mouse islets, including proinsulin I and II. Peaks were identified by microsequencing and radiosequencing. It was confirmed that mouse C-peptide I has a two amino acid...... deletion compared to rat C-peptide I. A marked species difference in the ratio between insulin I and II was observed, i.e., 2:1 in the rat and 1:2 in the mouse. Pulse-chase experiments in rat islets have demonstrated that the ratio between insulin I and II in newly synthesized insulin is higher than...

  9. Impact of alogliptin and pioglitazone on lipid metabolism in islets of prediabetic and diabetic Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    Cai, Ying; Lydic, Todd A; Turkette, Thomas; Reid, Gavin E; Olson, L Karl


    Prolonged exposure of pancreatic beta (β) cells to elevated glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) as occurs in type 2 diabetes results in loss of β cell function and survival. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, β cell failure is associated with increased triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis and disruption of the glycerolipid/FFA (GL/FFA) cycle, a critical arm of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of activation of PPARγ and increased incretin action via dipeptidyl-peptidase inhibition using pioglitazone and/or alogliptin, respectively, on islet lipid metabolism in prediabetic and diabetic ZDF rats. Transition of control prediabetic ZDF rats to diabetes was associated with reduced plasma insulin levels, reduced islet insulin content and GSIS, reduced stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD 2) expression, and increased islet TAG, diacylglyceride (DAG) and ceramides species containing saturated FA. Treatment of prediabetic ZDF rats with a combination of pioglitazone and alogliptin, but not individually, prevented the transition to diabetes and was associated with marked lowering of islet TAG and DAG levels. Pioglitazone and alogliptin, however, did not restore SCD2 expression, the degree of FA saturation in TAG, DAG or ceramides, islet insulin content, or lower ceramide levels. These findings are consistent with activation of PPARγ and increased incretin action working in concert to restore GL/FFA cycle in β cells of ZDF rats. Restoration of the GL/FFA cycle without correcting islet FA desaturation, production of islet ceramides, and/or insulin sensitivity, however, may place these islets at risk for β cell failure.

  10. Excessive food intake, obesity and inflammation process in Zucker fa/fa rat pancreatic islets.

    Myriam Chentouf

    Full Text Available Inappropriate food intake-related obesity and more importantly, visceral adiposity, are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is emerging that nutriment-induced β-cell dysfunction could be related to indirect induction of a state of low grade inflammation. Our aim was to study whether hyperphagia associated obesity could promote an inflammatory response in pancreatic islets leading to ß-cell dysfunction. In the hyperphagic obese insulin resistant male Zucker rat, we measured the level of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and estimated their production as well as the expression of their receptors in pancreatic tissue and β-cells. Our main findings concern intra-islet pro-inflammatory cytokines from fa/fa rats: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expressions were increased; IL-1R1 was also over-expressed with a cellular redistribution also observed for IL-6R. To get insight into the mechanisms involved in phenotypic alterations, abArrays were used to determine the expression profile of proteins implicated in different membrane receptors signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle pathways. Despite JNK overexpression, cell viability was unaffected probably because of decreases in cleaved caspase3 as well as in SMAC/DIABLO and APP, involved in the induction and amplification of apoptosis. Concerning β-cell proliferation, decreases in important cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p35 and increased expression of SMAD4 probably contribute to counteract and restrain hyperplasia in fa/fa rat islets. Finally and probably as a result of IL-1β and IL-1R1 increased expressions with sub-cellular redistribution of the receptor, islets from fa/fa rats were found more sensitive to both stimulating and inhibitory concentrations of the cytokine; this confers some physiopathological relevance to a possible autocrine regulation of β-cell function by IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that pancreatic islets from prediabetic fa/fa rats undergo an

  11. Excessive food intake, obesity and inflammation process in Zucker fa/fa rat pancreatic islets.

    Chentouf, Myriam; Dubois, Gregor; Jahannaut, Céline; Castex, Françoise; Lajoix, Anne Dominique; Gross, René; Peraldi-Roux, Sylvie


    Inappropriate food intake-related obesity and more importantly, visceral adiposity, are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is emerging that nutriment-induced β-cell dysfunction could be related to indirect induction of a state of low grade inflammation. Our aim was to study whether hyperphagia associated obesity could promote an inflammatory response in pancreatic islets leading to ß-cell dysfunction. In the hyperphagic obese insulin resistant male Zucker rat, we measured the level of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and estimated their production as well as the expression of their receptors in pancreatic tissue and β-cells. Our main findings concern intra-islet pro-inflammatory cytokines from fa/fa rats: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expressions were increased; IL-1R1 was also over-expressed with a cellular redistribution also observed for IL-6R. To get insight into the mechanisms involved in phenotypic alterations, abArrays were used to determine the expression profile of proteins implicated in different membrane receptors signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle pathways. Despite JNK overexpression, cell viability was unaffected probably because of decreases in cleaved caspase3 as well as in SMAC/DIABLO and APP, involved in the induction and amplification of apoptosis. Concerning β-cell proliferation, decreases in important cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p35) and increased expression of SMAD4 probably contribute to counteract and restrain hyperplasia in fa/fa rat islets. Finally and probably as a result of IL-1β and IL-1R1 increased expressions with sub-cellular redistribution of the receptor, islets from fa/fa rats were found more sensitive to both stimulating and inhibitory concentrations of the cytokine; this confers some physiopathological relevance to a possible autocrine regulation of β-cell function by IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that pancreatic islets from prediabetic fa/fa rats undergo an inflammatory

  12. Antioxidant activity of chito-oligosaccharides on pancreatic islet cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Wen-Peng Yuan; Bing Liu; Chang-Heng Liu; Xiao-Jun Wang; Mian-Song Zhang; Xiu-Mei Meng; Xue-Kui Xia


    AIM: To investigate the antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) on pancreatic islet cells in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.METHODS: The antioxidant effect of COSs on pancreatic islet cells was detected under optical microscopy and with colorimetric assay and gel electrophoresis. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and content of malondialdehyde in serum and tissue slices of pancreas were examined after 60 d to determine the effect of COSs in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.RESULTS: COSs can prohibit the apoptosis of pancreatic islet cells. All concentrations of COSs can improve the capability of total antioxidant capacity and activity of superoxide dismutase and decrease the content of malondialdehyde drastically. Morphological investigation in the pancreas showed that COSs have resulted in the reduction of islets, loss of pancreatic cells, and nuclear pyknosis of pancreatic cells.CONCLUSION: COSs possess various biological activities and can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  13. The effect of lesions of the sympathoadrenal system on training induced adaptations in adipocytes and pancreatic islets in rats

    Stallknecht, B; Roesdahl, M; Vinten, J


    in sham adrenodemedullated rats (P swim trained for 10 weeks or remained sedentary. Insulin stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose transport......Physical training increases insulin stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and decreases insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. The mechanism behind these adaptations is not known. Because in acute exercise adrenergic activity influences both adipocytes and pancreatic islets, the sympathetic...... was measured in adipocytes from epididymal fat pads, and insulin secretion and glucose metabolism were measured in glucose stimulated pancreatic islets. Training increased insulin stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes (P

  14. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat



    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced diabe

  15. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A


    Several amidated biologically active peptides such as pancreastatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, pancreatic polypeptide and amylin are produced in endocrine pancreatic tissue which contains the enzyme necessary for their final processing, i.e. peptidylglycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (EC 1.......14.17.3). The enzyme needs ascorbic acid for activity as well as copper and molecular oxygen. The present work shows that pancreatic islet cells prepared from overnight cultures of isolated islets from 5-7-day-old rats accumulate 14C-labelled ascorbic acid by a Na(+)-dependent active transport mechanism which involves...... contained a fairly low concentration of iron but a high concentration of copper....

  16. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K


    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  17. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed


    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...

  18. Zebularine induces long-term survival of pancreatic islet allotransplants in streptozotocin treated diabetic rats.

    Henrietta Nittby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coping with the immune rejection of allotransplants or autologous cells in patients with an active sensitization towards their autoantigens and autoimmunity presently necessitates life-long immune suppressive therapy acting on the immune system as a whole, which makes the patients vulnerable to infections and increases their risk of developing cancer. New technologies to induce antigen selective long-lasting immunosuppression or immune tolerance are therefore much needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA demethylating agent Zebularine, previously demonstrated to induce expression of the genes for the immunosuppressive enzymes indolamine-2,3-deoxygenase-1 (IDO1 and kynureninase of the kynurenine pathway, is tested for capacity to suppress rejection of allotransplants. Allogeneic pancreatic islets from Lewis rats were transplanted under the kidney capsule of Fischer rats previously made diabetic by a streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg. One group was treated with Zebularine (225 mg/kg daily for 14 days from day 6 or 8 after transplantation, and a control group received no further treatment. Survival of the transplants was monitored by blood sugar measurements. Rats, normoglycemic for 90 days after allografting, were subjected to transplant removal by nephrectomy to confirm whether normoglycemia was indeed due to a surviving insulin producing transplant, or alternatively was a result of recovery of pancreatic insulin production in some toxin-treated rats. Of 9 Zebularine treated rats, 4 were still normoglycemic after 90 days and became hyperglycemic after nephrectomy. The mean length of normoglycemia in the Zebularine group was 67±8 days as compared to 14±3 days in 9 controls. Seven rats (2 controls and 5 Zebularine treated were normoglycemic at 90 days due to pancreatic recovery as demonstrated by failure of nephrectomy to induce hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebularine treatment in vivo induces a long

  19. Facilitating effects of berberine on rat pancreatic islets through modulating hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha expression and glucokinase activity

    Zhi-Quan Wang; Fu-Er Lu; San-Hua Leng; Xin-Sheng Fang; Guang Chen; Zeng-Si Wang; Li-Ping Dong; Zhong-Qing Yan


    AIM: To observe the effect of berberine on insulin secretion in rat pancreatic islets and to explore its possible molecular mechanism.METHODS: Primary rat islets were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase digestion and treated with different concentrations (1, 3, 10 and 30 μmol/L) of berberine or 1 μmol/L Glibenclamide (GB) for 24 h. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assay was conducted and insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (NTT) assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity. The mRNA level of hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Indirect immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis were employed to detect protein expression of HNF4α in the islets. Glucokinase (GK) activity was measured by spectrophotometric method.RESULTS: Berberine enhanced GSIS rather than basal insulin secretion dose-dependently in rat islets and showed no significant cytotoxicity on islet cells at the concentration of 10 μmol/L. Both mRNA and protein expressions of HNF4α were up-regulated by berberine in a dose-dependent manner, and GK activity was also increased accordingly. However, GB demonstrated no regulatory effects on HNF4α expression or GK activity.CONCLUSION: Berberine can enhance GSIS in rat islets, and probably exerts the insulinotropic effect via a pathway involving HNF4α and GK, which is distinct from sulphonylureas (SUs).

  20. Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats


    Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats, hyperinsulinemia (1222 ± 98 pmol/1 vs. 128 ± 22 pmol/1 in lean Zucker rats) was accompanied by a significant incre...

  1. Nitric Oxide Overproduction Reduces Insulin Secretion from Isolated Islets in Fetal Hypothyroid Rats.

    Rouintan, Z; Farrokhfall, K; Karbalaei, N; Ghasemi, A


    Thyroid hormones have developmental effects during fetal life. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity. Activity of nitric oxide synthases follows a heterogeneous pattern in hypothyroidism. Overactivity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release. The aim of this study was to examine if reduction in insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroidism is due to overproduction of nitric oxide. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the experimental group consumed water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil till delivery, while the control group consumed tap water. After delivery serum thyroid hormones were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in 6-month old offspring (n=8). After 3 weeks recovery, pancreatic islets were isolated and insulin secretion, inducible and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity were measured (n=4). Compared to controls, during intravenous glucose tolerance test, fetal hypothyroid rats had high plasma glucose concentration (p=0.003) and low plasma insulin levels (p=0.012) at 5-20 min and their insulin secretion from isolated islets at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine was lower. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly improved insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine. The results showed higher NOS activities in fetal hypothyroid rats (constitutive 17.60±1.09 vs. 47.34±4.44 and inducible 4.09±0.96 vs. 19.97±1.14 pmol/min/mg proteins, p=0.002). In conclusion, NO overproduction through NOS participates in decreased insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats.

  2. Reversal of hyperglycemia in diabetic rats by portal vein transplantation of islet-like cells generated from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Xiao-Hong Wu; Chao Liu; Cui-Ping Liu; Kuan-Feng Xu; Xiao-Dong Mao; Jian Zhu; Jing-Jing Jiang; Dai Cui; Mei Zhang; Yu Xu


    AIM: To study the capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) trans-differentiating into islet-like cells and to observe the effect of portal vein transplantation of islet-like cells in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.METHODS: BM-MSCs were isolated from SD rats and induced to differentiate into islet-like cells under defined conditions. Differentiation was evaluated with electron microscopy, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Insulin release after glucose challenge was tested with ELISA. Then allogeneic islet-like cells were transplanted into diabetic rats via portal vein. Blood glucose levels were monitored and islet hormones were detected in the liver and pancreas of the recipient by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: BM-MSCs were spheroid adherent monolayers with high CD90, CD29 and very low CD45 expression.Typical islet-like cells clusters were formed after induction. Electron microscopy revealed that secretory granules were densely packed within the cytoplasm of the differentiated cells. The spheroid cells expressed islet related genes and hormones. The insulin-positive cells accounted for 19.8% and mean fluorescence intensity increased by 2.6 fold after induction. The cells secreted a small amount of insulin that was increased 1.5 fold after glucose challenge. After transplantation, islet-like cells could locate in the liver expressing islet hormones and lower the glucose levels of diabetic rats during d 6 to d 20.CONCLUSION: Rat BM-MSCs could be transdifferentiated into islet-like cells in vitro. Portal vein transplantation of islet-like cells could alleviate the hyperglycemia of diabetic rats.

  3. A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita


    Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats.

  4. Combined Microencapsulated Islet Transplantation and Revascularization of Aortorenal Bypass in a Diabetic Nephropathy Rat Model

    Yunqiang He


    Full Text Available Objective. Revascularization of aortorenal bypass is a preferred technique for renal artery stenosis (RAS in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Restenosis of graft vessels also should be considered in patients lacking good control of blood glucose. In this study, we explored a combined strategy to prevent the recurrence of RAS in the DN rat model. Methods. A model of DN was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were divided into 4 groups: SR group, MIT group, Com group, and the untreated group. The levels of blood glucose and urine protein were measured, and changes in renal pathology were observed. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in graft vessels was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Histopathological staining was performed to assess the pathological changes of glomeruli and tubules. Results. The levels of urine protein and the expression of MCP-1 in graft vessels were decreased after islet transplantation. The injury of glomerular basement membrane and podocytes was significantly ameliorated. Conclusions. The combined strategy of revascularization and microencapsulated islet transplantation had multiple protective effects on diabetic nephropathy, including preventing atherosclerosis in the graft vessels and alleviating injury to the glomerular filtration barrier. This combined strategy may be helpful for DN patients with RAS.

  5. Role and mechanism of rosiglitazone on the impairment of insulin secretion induced by free fatty acids on isolated rat islets


    Background Prolonged exposure of pancreatic β-cells to fatty acids increases basal insulin secretion but inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Rosiglitazone is a new antidiabetic agent of the thiazolidinediones. However, the relationship between thiazolidinediones and insulin secretion is highly controversial. The aim of this study is to explore the effect and mechanism of rosiglitazone on insulin secretion of islets under chronic exposure to free fatty acids (FFA).Methods Pancreatic islets were isolated from the pancreata of male Sprague-Dawley rats by the collagenase digestion and by the dextran gradient centrifugation method. The purified islets were cultured in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone and palmitate for 48 hours. The insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and insulin were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cell cytotoxicity assay was measured by cell counting kit-8. Results Islets exposed to elevated palmitate for 48 hours showed an increased basal and a decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (P<0.01). The mRNA level of UCP-2 was increased by 3.7 fold in the 0.5 mmol/L concentration of palmitate. When islets were cultured with palmitate (0.5 mmol/L) in the presence of rosiglitazone (1.0 μmol/L), both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion reversed to a pattern of control islets (P<0.05, P<0.01). The addition of rosiglitazone in the culture medium decreased the mRNA level of UCP-2 by 2.2 fold, having a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) as compared with islets cultured with palmitate alone. The cell viability was not affected. Conclusion The protective effects of rosiglitazone on insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets under chronic exposure to palmitate might be mediated through the downregulation of UCP-2 expression.

  6. Influence of heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer on the viability and function of rat islets in in vitro culture

    Xiao-Bo Chen; Yong-Xiang Li; Yang Jiao; Wei-Ping Dong; Ge Li; Jing Chen; Jian-Ming Tan


    AIM:To ifivestigate the influence of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)gene transfer on the viability and function of cultured rat islets in vitro.METHODS:Islets were isolated from the pancreata of Sprague-Dawley rats by intraductal collagenase digestion,and purified by discontinuous Ficoll density gradient centrifugation.Purified rat islets were transfected with adenoviral vectors containing human HO-1 gene(Ad-HO-1)or enhanced green fluorescent protein gene(Ad-EGFP),and then cultured for seven days.Transfection was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot.Islet viability was evaluated by acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining.Glucose-stimulated insulin release was detected using insulin radioimmunoassay kits and was used to assess the function of islets.Stimulation index (SI)was calculated by dividing the insulin release upon high glucose stimulation by the insulin release upon low glucose stimulation.RESULTS:After seven days culture,the viability of cultured rat islets decreased significantly(92% ± 6% vs 52% ± 13%,P < 0.05),and glucose-stimulated insulin release also decreased significantly(6.47 ± 0.55 mIU/L/30IEQ vs 4.57 ± 0.40 mIU/L/30IEQ,14.93 ± 1.17mIU/L/30IEQ vs 9.63 ± 0.71 mIU/L/30IEQ,P < 0.05).Transfection of rat Islets with adenoviral vectors at an MOI of 20 was efficient,and did not impair islet function.At 7 d post-transfection,the viability of Ad-HO-1 transfected islets was higher than that of control islets (71% ± 15% vs 52% ± 13%,P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in insulin release upon low glucose stimulation(2.8 mmol/L)among Ad-HO-1 transfected group,Ad-EGFP transfected group,and control group(P > 0.05),while when stimulated by high glucose(16.7 mmol/L)solution,insulin release in Ad-HO-1 transfected group was significantly higher than that in Ad-EGFP transfected group and control group,respectively(12.50 ± 2.17 mIU/L/30IEQ vs 8.87 ± 0.65 mIU/L/30IEQ;12.50 ± 2.17 mIU/L/30IEQ vs 9.63 ± 0.71 mIU/L/30IEQ

  7. Improvement in The Function of Isolated Rat Pancreatic Islets through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Using Traditional Iranian Medicine

    Mahban Rahimifard


    Full Text Available Objective: Pancreatic islets have fewer antioxidant enzymes than other tissues and thus are vulnerable to oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of nine specifically selected Iranian medical plants on the mitochondria function and survival of isolated rat islets were examined. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, following laparotomy, pancreases of rats were removed and the islets isolated and incubated in vitro for 24 hours. Logarithmic doses of plant materials were added to the islets and incubated for an additional 24 hours after which the viability of the cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured. Levels of insulin production in relation to static and stimulated glucose concentrations were also determined. Results: The tested compounds markedly increased survival of the islet cells, their mitochondrial activity, and insulin levels at the same time as reducing production of ROS. Greatest effects were observed in the following order: Peganum harmala, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Satureja hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Teucrium scordium, Aloe vera, Zingiber officinale, Silybum marianum, and Hypericum perforatum at doses of 10, 103, 104, 10, 102, 102, 10-1, 10 and 103 μgmL-1, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these results, we suggest that pretreatment with these selected Iranian medical plants can improve the outcomes of pancreas transplants and grafts through the control of oxidative stress damage.

  8. The role of calcium in intracellular pathways of rutin in rat pancreatic islets: potential insulin secretagogue effect.

    Kappel, Virginia D; Frederico, Marisa J S; Postal, Bárbara G; Mendes, Camila P; Cazarolli, Luisa H; Silva, Fátima R M B


    Rutin is a flavonol glycoside with multiple biological activities and it has been demonstrated that rutin modulates glucose homeostasis. In pancreatic β-cell, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration triggers exocytosis and thus insulin secretion. The aim of the study reported herein was to investigate the effect of rutin associated intracellular pathways on Ca(2+) uptake in isolated rat pancreatic islets. We focused on the acute effects of rutin on in vivo insulin secretion and the in vitro cellular signaling of pancreatic islets related to this effect. The results show that rutin significantly increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in an in vivo treatment. Moreover, it was demonstrated that rutin stimulated Ca(2+) uptake after 10 min of incubation compared with the respective control group. The involvement of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCCs) was evidenced using nifedipine, while the use of glibenclamide and diazoxide demonstrated that the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are not involved in the rutin action in pancreatic islets. In conclusion, rutin diminish glycemia, potentiate insulin secretion in vivo and significantly stimulates Ca(2+) uptake in rat pancreatic islets. A novel cellular mechanism of action of rutin in Ca(2+) uptake on pancreatic β-cells was elucidated. Rutin modulates Ca(2+) uptake in pancreatic islets by opening L-VDCCs, alter intracellular Ca(2+), PLC and PKC signaling pathways, characterizing KATP channel-independent pathways. These findings highlight rutin, a dietary adjuvant, as a potential insulin secretagogue contributing to glucose homeostasis.

  9. IL-1beta induced protein changes in diabetes prone BB rat islets of Langerhans identified by proteome analysis

    Sparre, T; Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Mose Larsen, P;


    of 82 out of 1 815 protein spots detected by two dimensional gel electrophoresis in IL-1beta exposed diabetes prone Bio Breeding (BB-DP) rat islets of Langerhans in vitro. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins in these 82 spots by mass spectrometry and compare these changes with those seen...

  10. Effects of low intensity laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    Xiong, Guoxin; Xiong, Leilei; Li, Xinzhong


    To investigate the effects of low intensity semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes, a method using a high-fat diet and low-dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin established a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model. Model rats were randomly divided into a laser acupoint irradiation group, rosiglitazone control group, and placebo group; each group had 10 rats. In addition, 10 normal male rats were selected for the normal control group. The Housanli, Neiting and Yishu acupoints of the rats in the laser acupoint irradiation group were irradiated with a 10 mW semiconductor laser; each point was irradiated for 15 min, once every 2 d over 28 d, for a total of 14 episodes of irradiation. The rosiglitazone group rats were given rosiglitazone (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically; the placebo group rats were given 0.9% brine (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically, once daily, for four consecutive weeks. The change of fasting blood glucose was determined before and after each treatment. The islet beta-cell apoptosis was determined. The islet beta-cell apoptosis rates of the laser acupoint irradiation group and the rosiglitazone group were significantly lower than the rate of the placebo group. Even though the rate was lower in the laser acupoint irradiation group than in the rosiglitazone group, there was no significant difference between them. It is shown that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can effectively inhibit islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Identification of the ectonucleotidases expressed in mouse, rat, and human Langerhans islets: potential role of NTPDase3 in insulin secretion.

    Lavoie, Elise G; Fausther, Michel; Kauffenstein, Gilles; Kukulski, Filip; Künzli, Beat M; Friess, Helmut; Sévigny, Jean


    Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine regulate endocrine pancreatic functions such as insulin secretion by Langerhans islet β-cells via the activation of specific P2 and P1 receptors. Membrane-bound ectonucleotidases regulate the local concentration of these ligands and consequently control the activation of their receptors. The objective of this study was to identify and localize the major ectonucleotidases, namely NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase, present in the endocrine pancreas. In addition, the potential implication of ecto-ATPase activity on insulin secretion was investigated in the rat β-cell line INS-1 (832/13). The localization of ectonucleotidase activity and protein was carried out in situ by enzyme histochemistry and immunolocalization in mouse, rat, and human pancreas sections. NTPDase1 was localized in all blood vessels and acini, and NTPDase2 was localized in capillaries of Langerhans islets and in peripheral conjunctive tissue, whereas NTPDase3 was detected in all Langerhans islet cell types. Interestingly, among the mammalian species tested, ecto-5'-nucleotidase was present only in rat Langerhans islet cells, where it was coexpressed with NTPDase3. Notably, the inhibition of NTPDase3 activity by BG0136 and NF279 facilitated insulin release from INS-1 (832/13) cells under conditions of low glycemia, probably by affecting P2 receptor activation. NTPDase3 activity also regulated the inhibitory effect of exogenous ATP in the presence of a high glucose concentration most likely by controlling adenosine production. In conclusion, all pancreatic endocrine cells express NTPDase3 that was shown to modulate insulin secretion in rat INS-1 (832/13) β-cells. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase is expressed in rat Langerhans islet cells but absent in human and mouse endocrine cells.

  12. Expression of stem cell markers CK-19 and PDX-1 mRNA in pancreatic islet samples of different purity from rats

    Chuang Yang; Ji-Ming Wang; Cheng-You Du; Dong Xue


    BACKGROUND:Islet stem cells are more or less retained in the procedure of islet isolation and puriifcation, and are transplanted together with islet grafts. Keratoprotein (CK-19) and pancreatic duodenal hox gene 1 (PDX-1) are markers of stem cells. This study was undertaken to examine the expression of these markers in pancreatic islet samples of different purity from rats. METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups to undergo perfusion with V-type collagenase via the pancreatic duct, then the pancreas was excised, diced, shaken, digested and centrifuged to obtain islet sediments. The sediment from group A was not puriifed, while that from group B was puriifed with 25% Ficoll-400 and that from group C with 25% and 11% Ficoll-400. RNA was extracted from the different islet samples for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of the pancreatic stem cell markers CK-19 and PDX-1 was assessed. RESULTS:The purity of islets in samples was (43.6±6.29)%in group A;(65.3±4.40)%in group B;and (77.6±6.36)%in group C (P CONCLUSION:The expression of CK-19 and PDX-1 mRNA in islet samples of different purity suggests the presence of stem cells in all islet samples.

  13. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Bhattacharjee Ankita


    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  14. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab


    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  15. Supravital dithizone staining in the isolation of human and rat pancreatic islets

    Hansen, W A; Christie, M R; Kahn, R


    Dithizone, a zinc chelating agent, is known to selectively stain the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In the present study, we have used this stain to aid the identification of islets in material obtained by collagenase digestion of human pancreas. Islets were shown to rapidly and reversibly...... techniques for the large scale isolation of functionally intact human islets.......Dithizone, a zinc chelating agent, is known to selectively stain the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In the present study, we have used this stain to aid the identification of islets in material obtained by collagenase digestion of human pancreas. Islets were shown to rapidly and reversibly...... no effect on insulin release in tissue culture, on acute responses to stimulatory glucose concentrations or on the insulin content of cells. These results suggest that dithizone staining can assist in the identification of islets from the human pancreas and may prove to be a useful tool in developing...

  16. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats



    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6% for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1 and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2 was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  17. The Efficacy of Intraperitoneal Pancreatic Islet Isografts in the Reversal of Diabetes in Rats

    Fritschy, Wilbert M.; Straaten, Jeanette F.M. van; Vos, Paul de; Strubbe, Jan H.; Wolters, Gerrit H.J.; Schilfgaarde, Reinout van


    The peritoneal cavity is of renewed interest for pancreatic islet transplantation, since it is the preferable site for transplantation of immunoisolated islets. In this study we investigated the minimum islet graft volume needed to restore normoglycemia after free intraperitoneal isogenic transplant

  18. Histone deacetylases 1 and 3 but not 2 mediate cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis in INS-1 cells and dispersed primary islets from rats and are differentially regulated in the islets of type 1 diabetic children

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Damgaard Nielsen, M


    of HDAC1, -2 and -3 rescued INS-1 cells from inflammatory damage. Small hairpin RNAs against HDAC1 and -3, but not HDAC2, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis in INS-1 and primary rat islets. The protective properties of specific HDAC knock-down correlated with attenuated cytokine-induced......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising pharmacological targets in cancer and autoimmune diseases. All 11 classical HDACs (HDAC1-11) are found in the pancreatic beta cell, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) protect beta cells from inflammatory insults. We investigated which HDACs...... mediate inflammatory beta cell damage and how the islet content of these HDACs is regulated in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The rat beta cell line INS-1 and dispersed primary islets from rats, either wild type or HDAC1-3 deficient, were exposed to cytokines and HDACi. Molecular mechanisms were...

  19. Genetically obese rats with (SHR/N-cp) and without diabetes (LA/N-cp) share abnormal islet responses to glucose.

    Timmers, K I; Voyles, N R; Recant, L


    To assess the effect of hyperglycemia on the function of islets obtained from obese rats, the behavior of isolated islets from LA/N-corpulent (nondiabetic obese) and SHR/N-corpulent (diabetic obese) male rats was examined and compared. Islets from both genetic models showed a left-shifted glucose dose-response curve for insulin release (concentrations for half-maximal release, 5 to 6 mmol/L v 12 to 13 mmol/L in LA/N lean littermates and 3 mmol/L v 10 mmol/L in lean SHR/N). When insulin release was expressed per unit islet volume, the fourfold to fivefold enlarged islets from both obese diabetic and obese nondiabetic rats showed decreased insulin secretory response in high (16.5 to 28 mmol/L) glucose concentrations, although the decrease was more severe in the diabetic rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin release by islets from both models was relatively resistant to inhibition by 1.2 mmol/L mannoheptulose (eg, 82% +/- 3% inhibition in LA/N lean v 16% +/- 8% in LA/N obese), although nearly complete inhibition was observed with 16 mmol/L mannoheptulose (96% v 85%, NS). Islets of obese diabetic rats were also resistant to the calcium-channel blocker, verapamil, suggesting an abnormal pathway of stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose. Glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide was increased in both obese models at all glucose concentrations when expressed per islet. In data expressed per unit volume, the larger islets from the obese-nondiabetic rats showed a left-shifted dose-response curve with an unchanged maximum rate of glucose oxidation at high (16.5 mmol/L) glucose concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The efficacy of an immunoisolating membrane system for islet xenotransplantation in minipigs.

    Tova Neufeld

    Full Text Available Developing a device that protects xenogeneic islets to allow treatment and potentially cure of diabetes in large mammals has been a major challenge in the past decade. Using xenogeneic islets for transplantation is required in light of donor shortage and the large number of diabetic patients that qualify for islet transplantation. Until now, however, host immunoreactivity against the xenogeneic graft has been a major drawback for the use of porcine islets. Our study demonstrates the applicability of a novel immunoprotective membrane that allows successful xenotransplantation of rat islets in diabetic minipigs without immunosuppressive therapy. Rat pancreatic islets were encapsulated in highly purified alginate and integrated into a plastic macrochamber covered by a poly-membrane for subcutaneous transplantation. Diabetic Sinclair pigs were transplanted and followed for up to 90 days. We demonstrated a persistent graft function and restoration of normoglycemia without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. This concept could potentially offer an attractive strategy for a more widespread islet replacement therapy that would restore endogenous insulin secretion in diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and may even open up an avenue for safe utilization of xenogeneic islet donors.

  1. Pancreatic islet function in omega-3 fatty acid-depleted rats : Alteration of calcium fluxes and calcium-dependent insulin release

    Zhang, Ying; Oguzhan, Berrin; Louchami, Karim; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Portois, Laurence; Carpentier, Yvon; Malaisse, Willy-Jean; Herchuelz, André; Sener, Abdullah


    Considering the insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids often prevailing in Western populations, this report deals mainly with alterations of Ca2+ fluxes and Ca2+-dependent insulin secretory events in isolated pancreatic islets from omega-3-depleted rats. In terms of Ca-45(2+) handling, the islets from omega-3-depleted rats, compared with those from normal animals, displayed an unaltered responsiveness to an increase in extracellular K+ concentration, a lower inf...

  2. Maternal low-protein diet alters pancreatic islet mitochondrial function in a sex-specific manner in the adult rat.

    Theys, Nicolas; Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Ahn, Marie-Thérèse; Remacle, Claude; Reusens, Brigitte


    Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a long-term consequence of a poor nutritional environment during early life. Our aim was to investigate whether a maternal low-protein (LP) diet may program mitochondrial dysfunction in islets of adult progeny before glucose intolerance ensues. To address this, pregnant Wistar rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 20% protein (control) or 8% protein (LP diet) throughout gestation. From birth, offspring received the control diet. The mitochondrial function was analyzed in islets of 3-mo-old offspring. Related to their basal insulin release, cultured islets from both male and female LP offspring presented a lower response to glucose challenge and a blunted ATP production compared with control offspring. The expression of malate dehydrogenase as well as the subunit 6 of the ATP synthase encoded by mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was lower in these islets, reducing the capacity of ATP production through the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. However, mtDNA content was unchanged in LP islets compared with control. Several consequences of protein restriction during fetal life were more marked in male offspring. Only LP males showed an increased reactive oxygen species production associated with a higher expression of mitochondrial subunits of the electron transport chain NADH-ubiquinone oxireductase subunit 4L, an overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and uncoupling protein-2, and a strongly reduced beta-cell mass. In conclusion, mitochondrial function is clearly altered in islets from LP adult offspring in a sex-specific manner. That may provide a cellular explanation for the earlier development of glucose intolerance in male than in female offspring of dams fed an LP diet.

  3. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaf on histological changes of Langerhans islet in diabetic rats model

    Jamshid Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that the Juglans regia leaves have hypoglycemic, diuretic and blood pressure reduction properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the histopathology effects of Juglans regia leaves on diabetes mellitus in rats. Material and Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats (150- 200 g were randomized into six groups of 8 animals. Groups III, IV, V and VI received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to make diabetic model. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer after 72 hours. After 10 days, Group II, IV and V received 400, 200 and 400 mg/kg Juglans regia extract, respectively and group VI treated with 4 mg/kg glybenclamid for four weeks. Group I were fed with normal diet and group III received distilled water (diabetic control. The body weight and blood glucose were measured in every week. The number of β cells and diameter of islets of Langerhans were determined using hematoxylin-floxin staining. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of β cells and diameter of islets decreased significantly in diabetic control compare to the normal group. Treatment with 400 mg/kg of Juglans regia extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, a significant increase in diameter of islets and number of β cells compared to diabetic control group. The pancreas / body weight ratio increased in diabetic rats compare to the treatment group. Conclusion: The administration of Juglans regia extract can cause recovery of β cells number and improve the size of islets of Langerhans in diabetic model rats.

  4. Oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid directs the metabolism of GABA into the Krebs cycle in rat pancreatic islets.

    Hernández-Fisac, Inés; Fernández-Pascual, Sergio; Ortsäter, Henrik; Pizarro-Delgado, Javier; Martín del Río, Rafael; Bergsten, Peter; Tamarit-Rodriguez, Jorge


    OMP (oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid) stimulates by itself a biphasic secretion of insulin whereas L-leucine requires the presence of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine is predominantly converted into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in rat islets and L-leucine seems to promote its metabolism in the 'GABA shunt' [Fernández-Pascual, Mukala-Nsengu-Tshibangu, Martín del Río and Tamarit-Rodríguez (2004) Biochem. J. 379, 721-729]. In the present study, we have investigated how 10 mM OMP affects L-glutamine metabolism to uncover possible differences with L-leucine that might help to elucidate whether they share a common mechanism of stimulation of insulin secretion. In contrast with L-leucine, OMP alone stimulated a biphasic insulin secretion in rat perifused islets and decreased the islet content of GABA without modifying its extracellular release irrespective of the concentration of L-glutamine in the medium. GABA was transaminated to L-leucine whose intracellular concentration did not change because it was efficiently transported out of the islet cells. The L-[U-14C]-Glutamine (at 0.5 and 10.0 mM) conversion to 14CO2 was enhanced by 10 mM OMP within 30% and 70% respectively. Gabaculine (250 microM), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, suppressed OMP-induced oxygen consumption but not L-leucine- or glucose-stimulated respiration. It also suppressed the OMP-induced decrease in islet GABA content and the OMP-induced increase in insulin release. These results support the view that OMP promotes islet metabolism in the 'GABA shunt' generating 2-oxo-glutarate, in the branched-chain alpha-amino acid transaminase reaction, which would in turn trigger GABA deamination by GABA transaminase. OMP, but not L-leucine, suppressed islet semialdehyde succinic acid reductase activity and this might shift the metabolic flux of the 'GABA shunt' from gamma-hydroxybutyrate to succinic acid production.

  5. Effects of mycophenolate mofetil vs cyclosporine administration on graft survival and function after islet allotransplantation in diabetic rats

    Constantin Fotiadis; Paraskevi Xekouki; Apostolos E Papalois; Pantelis T Antonakis; Ioannis Sfiniadakis; Dimitrios Flogeras; Eleutheria Karampela; George Zografos


    AIM: To develop an experimental model of islet allotransplantation in diabetic rats and to determine the positive or adverse effects of MMF as a single agent. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats and 18 male Lewis rats were used as recipients and donors respectively. Diabetes was induced by the use of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Unpurified islets were isolated using the collagenase digestion technique and transplanted into the splenic parenchyma. The recipients were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: group A (control group) had no immunosuppression; group B received cyclosporine (CsA) (5 mg/kg); group C receivedmycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (20 mg/kg). The animalswere killed on the 12th d. Blood and grafted tissues were obtained for laboratory and histological assessment. RESULTS: Median allograft survival was significantly higher in the two therapy groups than that in the controls (10 and 12 d for CsA and MMF respectively vs 0 d for the control group, P<0.01). No difference in allograft survival between the CsA and MMF groups was found. However,MMF had less renal and hepatic toxicity and allowed weight gain.CONCLUSION: Monotherapy with MMF for immunosu ppression was safe in an experimental model of islet allotransplantation and was equally effective with cyclosporine, with less toxicity.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor I reverses interleukin-1beta inhibition of insulin secretion, induction of nitric oxide synthase and cytokine-mediated apoptosis in rat islets of Langerhans.

    Mabley, J G; Belin, V; John, N; Green, I C


    We have previously observed that treatment of rat islets of Langerhans with interleukin-1beta for 12 h results in nitric oxide-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion, while 48 h treatment increased rates of islet cell death by apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that interleukin-1beta-mediated nitric oxide formation and inhibition of insulin secretion are significantly reduced by 24 h pretreatment of rat islets of Langerhans with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I decreased cytokine induction of nitric oxide synthase in islets. Use of an arginine analogue in culture or IGF-I pretreatment of islets were also effective in protecting islets against cytokine-mediated apoptotic cell death. We conclude that IGF-I antagonises inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of cytokines in rat islets.

  7. [Multiple hepatic cysts in rat rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by islets of Langerhans grafts: the role of streptozotocin].

    Viatettes, B; Barrat, E; Lassmann, V; Guidon, J; Altomare, E; Simon, C; Vague, P


    This study is based on the investigation by light and electron microscopy of hepatic biopsies from 14 rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by portal embolization of islets of Langerhans. Macroscopically, voluminous projecting cysts were observed, sometimes occupying a whole lobe. By light microscopy, the cysts were lined with canalicular-type epithelium. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the canalicular nature of these cells and cilia were frequently observed. The presence of identical cysts in rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin but not treated by embolization proves that this product is the agent responsible for the induction of this adenomatosis.

  8. An imidazoline compound completely counteracts interleukin-1[beta] toxic effects to rat pancreatic islet [beta] cells

    Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Pisanti, Francesco A


    In vitro studies have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-1beta decreases insulin and DNA contents in pancreatic islet beta cells, causing structural damage, that it is toxic to cultured human islet beta cells and that it is able to induce apoptosis in these cells....

  9. The experimental study of polyelectrolyte coatings suitability for encapsulation of cells.

    Granicka, L H; Antosiak-Iwańska, M; Godlewska, E; Hoser, G; Strawski, M; Szklarczyk, M; Dudziński, K


    Living cells encapsulated in polymeric shells are receiving increasing attention because of their possible biotechnological and biomedical applications. The aim of this work is to evaluate how different polyelectrolyte coatings, characterized by different numbers of polyelectrolyte layers and by different polyelectrolyte conformations, affect the viability of encapsulated biological material. We demonstrate the ability to individually encapsulate HL-60 cells as well as rat pancreatic islets within polymeric shells consisting of different PE layers using the layer-by-layer process. Coating of HL-60 cells allows for surviving and functioning of cells for all applied PE as well as for different numbers of layers. The islets encapsulated in applied polyelectrolytes exhibited the lower level of mitochondrial activity as compared to non-encapsulated islets. Nevertheless, encapsulated islets exhibited comparable absorbance values during the whole period of culture. Polyelectrolyte coating seems to be a promising way of allowing capsule void volume minimization in a model of encapsulated biological material for local production of biologically active substances.

  10. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    Lucie Kosinová

    Full Text Available The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3 in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information

  11. Cooperation by fibroblasts and bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells to improve pancreatic rat-to-mouse islet xenotransplantation.

    Marcos Perez-Basterrechea

    Full Text Available Experimental and clinical experiences highlight the need to review some aspects of islet transplantation, especially with regard to site of grafting and control of the immune response. The subcutaneous space could be a good alternative to liver but its sparse vasculature is its main limitation. Induction of graft tolerance by using cells with immunoregulatory properties is a promising approach to avoid graft rejection. Both Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs have shown pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of islets into the subcutaneous space using plasma as scaffold and supplemented with fibroblasts and/or Bone Marrow-MSCs could be a promising strategy to achieve a functional extra-hepatic islet graft, without using immunosuppressive drugs. Xenogenic rat islets, autologous fibroblasts and/or allogenic BM-MSCs, were mixed with plasma, and coagulation was induced to constitute a Plasma-based Scaffold containing Islets (PSI, which was transplanted subcutaneously both in immunodeficient and immunocompetent diabetic mice. In immunodeficient diabetic mice, PSI itself allowed hyperglycemia reversion temporarily, but the presence of pro-angiogenic cells (fibroblasts or BM-MSCs within PSI was necessary to improve graft re-vascularization and, thus, consistently maintain normoglycemia. In immunocompetent diabetic mice, only PSI containing BM-MSCs, but not those containing fibroblasts, normalized glycemia lasting up to one week after transplantation. Interestingly, when PSI contained both fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, the normoglycemia period showed an increase of 4-times with a physiological-like response in functional tests. Histology of immunocompetent mice showed an attenuation of the immune response in those grafts with BM-MSCs, which was improved by co-transplantation with fibroblasts, since they increased BM-MSC survival. In summary, fibroblasts and BM-MSCs showed similar pro-angiogenic properties in this model of

  12. Differential sensitivity to beta-cell secretagogues in cultured rat pancreatic islets exposed to human interleukin-1 beta.

    Eizirik, D L; Sandler, S; Hallberg, A; Bendtzen, K; Sener, A; Malaisse, W J


    The early stages of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are characterized by a selective inability to secrete insulin in response to glucose, coupled to a better response to nonnutrient secretagogues. The deficient glucose response may be a result of the autoimmune process directed toward the beta-cells. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been suggested to be one possible mediator of immunological damage of the beta-cells. In the present study we characterized the sensitivity of beta-cells to different secretagogues after human recombinant IL-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) exposure. Furthermore, experiments were performed to clarify the biochemical mechanisms behind the defective insulin response observed in these islets. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and kept in tissue culture (medium RPMI-1640 plus 10% calf serum) for 5 days. The islets were subsequently exposed to 60 pM human recombinant IL-1 beta during 48 h in the same culture conditions as above and examined immediately after IL-1 exposure. The rIL-1 beta-treated islets showed a marked reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Stimulation with arginine plus different glucose concentrations, and leucine plus glutamine partially counteracted the rIL-1 beta-induced reduction of insulin release. The activities of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, glucokinase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were similar in control and IL-1-exposed islets. Treatment with IL-1 also did not impair the activities of NADH+- and NADPH+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-aspartate transaminase, glutamate-alanine transaminase, citrate synthase, and NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase. The oxidation of D-[6-14C]glucose and L-[U-14C]leucine were decreased by 50% in IL-1-treated islets. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the ratios of [2-14C]pyruvate oxidation/[1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation and L-[U-14C]leucine oxidation/L-[1-14C]leucine decarboxylation, indicating that IL-1 decreases the proportion of

  13. Cooperation by Fibroblasts and Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Improve Pancreatic Rat-to-Mouse Islet Xenotransplantation

    Meana, Alvaro; Otero, Jesus; Esteban, Manuel M.


    Experimental and clinical experiences highlight the need to review some aspects of islet transplantation, especially with regard to site of grafting and control of the immune response. The subcutaneous space could be a good alternative to liver but its sparse vasculature is its main limitation. Induction of graft tolerance by using cells with immunoregulatory properties is a promising approach to avoid graft rejection. Both Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have shown pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of islets into the subcutaneous space using plasma as scaffold and supplemented with fibroblasts and/or Bone Marrow-MSCs could be a promising strategy to achieve a functional extra-hepatic islet graft, without using immunosuppressive drugs. Xenogenic rat islets, autologous fibroblasts and/or allogenic BM-MSCs, were mixed with plasma, and coagulation was induced to constitute a Plasma-based Scaffold containing Islets (PSI), which was transplanted subcutaneously both in immunodeficient and immunocompetent diabetic mice. In immunodeficient diabetic mice, PSI itself allowed hyperglycemia reversion temporarily, but the presence of pro-angiogenic cells (fibroblasts or BM-MSCs) within PSI was necessary to improve graft re-vascularization and, thus, consistently maintain normoglycemia. In immunocompetent diabetic mice, only PSI containing BM-MSCs, but not those containing fibroblasts, normalized glycemia lasting up to one week after transplantation. Interestingly, when PSI contained both fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, the normoglycemia period showed an increase of 4-times with a physiological-like response in functional tests. Histology of immunocompetent mice showed an attenuation of the immune response in those grafts with BM-MSCs, which was improved by co-transplantation with fibroblasts, since they increased BM-MSC survival. In summary, fibroblasts and BM-MSCs showed similar pro-angiogenic properties in this model of islet

  14. A Study of the Effects of Electromagnetic Field on Islets of Langerhans and Insulin Release in Rats

    Khaki Amir Afshin


    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays, modern technologies are increasingly used in domestic industries, home appliances, and cell phones. This has highlighted the necessity of protecting human beings from the impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMFs as a new challenge. Therefore, the present study aimed to find out what impacts EMFs have on the structure of Langerhans Islets and the insulin secretion levels in rat. Materials and Methods: Fourteen 12-week-old male rats were selected randomly: 5 as a control group and 9 as an experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to an EMF produced by an electromagnetic device, with a frequency of 50 Hz and intensity of 3 mT 4 h a day for 6 weeks. At the end of the 6 weeks, blood and pancreas tissue samples were taken for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and preparation for microscopic studies. Results: Results showed that in EMF exposed group insulin level was decreased (P < 0.05, which was associated with decreased area and perimeter of pancreatic islets (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Exposure to EMF impacts insulin secretion by influencing the size of pancreatic islets.

  15. Non-invasive imaging of ferucarbotran labeled INS-1E cells and rodent islets in vitro and in transplanted diabetic rats.

    Auer, Veronika J; Bucher, Julian; Schremmer-Danninger, Elisabeth; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Maechler, Pierre; Reiser, Maximilian F; Stangl, Manfred J; Berger, Frank


    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is a promising strategy for restoring insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus. To monitor transplanted islets, a method to evaluate the distribution in a non-invasive manner in vivo is needed. INS-1E, a stable differentiated insulin secreting cell line, and rodent islets were used to monitor cell transplantation by MRI. For labeling INS-1E cells in vitro, increasing concentrations of Resovist in culture medium were tested. For MR imaging in a clinical 3T scanner, we placed a layer of labeled INS-1E cells between two layers of 4% gelatin. Viability assay was performed. Cell function was evaluated by static incubation assay to assess insulin secretion. For in vivo imaging, iron labeled rodent islets were transplanted into the liver of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and visualized by MRI. Blood sugar values were controlled and liver tissue was removed for histological analysis. SPIO labeled INS-1E cells did not show altered viability or reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Double staining of labeled and unlabeled INS-1E cells showed no difference in the staining pattern. Labeling of rodent islets with SPIOs does not reduce their secretory activity or alter their viability. We visualized SPIO-labeled INS-1E cells and rat islets in vitro using a clinical 3T scanner. Diabetic rats transplanted with SPIO-labeled islets became normoglycemic. MR imaging successfully verified the distribution of labeled transplanted cells in vivo. Labeling INS-1E cells and rat islets with SPIOs does not alter their viability, while enabling MR imaging of labeled cells in vitro and within the living organism.

  16. Measurements of oxygen tension in native and transplanted rat pancreatic islets.

    Carlsson, P O; Liss, P; Andersson, A; Jansson, L


    This study was performed to measure the oxygen tension before and after revascularization of pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the renal capsule and to investigate to what extent this was affected by acute and chronic hyperglycemia. In addition, the oxygen tension in islets within the pancreas was determined. PO2 was measured with a modified Clark electrode (tip 2-6 microm o.d.). Within native pancreatic islets, the mean PO2 was higher (31-37 mmHg) than within the exocrine pancreas (20-23 mmHg). The mean oxygen tension in the transplanted islets the day after implantation was half of that recorded in native islets (14-19 mmHg) and did not differ between normoglycemic and diabetic recipients. At 1 month after transplantation, when revascularization had occurred, the mean PO2 in the islet grafts was 9-15 mmHgf in normoglycemic animals but was lower (6-8 mmHg) in diabetic animals, whereas the blood perfusion of the transplants, as measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry (probe diameter 0.45 mm), was similar in both groups. The mean oxygen tension in the superficial renal cortex surrounding the implanted islets was similar in all groups and remained stable at 13-21 mmHg. Intravenous administration of D-glucose (1 g/kg) did not affect the oxygen tension in any of the investigated tissues. We conclude that the mean PO2 in islets implanted under the renal capsule is markedly lower than in native islets, not only in the immediate posttransplantation period but also 1 month after implantation, i.e., when revascularization has occurred. Furthermore, persistent hyperglycemia in the recipient leads to a further decrease in graft oxygen tension. To what extent this may contribute to islet graft failure is at present unknown.

  17. Cationic and secretory effects of glimepiride and glibenclamide in perifused rat islets

    Lebrun, P.; Malaisse, W.J. (Laboratories of Pharmacology and Experimental Medicine, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium))


    The effects of glimepiride and glibenclamide upon [sup 86]Rb outflow, [sup 45]Ca outflow and insulin release were examined in rat islets perfused at low (zero to 2.8 mM) or close-to-normal (8.3 mM) D- glucose concentrations. At the low hexose concentrations, a marked and not reversible decrease in [sup 86]Rb outflow contrasted with a rapid and reversible increase in [sup 45]Ca outflow. The latter increase was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca[sup 2+], and was not associated with any pronounced stimulation of insulin release. Inversely, in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose, a comparable increase in [sup 45]Ca efflux now coincided with an increase in [sup 86]Rb efflux and a marked and not reversible stimulation of insulin release. Whether in terms of the time course or glucose dependency of the cationic and secretory responses, a coupled increase in both [sup 40]Ca inflow and [sup 45]Ca outflow thus coincided with either negative or positive changes in [sup 86]Rb outflow and either minimal or marked changes in insulin output. Such dissociated behaviors suggest that the insulinotropic action of hypoglycemic sulfonylureas is not necessarily attributable solely to a primary decrease in K[sup +] conductance. (au).

  18. Leptin Regulated Insulin Secretion via Stimulating IRS2-associated Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Activity in the isolated Rat Pancreatic Islets

    袁莉; 安汉祥; 李卓娅; 邓秀玲


    To investigate the molecular mechanism of leptin regulating insulin secretion through determining the regulation of insulin secretion and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by leptin in the isolated rat pancreatic islets, pancreatic islets were isolated from male SD rats by the collagenase method. The purified islets were incubated with leptin 2 nmol/L for 1 h in the presence of 5.6 mmol/L or 11.1 mmol/L glucose. Insulin release was measured using radioimmunoassay. IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K was determined by immunoprecipitate assay and Western blot. The results showed that in the presence of 5.6 mmol/L glucose, leptin had no significant effect on both insulin secretion and IRS-2-associated PI3K activity, but in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose, insulin release was significantly inhibited after the islets were exposed to leptin for 1 h (P<0. 01). PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked the inhibitory regulation of leptin on insulin release (P<0. 05). Western Blot assay revealed that 2 nmol/L leptin could significantly increase the IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K by 51.5 % (P<0. 05) in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose. It was concluded that Leptin could significantly inhibit insulin secretion in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose by stimulating IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K, which might be the molecular mechanism of leptin regulating insulin secretion.

  19. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail:


    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  20. Reduction of reactive oxygen species ameliorates metabolism-secretion coupling in islets of diabetic GK rats by suppressing lactate overproduction.

    Sasaki, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Sato, Yuichi; Nishi, Yuichi; Mukai, Eri; Yamano, Gen; Sato, Hiroki; Tahara, Yumiko; Ogura, Kasane; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Inagaki, Nobuya


    We previously demonstrated that impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion (IS) and ATP elevation in islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese model of diabetes, were significantly restored by 30-60-min suppression of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a longer (12 h) suppression of ROS on metabolism-secretion coupling in β-cells by exposure to tempol, a superoxide (O2(-)) dismutase mimic, plus ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic (TE treatment). In GK islets, both H2O2 and O2(-) were sufficiently reduced and glucose-induced IS and ATP elevation were improved by TE treatment. Glucose oxidation, an indicator of Krebs cycle velocity, also was improved by TE treatment at high glucose, whereas glucokinase activity, which determines glycolytic velocity, was not affected. Lactate production was markedly increased in GK islets, and TE treatment reduced lactate production and protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). These results indicate that the Warburg-like effect, which is characteristic of aerobic metabolism in cancer cells by which lactate is overproduced with reduced linking to mitochondria metabolism, plays an important role in impaired metabolism-secretion coupling in diabetic β-cells and suggest that ROS reduction can improve mitochondrial metabolism by suppressing lactate overproduction through the inhibition of HIF1α stabilization.

  1. Oxidation of D-[U-(14)C] glucose and [1,12-(14)C] dodecanedioic acid by pancreatic islets from Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Malaisse, W J; Doherty, M; Ladrière, L; Greco, A V; Mingrone, G


    In pancreatic islets from hereditarily diabetic GK rats, [1,12 -(14)C] dodecanedioic acid (5.0 mM) was oxidized at a rate representing about 5 % of that of D-[U - (14)C] glucose (8.3 mM). Dioic acid and hexose failed to exert any significant reciprocal effects on their respective oxidation. The production of (14)CO(2) from [1,12 -(14)C] dodecanedioic acid was proportional to its concentration in the 0.2 - 5.0 mM range. These results were essentially comparable to those obtained in islets from control rats. They extend, therefore, to GK rats the knowledge that dodecanedioic acid acts as a nutrient in pancreatic islet cells.

  2. The effect of ghrelin on Kiss-1 and KissR gene transcription and insulin secretion in rat islets of Langerhans and CRI-D2 cell line

    Mandana Mahmoodzaeh Sagheb


    Full Text Available Objective(s: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been shown to have numerous central and peripheral effects. The central effects including GH secretion, food intake, and energy homeostasis are partly mediated by Kiss1- KissR signaling pathway. Ghrelin and its receptor are also expressed in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin is one of the key metabolic factors controlling insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on KiSS-1 and KissR in the islet cells may be similar to the same inhibitory effect of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Materials and Methods: To investigate the effect of ghrelin, we isolated the islets from adult male rats by collagenase and cultured CRI-D2 cell lines. Then, we incubated them with different concentrations of ghrelin for 24 hr. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from both islets and CRI-D2 cells, the relative expression of KiSS-1 and KissR was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Furthermore, we measured the amount of insulin secreted by the islets after incubation in different concentrations of ghrelin and glucose after 1 hr. Besides, we checked the viability of the cells after 24 hr cultivation.  Results: Ghrelin significantly decreased the KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA transcription in rat islets and CRI-D2 cells. Besides, Ghrelin suppressed insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and CRI-D2 cells. Conclusion: These findings indicate the possibility that KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA expression is mediator of ghrelin function in the islets of Langerhans.

  3. The effect of ghrelin on Kiss-1 and KissR gene transcription and insulin secretion in rat islets of Langerhans and CRI-D2 cell line

    Sagheb, Mandana Mahmoodzaeh; Azarpira, Negar; Mokhtary, Mokhtar


    Objective(s): Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been shown to have numerous central and peripheral effects. The central effects including GH secretion, food intake, and energy homeostasis are partly mediated by Kiss1- KissR signaling pathway. Ghrelin and its receptor are also expressed in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin is one of the key metabolic factors controlling insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on KiSS-1 and KissR in the islet cells may be similar to the same inhibitory effect of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Materials and Methods: To investigate the effect of ghrelin, we isolated the islets from adult male rats by collagenase and cultured CRI-D2 cell lines. Then, we incubated them with different concentrations of ghrelin for 24 hr. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from both islets and CRI-D2 cells, the relative expression of KiSS-1 and KissR was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Furthermore, we measured the amount of insulin secreted by the islets after incubation in different concentrations of ghrelin and glucose after 1 hr. Besides, we checked the viability of the cells after 24 hr cultivation. Results: Ghrelin significantly decreased the KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA transcription in rat islets and CRI-D2 cells. Besides, Ghrelin suppressed insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and CRI-D2 cells. Conclusion: These findings indicate the possibility that KiSS-1 and KissR mRNA expression is mediator of ghrelin function in the islets of Langerhans. PMID:28133522

  4. Growth factor protection against cytokine-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat islets of Langerhans: role of Fas.

    Harrison, M; Dunger, A M; Berg, S; Mabley, J; John, N; Green, M H; Green, I C


    Treatment of neonatal rat islets of Langerhans with combined cytokines (interleukin-1beta 10(-10) M, tumour necrosis factor-alpha 10(-10) M, interferon-gamma 5 U/ml) led to extensive cell death, which was potentiated by Fas activation with the anti-Fas cytolytic antibody JO2. Pre-treatment with insulin (25 ng/ml) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (10(-8)M) gave only partial protection against cell killing, but prevented the Fas-mediated component. In the absence of cytokine treatment, Fas-mediated killing was not observed.

  5. [Structural alterations in pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with of bioactive additive on the basis of Gymnema sylvestre].

    Snigur, G L; Samokhina, M P; Pisarev, V B; Spasov, A A; Bulanov, A E


    The structural alterations in pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied after the administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract or its composition. Diabetes mellitus was modeled by daily injection of streptozotocin (20 mg/kg for 5 days) and single injection of 0.2 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant, Only the animals with the blood glucose level exceeding 15 mmol/l were included in the experiment. B- and A-endocrinocytes were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. The proportions of the area of the pancreatic islets, occupied by B- and A-endocrinocytes, as well as the volume fraction of the pancreatic islets within the pancreas, were determined. In the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the part of the total islet area occupied by B-endocrinocytes, was diminished in the pancreatic islets located in all the zones of the gland. Prophylactic administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract or its composition tended to restore the area occupied by B-endocrinocytes in the pancreatic islets. These results indicate the equal potency of the composition and extract of Gymnema sylvestre to induce the regeneration of B-endocrinocytes.

  6. Effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang on deficiency of N-glycan/nitric oxide and islet damage induced by streptozotocin in diabetic rats

    Xiao-Qiu Liu; Ling Wu; Xue-Jun Guo


    AIM: To investigate the effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (Decoction for Reinforcing Middle Jiao and Replenishing Qi) on deficiency of N-glycan/nitric oxide (NO) and islet damage induced by injecting two medium doses of streptozotocin (STZ). METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 55 mg/kg on day 1 and day 8. Islet damage was evaluated using a scoring system. Nitrite, nitrate, α-mannosidase and amylase activities were measured by colorimetry. N-glycan patterns of amylase were determined with lectin [ConA, pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), and lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)] affinity precipitation method. RESULTS: Severe islet necrosis and mild islet atrophy were observed in diabetic rats. The number and size of islets, the activities of α-mannosidase, amylase and nitrite were decreased, while the binding of PNA and LCA to amylase was increased. All of which were improved after treatment with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. Islet damage was significantly correlated with nitrite, nitrate, α-mannosidase, amylase and the binding of LCA, PNA, and PSA to amylase. PNA, and PSA to amylase.CONCLUSION: STZ- induced i s let damage i s related to N-glycan def iciency in proteins by blocking α-mannosidase activity and no deficiency, accumulation of unfolded proteins, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of cellular signals, all of which are improved after treatment with Bu-Zhong-Yi- Qi-Tang.

  7. Palmitate activates autophagy in INS-1E β-cells and in isolated rat and human pancreatic islets.

    Luisa Martino

    Full Text Available We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and autophagy activation was explored by using various biochemical and morphological techniques. In INS-1E cells as well as in rat and human islets, 0.5 and 1.0 mM palmitate markedly increased autophagic vacuole formation, whereas high glucose was ineffective alone and caused little additional change when combined with palmitate. Furthermore, LC3-II immunofluorescence co-localized with that of cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, showing that the autophagic flux was not hampered in PA-treated cells. These effects were maintained up to 18-24 h incubation and were associated with a significant decline of cell survival correlated with both palmitate concentration and incubation time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that autophagy activation, as evidenced by the occurrence of many autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of beta cells, was associated with a diffuse and remarkable swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that among the metabolic alterations typically associated with type 2 diabetes, high free fatty acids levels could play a role in the activation of autophagy in beta cells, through a mechanism that might involve the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  8. UPR induces transient burst of apoptosis in islets of early lactating rats through reduced AKT phosphorylation via ATF4/CHOP stimulation of TRB3 expression.

    Bromati, Carla R; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Yamanaka, Tatiana S; Nogueira, Tatiane C A; Leonelli, Mauro; Caperuto, Luciana C; Gorjão, Renata; Leite, Adriana R; Anhê, Gabriel F; Bordin, Silvana


    Endocrine pancreas from pregnant rats undergoes several adaptations that comprise increase in β-cell number, mass and insulin secretion, and reduction of apoptosis. Lactogens are the main hormones that account for these changes. Maternal pancreas, however, returns to a nonpregnant state just after the delivery. The precise mechanism by which this reversal occurs is not settled but, in spite of high lactogen levels, a transient increase in apoptosis was already reported as early as the 3rd day of lactation (L3). Our results revealed that maternal islets displayed a transient increase in DNA fragmentation at L3, in parallel with decreased RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) phosphorylation (pAKT), a known prosurvival kinase. Wortmannin completely abolished the prosurvival action of prolactin (PRL) in cultured islets. Decreased pAKT in L3-islets correlated with increased Tribble 3 (TRB3) expression, a pseudokinase inhibitor of AKT. PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation transiently increased in islets from rats at the first day after delivery, followed by an increase in immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in islets from L3 rats. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Re-ChIP experiments further confirmed increased binding of the heterodimer ATF4/CHOP to the TRB3 promoter in L3 islets. Treatment with PBA, a chemical chaperone that inhibits UPR, restored pAKT levels and inhibited the increase in apoptosis found in L3. Moreover, PBA reduced CHOP and TRB3 levels in β-cell from L3 rats. Altogether, our study collects compelling evidence that UPR underlies the physiological and transient increase in β-cell apoptosis after delivery. The UPR is likely to counteract prosurvival actions of PRL by reducing pAKT through ATF4/CHOP-induced TRB3 expression.

  9. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je


    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  10. Munc18b Increases Insulin Granule Fusion, Restoring Deficient Insulin Secretion in Type-2 Diabetes Human and Goto-Kakizaki Rat Islets with Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis

    Tairan Qin


    Infusion of Ad-Munc18b into GK rat pancreas led to sustained improvement in glucose homeostasis. However, Munc18b overexpression in normal islets increased only newcomer SG fusion. Therefore, Munc18b could potentially be deployed in human T2D to rescue the deficient GSIS.

  11. Histochemical analysis of the role of class I and class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the degradation of rat pancreatic extracellular matrix for islet isolation

    VosScheperkeuter, GH; vanSuylichem, PTR; Wolters, GHJ; vanSchilfgaarde, R


    To understand why class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase is much more effective than class I in the isolation of rat pancreatic islets, we analyzed the role of these collagenases in pancreatic tissue dissociation. Crude collagenase was purified and then fractionated into class I and II with d

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography of rat and mouse islet polypeptides

    Linde, S; Hansen, B; Welinder, B S


    After preparative high-performance liquid chromatography of mouse islet culture medium, concentrated on disposable C18 cartridges (Sep-Pak), an unexpected insulin immunoreactive peak eluting earlier than mouse insulin I and II was detected. Molecular mass determination by mass spectrometry...

  13. Pharmacokinetic and local toxicity studies of liposome-encapsulated and plain mepivacaine solutions in rats.

    Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Cereda, Cíntia Maria Saia; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida; Brito, Rui Barbosa; Pedrazzoli, José; Meurer, Eduardo; Barros, Fábio Alessandro Proença; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Volpato, Maria Cristina; Ranali, José


    The pharmacokinetics and the local toxicity of commercial and liposome-encapsulated mepivacaine formulations injected intra-orally in rats were studied. Animals were divided in groups (n = 4-6) and treated with 0.1 mL of the formulations: 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (MVC(2%EPI)), 3% mepivacaine (MVC(3%)), and 2% liposome-encapsulated mepivacaine (MVC(LUV)). The results showed that the 2% liposome-encapsulated mepivacaine reduced C(max), prolonged AUC(0-infinity) and t(1/2) compared with 3% plain and 2% vasoconstritor-associated mepivacaine, after intraoral injection. In addition, it was also observed that liposomal mepivacaine might protect the tissue against local inflammation evoked by plain or vasoconstrictors-associated mepivacaine, giving supporting evidence for its safety and possible clinical use in dentistry.



    Objective To explore the mechanisms of differentiation and development of pancreatic endocrine cells as well as pancreatic regeneration. Methods Human embryonic pancreatic tissue at 7-14 weeks of gestation was collected. Diabetes mellitus rat model was induced with 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, nestin, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19)of pancreatic tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results At 9 weeks of gestation, pancreatic epithelial cells began to co-express insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and CK19 before migration. Islet cells gradually congregated along with the increase of aging, and at 14 weeks of gestation histological examination showed islet formation. At 12 weeks of gestation, nestin-positive cells could be seen in the pancreatic mesenchyme. During early embryogenesis, islet cells of pancreatic ducts co-expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. During pancreatic regeneration after damage, nestin expression of islet cells increased. Conclusion In the early stage of embryogenesis, islet cells of primary pancreatic ducts can be differentiated to multipotential endocrine cells before migration. During tissue regeneration, pancreatic stem cells may differentiate and proliferate to form pancreatic islet.

  15. Regulation of leptin on insulin secretion and sulfonulurea receptor 1 transcription level in isolated rats pancreatic islets

    袁莉; 安汉祥; 邓秀玲; 李卓娅


    Objective To investigate the regulation of leptin on insulin secretion and expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit sulfonulurea receptor 1 (SUR1) mRNA, and to determine whether the effects of leptin are mediated through known intracellular signaling transduction. Methods Pancreatic islets were isolated by the collagenase method from male SD rats. The purified islets were incubated with different concentrations of leptin for 2 h in the presence of different concentrations of glucose. Insulin release was measured using radioimmunoassay. Expression of SUR1 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results In the presence of leptin 2 nmol/L, insulin release was significantly inhibited at either 11.1 or 16.7 mmol/L glucose concentration (bothP<0.05), but insulin release was not altered at glucose of 5.6 mmol/L physiological concentration. The dose-response experiment showed that the maximal effect of leptin on insulin secretion achieved at 2 nmol/L. Exposure of islets to 2 nmol/L leptin induced a significant increase of SUR1 transcription evels by 71% (P<0.01) at 11.1 mmol/L glucose and by 56% (P<0.05) at 16.7 mmol/L glucose concentration. Selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin significantly prevented the leptin effect on insulin secretion and SUR1 mRNA expression. Conclusions Regulatory effects of leptin on insulin secretion could be biphasic at different concentrations of glucose and leptin. The stimulatory regulation of SUR1 transcription levels may be mediated through activation of PI 3-kinase pathway, which may be a possible mechanism of leptin in regulating insulin secretion.

  16. Improvement in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by erythropoietin and spirulina

    N.I. El-Desouki


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of erythropoietin (EPO and/or spirulina to treat alloxanized-diabetic rats. Eighty male albino rats were equally divided into eight groups; Group I: Normal control rats, Group II: Non-diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg injected subcutaneously three times weekly for 3 weeks, Group III: Non-diabetic rats administered orally with spirulina (2 g/kg/d for 21 days, Group IV: Non-diabetic rats treated by EPO (40 U/kg together with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as mentioned in groups II & III, Group V: Alloxanized-diabetic rats. Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg as in group II, Group VII: Diabetic rats administered with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group III, Group VIII: Diabetic rats were given with EPO (40 U/kg and spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group IV. Diabetic rat group showed a significant increase in glucose and NO; and a significant decrease in insulin, SOD and CAT levels. Diabetic rats treated with EPO or/and spirulina recorded a significant decrease in the glucose and NO levels; and a significant increase in insulin, SOD and CAT levels when compared with the diabetic group. Histopathologically, diabetic rats treated with EPO or spirulina showed a slight improvement of pancreatic islets and acinar cells, diabetic rats treated with EPO & spirulina together showed an obvious recovery to approximately normal status. IHC, the expression of insulin producing cells (β-cells of diabetic rats was improved in the three treatment groups with a lesser affinity for EPO than spirulina while with both together showed marked recovery into normal status. In conclusion, all the changes were minimized in spirulina administered group more than EPO group, however, the co-treatment of EPO and spirulina exerted stronger anti-hyperglycemic effects than treatment with each agent alone.

  17. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.


    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in ...

  18. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.


    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rat...

  19. Establishing a human pancreatic stem cell line and transplanting induced pancreatic islets to reverse experimental diabetes in rats

    XIAO Mei; DOU ZhongYing; AN LiLong; YANG XueYi; GE Xin; QIAO Hai; ZHAO Ting; MA XiaoFei; FAN JingZhua; ZHU MengYang


    -like clusters, as identified by di-thizone staining, which expressed the transcription factor of the insulin and secreted the insulin and C-peptide. Furthermore, the transplantation of mhPSCs-induced pancreatic islets into the subcapsular region of the kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats could reduce blood glucose levels and prolong the life time.

  20. Establishing a human pancreatic stem cell line and transplanting induced pancreatic islets to reverse experimental diabetes in rats


    -like clusters, as identified by di-thizone staining, which expressed the transcription factor of the insulin and secreted the insulin and C-peptide. Furthermore, the transplantation of mhPSCs-induced pancreatic islets into the subcapsular region of the kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats could reduce blood glucose levels and prolong the life time.

  1. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    Okpe Oche; Ibrahim Sani; Njoku Godwin Chilaka; Ndidi Uche Samuel; Atabo Samuel


    Objective: To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves ofVitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods: A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug.Results:The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control.Conclusion:This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat.

  2. Transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos: metodologia para separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans Isogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver: Method for isolation and purification of the rat islets

    Eleazar CHAIB


    Full Text Available A maior indicação do transplante de pâncreas ou de ilhotas de Langerhans é o diabetes mellitus do tipo I. O processo deve suprir as necessidades de insulina mantendo os níveis glicêmicos dentro da normalidade. Estudou-se o transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos WAG-RT1u. Com o método de separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans obteve-se 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas com pureza de 83 ± 2,45%. O transplante de 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado destes animais, normalizou a glicemia que chegou a 35 mmol/L após indução do diabetes pela estreptozotocina, ficando em 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L nos primeiros 10 dias após o enxerto e 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L nos dias subseqüentes (P The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control. We have studied isogenic islet transplantation on the rat (WAG-RT1u liver. The method of isolation and purification of the islets obtained 2.834 ± 551,64 islets with purity of 83 ± 2,45%. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and seric glucose prior transplantation was 35 mmol/L. The islet transplantation of 2.834 ± 551,64 islets in the rat liver has normalized glucose test from 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L 10 days after transplantation to 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L later in the follow-up (P <0,05. The median survival time of the islets was 73 days. In conclusion both the method of isolation and purification of the islets and islet transplantation was effective in the control of the diabetes induced by streptozotocin with median survival time of both islet and rat more than 73 days when rats were sacrificied.

  3. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    Sankar, Palanisamy; Gopal Telang, Avinash; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Karunakaran, Vijayakaran; Manikam, Kesavan; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath


    We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 628-637, 2015.

  4. RNA interference targeting mu-opioid receptors reverses the inhibition of fentanyl on glucose-evoked insulin release of rat islets

    QIAN Tao-lai; ZHANG Lei; WANG Xin-hua; LIU Sheng; MA Liang; LU Ying


    Background Mu opioid receptor plays an important role in many physiological functions. Fentanyl is a widely used opioid receptor agonist for analgesia. This study was conducted to test the role of mu-opioid receptor on insulin release by determining whether fentanyl affected insulin release from freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets and if small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting mu-opioid receptor in the islets could knock down mu-opioid receptor expression.Methods Islets were isolated from ripe SD rats' pancreas by common bile duct intraductal collagenase V digestion and purified by discontinuous Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. The siRNA knock-down of mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein in islet cells was analyzed by semi-quantitative real time-PCR and Western blotting. After siRNA-transfection for 48 hours, the islets were co-cultured with fentanyl as follows: 0 ng/ml, 3 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml for 48 hours. Then glucose-evoked insulin release was performed. As a control, the insulin release was also analyzed in islets without siRNA-trasfection after being co-cultured with fentanyl for 48 hours.Results After 48 hours of transfections, specific siRNA targeting of mu-opioid receptors produced significant reduction of mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein (P <0.01). Fentanyl significantly inhibited glucose-evoked insulin release in islets in a concentration dependent manner (P <0.01). But after siRNA-transfection for 48 hours, the inhibition on glucose-evoked insulin reiease was reversed (P <0.01).Conclusions RNA interference specifically reduces mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein expression, leading to reversal of the fentanyl-induced inhibition on glucose-evoked insulin release of rat islets. The activation of opioid receptor induced by fentanyl functions to inhibit insulin release. The use of RNAi presents a promising tool for future research in diabetic mechanisms and a novel therapy for diabetes.

  5. Effects of Micronutrients on Oxidative Stress and Islet Function in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rats: Relationships to Th2 Type Cytokines, Interleukin-4, and Interluekin-10

    ZHANG Gui-zhen; LI Mei-hua; SONG Yang; LIU Ting; GAO Shen; SUN Ying


    To observe the effects of the micronutrients on oxidative and autoimmune destruction of islets so as to prevent a person from the onset and development of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus(T1DM), the interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 expressions of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and spleen of T1 DM rats were determined by flow cytometry. GSH-Px activity and MDA level in the rats' pancreas were measured using biochemical methods. The insulin contents in serum and β cell insulin secret storage were tested by RIA and IHC, respectively. There was an increase in the percentages of 1L-4 and IL-10 positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and spleen of the groups of rats supplemented with various combinations of micronutrients(p <0. 01 and p <0. 05, respectively); the blood glucose concentration decreased (p<0.05); both the functional β cell in islets and the insulin content in pancreatic tissue increased(p<0.05 and p<0.01); the GSH-Px activity and MDA level of pancreas in the rats enhanced and decreased respectively(p<0.01 and p<0.05). The results suggest that micronutrients may alleviate the islet lesions by upregulating the expressions of IL-4 and IL-10 and lowering oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  6. Potential for clinical pancreatic islet xenotransplantation

    Bottino R


    Full Text Available Rita Bottino,1 Santosh Nagaraju,2 Vikas Satyananda,2 Hidetaka Hara,2 Martin Wijkstrom,2 Massimo Trucco,1 David KC Cooper2 1Institute of Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny Health Network, 2Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Type 1 diabetes can be treated successfully by islet allotransplantation, the results of which are steadily improving. However, the number of islets that can be obtained from deceased human donors will never be sufficient to cure more than a very small percentage of patients who might benefit from transplantation. Although there are some differences in glucose metabolism between pigs and humans, the use of pigs could provide an unlimited supply of islets, and the insulin produced would undoubtedly control glucose levels. Transplantation of islets into the portal vein results in islets residing in the liver; however, an early inflammatory response and rejection remain problematic, even when the recipient is receiving immunosuppressive therapy. In the long term, immunosuppressive drugs may exhibit toxicities to patients and specifically harm the islet cells. In contrast, encapsulation techniques provide islets with a physical barrier that prevents antibodies binding to the islet graft while still allowing insulin to be released into the recipient's circulation; in theory, patients receiving encapsulated grafts might not require exogenous immunosuppressive therapy. Nonhuman primates with encapsulated pig islet transplants have remained insulin-independent for several weeks, but long-term efficacy remains uncertain. Furthermore, techniques are now available to knock out genes from the pig and/or insert human genes, thus rendering the antigenic structure of pigs closer to that of humans, and providing protection from the human immune response. Islet transplantation from genetically engineered pigs has been

  7. Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy

    Carolina Uribe-Cruz


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The use of bone marrow cells has been suggested as an alternative treatment for acute liver failure. In this study, we investigate the effect of encapsulated whole bone marrow cells in a liver failure model. Methods. Encapsulated cells or empty capsules were implanted in rats submitted to 90% partial hepatectomy. The survival rate was assessed. Another group was euthanized at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after hepatectomy to study expression of cytokines and growth factors. Results. Whole bone marrow group showed a higher than 10 days survival rate compared to empty capsules group. Gene expression related to early phase of liver regeneration at 6 hours after hepatectomy was decreased in encapsulated cells group, whereas genes related to regeneration were increased at 12, 24, and 48 hours. Whole bone marrow group showed lower regeneration rate at 72 hours and higher expression and activity of caspase 3. In contrast, lysosomal-β-glucuronidase activity was elevated in empty capsules group. Conclusions. The results show that encapsulated whole bone marrow cells reduce the expression of genes involved in liver regeneration and increase those responsible for ending hepatocyte division. In addition, these cells favor apoptotic cell death and decrease necrosis, thus increasing survival.

  8. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kawata, Sumio, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Nishinomiya Hospital, 13-9 Rokutanji-cho, Nishinomiya 662-0918 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  9. Pancreatic hormones are expressed on the surfaces of human and rat islet cells through exocytotic sites

    Larsson, L I; Hutton, J C; Madsen, O D


    . Electron microscopy reveals the labeling to occur at sites of exocytotic granule release, involving the surfaces of extruded granule cores. The surfaces of islet cells were labeled both by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, excluding that receptor-interacting, anti-idiotypic hormone antibodies were...... responsible for the staining. Human insulin cells were surface-labeled by monoclonal antibodies recognizing the mature secretory products, insulin and C-peptide but not with monoclonal antibodies specific for proinsulin. Thus, routing of unprocessed preproinsulin to the cell surface may not account...... for these results. It is concluded that the staining reflects interactions between the appropriate antibodies and exocytotic sites of hormone release....

  10. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors.

    Paola Llanos

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]. Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.

  11. Cytokine- or chemically derived nitric oxide alters the expression of proteins detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in neonatal rat islets of Langerhans.

    John, N E; Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, P M; Roepstorff, P; Larsen, M R; Pociot, F; Karlsen, A E; Nerup, J; Green, I C; Mandrup-Poulsen, T


    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) treatment of neonatal rat islets for 24 h induces changes in the expression of 105 of 2,200 proteins, as determined previously by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as one of the mediators of IL-1beta effects in insulin-containing cell lines and rat islets. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the involvement of NO in IL-1beta-induced alterations in protein expression and 2) to investigate the effects of chemically generated NO on protein expression by 2D gel electrophoresis of neonatal rat islet samples. IL-1beta-induced NO production was prevented by incubation of islets in arginine-free medium supplemented with the arginine analog NG-nitro-L-arginine. [35S]methionine-labeled islet proteins were separated using 2D gel electrophoresis and analyzed using the BioImage computer program. Analysis revealed that the expression levels of 23 protein spots of the 105 protein spots, altered by prior treatment with IL-1beta (60 U/ml) alone, were significantly affected (P < 0.01 [n = 4] and P < 0.05 [n = 19]) when NO production was prevented. The effects of chemically generated NO were investigated by exposing islets to the NO donor GSNO (100 micromol/l) for 24 h before labeling with [35S]methionine and 2D gel electrophoresis. Computer-based analysis identified alterations in the expression of 19 of a total of 1,600 detectable proteins in GSNO-treated islets (P < 0.01). We conclude 1) that the expression of up to 42 proteins is altered by cytokine-induced or chemically generated NO in the precise experimental conditions chosen and 2) that the majority of proteins altered by prior treatment with IL-1beta may be the result of NO-independent IL-1beta-mediated regulation of gene expression. This study demonstrates that the combination of 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the identification of beta-cell proteins involved in the response to toxic mediators.

  12. Differential interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on pancreatic beta and alpha cells. Studies in rodent and human islets and in normal rats

    Zumsteg, U; Reimers, J I; Pociot, F;


    The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and -beta have been implicated as effector molecules in the immune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on insulin and glucagon release of rat......, mouse and human islets exposed to recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, and on interleukin-1 beta induced changes in blood glucose, serum insulin and serum glucagon levels in Wistar Kyoto rats. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced the co-mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 beta on mouse and rat...

  13. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia (karela fruits

    Mohammad Aftab Hossain


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (karela (M. charantia fruits on blood glucose level, pancreatic weight changes and histopathology of pancreatic changes in the streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty-six albino rats were used in the experiment; diabetes mellitus was induced in 30 adult albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg STZ. Six non diabetic rats remained as control (T1 . The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into five equal groups: diabetic control (T2 without any treatment, groups T3, T4, T5 and T6 were treated with aqueous extract of karela fruits daily at a doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg up to 90 d, respectively. At Day 90, all rats were sacrificed, the pancreases of the rats were excised and processed. Results: The results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits was able to reduce blood glucose level significantly compared with the diabetic control group (P<0.01. Histopathologically, STZ resulted severe necrotic changes in pancreatic islets. Tissues sections of pancreas in the treated groups showed regeneration of β cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Conclusions: The present study suggests that oral feeding of M. charantia fruit juice has a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect and may have a role in the regeneration of the β cells in STZ diabetic rats.

  14. A new approach for pancreatic tissue engineering: human endometrial stem cells encapsulated in fibrin gel can differentiate to pancreatic islet beta-cell.

    Niknamasl, Azadeh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Azami, Mahmoud; Salmani, Maryam Kabir; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Karimi, Roya; Roozafzoon, Reza; Ai, Jafar


    Metabolic diabetes mellitus as the most serious and prevalent metabolic disease in the world has various complications. The most effective treatment of type I diabetes seems to be islet cell transplantation. Shortage of donors and difficult procedures and high rate of rejection have always restricted this approach. Tissue engineering is a novel effective solution to many medical problems such as diabetes. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells as a lineage which have the potential to differentiate to mesodermal and endodermal tissues seem to be suitable for this purpose. Fibrin hydrogel with a high degree of biocompatibility and specific properties making it similar to normal pancreas seems to be an ideal scaffold. After successfully isolating stem cells (hEnSCs) from human endometrium, a three-step protocol was used to differentiate them into pancreatic beta cells. Fibrin was used as 3D scaffold. After 2 weeks, cells formed clusters like islets cells, and secretion of insulin was measured by chemiluminescence. PDX1, proinsulin, and c-peptide as special markers of β cells were detected by immunofluorescence. Expression of glucagon, PDX1, and insulin genes in mRNA level was detected by Real time PCR and gel electrophoresis. The former showed higher levels of gene expression in 3D cultures. SEM analysis showed good integrity between cells and scaffold. No toxicity was detected with fibrin scaffold by MTT assay.

  15. Interleukin-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production from isolated rat islets is modulated by D-glucose and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine

    Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D; Karlsen, Allan Ertman


    Interleukin-1 beta has been proposed to cause selective beta-cell destruction via the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of interleukin-1 beta is modulated by the concentration of D-glucose in the medium. The aim of this study was to investigate if D......-glucose-mediated modulation of interleukin-1 beta effects on insulin release from isolated rat islets was related to modulation of nitric oxide production. Further, we wished to investigate the effects of agents increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP on interleukin-1 beta-induced nitrite production. We...... demonstrated that D-glucose potentiated interleukin-1 beta-induced nitrite production in rat islets without affecting the mRNA level of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. This effect was dissociated from interleukin-1 beta action on insulin release, since a relative protection against interleukin-1 beta...

  16. Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells exert trophic effects on β-cell survival in diabetic rats and isolated islets

    Yunting Zhou


    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells (uMSCs, owing to their cellular and procurement advantages compared with mesenchymal stem cells derived from other tissue sources, are in clinical trials to treat type 1 (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, the therapeutic basis remains to be fully understood. The immunomodulatory property of uMSCs could explain the use in treating T1D; however, the mere immune modulation might not be sufficient to support the use in T2D. We thus tested whether uMSCs could exert direct trophic effects on β-cells. Infusion of uMSCs into chemically induced diabetic rats prevented hyperglycemic progression with a parallel preservation of islet size and cellularity, demonstrating the protective effect of uMSCs on β-cells. Mechanistic analyses revealed that uMSCs engrafted long-term in the injured pancreas and the engraftment markedly activated the pancreatic PI3K pathway and its downstream anti-apoptotic machinery. The pro-survival pathway activation was associated with the expression and secretion of β-cell growth factors by uMSCs, among which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was highly abundant. To establish the causal relationship between the uMSC-secreted factors and β-cell survival, isolated rat islets were co-cultured with uMSCs in the transwell system. Co-culturing improved the islet viability and insulin secretion. Furthermore, reduction of uMSC-secreted IGF1 via siRNA knockdown diminished the protective effects on islets in the co-culture. Thus, our data support a model whereby uMSCs exert trophic effects on islets by secreting β-cell growth factors such as IGF1. The study reveals a novel therapeutic role of uMSCs and suggests that multiple mechanisms are employed by uMSCs to treat diabetes.

  17. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    Campos-Martorell M


    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  18. Effect of glucose stimulation on /sup 45/calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.


    Glucose-stimulated /sup 45/calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/ DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/ DNA. On incubation with /sup 45/calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool.

  19. Immature transformed rat islet beta-cells differentially express C-peptides derived from the genes coding for insulin I and II as well as a transfected human insulin gene

    Blume, N; Petersen, J S; Andersen, L C;


    Synthetic peptides representing unique sequences in rat proinsulin C-peptide I and II were used to generate highly specific antisera, which, when applied on sections of normal rat pancreas, confirm a homogeneous coexpression of the two C-peptides in all islet beta-cells. Insulin gene expression...... is induced in the transformed heterogeneous rat islet cell clone, NHI-6F, by transient in vivo passage. During this process a transfected human insulin gene is coactivated with the endogenous nonallelic rat insulin I and II genes. Newly established cultures from NHI-6F insulinomas having a high frequency...

  20. Calcium deposition in photocrosslinked poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) hydrogels encapsulated rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    Nurlidar, Farah; Yamane, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao


    Reproducing the features of the extracellular matrix is important for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue regeneration. A collagen-like polypeptide, poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), is a promising material for 3D scaffolds because of its excellent physical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this paper, we present a novel photocrosslinked poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) hydrogel as a 3D scaffold for simultaneous rat bone marrow stromal cell (rBMSC) encapsulation. The hydrogels were fabricated using visible-light photocrosslinking at various concentrations of methacrylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) (20-50 mg/mL) and irradiation times (3 or 5 min). The results show that the rBMSCs encapsulated in the hydrogels survived seven days of incubation. Calcium deposition on the encapsulated rBMSCs was assessed with SEM observation, Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining. The most strongly stained area was observed in the hydrogel formed with 30 mg/mL of methacrylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) with 5 min irradiation. These findings demonstrate that poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) hydrogels support rBMSC viability and differentiation, as well as demonstrating the feasibility of using poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) hydrogels as a cytocompatible, biodegradable 3D scaffold for tissue regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.




    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase is widely used for the enzymatic degradation of pancreatic extracellular matrix in order to isolate the islets of Langerhans. The variable enzymatic composition of crude collagenases is a critical issue which contributes to the poor reproducibility of islet

  2. Acute Exposure to a Precursor of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces a Dual Effect on the Rat Pancreatic Islet Function

    Ghada Elmhiri


    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are a major risk factor for diabetes onset and maintenance. Methylglyoxal (MG, a highly reactive metabolite of glucose, is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs. Methods. In this current study we incubated in vitro pancreatic islets from adult rats in absence or presence of MG (10 μmol/l with different concentrations of glucose and different metabolic components (acetylcholine, epinephrine, potassium, forskolin, and leucine. Results. Different effects of MG on insulin secretion were evidenced. In basal glucose stimulation (5.6 mM, MG induced a significant (P<0.05 increase of insulin secretion. By contrast, in higher glucose concentrations (8.3 mM and 16.7 mM, MG significantly inhibited insulin secretion (P<0.05. In the presence of potassium, forskolin, and epinephrine, MG enhanced insulin secretion (P<0.05, while when it was incubated with acetylcholine and leucine, MG resulted in a decrease of insulin secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We suggest that MG modulates the secretion activity of beta-cell depending on its level of stimulation by other metabolic factors. These results provide insights on a dual acute effect of MG on the pancreatic cells.

  3. Proghrelin-derived peptides influence the secretion of insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin: a study on isolated islets from mouse and rat pancreas

    Qader, S.S.; Hakanson, R.; Lundquist, I.;


    , acyl ghrelin inhibited insulin secretion at low doses and stimulated at high. In rat islets, acyl ghrelin inhibited insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner but the IC(50) for the acyl ghrelin-induced inhibition of insulin release was 7.5 x 10(-8) M, while the EC(50) and IC(50) values, with respect...... to stimulation of glucagon release and to inhibition of PP and somatostatin release, were in the 3 x 10(-12)-15 x 10(-12) M range. The corresponding EC(50) and IC(50) values for obestatin ranged from 5 x 10(-12) to 20 x 10(-12) M. Desacyl ghrelin per se did not affect islet hormone secretion. However, at a ten...

  4. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches


    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  5. Anti-CD154 mAb and rapamycin induce T regulatory cell mediated tolerance in rat-to-mouse islet transplantation.

    Yannick D Muller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-CD154 (MR1 monoclonal antibody (mAb and rapamycin (RAPA treatment both improve survival of rat-to-mouse islet xenograft. The present study investigated the effect of combined RAPA/MR1 treatment on rat-to-mouse islet xenograft survival and analyzed the role of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cells (Treg in the induction and maintenance of the ensuing tolerance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 mice were treated with MR1/RAPA and received additional monoclonal anti-IL2 mAb or anti CD25 mAb either early (0-28 d or late (100-128 d post-transplantation. Treg were characterised in the blood, spleen, draining lymph nodes and within the graft of tolerant and rejecting mice by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Fourteen days of RAPA/MR1 combination therapy allowed indefinite islet graft survival in >80% of the mice. Additional administration of anti-IL-2 mAb or depleting anti-CD25 mAb at the time of transplantation resulted in rejection (100% and 89% respectively, whereas administration at 100 days post transplantation lead to lower rejection rates (25% and 40% respectively. Tolerant mice showed an increase of Treg within the graft and in draining lymph nodes early post transplantation, whereas 100 days post transplantation no significant increase of Treg was observed. Rejecting mice showed a transient increase of Treg in the xenograft and secondary lymphoid organs, which disappeared within 7 days after rejection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: These results suggest a critical role for Treg in the induction phase of tolerance early after islet xenotransplantation. These encouraging data support the need of developing further Treg therapy for overcoming the species barrier in xenotransplantation.

  6. Differential interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on pancreatic beta and alpha cells. Studies in rodent and human islets and in normal rats

    Zumsteg, U; Reimers, J I; Pociot, F


    The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and -beta have been implicated as effector molecules in the immune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on insulin and glucagon release of rat......, mouse and human islets exposed to recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, and on interleukin-1 beta induced changes in blood glucose, serum insulin and serum glucagon levels in Wistar Kyoto rats. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced the co-mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 beta on mouse and rat...... thymocytes with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 10- and 100-fold molar excess, respectively. Complete inhibition was obtained with a 100-1,000-fold molar excess. However, at a 100-fold molar excess the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not antagonise the potentiating effect of interleukin-1 beta on rat...

  7. Islet Transplantation

    ... transplanted islet cells failed. But in recent years, scientists have begun to make rapid advances in transplant technology, and some of the most exciting new research comes to us from researchers at the University of ... Canada. These scientists have used a new procedure called the Edmonton ...

  8. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki


    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  9. Adaptation of pancreatic islet B-cells during the last third of pregnancy: regulation of B-cell function and proliferation by lactogenic hormones in rats.

    Kawai, M; Kishi, K


    In rodents, placental lactogen (PL)-I is considered to be the first trigger to enhance pancreatic islet B-cell function, and after its secretion is diminished at mid-pregnancy, PL-II takes over this role. However, little information is available on the regulation of islet B-cell function and proliferation by lactogenic hormones during the last third of pregnancy. This was the focus of the present study using rats in which pregnancy was forcibly prolonged. This rat possesses unique characteristics in that PL-I is re-secreted during the prolonged period of pregnancy and the peak concentrations in maternal circulation are comparable with those observed during mid-pregnancy in normal-pregnancy rats. Pregnancy was prolonged by successive administration of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (30IU/rat, s.c. on day 12) and human chorionic gonadotropin (10IU/rat, i.v. on day 14). When the insulin secretory responses to 10mmol/l glucose in islets obtained from normal-pregnancy and prolonged-pregnancy rats were tested, each insulin secretory response correlated well with the values of plasma lactogenic activity throughout the period of pregnancy and lactation. Examination of B-cell proliferation in normal-pregnancy rats showed that 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into dividing B-cells reached a maximum on day 15 and then decreased markedly towards term. No increase in B-cell proliferation was observed on day 19 when plasma lactogenic activity reached the maximum. In prolonged-pregnancy rats, BrdU incorporation also continued to decrease as observed in normal-pregnancy rats after day 15, and then no enhancement in B-cell proliferation was observed even when the plasma lactogenic activity, including re-secreted PL-I, reached maximum. These results suggest that, in the last third of pregnancy, B-cell proliferation is no longer stimulated by lactogenic hormones in contrast to the insulin secretory response which is sustained.

  10. Treatment of hepatoma with liposome-encapsulated adriamycin administered into hepatic artery of rats

    Dong-Sheng Sun; Jiang-Hao Chen; Rui Ling; Qing Yao; Ling Wang; Zhong Ma; Yu Li


    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of liposomeencapsulated adriamycin (LADM) on hepatoma in comparison with adriamycin solution (FADM) and adriamycin plus blank liposome (ADM + BL) administered into the hepatic artery of rats.METHODS: LADM was prepared by pH gradient-driven method. Normal saline, FADM (2 mg/kg), ADM+BL (2 mg/kg), and LADM (2 mg/kg) were injected via the hepatic artery in rats bearing liver W256 carcinosarcoma,which were divided into four groups randomly. The therapeutic effects were evaluated in terms of survival time,tumor enlargement ratio, and tumor necrosis degree.The difference was determined with ANOVA and Dunnett test and log rank test.RESULTS: Compared to FADM or ADM + BL, LADM produced a more significant tumor inhibition (tumor volume ratio: 1.243 ± 0.523 vs 1.883 ± 0.708, 1.847 ± 0.661,P < 0.01), and more extensive tumor necrosis. The increased life span was prolonged significantly in rats receiving LADM compared with FADM or ADM+BL (231.48 v's 74.66, 94.70) (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The anticancer efficacies of adriamycin on hepatoma can be strongly improved by liposomal encapsulation through hepatic arterial administration.

  11. The antilipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole inhibits insulin release in response to both nutrient secretagogues and cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonists in isolated rat islets.

    Masiello, P; Novelli, M; Bombara, M; Fierabracci, V; Vittorini, S; Prentki, M; Bergamini, E


    This study intended to test the hypothesis that intracellular lipolysis in the pancreatic beta cells is implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion stimulated by nutrient secretagogues or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists. Indeed, although lipid signaling molecules were repeatedly reported to influence beta-cell function, the contribution of intracellular triglycerides to the generation of these molecules has remained elusive. Thus, we have studied insulin secretion of isolated rat pancreatic islets in response to various secretagogues in the presence or absence of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), a water-soluble and highly effective antilipolytic agent, as previously shown in vivo. In vitro exposure of islets to DMP resulted in an inhibition (by approximately 50%) of the insulin release stimulated not only by high glucose, but also by another nutrient secretagogue, 2-ketoisocaproate, as well as the cAMP agonists 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and glucagon. The inhibitory effect of DMP, which was not due to alteration of islet glucose oxidation, could be reversed upon addition of sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diglyceride, which activates protein kinase C. The results provide direct pharmacologic evidence supporting the concept that endogenous beta-cell lipolysis plays an important role in the generation of lipid signaling molecules involved in the control of insulin secretion in response to both fuel stimuli and cAMP agonists.

  12. Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation

    Mehdi Bin Samad


    Full Text Available We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P<0.05. Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL was also reestablished (P<0.05. Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P<0.01. This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P<0.05. Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P<0.05. Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver.

  13. Effect of low temperatures on glucose-induced insulin secretion and ionic fluxes in rat pancreatic islets.

    Escolar, J C; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Sutter, B C


    The direct effect of cold on the inhibition of B cell secretion is well known in hibernating and experimentally hypothermic mammals. This temperature dependency may result from the inhibition of ion transport across the membranes. In order to verify this hypothesis, ionic effluxes and insulin secretion from rat islets loaded with 86Rb+ and 45Ca+ were measured during perifusion. At 37 degrees C, the rise in glucose concentration from zero to 16.7 mmol/l provoked a rapid decrease in 86Rb+ efflux, an early fall and subsequent rise in 45Ca2+ efflux and a typical biphasic pattern of insulin secretion. At 27 degrees C, glucose induced only a very slight increase in insulin secretion, while the fluxes of radioactive ions were not significantly modified in amplitude but were clearly delayed. At 17 degrees C, no insulin response to glucose was observed and the decrease in K+ conductance indicated by 86Rb+ flux decrease was less temperature-dependent than the movement of Ca2+. After supplementary stimulation with a high extracellular concentration of Ca2+, insulin secretion was enhanced at 27 degrees C and reached levels induced by glucose alone at 37 degrees C. An increase in hormone secretion occurred even at 17 degrees C, but only during a first phase of secretion. Regular increases in temperature potentiated insulin secretion and provoked changes in ionic fluxes which suggest that B cell depolarization (86Rb+ flux decrease) induced by glucose can occur at 15 degrees C but cannot induce the opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (increase in 45Ca2+ efflux) until temperatures higher than 27 degrees C are reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    I. K. Hals


    Full Text Available Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8±3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9±5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P<0.2. Nonencapsulated islets released 37.7% (median more HMGB1 compared to encapsulated islets after hypoxic culture conditions (P<0.001. Glucose-induced insulin release was marginally affected by hypoxia. Basal oxygen consumption was equally reduced in encapsulated and nonencapsulated islets, by 22.0±6.1% versus 24.8±5.7%. Among 27 tested cytokines/chemokines, hypoxia increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 in both groups of islets, whereas an increase of MCP-1/CCL2 was seen only with nonencapsulated islets. Conclusion. Alginate microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation.

  15. Amount and distribution of collagen in the pancreas have no effect on porcine islet isolation outcome.

    Hilling, D; Rijkelijkhuizen, J K R A; Töns, H A M; Terpstra, O T; Bouwman, E


    Xenotransplantation of porcine islets of Langerhans is considered to be a possible alternative for clinical islet transplantation. However, porcine islet isolation procedures have been shown to produce highly variable yields between pigs with similar backgrounds. One of the variables that could account for this is the collagen substrate within the pancreas. We determined the amount and distribution of collagen within porcine pancreata as they determined islet isolation outcomes. This study involved the histological examination of 140 porcine pancreata (64 juvenile and 76 adult) and islet isolation from 58 adult organs. To quantify the amount of collagen, tissue samples were stained with Sirius Red. Collagen distribution was determined by assessing the presence of collagen in the endocrine-exocrine interface (the "islet capsule"), in tissue samples double-stained with Sirius Red and anti-insulin. Strong variation in total collagen was observed in both adult and juvenile pigs. The mean collagen content in the juvenile group was significantly lower than that in the adult group. Apparently, the pancreas undergoes a process of fibrosis as pigs age. The vast majority of islets from both adult and juvenile pancreata had no or only a limited collagen capsule. However, islet encapsulation was highly variable between pancreata. We observed no significant correlation between total collagen content or the percentage islet encapsulation and islet yield. Although total collagen content and islet encapsulation show great variability between pancreata, neither the amount nor the distribution of collagen affected porcine islet isolation outcome.

  16. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F


    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  17. Effect of polyethylene glycol grafted onto islet capsules on prevention of splenocyte and cytokine attacks.

    Lee, Dong Yun; Nam, Jong Hee; Byun, Youngro


    In the graft rejection of transplanted islets, the host's immune cells recognize the islets as antigens, which then stimulate the immune cells to begin the cytokine secretion and also the proliferation of immune cells. To prevent the recognition of islets by the immune cells, we grafted biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the collagen capsule of islets without incurring any changes in the morphology and function of islets. To evaluate the efficiency of PEG grafting, PEG-grafted islets were cultured with splenocytes consisting mainly of lymphocytes and macrophages. A splenocyte proliferation assessment using a BrdU incorporation assay showed that the PEG-grafted islets did not stimulate the splenocytes. In addition, the viability and microorganisms in islet cells of co-cultured PEG-grafted islets were not altered. However, in the co-culture of free islets (control) splenocytes were stimulated; they mainly secreted TNF-alpha and strongly affected the viability and structure of free islets. Furthermore, when islets were treated with the rat recombinant TNF-alpha for 7 days, the viabilities of PEG-grafted and free islets were significantly damaged, although the viability of PEG-grafted islets was higher than that of free islets by nearly three times. These results demonstrate that PEG grafted on the surface of islets could prevent the recognition of islets by splenocytes, but could not completely protect islets from cytokines.

  18. The de novo synthesis of numerous proteins is decreased during vitamin D3 deficiency and is gradually restored by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 repletion in the islets of langerhans of rats.

    Bourlon, P M; Faure-Dussert, A; Billaudel, B


    Since both the release and de novo biosynthesis of insulin are severely decreased by vitamin D3 deficiency and improved by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) repletion following a 6-h delay in the rat, the present experiments investigated the effects of vitamin D3 deficiency on the biosynthesis of heavier molecular weight proteins using electrophoretic separation. Gel protein staining by Coomassie blue showed very different profiles for islets protein production from 4-week vitamin D3-deficient rats compared with normal islets. The pattern was characterised by a decrease in high molecular weight proteins, concomitantly accompanied by an increase in low molecular weight proteins. This tendency was partially reversed in vivo by 1,25(OH)2D3 repletion treatment for 7 days and was evident after only 16 h of treatment. In parallel with these in vivo observations, which represent a static index of islets protein production, a kinetic study was performed in vitro by a double-labelling method allowing us to measure the de novo synthesis of proteins in islets during a strong 16.7 mM glucose stimulation. Comparison of 3H and 14C labelled samples was achieved via coelectrophoresis to avoid experimental artefacts. The study of the ratio of d.p.m. 3H/d.p.m. 14C for each molecular weight protein in islets stimulated by 16.7 mM glucose (versus basal 4.2 mM glucose) showed an increase in the height of certain peaks: 150, 130 and 8.5 kDa. Under the same conditions, islets from 4-week vitamin D3-deficient rats (versus normal islets) presented a large deficit of numerous newly synthesised proteins and particularly those implicated in the response to glucose stimulation. In vitro repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3 tended to reverse, at least in part, the deleterious effect of vitamin D3 deficiency on the de novo protein synthesis of islets but these effects were gradual. Indeed, there was no detectable effect at 2 h incubation, but 1,25(OH)2D3 increased the 60 to 65 kDa, 55 kDa, and 9 to 8

  19. Exocrine contamination impairs implantation of pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the kidney capsule.

    Gray, D W; Sutton, R; McShane, P; Peters, M; Morris, P J


    The effect of exocrine contamination on islets implanted under the kidney capsule has been studied by histological examination of pure or exocrine-contamination human, monkey, or rat islets transplanted to the kidney capsule of the nude rat, monkey, or rat, respectively. Exocrine contamination resulted in an appearance suggestive of impaired islet implantation, due to tissue necrosis and subsequent fibrosis. The effect of exocrine contamination was examined quantitatively in a rat islet isograft model in which handpicked DA rat islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of normal DA rats. The islets were either pure or deliberately recontaminated with exocrine tissue (50 or 90% contamination). Four hundred pure islets were placed under one kidney capsule and 400 islets (of similar size and from the same islet preparation) were contaminated and then placed under the contralateral kidney capsule. After 2 weeks the kidneys were removed and extracted for insulin content. The insulin content of kidneys bearing islets contaminated by either 50 or 90% exocrine tissue was significantly reduced when compared to the contralateral kidney bearing pure islets. These findings support the view that exocrine contamination of islets resulted in impaired islet implantation when transplanted to a confined site such as the kidney subcapsule.

  20. Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide: A Novel Regulator of Islet Function, Islet Regeneration, and Selected Gut Bacteria.

    Pound, Lynley D; Patrick, Christopher; Eberhard, Chandra E; Mottawea, Walid; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Abujamel, Turki; Vandenbeek, Roxanne; Stintzi, Alain; Scott, Fraser W


    Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) is a naturally occurring secreted peptide that is expressed in several organs with pleiotropic roles in immunomodulation, wound healing, and cell growth. We previously demonstrated that gut Camp expression is upregulated when type 1 diabetes-prone rats are protected from diabetes development. Unexpectedly, we have also identified novel CAMP expression in the pancreatic β-cells of rats, mice, and humans. CAMP was present even in sterile rat embryo islets, germ-free adult rat islets, and neogenic tubular complexes. Camp gene expression was downregulated in young BBdp rat islets before the onset of insulitis compared with control BBc rats. CAMP treatment of dispersed islets resulted in a significant increase in intracellular calcium mobilization, an effect that was both delayed and blunted in the absence of extracellular calcium. Additionally, CAMP treatment promoted insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated rat islets. Thus, CAMP is a promoter of islet paracrine signaling that enhances islet function and glucoregulation. Finally, daily treatment with the CAMP/LL-37 peptide in vivo in BBdp rats resulted in enhanced β-cell neogenesis and upregulation of potentially beneficial gut microbes. In particular, CAMP/LL-37 treatment shifted the abundance of specific bacterial populations, mitigating the gut dysbiosis observed in the BBdp rat. Taken together, these findings indicate a novel functional role for CAMP/LL-37 in islet biology and modification of gut microbiota. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin reduces the size of cerebral infarction in rats: effect of oxygen affinity.

    Fukumoto, Dai; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Haida, Munetaka; Yamano, Mariko; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Tsukada, Hideo


    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) with a low oxygen affinity (l-LEH, P(50) = 45 mm Hg) was found to be protective in the rodent and primate models of ischemic stroke. This study investigated the role of LEH with a high O(2) affinity (h-LEH, P(50) = 10 mm Hg) in its protective effect on brain ischemia. The extent of cerebral infarction was determined 24 h after photochemically induced thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery from the integrated area of infarction detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining in rats receiving various doses of h-LEH as well as l-LEH. Both h-LEH and l-LEH significantly reduced the extent of cortical infarction. h-LEH remained protective at a lower concentration (minimal effective dose [MED]: 0.08 mL/kg) than l-LEH (MED: 2 mL/kg) in the cortex. h-LEH reduced the infarction extent in basal ganglia as well (MED: 0.4 mL/kg), whereas l-LEH provided no significant protection. h-LEH provided better protection than l-LEH. The protective effect of both high- and low-affinity LEH may suggest the importance of its small particle size (230 nm) as compared to red blood cells. The superiority of h-LEH over l-LEH supports an optimal O(2) delivery to the ischemic penumbra as the mechanism of action in protecting against brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  2. Long-term biocompatibility, chemistry, and function of microencapsulated pancreatic islets.

    de Vos, Paul; van Hoogmoed, Chris G; van Zanten, Jacoba; Netter, S; Strubbe, Jan H; Busscher, Henk J


    Transplantation of encapsulated living cells is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. In the present study, we have implemented new as well as previously reported technologies to test biocompatibility issues of immunoisolating microcapsules on the long term (i.e. 2 years) instead of usually reported short time periods. When transplanted empty, the capsules proved to be highly biocompatible not only for short periods (i.e. 1 month) but also on the long term as evidenced by the absence of any significant biological response up to 2 years after implantation in rats. The immunoprotective properties of the capsules were confirmed by prolonged survival of encapsulated islet allografts up to 200 days. The surface of the applied capsule was analyzed and provides new insight in the chemical structure of true biocompatible and immunoprotective capsules applicable for transplantation of encapsulated islets in type I diabetes.

  3. C肽灌注对Wistar大鼠胰岛微循环的影响%Effect of C peptide on pancreatic islet microcirculation in Wistar rats

    吴琳; 黄镇; (A)ke Sj(o)holm; 高鑫


    目的 测定生理剂量重组人C肽静脉注射对雄性Wistar大鼠胰岛微循环、血糖和胰岛素分泌的影响.方法 成年雄性Wistar大鼠分为C肽组和对照组,分别给予C肽(75 nmol/kg体重)和相同容积生理盐水静脉注射;每组再分为葡萄糖组和生理盐水组两个亚组.血流测定采用微球技术.结果 C肽显著增高Wistar大鼠基础胰岛血流[C肽组vs对照组:(0.156±0.018 vs 0.050±0.003)ml·min-1·g-1胰腺,P<0.01]和胰岛/胰腺血流比值[C肽组vs对照组:(14.33±0.53vs9.16±0.64)%,P<0.01],胰腺血流向胰岛内重分布.C肽对糖负荷后胰岛微循环无显著影响.C肽降低大鼠腹腔糖耐量试验30 min血糖[C肽组vs对照组:(7.9±0.7 vs 11.5±0.6)mmol/L,P<0.01];增加胰岛素分泌(AUC胰岛素(0-120),C肽组vs对照组:141.36±15.00 vs 49.78±5.60,P<0.01).结论 C肽静脉注射改善Wistar大鼠基础胰岛微循环,调节糖负荷后胰岛素分泌.%Objective To evaluate the effects of physiological doses of C-peptide on islet microcirculation,blood glucose,and insulin concentrations.Methods Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups i.v either with C-peptide (75nmoL/kg body wt)or saline (control).Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups using 1 ml saline or 30% glucose.A microsphere technique was adopted to measure the pancreatic islet microcirculation.Results Intravenous injection of C-peptide markedly increased basal islet blood flow[(0.156±flow[(14.33±0.53 vs 9.16±0.64) %,P<0.01],but did not affect islet microcircuJation after intravenous glucose administration.In IPGT,C-peptide decreased blood glucose at 30 min[(7.9±0.7 vs 11.5±0.6) mmol/L,P<0.01]after glucose challenge and stimulated insulin secretion(for AUCins(0.120),141.36±15.00 vs 49.78±5.60,P < 0.01).Conclusion C-peptide induces redistribution of pancreatic blood flow in favour of islet in normoglycemic rats,and modulates insulin release in hyperglycaemic rats.

  4. Growth hormone and prolactin stimulate the expression of rat preadipocyte factor-1/delta-like protein in pancreatic islets

    Carlsson, C; Tornehave, D; Lindberg, Karen;


    , followed by a rapid decline on postnatal day 4. Pref-1 immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of insulin cells of neonatal islets of Langerhans. At an early embryonal stage (E13), most cells of the pancreatic anlage were Pref-1 positive, becoming predominantly restricted to the insulin-producing...... cells during development. In conclusion, these findings suggest that Pref-1 is involved in both differentiation and growth of beta-cells....

  5. Transcriptional profiling of type 1 diabetes genes on chromosome 21 in a rat beta-cell line and human pancreatic islets

    Bergholdt, R.; Karlsen, A.E.; Hagedorn, Peter;


    We recently finemapped a type 1 diabetes (T1D)-linked region on chromosome 21, indicating that one or more T1D-linked genes exist in this region with 33 annotated genes. In the current study, we have taken a novel approach using transcriptional profiling in predicting and prioritizing the most...... likely candidate genes influencing beta-cell function in this region. Two array-based approaches were used, a rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1alphabeta) overexpressing pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1 (pdx-1) and treated with interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) as well as human pancreatic islets stimulated...... with a mixture of cytokines. Several candidate genes with likely functional significance in T1D were identified. Genes showing differential expression in the two approaches were highly similar, supporting the role of these specific gene products in cytokine-induced beta-cell damage. These were genes involved...

  6. Rac1 regulates pancreatic islet morphogenesis

    Ståhlberg Anders


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic islets of Langerhans originate from endocrine progenitors within the pancreatic ductal epithelium. Concomitant with differentiation of these progenitors into hormone-producing cells such cells delaminate, aggregate and migrate away from the ductal epithelium. The cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating islet cell delamination and cell migration are poorly understood. Extensive biochemical and cell biological studies using cultured cells demonstrated that Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, acts as a key regulator of cell migration. Results To address the functional role of Rac1 in islet morphogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing dominant negative Rac1 under regulation of the Rat Insulin Promoter. Blocking Rac1 function in beta cells inhibited their migration away from the ductal epithelium in vivo. Consistently, transgenic islet cell spreading was compromised in vitro. We also show that the EGF-receptor ligand betacellulin induced actin remodelling and cell spreading in wild-type islets, but not in transgenic islets. Finally, we demonstrate that cell-cell contact E-cadherin increased as a consequence of blocking Rac1 activity. Conclusion Our data support a model where Rac1 signalling controls islet cell migration by modulating E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, in vitro experiments show that betacellulin stimulated islet cell spreading and actin remodelling is compromised in transgenic islets, suggesting that betacellulin may act as a regulator of Rac1 activity and islet migration in vivo. Our results further emphasize Rac1 as a key regulator of cell migration and cell adhesion during tissue and organ morphogenesis.

  7. Porcine islet isolation outcome is not affected by the amount and distribution of collagen in the pancreas.

    Hilling, Denise E; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josephine K R A; Töns, H Annemiek M; Terpstra, Onno T; Bouwman, Eelco


    Variable islet yields in porcine islet isolation may be caused by the collagen substrate within the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to determine the total amount and distribution of collagen within porcine pancreata and their relationship to islet isolation outcome. A total of 64 juvenile and 76 adult porcine pancreata of eight purebred breeds were histologically examined. The amount of collagen was quantitatively assessed in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red. Collagen distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by assessing the presence of collagen in the endocrine-exocrine interface and within the islet, in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red and anti-insulin. Islet isolation was performed in 58 pancreata of the adult group. Total collagen content and islet encapsulation ranged widely in both adult and juvenile pigs. However, the majority of islets in adult and juvenile pigs had no or only a limited collagen capsule. The difference in collagen content between adult and juvenile pigs could not be explained by age. Furthermore, no differences between adult and juvenile pigs were found in islet encapsulation or the amount of intra-islet collagen. In adult pigs, no significant relationships were found between obtained islet yield and total collagen content, islet encapsulation or amount of collagen within the islet. Considering the limitations in experimental design (staining method) and study material, isolation outcome does not seem to be affected by the total collagen content or collagen distribution. The influence of other matrix elements and collagen subtypes should be investigated.

  8. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Kosicka, Iga


    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of iv injection of polyphase liposome—encapsulated cisplatin(KM—1) in rats

    WANGShan; MIJie-Bo; LIYuan-Zong; CHANGWen-Bao; CIYun-Xiang; ZHAOMin-Zheng; ZHAOYun-Kun; ZHULi-Ya; XUGuang


    AIM:The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of cisplatin encapsulated in polyphase liposome (KM-1) were compared with those of free drug in rats. METHODS: The platinum levels in serum and normal organs, after a single dose of iv injection of free or encapsulated cisplatin to rats, were determined by induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. RESULTS: Serum platinum concentration-time curve after a single iv dose of KM-14.5mg/kg in rats was fitted with an open three-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: Vc=0.10L/kg, T1/2π=0.3h, T1/2α=3.5h, T1/2β=2.7h, AUC=265mg·h·L-1, and CL(s)=0.02g·L-1·h-1. KM-1 was cleared from the circulation much more slowly than free cisplatin. Liver and spleen had the highest concentration of platinum after KM-1 treatment. CONCLUSION:KM-1 remained in the bloodstream longer than its free drug, and was taken mainly by the reticuloendothelial system.

  10. Protective Effects of the Mushroom Lactarius deterrimus Extract on Systemic Oxidative Stress and Pancreatic Islets in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Mirjana Mihailović


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of the extract of the medicinal mushroom, Lactarius deterrimus, when administered (60 mg/kg, i.p. daily for four weeks to streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with the L. deterrimus extract displayed several improved biochemical parameters in the circulation: reduced hyperglycemia, lower triglyceride concentration and reduced glycated hemoglobin, glycated serum protein, and advanced glycation end product (AGE levels. This treatment also adjusted the diabetes-induced redox imbalance. Thus, higher activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the circulation were accompanied by increased levels of free intracellular thiols and glutathionylated proteins after treatment with the L. deterrimus extract. In addition to a systemic antioxidant effect, the administration of the extract to diabetic rats also had a positive localized effect on pancreatic islets where it decreased AGE formation, and increased the expression of chemokine CXCL12 protein that mediates the restoration of β-cell population through the activation of the serine/threonine-specific Akt protein kinase prosurvival pathway. As a result, the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- (PCNA- and insulin-positive β-cells were increased. These results show that the ability of the L. deterrimus extract to alleviate oxidative stress and increase β-cell mass represents a therapeutic potential for diabetes management.

  11. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Tulika Dahiya


    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  12. Apolipoprotein CIII Reduces Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pancreatic Islets via the Akt Prosurvival Pathway

    Størling, Joachim; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa; Olivecrona, Gunilla;


    Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is mainly synthesized in the liver and is important for triglyceride metabolism. The plasma concentration of ApoCIII is elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in vitro ApoCIII causes apoptosis in pancreatic ß-cells in the absence of inflammatory stress...... µg/ml) did not cause apoptosis. In the presence of the islet-cytotoxic cytokines IL-1ß + interferon-¿, ApoCIII reduced cytokine-mediated islet cell death and impairment of ß-cell function. ApoCIII had no effects on mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and ERK) and had...... of the survival serine-threonine kinase Akt. Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the antiapoptotic effect of ApoCIII on cytokine-induced apoptosis. We conclude that ApoCIII in the presence of T1D-relevant proinflammatory cytokines reduces...

  13. Macro-or microencapsulation of pig islets to cure type 1 diabetes

    Denis Dufrane; Pierre Gianello


    Although allogeneic islet transplantation can successfully cure type 1 diabetes,it has limited applicability.For example,organs are in short supply; several human pancreas donors are often needed to treat one diabetic recipient; the intrahepatic site may not be the most appropriate site for islet implantation; and immunosuppressive regimens,which are associated with side effects,are often required to prolong survival of the islet graft.An altemative source of insulinproducing cells would therefore be of major interest.Pigs represent a possible alternative source of beta cells.Grafting of pig islets may appear difficult because of the immunologic species barrier,but pig islets have been shown to function in primates for at least 6 mo with clinically incompatible immunosuppression.Therefore,a bioartificial pancreas made of encapsulated pig islets may resolve issues associated with islet allotransplantation.Although several groups have shown that encapsulated pig islets are functional in small-animal models,less is known about the use of bioartificial pancreases in large-animal models.In this review,we summarize current knowledge of encapsulated pig islets,to determine obstacles to implantation in humans and possible solutions to overcome these obstacles.

  14. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    Sun, Min; Zhao, Lixia; Guo, Chenyu; Cao, Fengliang; Chen, Huanlei; Zhao, Liyan; Tan, Qi; Zhu, Xiuqing; Zhu, Fanping; Ding, Tingting; Zhai, Yingjie; Zhai, Guangxi


    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40-400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  15. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    Sun Min; Zhao Lixia; Guo Chenyu; Cao Fengliang; Chen Huanlei; Zhao Liyan; Tan Qi; Zhu Xiuqing; Zhu Fanping; Ding Tingting; Zhai Yingjie; Zhai Guangxi, E-mail: [Shandong University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy (China)


    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40-400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  16. Possible modulatory effect of endogenous islet catecholamines on insulin secretion

    Gagliardino Juan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possible participation of endogenous islet catecholamines (CAs in the control of insulin secretion was tested. Methods Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in the presence of 3-Iodo-L-Tyrosine (MIT, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, in fresh and precultured islets isolated from normal rats. Incubated islets were also used to measure CAs release in the presence of low and high glucose, and the effect of α2-(yohimbine [Y] and idazoxan [I] and α1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin [P] and terazosin [T] upon insulin secretion elicited by high glucose. Results Fresh islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose released significantly more insulin in the presence of 1 μM MIT (6.66 ± 0.39 vs 5.01 ± 0.43 ng/islet/h, p Conclusion Our results suggest that islet-originated CAs directly modulate insulin release in a paracrine manner.

  17. Calcium-signaling components in rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) and pancreatic islets are differentially influenced by melatonin.

    Bazwinsky-Wutschke, Ivonne; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Albrecht, Elke; Peschke, Elmar


    The pineal secretory product melatonin exerts its influence on the insulin secretion of pancreatic islets by different signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of melatonin on calcium-signaling components under different conditions. In a transfected INS-1 cell line overexpressing the human MT2 receptor (hMT2-INS-1), melatonin treatment induced even stronger depressive effects on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2d and IV (Camk2d, CamkIV) transcripts during 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment than in normal INS-1 cells, indicating a crucial influence of melatonin receptor density on transcript-level regulation. In addition, melatonin induced a significant downregulation of calmodulin (Calm1) in IBMX-treated hMT2-INS-1 cells. Long-term administration of melatonin alone reduced CamkIV transcript levels in INS-1 cells; however, transcript levels of Camk2d remained unchanged. The release of insulin was diminished under long-term melatonin treatment. The impact of melatonin also involved reductions in CAMK2D protein during IBMX or forskolin treatments in INS-1 cells, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a functional significance of transcriptional changes in pancreatic islets. Furthermore, analysis of melatonin receptor knockout mice showed that the transcript levels of Camk2d, CamkIV, and Calm1 were differentially influenced according to the melatonin receptor subtype deleted. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that melatonin has different impacts on the regulation of Calm1 and Camk. These calcium-signaling components are known as participants in the calcium/calmodulin pathway, which plays an important functional role in the modulation of the β-cell signaling pathways leading to insulin secretion.

  18. Conformal nano-thin modified polyelectrolyte coatings for encapsulation of cells.

    Granicka, L H; Antosiak-Iwańska, M; Godlewska, E; Strawski, M; Szklarczyk, M; Maranowski, B; Kowalewski, C; Wiśniewsk, J


    Encapsulation of cells in polymeric shells allows for separation of biological material from produced factors, which may find biotechnological and biomedical applications. Human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat as well as rat pancreatic islets were encapsulated using LbL technique within shells of polyelectrolyte modified by incorporation of biotin complexed with avidin to improve cell coating and to create the potential ability to elicit specific biochemical responses. The coating with nano-thin modified shells allowed for maintenance of the evaluated cells' integrity and viability during the 8-day culture. The different PE impact may be observed on different biological materials. The islets exhibited lower mitochondrial activity than the Jurkat cells. Nevertheless, coating of cells with polyelectrolyte modified membrane allowed for functioning of both model cell types: 10 μm leukemia cells or 150 μm islets during the culture. Applied membranes maintained the molecular structure during the culture period. The conclusion is that applied modified membrane conformation may be recommended for coating shells for biomedical purposes.

  19. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin alleviates brain edema after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

    Kawaguchi, Akira T; Kurita, Daisaku; Furuya, Hiroyuki; Yamano, Mariko; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Haida, Munetaka


    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) was proven to be protective in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study evaluated LEH in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion to clarify its effect during ischemia and reperfusion. Five minutes after thread occlusion of the MCA, rats were infused with 10 mL/kg of LEH (LEH, n = 13), and compared with normal controls (n = 11). Additional animals received the same MCA occlusion with no treatment (CT, n = 11), saline (saline, n = 10), empty liposome solution (EL, n = 13), or washed red blood cells (RBC, n = 7). Severity of brain edema was determined 24 h later by signal strength in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and pyriform lobe. The results showed that brain edema/infarction observed in any vehicle-infused control was significantly more severe than in LEH-treated rats. There was a tendency toward aggravated edema in rats receiving ELs. LEH infusion at a dose of 10 mL/kg significantly reduced edema formation as compared to other treatments in a wide area of the brain 24 h after permanent occlusion of the MCA. Low oncotic pressure of EL and LEH solution (vehicle solution) appeared to cause nonsignificant aggravation of edema and reduced protective effects of LEH.

  20. Ultrastructural studies of time-course and cellular specificity of interleukin-1 mediated islet cytotoxicity

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Egeberg, J; Nerup, J


    Previous electron-microscopic studies of isolated islets of Langerhans exposed to the monokine interleukin-1 for 7 days have indicated that interleukin-1 is cytotoxic to all islet cells. To study the time-course and possible cellular specificity of interleukin-1 cytotoxicity to islets exposed...... to interleukin-1 for short time periods, isolated rat or human islets were incubated with or without 25 U/ml highly purified human interleukin-1 for 24 h. Samples of rat islets were taken after 5 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h and samples of human islets after 5 min, 30 min and 24 h...... of incubation and examined by electron microscopy in a blinded fashion. Already after 30 min, accumulation of opaque intracytoplasmic bodies without apparent surrounding membranes, and autophagic vacuoles were seen in about 20% of the beta cells examined in rat islets exposed to interleukin-1. After 16 h...

  1. Microencapsulated 3-dimensional sensor for the measurement of oxygen in single isolated pancreatic islets.

    Wanyu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide, increases were observed in all cases (n = 6, and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2-48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The

  2. Leptin- or troglitazone-induced lipopenia protects islets from interleukin 1beta cytotoxicity.

    Shimabukuro, M; Koyama, K; Lee, Y; Unger, R H


    Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta)-induced beta cell cytotoxicity has been implicated in the autoimmune cytotoxicity of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These cytotoxic effects may be mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Since long-chain fatty acids (FFA), like IL-1beta, upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase and enhance NO generation in islets, it seemed possible that islets might be protected from IL-1beta-induced damage by lowering their lipid content. We found that IL-1beta-induced NO production varied directly and islet cell viability inversely with islet triglyceride (TG) content. Fat-laden islets of obese rats were most vulnerable to IL-1beta, while moderately fat-depleted islets of food-restricted normal rats were less vulnerable than those of free-feeding normal rats. Severely lipopenic islets of rats made chronically hyperleptinemic by adenoviral leptin gene transfer resisted IL-1beta cytotoxicity even at 300 pg/ml, the maximal concentration. Troglitazone lowered islet TG in cultured islets from both normal rats and obese, leptin-resistant rats and reduced NO production and enhanced cell survival. We conclude that measures that lower islet TG content protect against IL-1beta-induced NO production and cytotoxicity. Leptin or troglitazone could provide in vivo protection against insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:9312173

  3. Cytocompatible polyion complex gel of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) for simultaneous rat bone marrow stromal cell encapsulation.

    Nurlidar, Farah; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao


    Polyion complex (PIC) gel of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) was successfully fabricated by simply mixing polyanion and polycation derivatives of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), a collagen-like polypeptide. The polyanion, succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), and the polycation, arginylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), contain carboxy (pKa = 5.2) and guanidinium (pKa = 12.4) groups, respectively. Mixing the polyanion and the polycation at physiological pH (pH = 7.4) resulted in PIC gel. The hydrogel formation was optimum at an equimolar ratio of carboxy to guanidinium groups, suggesting that ionic interaction is the main determinant for the hydrogel formation. The hydrogel was successfully used for simultaneous rat bone marrow stromal cell encapsulation. The encapsulated cells survived and proliferated within the hydrogel. In addition, the cells exhibited different morphology in the hydrogel compared with cells cultured on a tissue culture dish as a two-dimensional (2D) control. At day one, a round morphology and homogeneous single cell distribution were observed in the hydrogel. In contrast, the cells spread and formed a fibroblast-like morphology on the 2D control. After three days, the cells in the hydrogel maintained their morphology and some of them formed multicellular aggregates, which is similar to cell morphology in an in vivo microenvironment. These results suggest that the PIC gel of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) can serve as a cytocompatible three-dimensional scaffold for stem cell encapsulation, supporting their viability, proliferation, and in vivo-like behavior.

  4. Resveratrol encapsulated in novel fusogenic liposomes activates Nrf2 and attenuates oxidative stress in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells from aged rats.

    Csiszár, Agnes; Csiszar, Anna; Pinto, John T; Gautam, Tripti; Kleusch, Christian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan


    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a plant-derived polyphenolic trans-stilbenoid, which exerts multifaceted antiaging effects. Here, we propose a novel delivery system for resveratrol, which significantly increases its cellular uptake into aged cells. Combination of resveratrol with a positively charged lipid component to "conventional" liposomes converts these lipid vesicles to a robust fusogenic system. To study their cellular uptake and cellular effects, we treated primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells isolated from aged F344xBN rats with resveratrol encapsulated in fusogenic liposomes (FL-RSV). To demonstrate effective cellular uptake of FL-RSV, accumulation of the lipophilic tracer dye, DiR, and resveratrol in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells was confirmed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography electrochemical detection. Treatment of aged cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells with FL-RSV activated Nrf2 (assessed with a reporter gene assay), significantly decreased cellular production of reactive oxygen species (assessed by a flow cytometry-based H2DCFDA fluorescence method), and inhibited apoptosis. Taken together, encapsulation of resveratrol into novel fusogenic liposomes significantly enhances the delivery of resveratrol into aged cells, which subsequently results in rapid activation of cellular Nrf2-driven antioxidant defense mechanisms. Our studies provide proof-of-concept for the development of a novel, translationally relevant interventional strategy for prevention and/or control of oxidative stress-related pathophysiological conditions in aging.

  5. 骨髓间充质干细胞对大鼠到小鼠胰岛移植的保护作用%Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced lmmunotolerance on Rat to Mouse Islet Transplantation

    曾力; 张爽; 魏玲玲; 田伯乐; 麦刚; 张杰; 李胜富; 陈又南; 陆燕蓉


    目的 探讨同种异基因骨髓间充质干细胞(bone mesenchamal stem cells,BMSC)静脉输注对大鼠到小鼠胰岛移植物的功能保护和小鼠糖尿病状态改善.方法 全骨髓培养法获得C57BL/6小鼠BMSC.不连续梯度离心法分离纯化Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠胰岛,将300胰岛当量的胰岛单独或与BMSC联合移植入链脲菌素诱导的糖尿病BALB/c小鼠肾包膜下,并通过尾静脉在移植后0.3和5d注射CM-DiI标记的BMSC 5×10(5)/只,对照组给于磷酸盐缓冲溶液.移植后监测血糖,第9天处死小鼠,取肝、脾、胸腺、淋巴结和移植胰岛的肾脏,冰冻切片,荧光显微镜观察CM-DiI标记细胞的组织分布;免疫荧光法观察移植物中胰岛素和胰高血糖素表达,评价胰岛的功能.结果 BMSC静脉输注后主要分布于胸腺,其次是脾脏和淋巴结,肾和肝组织中未观察到BMSC;BMSC联合胰岛移植组血糖控制水平优于其他组,且在第7天的口服糖耐量实验优于单纯胰岛移植组.结论 与胰岛联合移植的BMSC对受者免疫器官和组织有明显的趋向性,且对胰岛细胞的体内存活有一定保护作用.%Objective To research on the protection function by the allogeneic rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) on rat to mouse islet transplantation and the improvement of diabetic state in muse. Methods BMSC were prepared from C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells and identified by flow cytometry (FCM). Islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with Ficoll discontinuous centrifugation. CM-DiI labeled BMSC at 5 × 105 for one mouse were intravenously infused into STZ induced diabetic BALB/c mice after rat to mouse islet transplantation at day 0, 3 and 5. Mice with PBS intravenously infused after islet transplantation were set as the negative controls. Blood glucose was monitored every day at the first 3 days after transplantation, and then monitored every two days. At day 9 after transplantation, spleen, thymus, lymph nods, liver and

  6. Use of liposome encapsulated hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier for fetal and adult rat liver cell culture.

    Montagne, Kevin; Huang, Hongyun; Ohara, Keikou; Matsumoto, Kunio; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki


    Engineering liver tissue constructs with sufficient cell mass for transplantation implies culturing large numbers of hepatocytes in a reduced volume; however, providing sufficient oxygen to dense cell cultures is still not feasible using only conventional culture medium. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH), an oxygen-carrying blood substitute originally designed for short-term perfusion, may be a good candidate as an oxygen carrier to cultured liver cells. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of maintaining long term hepatocyte cultures using LEH. Primary fetal and adult rat liver cells were directly exposed to LEH for 6 to 14 days in static culture or in a perfused flat plate bioreactor. The functions and viability of adult rat hepatocytes exposed to LEH were not adversely affected in static monolayer culture and were even improved in the bioreactor. However, some cytotoxicity of LEH was observed with fetal rat liver cells after 4 days of culture. LEH, though a suitable oxygen carrier for long-term culture of mature hepatocytes, is not suitable in its present form for perfusing fetal hepatocyte cultures in direct contact with the liposomes; either the LEH will have to be made less toxic or a more sophisticated bioreactor that prevents the direct contact between hepatocytes and perfusates will have to be designed if fetal cells are to be used for liver tissue engineering.

  7. The brain metabolic activity after resuscitation with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in a rat model of hypovolemic shock.

    Rao, Geeta; Hedrick, Andria F; Yadav, Vivek R; Xie, Jun; Hussain, Alamdar; Awasthi, Vibhudutta


    We examined the effect of resuscitation with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) on cerebral bioenergetics in a rat model of 45% hypovolemia. The rats were resuscitated with isovolemic LEH or saline after 15 minutes of shock and followed up to 6 hours. Untreated hypovolemic rats received no fluid. The cerebral uptake of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was measured by PET, and at 6 hours, the brain was collected for various assays. Hypovolemia decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphocreatine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)/NADH ratio, citrate synthase activity, glucose-6-phosphate, and nerve growth factor (NGF), even when FDG uptake remained unchanged. The FDG uptake was reduced by saline, but not by LEH infusion. The reduced FDG uptake in saline group was associated with a decrease in hexokinase I expression. The LEH infusion effectively restored ATP content, NAD/NADH ratio, and NGF expression, and reduced the hypovolemia-induced accumulation of pyruvate and ubiquitinated proteins; in comparison, saline was significantly less effective. The LEH infusion was associated with low pH and high anion gap, indicating anionic gap acidosis. The results suggest that hypovolemic shock perturbs glucose metabolism at the level of pyruvate utilization, resulting in deranged cerebral energy stores. The correction of volume and oxygen deficits by LEH recovers the cerebral metabolism and creates a prosurvival phenotype.

  8. Simultaneous transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue and encapsulated genetically modified cells releasing GDNF in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie


    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation. We found that rats grafted with VM transplants...

  9. Extracellular matrix components supporting human islet function in alginate-based immunoprotective microcapsules for treatment of diabetes

    Llacua Carrasco, Luis; de Haan, Bart J; Smink, Sandra A; de Vos, Paul


    In the pancreas, extracellular matrix (ECM) components play an import role in providing mechanical and physiological support, and also contribute to the function of islets. These ECM-connections are damaged during islet-isolation from the pancreas and are not fully recovered after encapsulation and

  10. Ultrastructural studies of time-course and cellular specificity of interleukin-1 mediated islet cytotoxicity

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Egeberg, J; Nerup, J


    of incubation and examined by electron microscopy in a blinded fashion. Already after 30 min, accumulation of opaque intracytoplasmic bodies without apparent surrounding membranes, and autophagic vacuoles were seen in about 20% of the beta cells examined in rat islets exposed to interleukin-1. After 16 h......Previous electron-microscopic studies of isolated islets of Langerhans exposed to the monokine interleukin-1 for 7 days have indicated that interleukin-1 is cytotoxic to all islet cells. To study the time-course and possible cellular specificity of interleukin-1 cytotoxicity to islets exposed...... of incubation with interleukin-1, more than 80% of rat beta cells showed signs of degeneration. Beta cell specific changes similar to those observed in rat islets exposed to IL-1 for 30 min were seen in human islets exposed to IL-1 for 24 h. The described changes were not observed in alpha cells in interleukin...

  11. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B. [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V., E-mail: [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)


    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  12. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 protects rat pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis through Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway

    SUN Qi; XIANG Ruo-lan; YANG Yan-li; FENG Kai; ZHANG Kui; DING Wen-yi


    Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signaling pathway involved in negative feedback loops.Although SOCS1 is an important intracellular suppressor of apoptosis in a variety of cell types,its role in cytokine-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis remains unclear.The present study investigated potential effects of SOCS1 on the cytokine-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis.Methods After successfully transfected with SOCS1/pEGFP-C1 or pEGFP-C1 plasmids to overexpress SOCS1,RINm5F (rat insulinoma cell line) cells were exposed to cytokines,interferon (IFN)-γ alone,IFN-γ+interleukin (IL)-1β,IFN-y+IL-1β+tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α respectively.Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis was assessed by using MTT,FACS,and caspase-3 activity assays.Protein phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) were verified by Western blotting and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),NF-κB and Fas were analyzed by RT-PCR.Results Overexpression of SOCS1 in RINm5F cells was shown to attenuate IFN-γ alone,IFN-γ+IL-1β and IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-1β mediated apoptosis.Phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT1 significantly decreased in RINm5F cells which overexpressed SOCS1 protein.Overexpression of SOCS1 significantly suppressed cytokine-induced iNOS mRNA levels.Conclusion Overexpression of SOCS1 protects pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced cell apoptosis via the JAK2/STAT1 pathway.

  13. Islet transplantation: immunological perspectives.

    Inverardi, Luca; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo


    Clinical trials of islet transplantation are showing remarkable success, but they require administration of chronic immunosuppression, and are underscoring the large gap that exists between the number of human donors available and the number of patients that could benefit from the procedure. Recent progress has been made in the definition of key immunological mechanisms that are involved in determining islet transplant outcome. Clinical and preclinical studies, and studies in small animal model systems, will all eventually contribute to the definition of efficient and safe protocols for islet transplantation. If the use of xenografts is successful, it might represent a solution to the shortage of human organs.

  14. In vitro effects of bis(1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato)oxidovanadium(IV), or VO(dmpp)2, on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Pelletier, Julien; Domingues, Neuza; Castro, M Margarida C A; Östenson, Claes-Göran


    Vanadium compounds have been explored as therapy of diabetes, and most studies have focussed on insulin mimetic effects, i.e. reducing hyperglycemia by improving glucose sensitivity and thus glucose uptake in sensitive tissues. We have recently shown that bis(1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato)oxidovanadium(IV), VO(dmpp)2, has promising effects when compared to another vanadium compound, bis(maltolato)oxidovanadium(IV), BMOV, and insulin itself, in isolated adipocytes and in vivo in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of hereditary type 2 diabetes (T2D).We now have investigated in GK rats whether VO(dmpp)2 also modulates another important defect in T2D, impaired insulin secretion. VO(dmpp)2, but not BMOV, stimulated insulin secretion from isolated GK rat pancreatic islets at high, 16.7mM, but not at low–normal, 3.3 mM, glucose concentration. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the insulin releasing effect of VO(dmpp)2 is due to its interaction with several steps in the stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose, including islet glucose metabolism and K-ATP channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, modulation by protein kinases A and C, as well as the exocytotic machinery. In conclusion, VO(dmpp)2 exhibits properties of interest for treatment of the insulin secretory defect in T2D, in addition to its well-described insulin mimetic activity.

  15. Teucrium polium complex with molybdate enhance cultured islets secretory function.

    Mohseni Salehi Monfared, Seyed Sajad; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin


    Islet transplantation has become a promising treatment in the therapy of type 1 diabetes. Its function improvement, after isolation and before transplantation, is crucial because of their loss both in number and function of islets after isolation procedures. Trace elements sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and sodium molybdate (SM), as well as medicinal plant Teucrium polium L. (TP), showed and possessed high beneficial antioxidative potential and even hypoglycemic properties via their effect on islets. We evaluated the effect of these components in combination on cultured islet function in order to improve pancreatic islet transplantation. Rat pancreatic islets were cultured for 24 h then incubated with different concentrations of TP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) alone and in combination with SOV (1 mM) or SM (1 mM). Insulin concentration in buffer media was measured as islet secretory function. Administration of TP (0.01 mg/mL), SM, and SOV alone or in combination with each other significantly increased insulin secretion at high glucose concentration (16.7 mM); insulin secretion was significantly greater in the group containing both TP and SM than other treated groups (p molybdate with TP could improve islet cells function before transplantation.

  16. Long-term survival of encapsulated GDNF secreting cells implanted within the striatum of parkinsonized rats.

    Grandoso, Laura; Ponce, Sara; Manuel, Ivan; Arrúe, Aurora; Ruiz-Ortega, Jose A; Ulibarri, Isabel; Orive, Gorka; Hernández, Rosa M; Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Ugedo, Luisa


    Several findings suggest that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may be a useful tool to treat parkinsonism by acting as a neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurotransmission systems. In the present study, we implanted alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules containing immobilized Fischer rat 3T3 fibroblasts transfected to produce GDNF in vitro into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells were stable for at least 3 weeks in vitro. Intrastriatal implantation of microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells into 6-OHDA lesioned rats resulted in a decrease in apomorphine-induced rotations by 84%, 64%, 84%, 60% and 52% (2, 5, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, respectively) with respect to the value before implantation and with respect to the value obtained from the empty microcapsule implanted-group at each time point. Six months after transplantation, immunohistochemical detection of GDNF revealed strong immunoreactivity in the striatal tissue surrounding the microcapsules in the absence of tissue damage due to microcapsule implantation. No changes in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites or of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were detected in the striatum. In summary, the implantation of microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells allows the delivery of this molecule into the rat striatum for at least 6 months and results in substantial behavioral improvement.

  17. Distinct cell clusters touching islet cells induce islet cell replication in association with over-expression of Regenerating Gene (REG protein in fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Kaoru Aida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs, extracellular matrix (ECM, and possible cell clusters, are unclear. PROCEDURES: The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. RESULT: Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. CONCLUSION: The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells.

  18. Effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade on chlorhexidine gluconate-induced sclerosing encapsulated peritonitis in rats.

    Koçak, Gülay; Azak, Alper; Astarcı, Hesna Müzeyyen; Huddam, Bülent; Karaca, Gökhan; Ceri, Mevlüt; Can, Murat; Sert, Mehmet; Duranay, Murat


    Sclerosing encapsulated peritonitis (SEP) is a rare complication of long term peritoneal dialysis. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may play a role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis in CAPD patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of aliskiren, valsartan, and aliskiren + valsartan therapy on SEP. The study included 30 Wistar albino rats which were divided into five groups: I (Control) SF solution i.p.; II (CG group) chlorhexidine gluconate i.p.; III aliskiren oral plus CG i.p.; IV valsartan oral plus CG i.p.; and V aliskiren oral, valsartan oral and CG i.p. On the twenty-first day, all of the rats were sacrificed. All of the groups were analyzed in terms of peritoneal thickness, degree of inflammation, vasculopathy, neovascularization and fibrosis. Also, the parietal peritoneal tissue samples were evaluated for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) using the ELISA method. Peritoneal thickness and fibrosis scores were lower in the valsartan group compared to the CG group (P 0.05). Tissue MMP-2 levels were significantly higher in the CG group compared other groups (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the aliskiren, valsartan and aliskiren + valsartan groups according to the tissue MMP-2 levels. Due to the antifibrotic properties of valsartan, it is thought to be a possible choice to prevent SEP development. We found no positive impact of aliskiren or aliskiren + valsartan combination compared to valsartan alone. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  19. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  20. Non-Ionic Highly Permeable Polymer Shells for Encapsulation of Living Cells


    thermal gelation. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 2004, 32 (2), 275-91. 2. Wilson, J. T.; Chaikof, E. L., Challenges and emerging...R.; Korsgren, O.; Nilsson, B., Islet surface heparinization prevents the instant blood -mediated inflammatory reaction in islet transplantation...R. J.; Poncelet, D., Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation. Artif Cells

  1. Glucagonlike peptide-I-(7-36)-amide receptors only in islets of Langerhans. Autoradiographic survey of extracerebral tissues in rats

    Orskov, C; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    surface epithelium but could not be prevented by excess unlabeled peptide. No binding was found in other tissues investigated, including the lungs and the small intestinal mucosa. Localization of the binding sites identifies the pancreatic islets as the prime target for GLP-I-(7-36)-amide and suggests...

  2. Hexose metabolism in pancreatic islets: the Pasteur effect.

    Malaisse, W J; Rasschaert, J; Zähner, D; Sener, A


    In rat pancreatic islets, hypoxia severely decreased both the oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose and the release of insulin evoked by D-glucose. The production of [14C]lactate was increased in the hypoxic islets, the relative magnitude of such an increment being greater at low (2.8 mM) than high (8.3 and 16.7 mM) D-glucose concentrations. Hypoxia increased the detritiation of D-[5-3H]glucose at low glucose concentration (2.8 mM), failed to affect 3H2O production at an intermediate glucose level (8.3 mM), and inhibited the utilization of D-[5-3H]glucose at a higher hexose concentration (16.7 mM). In tumoral islet cells (RINm5F line) exposed to 16.7 mM D-glucose, hypoxia decreased D-[U-14C]glucose oxidation to the same extent as in normal islet cells, but increased the production of [14C]lactate and 3H2O to a greater extent than in normal islets. These findings indicate that the Pasteur effect is operative in islet cells. The experimental data also suggest that, under normal conditions of oxygenation, high concentrations of D-glucose lead to both activation of phosphofructokinase and stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative events in normal, but not tumoral, islet cells.

  3. Early effects of liver regeneration on endocrine pancreas: in vivo change in islet morphology and in vitro assessment of systemic effects on β-cell function and viability in the rat model of two-thirds hepatectomy.

    Moreau, F; Seyfritz, E; Toti, F; Sigrist, S; Bietigier, W; Pinget, M; Kessler, L


    Liver and pancreas share key roles in glucose homeostasis. Liver regeneration is associated with systemic modifications and depends especially on pancreatic hormones. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of systemic factors released after two-thirds hepatectomy (2/3H) on early possible consequences of liver regeneration on endocrine pancreas structure and function. The pancreas and serum were harvested 1, 2, or 3 days after 2/3H or sham operation in Lewis rats. The HGF and VEGF serum concentrations and plasma microparticles levels were measured. The fate of endocrine pancreas was examined through islets histomorphometry and function in sham and 2/3H rats. β-Cell line RIN-m5F viability was assessed after 24 h of growth in media supplemented with 10% serum from 2/3H or sham rats instead of FCS. Three days after surgery, the pancreas was heavier in 2/3H compared to sham rats (0.56 vs. 0.40% of body weight, p viability of RIN-m5F cells (99 vs. 67%, p concentration and a significant increase in microparticles levels, were observed in 2/3H vs. sham rats (9.8 vs. 6.5 nM Phtd Ser Eq., p influence β-cell viability and function by systemic effect.

  4. CTLA4Ig基因对大鼠胰岛移植后排斥反应的治疗作用%Treatment of CTLA4Ig gene for the rejection of pancreatic islet allograft in diabetic rats

    金世龙; 刘萍; 顾红光; 王亚旭; 刘宝华; 王代科; 文亚渊; 王仁云; 王东; 周月庆


    Objectives To study the expression of CTLA4Ig gene in diabetic rat and the action of CTLA4Ig on prolonging survival time of the pancreatic islet.Methods The rat pancreatic islet cells and muscle cells were transfected with the cDNA for CTLA4Ig packaged with lipofectin vector.The expression levels of CTLA4Ig gene and T lymphocyte reaction(MLR)were determined and the action of CTLA4IgcDNA on prolonging survival time of the pancreatic islet allograft in diabetic rats observed.Results T lymphocyte transforming test from peripheral intravenous blood at 7 th day after pancreatic islet transplantationrevealed that cpm in group A and group B were 175.7±98.2,254.4±116.3,respectively,with the difference between the two groups being significant(P<0.05).At 7th day after pancreatic islet allograft in group A,only 2 out of 10 recipients were serum CTLA4Ig positive with their concentrations being 14 ng/ml and 31 ng/ml respectively. The average time of maintaining blood glucose normal levels in the group A after pancreatic islet allograft,(14.8±12.3)days,was significantly longer than (3.6±5.1)days of the roup B(P<0.05),The average survival time in the group A.(24.0±10.8)days (the longest time was 45 days), was significantly longer than(11.8±4.8)days(the longest time was 21 days)of the group B (P<0.01). Conclusions The muscle cells and pancreatic islets of the recipient rats were transfected with CTLA4Ig cDNA packaged with lipofectin.CTLA4Ig cDNA could be expressed in the recipient tissues. The expressed product could obviously prolong the survival time of the pancreatic islet allograft and the recipient rats and partly inhibit the cellular immunity to prevent rejection.%目的 研究CTLA4Ig基因在糖尿病大鼠体内表达及其产物对胰岛移植物存活的作用.方法 利用Lipofectin载体包裹CTLA41g cDNA 质粒后转染鼠胰岛和肌肉细胞,检测移植后CTLA4Ig表达和T淋巴细胞转化率.结果 胰岛移植术后7dT淋巴细胞转化试验,实验

  5. Mechanisms of pancreatic islet cell destruction. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of soluble blood mononuclear cell mediators on isolated islets of Langerhans

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Nerup, J


    contents of insulin and glucagon in a dose-dependent manner. A maximal effect on islet function was obtained with supernatant concentrations down to 5%. Supernatants of mononuclear cells stimulated with tuberculin were more potent than supernatants produced by lectin stimulation. Culture medium......Supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors stimulated with recall antigen (purified protein derivative of tuberculin) or lectin (phytohaemagglutinin) markedly inhibited the insulin release from isolated human and rat islets of Langerhans, and decreased rat islet...... reconstituted with tuberculin or phytohaemagglutinin did not impair islet function. Electron microscopy demonstrated that supernatants were cytotoxic to islet cells. The cytotoxic mononuclear cell mediator(s) was non-dialysable, sensitive to heating to 56 degrees C, labile even when stored at -70 degrees C...

  6. Small intestinal submucosa improves islet survival and function during in vitro culture

    Xiao-Hui Tian; Wu-Jun Xue; Xiao-Ming Ding; Xin-Lu Pang; Yan Teng; Pu-Xun Tian; Xin-Shun Feng


    AIM: To evaluate the recovery and function of isolated rat pancreatic islets during in vitro culture with small intestinal submucosa (SIS).METHODS: Pancreatic islets were isolated from Wistar rats by standard surgical procurement followed by intraductal collagenase distension, mechanical dissociation and Euroficoll purification. Purified islets were cultured in plates coated with multilayer SIS (SIS-treated group) or without multilayer SIS (standard cultured group) for 7 and 14 d in standard islet culture media of RPMI 1640. After isolation and culture, islets from both experimental groups were stained with dithizone and counted. Recovery of islets was determined by the ratio of counts after the culture to the yield of islets immediately following islet isolation. Viability of islets after the culture was assessed by the glucose challenge test with low (2.7 mmol/L) and high glucose (16.7 mmol/L)solution supplemented with 50 mmol/L 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) solution. Apoptosis of islet cells after the culture was measured by relative quantification of histone-complexed DNA fragments using ELISA.RESULTS: After 7 or 14 d of in vitro tissue culture, the recovery of islets in SIS-treated group was significantly higher than that cultured in plates without SIS coating. The recovery of islets in SIS-treated group was about twice more than that of in the control group. In SIS-treated group, there was no significant difference in the recovery of islets between short- and long-term periods of culture (95.8±1.0% vs 90.8±1.5%, P>0.05). When incubated with high glucose (16.7 mmol/L) solution,insulin secretion in SIS-treated group showed a higher increase than that in control group after 14 d of culture (20.7±1.1 mU/L vs11.8±1.1 mU/L, P0.05).Much less apoptosis of islet cells occurred in SIS-treated group than in control group after the culture.CONCLUSION: Co-culture of isolated rat islets with native sheet-like SIS might build an extracellular matrix for islets and

  7. Influence and mechanism of ghrelin on insulin release in isolated rat islets%Ghrelin对离体大鼠胰岛分泌胰岛素的影响及其机制

    周晓磊; 薛承锐


    Objective To investigate the influence of ghrelin administration on the insulin secretion, and the expression of Kir6. 2 channels in islets. Methods Ghrelin was intraperitoneally administrated in Wistar rats at the doses 10 nmol/kg every day for 2 weeks. Islets were isolated for insulin release experiments. Single β cells were isolated for electrophysiological experiments. Meanwhile, the expression levels of Kir6. 2 mRNA and protein in islets were detected. Results At 11. 1 and 16. 7 mmol/L glucose,the levels of insulin release in control group were 22. 5 and 43.5 uIU/islet per h, and those in ghrelin-treated group were 15. 2 and 30. 1 uIU/islet per h (P <0. 05 ). In control group, the resting membrane potential reached ( - 73.2 ± 24. 8 ) mV, but in ghrelin-treated group, it was hyperpolarized to ( - 95.4 ± 33.7 )mV ( P < 0. 05 ). The Kir6. 2 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by ghrelin ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Ghrelin via pancreatic GHSR up-regulates the Kir6. 2 expression in islets, hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential, and resulting in the inhibition of insulin release.%目的 观察外源性Ghrelin对胰岛素分泌和胰岛内向整流钾通道(Kir6.2)表达的影响.方法 Wistar大鼠按10 nmoL/kg的剂量予Ghrelin腹腔注射2周后,分离胰岛进行胰岛素释放实验,分离β细胞检测静息膜电位;检测胰岛Kir6.2 mRNA和蛋白表达变化.结果 在11.1、16.7mmol/L葡萄糖刺激下,对照组的胰岛素释放分别为22.5、43.5 uIU/胰岛/h,Ghrelin组为15.2、30.1uIU/胰岛/h,较对照组显著降低(P<0.05).对照组β细胞的静息膜电位为(-73.2±24.8)mV,Ghrelin组为(-95.4±33.7)mV,较对照组显著降低(P<0.05).而Ghrelin组Kir6.2表达显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 Ghrelin与其受体结合后抑制胰岛素分泌,其机制可能与上调Kir6.2表达,使β细胞兴奋性降低有关.

  8. Antifibrotic effect of rapamycin containing polyethylene glycol-coated alginate microcapsule in islet xenotransplantation.

    Park, Heon-Seok; Kim, Ji-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yang, Hae Kyung; Ham, Dong-Sik; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Hong, Tae Ho; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chung-Gyu; Yoon, Kun-Ho


    Islet microencapsulation is an attractive strategy for the minimization or avoidance of life-long immunosuppression after transplantation. However, the clinical implementation of this technique is currently limited by incomplete biocompatibility. Thus, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the improved biocompatibility of rapamycin-containing polyethylene glycol (Rapa-PEG)-coating on alginate microcapsules containing xenogeneic islets. The Rapa-PEG-coating on the alginate layer was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the molecular cut-off weight of the microcapsules was approximately 70 kDa. The viabilities of the alginate-encapsulated and Rapa-PEG-coated alginate-encapsulated islets were lower than the viability of the naked islets just after encapsulation, but these the differences diminished over time in culture dishes. Rapa-PEG-coating on the alginate capsules effectively decreased the proliferation of macrophage cells compared to the non-coating and alginate coating of xenogeneic pancreas tissues. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion did not significantly differ among the groups prior to transplantation. The random blood glucose levels of diabetic mice significantly improved following the transplantation of alginate-encapsulated and Rapa-PEG-coated alginate-encapsulated islets, but there were no significant differences between these two groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the number of microcapsules with fibrotic cell infiltration in the Rapa-PEG-coated alginate microcapsule group compared to the alginate microcapsule group. In conclusion, Rapa-PEG-coating might be an effective technique with which to improve the biocompatibility of microcapsules containing xenogeneic islets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Anodic aluminium oxide membranes for immunoisolation with sufficient oxygen supply for pancreatic islets.

    Cho, Siwoo; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Seong Hee; Kim, Yeongae; Kim, Song Cheol; Hwang, Woonbong; Park, Jaesung


    Immunoisolation membranes have been developed for various cell encapsulations for therapeutic purposes. However effective encapsulation systems have been hindered by low oxygen (O2) permeability or imperfect immunoisolation caused by either low porosity or non-uniform pore geometry. Here, we report an encapsulation method that uses an anodic aluminum oxide membrane formed by polyethylene oxide self-assembly to obtain nanochannels with both high selectivity in excluding immune molecules and high permeability of nutrients such as glucose, insulin, and O2. The extracorporeal encapsulation system composed of these membranes allows O2 flux to meet the O2 demand of pancreatic islets of Langerhans and provides excellent in vitro viability and functionality of islets.

  10. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P


    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy.

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells in immature pancreatic islets

    Clark, S.A.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; DeLuca, H.F.


    Target cells of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ were identified by autoradiography in islets from rats of different ages. Nuclei of pancreatic islet cells selectively concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ but not 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Developmental studies of pancreatic islets indicated that target cells, as revealed by significant nuclear concentration of 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, are present in islet cells of fetal rats. The percentage of islet cells that concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ increased from 10 to 15% in the fetus to 60% at 1 day of age. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that insulin-containing cells but not glucagon or somatostatin cells concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Peak uptake of 1,25(/sup 3/H) dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ was calculated to be 400 pmol/mg DNA, with no significant difference in nuclear accumulation between islets cells from neonatal and adult rats or between islets in vivo and isolated islets in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that (1) 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells are present in islets before pancreatic ..beta..-cells are morphologically or functionally mature; (2) islet ..beta..-cells concentrate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. The authors conclude that only the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ metabolite of vitamin D is accumulated by nuclei of developing and mature ..beta..-cells and suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ plays a role in the maturation of islet ..beta..-cells.

  12. Effects of long-term high-protein diet on the pancreatic islet in diet-induced obese rats%长期高蛋白饮食对营养性肥胖大鼠胰岛的影响

    陈海燕; 李明龙; 马立川; 林爱清; 李茵茵; 赵家军


    Objective To investigate the effects of a long-term isocaloric high-protein diet on morphology and function of the pancreatic islet in diet-induced obese rats. Methods: Diet-induced obese rat models were established by feeding a fat-enriched diet. The obese male rats were randomly divided into three groups: the high-protein diet group (HP group, n = 12), the high-fat diet group (HF group, n = 11), and the normal food group (NC group, n = 11). The total calorie ingestion of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks. Then body weight, visceral fat mass and fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined. The insulin secretory function of the islet was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test ( IVGTT), and morphological analysis of the pancreatic islet was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the NC group, body weight [(490.92±39.47)gvs (545.55±31.08)g, P<0.01] and visceral fat mass [(22.42± 7.04)g vs (32.33± 9.27)g, P<0.05] in HP rats were significantly lower, but those indices were both higher [(656.01 ±58.49)g vs (545.55 ±31.08)g, (55.33±17,81)g vs(32.33±9.27)g, and both P<0.01] in the HF group. As to IVCTT, there were no differences in blood glucose among the three groups, but the serum insulin levels at 5min and 10 min were significantly lower in HP than in NC [(91.56± 21.72) mIU/L vs (121.29± 34.03) mIU/L; (58.62 ± 15.80) mIU/L vs (81.12± 24.36) mIU/L, both P<0.05], and 0 min and 10 min insulin levels were significantly higher in HF than in NC[(40. 21 ± 14. 12) mIU/L vs (27.48±11.31) mIU/L,(98.15±27.58) mIU/L vs (81.12±24.36) mIU/L, both P<0.05]. Plasma GLP-1 level was significantly lower in HP rats [(0.52±0.13)μg/L vs(0.71 ±0.19)μg/L, P<0.05], and there was an increased trend in the HF group [(1.03±0.28)μg/L vs(0.71 ±0.19)μg/L, P = 0.11] compared with the NC group. Immunohistochemistry showed that there were no differences in morphology between HP and NC rats, but HF rats had

  13. Pig islets for islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives

    Hu Qinghua; Liu Zhongwei; Zhu Haitao


    Objective To review the current status and progress on pig islet xenotransplantation.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literature of Pubmed database.The search terms were "pig islet" and "xenotransplantation".Study selection The original articles and critical reviews selected were relevant to this review's theme.Results Pigs are suggested to be an ideal candidate for obtaining available islet cells for transplantation.However,the potential clinical application of pig islet is still facing challenges including inadequate yield of high-quality functional islets and xenorejection of the transplants.The former can be overcome mainly by selection of a suitable pathogen-free source herd and the development of isolation and purification technology.While the feasibility of successful preclinical pig islet xenotranplantation provides insights in the possible mechanisms of xenogeneic immune recognition and rejection to overwhelm the latter.In addition,the achievement of long-term insulin independence in diabetic models by means of distinct islet products and novel immunotherapeutic strategies is promising.Conclusions Pig islet xenotransplantation is one of the prospective treatments to bridge the gap between the needs of transplantation in patients with diabetes and available islet cells.Nonetheless,further studies and efforts are needed to translate obtained findings into tangible applications.

  14. Adult islets cultured in collagen gel transdifferentiate into duct-like cells

    Jin Lu; Ya-Peng Gu; Xia Xu; Mei-Lian Liu; Ping Xie; Hui-Ping Song


    AIM: To establish a model of islet-ductal cell bansdifferentiation to identify the transdifferentiated cells. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from rat tail at first. Purified rat islets were divided into three groups, embedded in collagen gel and incubated respectively in DMEM/F12 alone (control group), DMEM/F12 plus epidermal growth factor (EGF), DMEM/F12 plus EGF and cholera toxin (CT). Transdifferentiation was proved by microscopy, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and RIA.RESULTS: Islets embedded in collagen gel plus EGF and CT were cystically transformed and could express new gene cytokeratin 19 while still maintaining the expression of insulin and Pdx-1 genes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the protein of cytokeratin 19 was only expressed in the third group. The insulin content secreted by islets in thethird group decreased significantly during the transdifferentiation.CONCLUSION: CT is a crucial factor for the islet-ductal cell transdifferentiation.

  15. Bone mononuclear cells and pancreatic islets allograft in the treatment of diabetic rats%异体大鼠骨髓单个核细胞胰岛细胞移植治疗糖尿病

    韩玮; 王云海; 王太成; 陈启龙


    Objective To study the curative effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells and pancreatic islets transplantation through the approach of the liver and tail vein. Methods The pancreatic islets and bone marrow mononuclear cells were isolated by discontinuous gradients centrifugation. Twenty-eight diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, and D. The rats in group A received 1000 pancreatic islets transplantation beneath the liver capsule, those in group B received transplantation of pancreatic islets and 1 × 107 bone marrow mononuclear cells beneath the liver capsule, those in group C received transplantation of 1000 pancreatic islets through the tail vein, and those in group D received transplantation of 1000 pancreatic islets and 1 × 107 bone marrow mononuclear cells through the tail vein. Plasma glucose level was determined at different time points. The effectiveness of combined different cells and transplantation approaches was compared. Results The blood glucose levels in groups A and B started to decrease in 3 days after transplantation. The blood glucose level in group A could be reduced to the normal level (7. 98 ±2. 28) mmol/L and maintain (3.71 ±0. 95) days, and that in group B could be reduced to (7. 72 ±1.75) mmol/L and maintain (4. 86 ± 1.06) days. The blood glucose level in groups C and D started to decrease in 4 days after transplantation. The blood glucose level in group C could be reduced to (7. 35 ±1.40) mmol/L and maintain (7. 85 ± 1.46) days, and that in group D to (7.00 ± 0. 83 ) mmol/L and maintain ( 14. 10 ± 1.21 ) days. There was statistically significant difference in blood glucose level among all groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Transplantation of pancreatic islets combined with mononuclear cells through the tail vein in rats maintains the normal plasma glucose level for the longest duration. The plasma glucose level is ideal.%目的 观察异体骨髓单个核细胞和胰岛细胞通过肝脏和静脉途径移植后

  16. Use of integrin-linked kinase to extend function of encapsulated pancreatic tissue

    Blanchette, James O [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Langer, Steven J; Leinwand, Leslie L [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Sahai, Suchit; Topiwala, Pritesh S [Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Anseth, Kristi S, E-mail: [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)


    We have studied the impact of overexpression of an intracellular signaling protein, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), on the survival and function of encapsulated islet tissue used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The dimensions of the encapsulated tissue can impact the stresses placed on the tissue and ILK overexpression shows the ability to extend function of dissociated cells as well as intact islets. These results suggest that lost cell-extracellular matrix interactions in cell encapsulation systems can lead to decreased insulin secretion and ILK signaling is a target to overcome this phenomenon. (communication)

  17. Microencapsulation of Islets of Langerhans via selective withdrawal to achieve immunoisolation

    Wyman, Jason; Dillmore, Shannon; Murphy, William; Garfinkel, Marc; Mrksich, Milan; Nagel, Sidney


    Cohen phet al. [1] described how the selective-withdrawal geometry may be used to microencapsulate particles in thin coats whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated particle. We have applied a modified version of this geometry to the microencapsulation of Islets of Langerhans for the purpose of immunoisolation. The Islets are initially placed in a polymer-containing aqueous solution which is then drawn up into a selective-withdrawal spout. As that spout breaks up, it leaves the Islets coated with the polymer solution. These coats are then photo-crosslinked leaving the Islets encapsulated in a hydrogel coating. This coating provides a semi-permeable membrane which allows for the diffusion of small molecules such as nutrients, glucose, and insulin, but which excludes larger proteins such as antibodies. If one can successfully microencapsulate 10^6 islets in uniform coats such as these, then one may transplant Islets without immuno-suppression as a treatment for Type-I Diabetes. We will discuss preliminary phin vitro results. [1] I. Cohen, H. Li, J. L. Hougland, M. Mrksich, and S. R. Nagel Science 292, 265-267 (2001).

  18. Effects of thioacetamide on pancreatic islet B-cell function

    Malaisse, WJ; Lebrun, P; Sener, A; Wolters, GHJ; Ravazzola, M


    Thioacetamide (0.01-1.3 mM) fails to exert any significant immediate effect upon insulin release from rat isolated islets. However, when administered (4 mumol/g body wt) intraperitoneally 24 h before sacrifice, it reduced food intake and body weight and affected the secretory response of isolated is

  19. Low extracellular calcium enhances beta cell sensitivity to the stimulatory influence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin release by islets from vitamin D3-deficient rats.

    Faure-Dussert, A G; Delbancut, A P; Billaudel, B J


    The beneficial effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25 (OH)2 D3] on insulin secretion from beta cells in hypocalcemic vitamin D3-deficient rats is now well established. Moreover, few data concerning the mechanism of 1,25 (OH) 2D3 efficiency as a function of the severity of hypocalcemia. In the present experiment, we submitted islets from vitamin D3-deficient rats to in vitro exposure to a range of decreasing extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]ex), from 0.5 mM to 0.6 mM, during a 6-h 10-8 M 1,25 (OH) 2D3 induction. Thereafter, we compared the effect of this pretreatment on the islets' insulin response to a given stimulus. Various stimuli were used, and we measured in parallel the variations of 86Rb+ and 45Ca2+ efflux and insulin release into the perifusion medium. In the presence of 1,25 (OH) 2D3, we observed an inverse correlation between the [Ca2+]ex pre-exposure and the amplitude of the insulin response to certain stimuli studied, suggesting that beta cells that were pre-exposed to low [Ca2+]ex became more sensitive to the beneficial effect of 1,25 (OH) 2D3 on insulin release. This effect was observed when beta cells were activated by acetylcholine but only during its second phase of stimulation, and more particularly with the barium plus theophylline stimulus. In contrast, insulin release was not affected by [Ca2+]ex pre-exposure during 1,25 (OH) 2D3 induction in response to acetylcholine during its first phase of stimulation, thus excluding any mechanism mediated via nutrient pathways, membrane depolarization, or inositol triphosphate (IP3)-dependent events. Moreover, the islets that were pre-exposed to a 10-fold [Ca2+]ex exhibited only a 50% lower 45Ca2+ content after 45Ca2+ loading, suggesting a different or relatively more efficient storage capacity in the presence of low extracellular calcium. Studies of 45Ca2+ efflux showed that the mobilization of Ca2+ stores induced by a barium plus theophylline stimulus, in the absence of calcium in the

  20. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A


    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  1. VEGF-conjugated alginate hydrogel prompt angiogenesis and improve pancreatic islet engraftment and function in type 1 diabetes

    Yin, Nina; Han, Yongming [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xu, Hanlin [Pharmacy Faculty, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Gao, Yisen; Yi, Tao [Acupuncture and Moxibustion College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yao, Jiale; Dong, Li; Cheng, Dejun [Basic Medical College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Chen, Zebin, E-mail: [Acupuncture and Moxibustion College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine/Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of Preventive Treatment by Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Wuhan, Hubei (China)


    Type 1 diabetes was a life-long disease that affected numerous people around the world. Insulin therapy has its limitations that may involve hyperglycemia and heavy burden of patient by repeated dose. Islet transplantation emerged as a promising approach to reach periodical reverse of diabetes, however, transplanted islets suffer from foreign body reaction and lack of nutrition and oxygen supply, especially in the blood-vessel-shortage subcutaneous site which was preferred by patient and surgeon. In this study, we designed and synthesized a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) conjugated alginate material to encapsulate the transplanted islets via 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) reaction, and successful conjugation was confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H1 spectrum. The best VEGF concentration (100 ng/ml) was determined by the combined studies of the mechanical property and endothelial cell growth assay. In vivo study, conjugated VEGF on alginate exhibited sustained promoting angiogenesis property after subcutaneous transplantation by histology study and islets encapsulated in this material achieved long term therapeutic effect (up to 50 days) in the diabetic mice model. In conclusion, this study establishes a simple biomaterial strategy for islet transplantation to enhance islet survival and function, which could be a feasible therapeutic alternative for type 1 diabetes. - Highlights: • We synthesized VEGF-conjugated alginate material to encapsulate the transplanted islets. • The biomaterials improve islet engraftment and function due to angiogenesis. • The biomaterials could be a strong support for cell therapy with islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes.

  2. A review of piscine islet xenotransplantation using wild-type tilapia donors and the production of transgenic tilapia expressing a "humanized" tilapia insulin.

    Wright, James R; Yang, Hua; Hyrtsenko, Olga; Xu, Bao-You; Yu, Weiming; Pohajdak, Bill


    Most islet xenotransplantation laboratories have focused on porcine islets, which are both costly and difficult to isolate. Teleost (bony) fish, such as tilapia, possess macroscopically visible distinct islet organs called Brockmann bodies which can be inexpensively harvested. When transplanted into diabetic nude mice, tilapia islets maintain long-term normoglycemia and provide human-like glucose tolerance profiles. Like porcine islets, when transplanted into euthymic mice, they are rejected in a CD4 T-cell-dependent manner. However, unlike pigs, tilapia are so phylogenetically primitive that their cells do not express α(1,3)Gal and, because tilapia are highly evolved to live in warm stagnant waters nearly devoid of dissolved oxygen, their islet cells are exceedingly resistant to hypoxia, making them ideal for transplantation within encapsulation devices. Encapsulation, especially when combined with co-stimulatory blockade, markedly prolongs tilapia islet xenograft survival in small animal recipients, and a collaborator has shown function in diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. In anticipation of preclinical xenotransplantation studies, we have extensively characterized tilapia islets (morphology, embryologic development, cell biology, peptides, etc.) and their regulation of glucose homeostasis. Because tilapia insulin differs structurally from human insulin by 17 amino acids, we have produced transgenic tilapia whose islets stably express physiological levels of humanized insulin and have now bred these to homozygosity. These transgenic fish can serve as a platform for further development into a cell therapy product for diabetes.

  3. 环孢菌素A抑制大鼠胰岛素分泌的体外实验研究%Cyclosporine A inhibits insulin secretion of rat islets in vitro

    孟树优; 刘倩; 孙富军; 汤云昭; 丁群; 孙茜; 张达; 李代清


    Objective To explore the underlying mechanisms of inhibiting insulin secretion of rat islets by cyclosporine A in vitro.Methods Rat islets were isolated from pancreas by collagenase digestion.The islets were stained by acridine orange/propidium iodide and evaluated under fluorescence microscope after cyclosporine A were inoculated (0.5,1.0,2.5,5.0,and 10.0 μg/ml) over different periods (6,24,and 48 hours).The islets treated only with the vehicle were served as control.After inoculation of 1 μg/ml cyclosporine A or the vehicle for 24 hours,insulin secretion of the islets was determined by radioimmunol assay(RIA).The expressions of abcb1 b,pdx1,ins1,ins2,glucagon,casp3,and Bcl-2 were evaluated by realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR after inoculations of cyclosporine A for 24 hours.A rhodamine 123 uptake measurement was used to analyze P-glycoprotein efflux pump function.Results Inoculation of 1.0 μg/ml cyclosporine A for 24 hours did not affect islet survival significantly.Only the second phase of insulin secretion was inhibited by the cyclosporine A inoculation (P<0.01),but not the first phase.Compared to the control group,the expressions of abcb1b,ins1,ins2,pdx1,glucagon,casp3 did not show any difference in the cyclosporine A inoculated group.But the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated significantly in the cyclosporine A inoculated group (P<0.01).The efflux pump function of P-glycoprotein was inhibited by the cyclosporine A inoculation (P<0.01).Conclusions Inhibitory effects of cyclosporine A on the second phase of insulin secretion may be through apoptosis pathway.Cyclosporine A did not influence biogenesis of insulin or glucagon.Even though cyclosporine A did not reduce the expression of P-glycoprotein,its specific inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein in impairing insulin secretion could not be excluded.The underlying mechanism needs to be further investigated.%目的 探索环孢菌素A抑制胰岛素分泌的分子机制 方法 经胆管不离体

  4. Islet cell development.

    Rojas, Anabel; Khoo, Adrian; Tejedo, Juan R; Bedoya, Francisco J; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz


    Over the last years, there has been great success in driving stem cells toward insulin-expressing cells. However, the protocols developed to date have some limitations, such as low reliability and low insulin production. The most successful protocols used for generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells mimic in vitro pancreatic organogenesis by directing the stem cells through stages that resemble several pancreatic developmental stages. Islet cell fate is coordinated by a complex network of inductive signals and regulatory transcription factors that, in a combinatorial way, determine pancreatic organ specification, differentiation, growth, and lineage. Together, these signals and factors direct the progression from multipotent progenitor cells to mature pancreatic cells. Later in development and adult life, several of these factors also contribute to maintain the differentiated phenotype of islet cells. A detailed understanding of the processes that operate in the pancreas during embryogenesis will help us to develop a suitable source of cells for diabetes therapy. In this chapter, we will discuss the main transcription factors involved in pancreas specification and beta-cell formation.

  5. Effect of liraglutide and PTEN on rats pancreatic islet cell apoptosis induced by high fat diet%Liraglutide及PTEN在高脂饮食诱导的大鼠胰岛细胞凋亡中的作用

    刘涛; 张静; 邢影; 叶晓莉; 杨文娟; 薛玲; 曹宏伟; 彭红艳; 姬秋和


    目的 观察高脂饮食的SD大鼠胰腺第10号染色体同源丢失性磷酸酶-张力蛋白基因( PTEN)表达量的变化,以及liraglutide对胰岛细胞凋亡的作用.方法 20只雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组:正常饮食(ND)组(n=6)、高脂饮食(HFD)组(n=6)和高脂饮食并给予liraglutide( HL)组(n=8).ND组给予正常饮食,HFD组和HL组给予高脂饮食持续20周后行OGTT试验.随后ND组和HFD组给予生理盐水0.2 mg/kg,HL组给予liraglutide 0.2 mg/kg,早晚各1次,持续4周,给药终点再次行OG-TT试验,评估β细胞功能.应用实时定量PCR检测各组大鼠胰腺PTEN mRNA相对表达量,TUNEL染色观察大鼠胰岛细胞凋亡的变化.结果 与ND组相比,HFD组和HL组大鼠体重增加(P<0.05),血TG和TC升高(P<0.01),OGTT中胰岛素曲线下面积(AUCIns)增大(P<0.05或P<0.01),且胰腺PTEN mRNA表达量增多(P<0.05).与HFD组相比,HL组体重、进食量和血TC下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),OGTT中60 min和120 min时胰岛素和血糖降低(P<0.01),胰岛细胞凋亡减少,β细胞功能得到一定改善,但胰腺PTEN mRNA表达量的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 高脂饮食时SD大鼠胰腺PTEN mRNA表达增加,liraglutide对高脂饮食大鼠胰腺PTEN mRNA表达没有影响,但可能通过Akt信号通路减少其胰岛细胞凋亡.%Objective To investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) deleted on chromosome ten in pancreas of high fat diet rats and the effect of liraglutide on pancreatic islet cell apoptosis. Method Twenty male SD rats were divided into three groups at random: normal diet (ND,n=6), high fat diet (HFD,n=6) and high fat diet with liraglutide(HL,n=8). They were given corresponding food for 20 weeks respectively, followed by an OGTT. Then, the three groups were subjected to subcutaneous administration of saline, saline and liraglutide respectively, 0. 2 mg/kg, twice a day(08:00 and 20:00) for 4 weeks. Amount of food intake was recorded every day

  6. The Pancreatic Islet Regulome Browser

    Mularoni, Loris; Ramos-Rodríguez, Mireia; Pasquali, Lorenzo


    The pancreatic islet is a highly specialized tissue embedded in the exocrine pancreas whose primary function is that of controlling glucose homeostasis. Thus, understanding the transcriptional control of islet-cell may help to puzzle out the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism disorders. Integrative computational analyses of transcriptomic and epigenomic data allows predicting genomic coordinates of putative regulatory elements across the genome and, decipher tissue-specific functions of the non-coding genome. We herein present the Islet Regulome Browser, a tool that allows fast access and exploration of pancreatic islet epigenomic and transcriptomic data produced by different labs worldwide. The Islet Regulome Browser is now accessible on the internet or may be installed locally. It allows uploading custom tracks as well as providing interactive access to a wealth of information including Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) variants, different classes of regulatory elements, together with enhancer clusters, stretch-enhancers and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic progenitors and adult human pancreatic islets. Integration and visualization of such data may allow a deeper understanding of the regulatory networks driving tissue-specific transcription and guide the identification of regulatory variants. We believe that such tool will facilitate the access to pancreatic islet public genomic datasets providing a major boost to functional genomics studies in glucose metabolism related traits including diabetes. PMID:28261261

  7. Effect of novel curcumin-encapsulated chitosan-bioglass drug on bone and skin repair after gamma radiation: experimental study on a Wistar rat model.

    Jebahi, S; Saoudi, M; Farhat, L; Oudadesse, H; Rebai, T; Kabir, A; El Feki, A; Keskes, H


    Radiation therapy contributes to a significant increase in bone osteoporosis and skin loss. Various natural health products might be beneficial to reduce bone and skin alterations. Curcumin (CUR) medicines derived from natural plants have played an important role in health care. This study aims at synthesizing and evaluating the performance therapy of CUR-encapsulated bioglass-chitosan (CUR-BG-CH). In vitro, the antioxidant assay was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical (DPPH) scavenging and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. The CUR-BG-CH antimicrobial effects were tested in liquid media. In vivo, after rat (60) Co γ-radiation, the tissue wound-healing process was studied by grafting CUR and CUR-BG-CH in femoral condyle and dorsal skin rat tissue. The antioxidant studies indicated that CUR-BG-CH quenches free radicals more efficiently than unmodified CUR and had effective DPPH (91%) and superoxide anion (51%) radical scavenging activities. The CUR-BG-CH biomaterial exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The histomorphometric parameters showed amelioration in CUR-BG-CH-treated rats. An improved mechanical property was noticed (33.16 ± 5.0 HV) when compared with that of unmodified CUR group (23.15 ± 4.9 HV). A significant decrease in tumour necrosis factor-α cytokine production was noted in the CUR-BG-CH rats (90 pg/ml) as compared with that of unmodified CUR group (240 pg/ml). The total amount of hydroxyproline was significantly enhanced (33.5%) in CUR-BG-CH group as compared with that of control. Our findings suggested that CUR-BG-CH might have promising potential applications for wound healing.

  8. Immunosuppression for islet transplantation.



    Full Text Available The development by the Edmonton group of a sirolimus-based, steroid-free, low-tacrolimus regimen is a significant breakthrough that allows the rate of insulin independence after islet transplantation to increase from 13% to 80% at 1 year ; however, the rate is reduced to 50% at 3 years, attributed to prolonged tacrolimus exposure. Recently, immunosuppression agents such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and the novel agent FTY 720 have been used instead of tacrolimus. Lymphocytedepleting antibodies such as anti-thymocyte globulin, alemtuzumab, and hOKT3gamma 1 (ala, ala have been launched, and a costimulatory blockade of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and CTLA4-Ig will be attempted in the near future. Moreover, the potential of a novel immunosuppressing peptide could now be realized using new technology called the protein transduction system. In this review, we show some of the most recent contributions to the advancement of knowledge in this field.

  9. Interleukin-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production from isolated rat islets is modulated by D-glucose and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine

    Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D; Karlsen, Allan Ertman


    Interleukin-1 beta has been proposed to cause selective beta-cell destruction via the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of interleukin-1 beta is modulated by the concentration of D-glucose in the medium. The aim of this study was to investigate if D-glucose-mediated modula......Interleukin-1 beta has been proposed to cause selective beta-cell destruction via the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of interleukin-1 beta is modulated by the concentration of D-glucose in the medium. The aim of this study was to investigate if D...... effects on acute insulin release was found at high (28 mmol/l) concentrations of D-glucose, and blocking nitrite production by the L-arginine analog aminoguanidine, which selectively inhibits the cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase, did not result in protection against the inhibitory action...... that could be reproduced by the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP. Addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine resulted in a threefold reduction in the mRNA level of interleukin-1 beta-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase. We conclude that interleukin-1 beta-induced islet nitric oxide synthesis is augmented by D...

  10. Affinity-purified human interleukin I is cytotoxic to isolated islets of Langerhans

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Nerup, J


    . These effects were dose-dependent and reproducible when using three different Interleukin-1 preparations. Highly purified human Interleukin-2, Lymphotoxin, Leucocyte Migration Inhibitory Factor and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor were ineffective. These findings suggest that Interleukin-1 may play......Addition of highly purified human Interleukin-1 to the culture medium of isolated rat islets of Langerhans for 6 days led to 88% inhibition of glucose-induced insulin-release, reduction of islet contents of insulin and glucagon to 31% and 8% respectively, and disintegration of the islets...

  11. The reversal of diabetes in rat model using mouse insulin producing cells - a combination approach of tissue engineering and macroencapsulation.

    Muthyala, Sudhakar; Raj, V R Rana; Mohanty, Mira; Mohanan, P V; Nair, Prabha D


    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disorder resulting from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. In this study a tissue engineering approach was compared with a macroencapsulation approach to reverse type 1 diabetes in a rat model, using mouse pancreatic progenitor cell (PPC)-derived islet-like clusters and mouse islets. For the tissue engineering approach the cells were cultured on gelatin scaffolds cross-linked with EDC in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone in vitro (GPE scaffolds), while for the macroencapsulation approach the cells were encapsulated in polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidone semi-interpenetrating networks. In the combination approach the cells cultured on GPE scaffolds were further encapsulated in a polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidone capsule. Real time PCR studies and the glucose challenge assay have shown that cells on GPE scaffolds could express and secrete insulin and glucagon in vitro. However, under in vivo conditions the animals treated by the tissue engineering approach died within 15-20 days and showed no reversal of their diabetes, due to infiltration of immune cells such as CD4 and CD8 cells and macrophages. In the macroencapsulation approach the animals showed euglycemia within 25 days, which was maintained for further 20 days, but after that the animals died. Interestingly, in the combination approach the animals showed reversal of hyperglycemia, and remained euglycemic for up to 3 months. The time needed to achieve initial euglycemia was different with different cell types, i.e. the combination approach with mouse islets achieved euglycemia within 15 days, whereas with PPC-derived islet-like clusters euglycemia was achieved within 25 days. This study confirmed that a combination of tissue engineering and macroencapsulation with mouse islets could reverse diabetes and maintain euglycemia in an experimental diabetes rat model for 90 days.

  12. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement.

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola


    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.

  13. Islet amyloid polypeptide and insulin expression are controlled differently in primary and transformed islet cells

    Madsen, O D; Michelsen, Bo Thomas; Westermark, P;


    in unstable heterogeneous clones such as NHI-6F. This clone is composed of primarily glucagon-producing cells in vitro, but insulin gene expression becomes dominant after passage in vivo. Interestingly, IAPP was hyperexpressed with glucagon under in vitro conditions in this clone. We conclude that the tissue...... specificity of expressions of IAPP and insulin are controlled differently, and that coexpression of IAPP with hormones different from insulin may be a marker for pluripotent transformed rat islet cell clones, which are able to activate insulin gene transcription during passage in vivo....

  14. Unraveling pancreatic islet biology by quantitative proteomics

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Liew, Chong W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Qian, Weijun


    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans play a critical role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin and several other important peptide hormones. Impaired insulin secretion due to islet dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis underlying both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past 5 years, emerging proteomic technologies have been applied to dissect the signaling pathways that regulate islet functions and gain an understanding of the mechanisms of islet dysfunction relevant to diabetes. Herein, we briefly review some of the recent quantitative proteomic studies involving pancreatic islets geared towards gaining a better understanding of islet biology relevant to metabolic diseases.

  15. Modificaciones dinámicas en los islotes de Langerhans de dos Líneas de ratas espontaneamente diabeticas Dynamic modifications in islets of Langerhans in two lines of spontaneously diabetic rats

    Juan Carlos Picena


    Full Text Available La rata eSMT derivó del cruzamiento de eSS y b, líneas de la cepa IIM. eSS es un modelo de diabetes tipo 2 sin sobrepeso; b desarrolla obesidad moderada e intolerancia tardía a la glucosa. Fueron comparados características metabólicas y hallazgos histopatológicos del páncreas endocrino entre eSS y eSMT. Cotejados con eSS, los animales eSMT jóvenes son más corpulentos y desarrollan hiperglucemia de ayuno e intolerancia a la glucosa más precoces e intensas. En los machos eSMT de 6 y 9 meses existen islotes de formas alteradas y con fibrosis, detectándose esporádicas imágenes de apoptosis. En los de un año se tornan más pequeños y escasos, remedando la histoarquitectura de los machos eSS en el segundo año de vida; posteriormente los islotes van disgregándose, a la vez que muestran ocasionales mitosis y se observa nesidioblastosis. Se sugiere que estas modificaciones dinámicas constituyen una respuesta a la hiperglucemia. Las hembras eSS conservan por más tiempo la estructura insular y tienen menores alteraciones de la glucemia. El dimorfismo sexual del síndrome diabético de eSMT es atenuado respecto de eSS. La construcción de una tipología de individuos mediante el análisis multivariado separó tres clusters, evidenciando diferencias genéticas, etáreas y de sexo.The eSMT rat is derived from the crossing of eSS and b, both lines belonging to the IIM strain, while eSS is a model of type 2 diabetes without overweight and b develops moderate obesity and late glucose intolerance. Metabolic characteristics and histopathological findings in endocrine pancreas of eSS and eSMT were compared. Young eSMT animals are more robust than eSS and develop more intense fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance at an earlier age. eSMT males of 6 and 9 months show islets with altered shapes and fibrosis, as well as sporadic images of apoptosis. At 12 months of age, islets are reduced in number and size, resembling the histoarchitecture of

  16. Reduced early and late phase insulin response to glucose in isolated spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) islets: a defective link between glycolysis and adenylate cyclase.

    Nesher, R; Abramovitch, E; Cerasi, E


    The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) exhibits low insulin responsiveness to glucose with a nearly absent early phase release. The alternative fuel-secretagogue glyceraldehyde (10 mmol/l) produced a maximal early insulin response in rat islets but failed to affect early response in Acomys; however, it potentiated the late insulin response in both species alike. Glucagon (1.5 mumol/l) potentiated the early insulin response to intermediate (8.3 mmol/l) glucose in rat and Acomys islets by two- and four-fold, respectively. Glucose doubled cyclic AMP levels in rat islets but no significant response was noted in Acomys islets. Isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mmol/l) and forskolin (25 mumol/l) caused a significant rise in islet cyclic AMP levels in both types of islets; however, neither agent restored the glucose stimulation of cyclic AMP in spiny mouse islets. Forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine potentiated early and late phase insulin release in both species; however, neither augmented the early response in the Acomys to the degree observed in rat islets. Thus: (1) A deficient link exists in Acomys between glycolysis and subsequent signals. (2) These islets contain a glucose-insensitive adenylate cyclase. (3) The early insulin response may be potentiated by direct activation of adenylate cyclase. (4) The glucose effects on early and late phase insulin release are probably mediated by distinct pathways. (5) In the spiny mouse the signals mediating the early response are deranged to a greater extent than those activating the late phase insulin release.

  17. Islet amyloid polypeptide, islet amyloid, and diabetes mellitus.

    Westermark, Per; Andersson, Arne; Westermark, Gunilla T


    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin) is one of the major secretory products of β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. It is a regulatory peptide with putative function both locally in the islets, where it inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion, and at distant targets. It has binding sites in the brain, possibly contributing also to satiety regulation and inhibits gastric emptying. Effects on several other organs have also been described. IAPP was discovered through its ability to aggregate into pancreatic islet amyloid deposits, which are seen particularly in association with type 2 diabetes in humans and with diabetes in a few other mammalian species, especially monkeys and cats. Aggregated IAPP has cytotoxic properties and is believed to be of critical importance for the loss of β-cells in type 2 diabetes and also in pancreatic islets transplanted into individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review deals both with physiological aspects of IAPP and with the pathophysiological role of aggregated forms of IAPP, including mechanisms whereby human IAPP forms toxic aggregates and amyloid fibrils.

  18. 吡格列酮和非诺贝特对高脂饮食大鼠胰岛细胞内信号分子的影响%Effects of fenofibrate and pioglitazone on expressions of intracellular signaling molecules in pancreatic islet of high-fat diet-fed rats

    冯婷; 杨波; 田浩明


    Objective To observe the effects of fenofibrate and pioglitazone on the expressions of PPAR- α, PPAR-γ, and intracellular signaling molecules in pancreatic islets of obese rats induced by high-fat diets. Methods SD obese rat models were established with high-fat diet, and 40 male rats were assigned to 4 groups including high-fat diet (HF group), high-fat diet with fenofibrate (FF group), pioglitazone (FP group) treatment, and control rats with normal diet (NC group). After 8 weeks intervention, immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expressions of various proteins in islets; At the same time, islets mass were scored in tissue slides. Results Islets mass enlarged in HF group. The compositions of islet cells were the same as the control. The expression of insulin was lower in HF group than the control, but after using pioglitazone, less islets mass and more insulin expression were found in FP group. Compared with the control group, expressions of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ protein were reduced in HF group, and the expression of PPAR-α protein increased in FF group, and the expression of PPAR-γ protein was increased in FP group. The levels of NF-кB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1 proteins increased significantly in HF group, the expressions of NF-кB, p38 MAPK decreased in FF and FP groups, and the level of ERK1 decreased only in FP group, the protein level of I-кB showed no difference among control, HF group, and FF groups. Conclusion Fenofibrate and pioglitazone may partially protect islet cells function and improve survival by correcting the disturbance of intracellular signaling molecules.%目的 观察吡格列酮和非诺贝特对高脂饮食大鼠胰岛内PPAR-α、-γ和细胞内信号分子的影响.方法 40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为4组:空白对照组(NC)、单纯高脂饮食组(HF)、高脂+非诺贝特组(FF)、高脂+吡格列酮组(FP).HE染色测定胰岛面积;免疫组织化学方法检测胰岛




    The presence and distribution in the peri-insular region of extracellular matrix, and in particular basement membrane, was investigated in a comparative study comprising pancreata of rat, dog, pig, and man. Basement membrane markers, collagen type-IV and laminin, were determined immunohistochemicall

  20. Insulin release from islets of Langerhans entrapped in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) polymer gel.

    Vernon, B; Kim, S W; Bae, Y H


    A copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (98 mol% in feed) and acrylic acid, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAc)), was prepared by free radical polymerization for development of a thermally reversible polymer to entrap islets of Langerhans for a refillable biohybrid artificial pancreas. A 5 wt% solution of the polymer in Hanks' balanced salt solution forms a gel at 37 degrees C that exhibits no syneresis. Diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextrans having molecular weights of 4400 and 70000 were used to evaluate mass transport in the gel at 37 degrees C. Insulin secretion from islets in the polymer gel was also investigated in both static and dynamic systems. The polymer gel exhibited excellent diffusion of FITC dextran 4400 and FITC dextran 70000 with diffusion ratios, D/D0 (ratio of diffusion in the gel to diffusion in water), of 0.20+/-0.04 and 0.35+/-0.17, respectively. Human islets entrapped in the polymer gel showed prolonged insulin secretion in response to basal (5.5 mM) glucose concentration compared to free human islets. Rat islets showed prolonged insulin secretion in response to high (16.5 mM) glucose concentrations compared to free rat islets. Rat islets in the polymer gel maintained insulin secretion in response to the higher glucose concentration for over 26 days. Rat islets entrapped by the polymer also released higher quantities of insulin more rapidly in response to changes in concentrations of glucose and other stimulants than rat islets entrapped in an alginate control. These results suggest that this material would provide adequate diffusion for rapid insulin release in an application as a synthetic extracellular matrix for a biohybrid artificial pancreas.

  1. Fibroblast populated collagen matrix promotes islet survival and reduces the number of islets required for diabetes reversal.

    Jalili, Reza B; Moeen Rezakhanlou, Alireza; Hosseini-Tabatabaei, Azadeh; Ao, Ziliang; Warnock, Garth L; Ghahary, Aziz


    Islet transplantation represents a viable treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, due to loss of substantial mass of islets early after transplantation, islets from two or more donors are required to achieve insulin independence. Islet-extracellular matrix disengagement, which occurs during islet isolation process, leads to subsequent islet cell apoptosis and is an important contributing factor to early islet loss. In this study, we developed a fibroblast populated collagen matrix (FPCM) as a novel scaffold to improve islet cell viability and function post-transplantation. FPCM was developed by embedding fibroblasts within type-I collagen and used as scaffold for islet grafts. Viability and insulin secretory function of islets embedded within FPCM was evaluated in vitro and in a syngeneic murine islet transplantation model. Islets embedded within acellular matrix or naked islets were used as control. Islet cell survival and function was markedly improved particularly after embedding within FPCM. The composite scaffold significantly promoted islet isograft survival and reduced the critical islet mass required for diabetes reversal by half (from 200 to 100 islets per recipient). Fibroblast embedded within FPCM produced fibronectin and growth factors and induced islet cell proliferation. No evidence of fibroblast over-growth within composite grafts was noticed. These results confirm that FPCM significantly promotes islet viability and functionality, enhances engraftment of islet grafts and decreases the critical islet mass needed to reverse hyperglycemia. This promising finding offers a new approach to reducing the number of islet donors per recipient and improving islet transplant outcome.

  2. Application of a New Dynamic Model to Predict the In Vitro Intrinsic Clearance of Tolbutamide Using Rat Microsomes Encapsulated in a Fab Hydrogel.

    Zhou, Ning; Zheng, Yuanting; Xing, Junfen; Yang, Huiying; Chen, Hanmei; Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shanshan; Zhu, Bin; Cai, Weimin


    Currently used in vitro models for estimating liver metabolism do not take into account the physiologic structure and blood circulation process of liver tissue. The Bio-PK metabolic system was established as an alternative approach to determine the in vitro intrinsic clearance of the model drug tolbutamide. The system contained a peristaltic pump, recirculating pipeline, reaction chamber, and rat liver microsomes (RLMs) encapsulated in pluronic F127-acrylamide-bisacrylamide (FAB) hydrogel. The metabolism of tolbutamide at initial concentrations of 100, 150, and 200 μM was measured in both the FAB hydrogel and the circular medium. The data from the FAB hydrogel and the circular medium were fitted to a mathematical model to obtain the predicted intrinsic clearance of tolbutamide after different periods of preincubation. The in vitro clearance value for tolbutamide was incorporated into Simcyp software and used to predict both the in vivo clearance value and the dynamic process of elimination. The predicted in vivo clearance of tolbutamide was 0.107, 0.087, and 0.095 L/h/kg for i.v. injection and 0.113, 0.095, and 0.107 L/h/kg for oral administration. Compared with the reported in vivo clearance of 0.09 L/h/kg (i.v.) and 0.10 L/h/kg (oral), all the predicted values differed by less than twofold. Thus, the Bio-PK metabolic system is a reliable and general in vitro model, characterized by three-dimensional structured RLM and circulation and perfusion processes for predicting the in vivo intrinsic clearance of low-extraction compounds, making the system more analogous with the rat in terms of both morphology and physiology.

  3. Combination between Taxol-Encapsulated Liposomes and Eruca sativa Seed Extract Suppresses Mammary Tumors in Female Rats Induced by 7,12 Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene.

    Shaban, Nadia; Abdel-Rahman, Salah; Haggag, Amany; Awad, Doaa; Bassiouny, Ahmad; Talaat, Iman


    Taxol (paclitaxel) is a powerful anti-cancer drug widely used against several types of malignant tumors. Because Taxol may exert several side effects, a variety of formulations have been developed. One of these features liposomes, regarded as one of the most promising drug carriers, biocompatible and best able to reduce drug toxicity without changing efficacy against tumor cells. Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) is considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, increasing chemotherapeutic and eliminating harmful side effects. The effects of Taxol-encapsulated liposomes (T) alone and in combination between Eruca sativa seed extract on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels were investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(α) anthracene (DMBA) using qRT-PCR. The results showed that DMBA increased NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while decreasing glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. T and T-SE treatment reduced NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, T and T-SE treatment appeared to reduce inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC.

  4. Experimental studies on islet isolation and islet graft function

    Suijlichem, Paul Tjepke Robert van


    In the first part of the introduction (Chapter 1) of this thesis an overview of the numerous techniques used in islet isolation procedures is presented. The differing lines of approach for the dissociation of the pancreas which have been applied, and are still being further developed, indicate that

  5. Classification of microscopy images of Langerhans islets

    Å vihlík, Jan; Kybic, Jan; Habart, David; Berková, Zuzana; Girman, Peter; Kříž, Jan; Zacharovová, Klára


    Evaluation of images of Langerhans islets is a crucial procedure for planning an islet transplantation, which is a promising diabetes treatment. This paper deals with segmentation of microscopy images of Langerhans islets and evaluation of islet parameters such as area, diameter, or volume (IE). For all the available images, the ground truth and the islet parameters were independently evaluated by four medical experts. We use a pixelwise linear classifier (perceptron algorithm) and SVM (support vector machine) for image segmentation. The volume is estimated based on circle or ellipse fitting to individual islets. The segmentations were compared with the corresponding ground truth. Quantitative islet parameters were also evaluated and compared with parameters given by medical experts. We can conclude that accuracy of the presented fully automatic algorithm is fully comparable with medical experts.

  6. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V


    sterility culture results are positive. In terms of the characterization of porcine islet products and product release criteria, the information on the porcine islet products should be acquired from a sample of the final product to be used for transplantation and must include the morphology of the islets, specific identity, purity, viability, and potency of the product. In addition, information on the quantity of the islet products should also be provided in a standardized fashion and this should be in terms of islet equivalents and/or cell numbers. The current consensus was created to provide guidelines that manufacturing facilities may find helpful in the manufacture of and the release criteria for porcine islet products including encapsulated islets and combined islet products. Our intent with the above recommendations is to provide a framework for individual porcine islet manufacturing facilities to ensure a high level of safety for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials on porcine islet xenotransplantation.

  7. The incorporation of extracellular matrix proteins in protein polymer hydrogels to improve encapsulated beta-cell function.

    Beenken-Rothkopf, Liese N; Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Davis, Nicolynn E; Forster, Ryan; Barron, Annelise E; Fontaine, Magali J


    Biomaterial encapsulation of islets has been proposed to improve the long-term success of islet transplantation by recreating a suitable microenvironment and enhancing cell-matrix interactions that affect cellular function. Protein polymer hydrogels previously showed promise as a biocompatible scaffold by maintaining high cell viability. Here, enzymatically-crosslinked protein polymers were used to investigate the effects of varying scaffold properties and of introducing ECM proteins on the viability and function of encapsulated MIN6 β-cells. Chemical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel were modified by altering the protein concentrations while collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin were incorporated to reestablish cell-matrix interactions lost during cell isolation. Rheology indicated all hydrogels formed quickly, resulting in robust, elastic hydrogels with Young's moduli similar to soft tissue. All hydrogels tested supported both high MIN6 β-cell viability and function and have the potential to serve as an encapsulation platform for islet cell delivery in vivo.

  8. Hemo oxygenase-1 induction in vitro and in vivo can yield pancreas islet xenograft survival and improve islet function

    CHEN Xi; SU Chang; ZHANG Zheng-yun; ZHANG Ming-jun; GU Wei-qiong; LI Xiao-ying; LI Hong-wei; ZHOU Guang-wen


    Background The induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in donor islets improves allograft survival.Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) could significantly enhance the expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein in rat islet safely.Our work was to study how to protect pancreatic islet xenograft by CoPP-induction.Methods Islet xenografts treated with CoPP-induction and CoPP+ Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) in vitro and in vivo were randomly transplanted into murine subrenal capsule; then the graft survival time was compared by blood glucose level and pathological examination and meanwhile the interferon γ (IFN-γ),tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α),interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-1β level in serum and their mRNA and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were examined.Results Islets with CoPP-induction under low- and high-glucose stimulation exhibited much higher insulin secretion compared with other three groups.CoPP-induction could increase higher expression of HO-1 (mRNA:3.33- and 76.09-fold in vitro and in vivo; protein:2.85- and 58.72-fold).The normoglycemia time in induction groups ((14.63±1.19) and (16.88+1.64) days) was significantly longer.The pathological examination showed less lymphocyte infiltration in induction groups.The IL-10 level and its mRNA in induction groups were significantly higher.Conclusions The HO-1 induced by CoPP would significantly improve function,prolong normoglycemia time and reduce lymphocyte infiltration.Meanwhile CoPP-induction in vivo had more beneficial effects than in vitro.Its mechanism could be related to immune-modulation of IL-10.

  9. Folic acid functionalized long-circulating co-encapsulated docetaxel and curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles: In vitro evaluation, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in rats.

    Pawar, Harish; Surapaneni, Sunil Kumar; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Singh, Charan; Burman, Rohani; Gill, Manjinder Singh; Suresh, Sarasija


    The purpose of this study was to develop folic acid functionalized long-circulating co-encapsulated docetaxel (DTX) and curcumin (CRM) solid lipid nanoparticles (F-DC-SLN) to improve the pharmacokinetic and efficacy of DTX therapy. F-DC-SLN was prepared by hot melt-emulsification method and optimized by face centered-central composite design (FC-CCD). The SLN was characterized in terms of size and size distribution, drug entrapment efficiency and release profile. The cytotoxicity and cell uptake of the SLN formulations were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution were studied in Wistar rats. F-DC-SLN exhibited 247.5 ± 3.40 nm particle size with 73.88 ± 1.08% entrapment efficiency and zeta potential of 14.53 ± 3.6 mV. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical morphology of the SLN. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the targeting efficacy of F-DC-SLN in MCF-7 cells. F-DC-SLN exhibited a significant increase in area under the curve (594.21 ± 64.34 versus 39.05 ± 7.41 μg/mL h) and mean residence time (31.14 ± 19.94 versus 7.24 ± 4.51 h) in comparison to Taxotere®. In addition, decreased DTX accumulation from F-DC-SLN in the heart and kidney in comparison to Taxotere may avoid to toxicity these vital organs. In conclusion, the F-DC-SLN improved the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of DTX exhibiting enhanced potential in optimizing breast cancer therapy.

  10. The impact of silica encapsulated cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles on DNA, lipids and proteins of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Novotna, Bozena; Turnovcova, Karolina; Veverka, Pavel; Rössner, Pavel; Bagryantseva, Yana; Herynek, Vit; Zvatora, Pavel; Vosmanska, Magda; Klementova, Mariana; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla


    Nanomaterials are currently the subject of intense research due to their wide variety of potential applications in the biomedical, optical and electronic fields. We prepared and tested cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4+γ [CZF-NPs]) encapsulated by amorphous silica in order to find a safe contrast agent and magnetic label for tracking transplanted cells within an organism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled for 48 h with a low, medium or high dose of CZF-NPs (0.05; 0.11 or 0.55 mM); silica NPs (Si-NPs; 0.11 mM) served as a positive control. The internalization of NPs into cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy. Biological effects were analyzed at the end of exposure and after an additional 72 h of cell growth without NPs. Compared to untreated cells, Annexin V/Propidium Iodide labeling revealed no significant cytotoxicity for any group of treated cells and only a high dose of CZF-NPs slowed down cell proliferation and induced DNA damage, manifested as a significant increase of DNA-strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases. This was accompanied by high concentrations of 15-F2t-isoprostane and carbonyl groups, demonstrating oxidative injury to lipids and proteins, respectively. No harmful effects were detected in cells exposed to the low dose of CZF-NPs. Nevertheless, the labeled cells still exhibited an adequate relaxation rate for MRI in repeated experiments and ICP-MS confirmed sufficient magnetic label concentrations inside the cells. The results suggest that the silica-coated CZF-NPs, when applied at a non-toxic dose, represent a promising contrast agent for cell labeling.

  11. Islet cryopreservation: improved recovery following taurine pretreatment.

    Hardikar, A A; Risbud, M V; Remacle, C; Reusens, B; Hoet, J J; Bhonde, R R


    Simple and efficient freezing methods with maximal postthawing recovery form the basis of ideal cryopreservation. Taurine (2-amino ethanesulfonic acid), an end-product of sulphur amino acid metabolism, is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the body. The membrane stabilizing, free radical scavenging, and osmoregulatory roles of taurine have been well documented. We studied the effect of physiological and supra-physiological concentrations (0.3 and 3.0 mM) of taurine on islet cryopreservation. Islet viability on cryopreservation was significantly improved in both the taurine-treated groups (91.9 +/- 2.3% in 0.3 mM and 94.6 +/- 1.58% in 3.0 mM group, p taurine group, as examined under phase contrast and quantified by islet morphometric analysis (p Taurine-treated islets showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (0.905 and 0.848 nM MDA/microg protein for 0.3 and 3.0 mM taurine, respectively, p 200 mg/dl) following removal of the graft. Suboptimal islet transplantation using 250 IE suggests that the grafted islet mass was inadequate for diabetes reversal. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the islet insulin content between the three groups following cryopreservation of the islets at -196 degrees C. Our studies indicate that taurine pretreatment and its continued presence during islet cryopreservation improves the postthawing viable recovery of islets.

  12. 二氮嗪与格列吡嗪影响2型糖尿病肥胖大鼠胰岛功能的比较%A comparative study of diazoxide and glipizide on the islet function of obese rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    李娟; 邹大进; 丁长花; 冯正康


    60只SD大鼠分别给予正常饲料和高脂饲料喂养,8周后高脂组中选取肥胖大鼠给予腹腔内注射小剂量链脲佐菌素制备糖尿病模型.成模大鼠分为安慰剂、二氮嗪和格列吡嗪组,治疗4周.结果显示,2型糖尿病模型肥胖大鼠体重、胰岛素、胰岛素敏感性显著低于高脂对照组(P<0.01).与格列吡嗪相似,二氮嗪可降低血糖,改善葡萄糖耐量(P<0.01),2组之间无显著差异(P>0.05).二氮嗪组胰岛的形态基本完整,胰岛细胞凋亡率显著低于糖尿病组(P<0.05),同格列吡嗪组相比无显著差异(P>0.05).提示二氮嗪作为KATP通道开放剂,能促进胰岛细胞休息,减轻胰岛素分泌负荷,改善2型糖尿病肥胖大鼠的胰岛功能.%Sixty male SD rats were separately fed by normal diet or high-fat diet.After eight weeks of highfat diet,these rats were injected low dose streptozotocin (30 mg/kg).Diazoxide or glipizide was administered to the diabetic rats for 4 weeks.The results showed that body weight,serum insulin,and insulin sensitive index were decreased in the obese diabetic rats while the fasting blood glucose,total cholesterol,and triglyceride levels were increased compared with the high-fat diet group ( all P<0.01 ).Consistent with the results of glipizide,diazoxide treatment lowered blood glucose,improved glucose tolerance,and decreased islet cell apoptosis compared with the diabetes mellitus group ( all P<0.05 ).The results suggest that diazoxide can improve islet function of obese type 2 diabetic rats via decreasing insulin secretion and thus lessening the load on islet cells.

  13. Plasmid-encapsulated polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine nanoparticles for gene delivery into rat mesenchymal stem cells

    Chen X


    Full Text Available Xiao-Ai Chen1,5*, Li-Jun Zhang2*, Zhi-Jie He3, Wei-Wei Wang4, Bo Xu1, Qian Zhong1, Xin-Tao Shuai4, Li-Qun Yang4, Yu-Bin Deng11Department of Pathophysiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2Futian Affiliated Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, China; 3Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 4Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, BME Center, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 5Yunnan Cancer Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China*Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a promising method in regenerative medicine. Gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells possess superior characteristics of specific tissue differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, and directional migration. Viral vectors have the disadvantages of potential immunogenicity, carcinogenicity, and complicated synthetic procedures. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI holds promise in gene delivery because of easy preparation and potentially targeting modification.Methods: A PEG8k-PEI25k graft copolymer was synthesized. Agarose gel retardation assay and dynamic light scattering were used to determine the properties of the nanoparticles. MTT reduction, wound and healing, and differentiation assays were used to test the cytobiological characteristics of rat mesenchymal stem cells, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to determine transfection efficiency, and atomic force microscopy was used to evaluate the interaction between PEG-PEI/plasmid nanoparticles and mesenchymal stem cells.Results: After incubation with the copolymer, the bionomics of mesenchymal stem cells showed no significant change. The mesenchymal stem cells still maintained high viability, resettled the

  14. A protective effect of endomorphins on the oxidative injury of islet.

    Tian, L M; Liu, J; Sun, X L; Gao, C X; Fan, Y; Guo, Q


    The antioxidative capacity of endomorphins (EMs), endogenous μ-opioid receptor agonists, has been demonstrated by IN VIVO assays. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2) on pancreatic islet injuries induced by streptozotocin (STZ), alloxan (ALX) and H(2)O(2), respectively. Wistar rats' islets were isolated and purified. The function of the islet cells, the insulin response to glucose stimulation was examined by insulin Radio Immuno Assay and the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. DNA fragments were performed to evaluate the apoptosis, while the cell cycle distribution was analyzed by PI staining flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, the islet were treated with EM1, EM2 or ALX for 24 h, and the expression of p53 and p21 protein were determined by Western blot. The results showed that STZ, ALX, and H(2)O(2) displayed clear concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on the pancreatic islet cells. While EMs improved the viability of islet induced by STZ, ALX or H(2)O(2), and EMs enhanced insulin accumulation of the cell supernatant after ALX and STZ stimulation. Our data also showed both that EMs inhibited cell apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest induced by STZ and ALX through down-regulaing p53 and p21 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EMs can protect islet cells from STZ, ALX and H(2)O(2) induced injuries. Our observations imply that the endomorphins may have protective effects on islet cells oxidative injury.

  15. Alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos submetidos a manipulação tímica com células não-parenquimatosas Allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver after allogenic nonparenchymal cells injection in the thymus

    Eleazar Chaib


    éticos, antes do alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado, ao contrário de inibir a reação do receptor contra o enxerto, prolongando a sobrevida média das ilhotas e, possivelmente, levando ao estado de tolerância imunológica, induziu ao processo de rejeição aguda precoce.BACKGROUD: The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control AIM: We studied allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver, Wistar (RT1u to Lewis (RT1¹ as a recipient. Control group (n = 8 and nonparenchymal cell group (n = 8 respectively with injection of Hanks solution and nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before islet transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With the method of isolation and purification of the islets we obtained both in the control group 3.637 ± 783,3 islets with purity of 85 ± 3,52% and nonparenchymal cell group 3.270 ± 770 islets with purity of 84,25 ± 2,76%. The nonparenchymal cells were retrieved from the liver and we obtained 2 x 106 cells. Diabetes was induced by i.v. streptozotocin RESULTS: Control group the transplantation of 3.637 ± 783,3 islets in the rat liver normalized glucose test, 7,21 ± 0,57 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. Acute rejection came in the 6th postoperative day with significantly increase of glucose test in nonparenchymal cell group, the transplantation of 3.270 ± 770 islets in the rat liver, almost normalized the glucose test was 17,95 ± 5,33 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. From the 4th postoperative day to 10th postoperative day. The glucose test increase significantly showing an early acute rejection CONCLUSION: The injection of nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before allogenic islet transplantation in the rat liver lead to an early acute rejection.

  16. The Effects of Intensive Insulin Treatment on Oxidative Stress and IsletβCell Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetic Rats%强化胰岛素治疗对2型糖尿病大鼠氧化应激及胰岛β细胞凋亡的影响

    王德峰; 孙力; 苗国英; 耿瑞鹏; 张辉; 施海法


    Objective To observe the effects of intensive insulin treatment on oxidative stress and islet β cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetic rats.Methods 36 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group and high fat diet group.Rats in normal control group were feed by purified water and basical feedstuff.Rats in high fat diet group were feed by high fat and basical feedstuff.After 10 days,rats in high fat group were injected with streptozotocin.After 3 days, rats in high fat group were randomly divided into two groups: diabetes control group and insulin treatment group.The course of treatment is 4 weeks.After 10 days by fat milk intragastric administration,after 3 days of streptozotocin injection and after 4 weeks treatment,we measure each index.After experiment, we measure SOD, MDA, and GSM in blood serum and hepatic tissue of rats, we measure islet β cell apoptosis by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end la.Results After 4 weeks intensive insulin treatment, compare with the diabetes control group, The blood serum and hepatic tissue SOD、GSM in insulin treatment group are increased and MDA is decreased.Isletβcell apoptosis rates is decreased (P < 0.05).Conclusion The method of insulin intensive treatment can decrease oxidative stress and isletβcell apoptosis.%目的 观察强化胰岛素治疗对2型糖尿病大鼠氧化应激及胰岛β凋亡的影响.方法 将36只Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组和高脂组,正常对照组给予纯净水灌胃+基础饲料喂养,高脂组给予脂肪乳灌胃+基础饲料喂养,10 d后给高脂组大鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素,3 d后再将高脂组大鼠随机分为2个亚组,即糖尿病对照组和糖尿病胰岛素治疗组,治疗4周.脂肪乳灌胃第10天、注射链脲佐菌素第3天和治疗4周末测大鼠各项指标;实验结束时测各组大鼠血清及肝组织中超氧化物歧化酶、丙二醛和谷胱甘肽转移酶的含量,采用末端标记技

  17. Improving Islet Engraftment by Gene Therapy

    Xiaojie Wang


    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is currently the only feasible long-term treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the majority of transplanted islets experience damage and apoptosis during the isolation process, a blood-mediated inflammatory microenvironment in the portal vein upon islet infusion, hypoxia induced by the low oxygenated milieu, and poor-revascularization-mediated lack of nutrients, and impaired hormone modulation in the local transplanted site. Strategies using genetic modification methods through overexpression or silencing of those proteins involved in promoting new formation of blood vessels or inhibition of apoptosis may overcome these hurdles and improve islet engraftment outcomes.

  18. Human Monoclonal Islet Cell Antibodies From a Patient with Insulin- Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Reveal Glutamate Decarboxylase as the Target Antigen

    Richter, Wiltrud; Endl, Josef; Eiermann, Thomas H.; Brandt, Michael; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Thivolet, Charles; Jungfer, Herbert; Scherbaum, Werner A.


    The autoimmune phenomena associated with destruction of the β cell in pancreatic islets and development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) include circulating islet cell antibodies. We have immortalized peripheral blood lymphocytes from prediabetic individuals and patients with newly diagnosed IDDM by Epstein-Barr virus transformation. IgG-positive cells were selected by anti-human IgG-coupled magnetic beads and expanded in cell culture. Supernatants were screened for cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies using the conventional indirect immunofluorescence test on cryostat sections of human pancreas. Six islet cell-specific B-cell lines, originating from a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM, could be stabilized on a monoclonal level. All six monoclonal islet cell antibodies (MICA 1-6) were of the IgG class. None of the MICA reacted with human thyroid, adrenal gland, anterior pituitary, liver, lung, stomach, and intestine tissues but all six reacted with pancreatic islets of different mammalian species and, in addition, with neurons of rat cerebellar cortex. MICA 1-6 were shown to recognize four distinct antigenic epitopes in islets. Islet cell antibody-positive diabetic sera but not normal human sera blocked the binding of the monoclonal antibodies to their target epitopes. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled human islet cell extracts revealed that a protein of identical size to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (EC was a target of all MICA. Furthermore, antigen immunotrapped by the MICA from brain homogenates showed glutamate decarboxylase enzyme activity. MICA 1-6 therefore reveal glutamate decarboxylase as the predominant target antigen of cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies in a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM.

  19. Effects of mature Sertoli cells on allogeneic islets cocultured in vitro

    Heli Xiang; Wujun Xue; Yan Teng; Xinshun Feng; Puxun Tian; Xiaoming Ding


    Objective: To set up a method for isolation and culture of mature Sertoli cells and to estimate their effects on allogeneic islets cocultured in vitro. Methods: Adult SD rat testicular Sertoli cells were prepared successfully by three-step enzyme digestion. Then they were cocultured respectively with allogeneic islets and activated Wistar rat splenocytes. 24-hour cumulative insulin release and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test were performed to detect islet function between pure islets culture group and coculture group. Splenocyte proliferation activity was determined by MTT colorimetry assay to observe the inhibition effect of Sertoli cells in different densities. Result: Firstly, in pure islet culture group, the 24-hour cumulative insulin release was gradually decreased in 21-day culture time. Compared to day 3, this change was significant on day 7 (P < 0.05) and on day 10,14,21 (P < 0.01). In contrast, in coculture group, compared to day 3, the 24-hour cumulative insulin release was increased significantly on day 7 (P < 0.01 ), and then gradually decreased on day 10 and 14, but still higher than that of day 3. It was on day 21 that it began to decrease compared to day 3 (P < 0.05). During the culture time in vitro, the 24-hour cumulative insulin release of islet coculture group was significantly higher than that of pure islets culture group (P < 0.01). In the case of stimulation index(SI), there was a similar tendency as insulin release in the two groups. Secondly, mature Sertoli cells(1×106/mL)pretreated by 15 grays irradiation could decrease proliferation activity of activated splenocytes compared to that of control group (P < 0.01 ). This inhibition effect was dose-dependent. Conclusion: Mature Sertoli cells can improve the function and prolong the survival of islet cells cultured in vitro. They can also provide an immune protection to islet cells. The approach described above might be applicable to human islet transplantation as soon as

  20. Control of insulin secretion by cytochrome C and calcium signaling in islets with impaired metabolism.

    Rountree, Austin M; Neal, Adam S; Lisowski, Mark; Rizzo, Norma; Radtke, Jared; White, Sarah; Luciani, Dan S; Kim, Francis; Hampe, Christiane S; Sweet, Ian R


    The aim of the study was to assess the relative control of insulin secretion rate (ISR) by calcium influx and signaling from cytochrome c in islets where, as in diabetes, the metabolic pathways are impaired. This was achieved either by culturing isolated islets at low (3 mm) glucose or by fasting rats prior to the isolation of the islets. Culture in low glucose greatly reduced the glucose response of cytochrome c reduction and translocation and ISR, but did not affect the response to the mitochondrial fuel α-ketoisocaproate. Unexpectedly, glucose-stimulated calcium influx was only slightly reduced in low glucose-cultured islets and was not responsible for the impairment in glucose-stimulated ISR. A glucokinase activator acutely restored cytochrome c reduction and translocation and ISR, independent of effects on calcium influx. Islets from fasted rats had reduced ISR and cytochrome c reduction in response to both glucose and α-ketoisocaproate despite normal responses of calcium. Our data are consistent with the scenario where cytochrome c reduction and translocation are essential signals in the stimulation of ISR, the loss of which can result in impaired ISR even when calcium response is normal.

  1. Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice.

    Vikash Chandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs. Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17 and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3-4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach. CONCLUSIONS: h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  2. Dissociation between insulin secretion and DNA synthesis in cultured pancreatic islets

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Glucose has been suggested to be the most important stimulus for beta cell replication in vivo and in vitro. In order to study the relationship between insulin secretion and DNA synthesis, newborn rat islets were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of glucose, theophylline and 3-...

  3. Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon

    Eckhard Mühlbauer


    Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from β-cells and in glucagon secretion from α-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin–insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes.

  4. Melatonin and pancreatic islets: interrelationships between melatonin, insulin and glucagon.

    Peschke, Elmar; Bähr, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard


    The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from β-cells and in glucagon secretion from α-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin-insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes.

  5. Sustained NF-κB activation and inhibition in β-cells have minimal effects on function and islet transplant outcomes.

    Aileen J F King

    Full Text Available The activation of the transcription factor NF-κB leads to changes in expression of many genes in pancreatic β-cells. However, the role of NF-κB activation in islet transplantation has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the state of NF-κB activation would influence the outcome of islet transplantation. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant active IKKβ (constitutively active or a non-degradable form of IκBα (constitutive inhibition under control of the rat insulin promoter were generated. Islets from these mice were transplanted into streptozotocin diabetic mice in suboptimal numbers. Further, the effects of salicylate (an inhibitor of NF-κB treatment of normal islets prior to transplantation, and the effects of salicylate administration to mice prior to and after islet implantation were evaluated. Transplantation outcomes were not affected using islets expressing a non-degradable form of IκBα when compared to wild type controls. However, the transplantation outcomes using islets isolated from mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of NF-κB were marginally worse, although no aberrations of islet function in vitro could be detected. Salicylate treatment of normal islets or mice had no effect on transplantation outcome. The current study draws attention to the complexities of NF-κB in pancreatic beta cells by suggesting that they can adapt with normal or near normal function to both chronic activation and inhibition of this important transcription factor.

  6. Immunosuppression, macroencapsulation and ultraviolet-B irradiation as immunoprotection in porcine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation

    Sandberg, J.O.; Olsson, N.; Hellerstroem, C.; Andersson, A. [Uppsala Univerity, Dept. of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, R.C. [Baxter Healthcar Corporation, Gene Therapy Unit, Illinois (United States)


    Membrane encapsulation or ultraviolet-B irradiation, with or without mild immunosuppressive treatment, was applied in order to prolong the survival of xenogeneic porcine foetal pancreatic grafts. Non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with porcine islet-like cell clusters, either membrane-encapsulated in the epididymal fat pad, or non-encapsulated under the kidney capsule. The animals were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of either cyclosporin A (12.5 mg/kg b.wt.), 15-deoxyspergualin (5.0 mg/kg b.wt.), ethyl (E)-6-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-6-isobenzofurany l-4-methyl-4-hexenoate). (RS-61443) (70 mg/kg b.wt.) or with cyclophosphamide (70 mg/kg b.wt.) every second day. A fulminant mononuclear cell infiltration was observed 14 days after transplantation both around the subcapsular graft and outside the membranes in the saline treated control group. The membrane had pores of 0.45 {mu}m and was designed to allow macromolecule transport but prevents cells from crossing. Therefore, xenoantigens can escape from the membrane implants and cause an immune reaction. A significantly weaker mononuclear cell infiltration was, however, seen when the membrane barrier was combined with 15-deoxyspergualin, cyclophosphamide or RS-61443 treatment but the morphology of the encapsulated ICC was not improved. The best subcapsular, non-encapsulated graft survival was obtained in animals treated with 15-deoxyspergualin or cyclophosphamide and the graft insulin content measurements confirmed the morphological data. There was no prolongation of islet-like cell cluster graft survival under the kidney capsule after ultraviolet-B irradiation alone (650 J/m{sup 2} for 90 sec.), and no synergistic effect was observed. It is concluded that neither membrane encapsulation with membrane that allow xenoantigen escape from the implants nor ultraviolet-B irradiation are able to prolong discordant xenograft survival in mice. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Effect of copper deficiency on the content and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones

    Bhathena, S.J.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Fields, M.; Kennedy, B.W.; Recant, L.


    Experimental copper (Cu) deficiency in rats is characterized by glucose intolerance and hyperlipemia. Its severity is increased by dietary fructose (F) as compared to starch (S). Since islet hormones are intimately involved in carbohydrate metabolism the authors studied the effects of Cu deficiency on their content and secretion. Rats were fed Cu deficient (CuD) (0.6 Cu/g) or Cu supplemented (6.0 Cu/g) diets with either 62% F or S for 7 weeks after weaning. Feeding CuD diets decreased plasma insulin (I) (P < 0.001) but not plasma glucagon (G). F feeding compared to S magnified the effects of Cu deficiency. Total pancreatic content of I in CuD rats was increased threefold (P < 0.001). Total somatostatin content increased significantly only in the pancreas of CuD rats fed F. Although total G content was not altered in CuD rats, when G was expressed per g protein or g wet weight, significant increases were found in CuD rats fed F. Thus, of the islet hormones, the major effect of Cu deficiency was on I. When pancreata were perfused in vitro with high glucose, pancreas from CuD rats had reduced insulin response. Thus, cellular functions dependent on Cu are involved in maintaining the ability of the islets of Langerhans to secrete I in a normal fashion.

  8. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells

    Goalstone, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, VA Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States); Kamath, Vasudeva [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Kowluru, Anjaneyulu, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)


    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet {beta}-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 {beta}-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the {alpha}-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the {beta}-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  9. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets.

    Jakob D Wikstrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The XF24 respirometer platform was adapted to islets by the development of a 24-well plate specifically designed to confine islets. The islet plate generated data with low inter-well variability and enabled stable measurement of oxygen consumption for hours. The F1F0 ATP synthase blocker oligomycin was used to assess uncoupling while rotenone together with myxothiazol/antimycin was used to measure the level of non-mitochondrial respiration. The use of oligomycin in islets was validated by reversing its effect in the presence of the uncoupler FCCP. Respiratory leak averaged to 59% and 49% of basal OCR in islets from C57Bl6/J and FVB/N mice, respectively. In comparison, respiratory leak of INS-1 cells and C2C12 myotubes was measured to 38% and 23% respectively. Islets from a cohort of human donors showed a respiratory leak of 38%, significantly lower than mouse islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay for islet respiration presented here provides a novel tool that can be used to study islet mitochondrial function in a relatively high-throughput manner. The data obtained in this study shows that rodent islets are less bioenergetically efficient than human islets as well as INS1 cells.

  10. Apelin is a novel islet peptide

    Ringström, Camilla; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Bennet, Hedvig;


    Apelin, a recently discovered peptide with wide tissue distribution, regulates feeding behavior, improves glucose utilization, and inhibits insulin secretion. We examined whether apelin is expressed in human islets, as well as in normal and type 2 diabetic (T2D) animal islets. Further, we studied...

  11. Rac1 regulates pancreatic islet morphogenesis.


    Abstract Background Pancreatic islets of Langerhans originate from endocrine progenitors within the pancreatic ductal epithelium. Concomitant with differentiation of these progenitors into hormone-producing cells such cells delaminate, aggregate and migrate away from the ductal epithelium. The cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating islet cell delamination and cell migration are poorly understood. Extensive biochemical and cell biological studies using cultured cells demonstrated that Ra...

  12. Canine islets in an ultrafiltered environment.

    Merrell, R C; Basadonna, G


    Molecular sieve membranes can protect pancreatic islets against immune recognition in diabetic patients treated by endocrine tissue replacement. These biocompatible membranes permit the passage of small peptides such as insulin, and preclude the diffusion of immunoglobulins and immunogenic molecules. However, the tissue must function indefinitely in an ultrafiltered environment determined by the sequestering membranes. The chronic perifusion of canine islet tissue was compared in ultrafiltered and microfiltered chambers. The biphasic pattern of insulin release by similar numbers of islets from the same pancrease preparation was not significantly different when tissue was cultured in a micro- or an ultrafiltered environment. The cumulative insulin output of the two systems was quite similar over 3 days of culture. Canine islet tissue can be sustained in an ultrafiltered environment with maintenance of insulin release to glucose stimulation, which is quantitatively similar to islet tissue maintained in chronic perifusion without ultrafiltration.

  13. Influence of gastric bypass on expressions of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 in islet cells of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus%胃转流术对2型糖尿病大鼠胰岛细胞胰岛素受体及胰岛素受体底物2表达的影响

    石力; 文艺; 张少华; 陈涛; 崔剑锋; 闫洪涛; 汤礼军


      结论:2型糖尿病大鼠胰岛细胞中IRc及IRS-2表达下调,而胃转流术能够使其表达显著增加,这可能是该手术产生对2型糖尿病产生疗效的机制之一。%Objective:To investigate the influence of gastric bypass surgery on expressions of insulin receptor (IRc) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) in islet cells of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:The model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats was induced by a high fat and high glucose diet plus intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection, and then the rats with establishment of successful model were divided into model group and gastric bypass group, using the normal rats as normal control group. The rats in gastric bypass group underwent gastrojejunostomy and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy, and those in model group and normal control group underwent sham operation. The fasting glucose and serum insulin levels were measured and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated before and at 8 weeks atfer operation, and the IRc and IRS-2 expressions in pancreatic tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results:hTe fasting glucose levels were increased and ISI values were decreased signiifcantly in both model group and gastric bypass group compared with normal control group before operation, but these two parameters were signiifcantly improved in gastric bypass group compared with model group atfer operation (all P0.05). In gastric bypass group at 8 weeks atfer operation, both IRc and IRS-2 expression levels were signiifcantly higher than those in model group (both P0.05). Conclusion:IRc and IRS-2 expressions are decreased in islet cells of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gastric bypass surgery can increase IRc and IRS-2 expression, which may be one of the mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of this surgical procedure on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Pancreatic islet renin angiotensin system: its novel roles in islet function and in diabetes mellitus.

    Leung, Po Sing; Carlsson, Per-Ola


    Several regulatory systems are implicated in the regulation of islet function and beta cell mass. Of great interest in this context are some endocrine, paracrine/autocrine, and intracrine regulators. These include, to name but a few, the gut peptides, growth factors, prostaglandins, and some vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide, bradykinins, endothelins, and angiotensins. Apart from its potent vasoconstrictor actions, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that generates angiotensin II has several novel functions-stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation; induction of apoptosis; generation of reactive oxygen species; regulation of hormone secretion; and proinflammatory and profibrogenic actions. In the pancreas, recent evidence supports the presence of an islet RAS, which is subject to activation by islet transplantation and diabetes. Such a local islet RAS, if activated, may drive islet fibrosis and reduce islet blood flow, oxygen tension, and insulin biosynthesis. Moreover, activation of an islet RAS may drive the synthesis of reactive oxygen species, cause oxidative stress-induced beta cell dysfunction and apoptosis, and thus contribute to the islet dysfunction seen in type 2 diabetes and after islet transplantation. Blockade of the RAS could contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of patients with diabetes and in islet transplantation.

  15. Small Islets Transplantation Superiority to Large Ones: Implications from Islet Microcirculation and Revascularization

    Wenjuan Li


    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy to regain glycemic control in diabetic patients. The selection of ideal grafts is the basis to guarantee short-term effectivity and longevity of the transplanted islets. Contradictory to the traditional notion, recent findings implied the superiority of small islets for better transplantation outcomes rather than the large and intact ones. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidences emphasized the major impact of microcirculation on islet β-cell mass and function. And potentials in islet graft revascularization are crucial for their survival and preserved function in the recipient. In this study, we verified the distinct histological phenotype and functionality of small islets versus large ones both in vitro and in vivo. With efforts to exploring the differences in microcirculation and revascularization of islet grafts, we further evaluated local expressions of angiotensin and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A at different levels. Our findings reveal that, apart from the higher density of insulin-producing β-cells, small islets express less angiotensin and more angiotrophic VEGF-A. We therefore hypothesized a logical explanation of the small islet superiority for transplantation outcome from the aspects of facilitated microcirculation and revascularization intrinsically in small islets.

  16. Cytokines cause functional and structural damage to isolated islets of Langerhans

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Bendixen, G


    -dependent diabetes mellitus, isolated human or rat islets of Langerhans were incubated for 7 days with cytokine-rich, cell-free supernatants of blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors stimulated with or without purified protein derivative of tuberculin or phytohaemagglutinin. Glucose stimulated insulin......Cytokines are soluble, antigen non-specific, non-immunoglobulin mediators produced and secreted by blood mononuclear cells interacting in the cellular immune-response. To test the possibility that cytokines participate in the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells leading to insulin......-release, and contents of insulin and glucagon in islets incubated with cytokine-rich supernatants were markedly reduced. This impairment of islet function was due to a cytotoxic effect of cytokine-rich supernatants as judged by disintegration of normal light-microscopic morphology....

  17. Increased Arginine and Ornithine Flux in Islets of Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System

    Tobin, B. W.; Sams, C. F.; Smith, S. M.


    Microgravity is associated with alterations in protein metabolism of both muscle and bone. That pancreas-derived insulin is essential to the normal maintenance of body protein balance is well known. The importance of altered endocrine pancreas function in microgravity is not yet established. We proposed to examine the influence of a microgravity model system, the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) upon islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth rats. Islets were cultured in the HARV for 48 hr in Medium-199 and contrasted to static control islets (PLATE). Nitrogenous compounds elaborated into the media (micromoles/ml) were analyzed at 0 and 48 hr of culture and compared to PLATE with a 2-way ANOVA (HARV vs Hour).

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin in rat Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in relation to impaired host defense and low bacterial susceptibility to gentamicin.

    R.M. Schiffelers (Raymond); G. Storm (Gert); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)


    textabstractLong-circulating liposomes (LCL) may be used as targeted antimicrobial drug carriers as they localize at sites of infection. As a result, LCL-encapsulated gentamicin (LE-GEN) has demonstrated superior antibacterial activity over the free drug in a single-dos

  19. Exogenous and endogenous ghrelin counteracts GLP-1 action to stimulate cAMP signaling and insulin secretion in islet β-cells.

    Damdindorj, Boldbaatar; Dezaki, Katsuya; Kurashina, Tomoyuki; Sone, Hideyuki; Rita, Rauza; Kakei, Masafumi; Yada, Toshihiko


    We studied interactive effects of insulinotropic GLP-1 and insulinostatic ghrelin on rat pancreatic islets. GLP-1 potentiated glucose-induced insulin release and cAMP production in isolated islets and [Ca(2+)](i) increases in single β-cells, and these potentiations were attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin suppressed [Ca(2+)](i) responses to an adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Moreover, GLP-1-induced insulin release and cAMP production were markedly enhanced by [D-lys(3)]-GHRP-6, a ghrelin receptor antagonist, in isolated islets. These results indicate that both exogenous and endogenous islet-derived ghrelin counteracts glucose-dependent GLP-1 action to increase cAMP production, [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin release in islet β-cells, positioning ghrelin as a modulator of insulinotropic GLP-1.

  20. Protein encapsulation in polymeric microneedles by photolithography

    Kochhar JS


    Full Text Available Jaspreet Singh Kochhar,1 Shui Zou,2 Sui Yung Chan,1 Lifeng Kang11Department of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, SingaporeBackground: Recent interest in biocompatible polymeric microneedles for the delivery of biomolecules has propelled considerable interest in fabrication of microneedles. It is important that the fabrication process is feasible for drug encapsulation and compatible with the stability of the drug in question. Moreover, drug encapsulation may offer the advantage of higher drug loading compared with other technologies, such as drug coating.Methods and results: In this study, we encapsulated a model protein drug, namely, bovine serum albumin, in polymeric microneedles by photolithography. Drug distribution within the microneedle array was found to be uniform. The encapsulated protein retained its primary, secondary, and tertiary structural characteristics. In vitro release of the encapsulated protein showed that almost all of the drug was released into phosphate buffered saline within 6 hours. The in vitro permeation profile of encapsulated bovine serum albumin through rat skin was also tested and shown to resemble the in vitro release profile, with an initial release burst followed by a slow release phase. The cytotoxicity of the microneedles without bovine serum albumin was tested in three different cell lines. High cell viabilities were observed, demonstrating the innocuous nature of the microneedles.Conclusion: The microneedle array can potentially serve as a useful drug carrier for proteins, peptides, and vaccines.Keywords: poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate, microneedles, protein stability, photolithography, biocompatibility

  1. Ionic and secretory response of pancreatic islet cells to minoxidil sulfate

    Antoine, M.H.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A.; Lebrun, P. (Laboratory of Pharmacology, Brussels Free University School of Medicine (Belgium))


    Minoxidil sulfate is an antihypertensive agent belonging to the new class of vasodilators, the K+ channel openers. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of minoxidil sulfate on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islets. The drug unexpectedly provoked a concentration-dependent decrease in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by glucose and tolbutamide. Minoxidil sulfate did not affect 45Ca outflow from islets perfused in the presence of extracellular Ca++ and absence or presence of glucose. However, in islets exposed to a medium deprived of extracellular Ca++, the drug provoked a rise in 45Ca outflow. Whether in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca++, minoxidil sulfate increased the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration of islet cells. Lastly, minoxidil sulfate increased the release of insulin from glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets. These results suggest that minoxidil sulfate reduces the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and promotes an intracellular translocation of Ca++. The latter change might account for the effect of the drug on the insulin-releasing process. However, the secretory response to minoxidil sulfate could also be mediated, at least in part, by a modest Ca++ entry.

  2. Clinical use of fructosamine in islet transplantation.

    Tharavanij, Thipaporn; Froud, Tatiana; Leitao, Cristiane B; Baidal, David A; Paz-Pabon, Charlotte N; Shari, Messinger; Cure, Pablo; Bernetti, Karina; Ricordi, Camillo; Alejandro, Rodolfo


    Many islet transplant recipients have medical conditions that could interfere with the accuracy of HbA1c measurements (e.g., anemia/dapsone use). Fructosamine is less prone to have clinical interferences and reflects glucose control in a shorter period of time than HbA1c. This study aimed to validate fructosamine use in islet transplant subjects and to evaluate its effectiveness as a predictor for islet graft dysfunction. Thirty-three islet transplant recipients who had concomitant fructosamine and HbA1c data available were retrospectively analyzed. HbA1c, fructosamine, mean capillary blood glucose, and islet graft function (fasting C-peptide/glucose ratio) were assessed. There was a significant and positive association between fructosamine and HbA1c (p 6% was predictive of this outcome 1 month in advance (OR 2.95, p = 0.003). However, although significantly associated with graft dysfunction, use of this cutoff as a predictor of dysfunction has poor sensitivity (50%) and specificity (77.6%). Fructosamine above the normal range (>270 mumol/L Quest Diagnostics) was also predictive of ensuing dysfunction (OR 2.47, p = 0.03); however, it had similarly poor sensitivity (62%) and specificity (64%). Fructosamine can be used as an alternative to HbA1c for glycemic assessment in islet transplant recipients in situations with HbA1c assay interference. Neither HbA1c nor fructosamine are good predictors of islet graft dysfunction.

  3. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Nystroem, Anders


    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  4. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    Food active ingredients can be encapsulated by different processes, including spray drying, spray cooling, spray chilling, spinning disc and centrifugal co-extrusion, extrusion, fluidized bed coating and coacervation (see Chap. 2 of this book). The purpose of encapsulation is often to stabilize an active ingredient, control its release rate and/or convert a liquid formulation into a solid which is easier to handle. A range of edible materials can be used as shell materials of encapsulates, including polysaccharides, fats, waxes and proteins (see Chap. 3 of this book). Encapsulates for typical industrial applications can vary from several microns to several millimetres in diameter although there is an increasing interest in preparing nano-encapsulates. Encapsulates are basically particles with a core-shell structure, but some of them can have a more complex structure, e.g. in a form of multiple cores embedded in a matrix. Particles have physical, mechanical and structural properties, including particle size, size distribution, morphology, surface charge, wall thickness, mechanical strength, glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, flowability and permeability. Information about the properties of encapsulates is very important to understanding their behaviours in different environments, including their manufacturing processes and end-user applications. E.g. encapsulates for most industrial applications should have desirable mechanical strength, which should be strong enough to withstand various mechanical forces generated in manufacturing processes, such as mixing, pumping, extrusion, etc., and may be required to be weak enough in order to release the encapsulated active ingredients by mechanical forces at their end-user applications, such as release rate of flavour by chewing. The mechanical strength of encapsulates and release rate of their food actives are related to their size, morphology, wall thickness, chemical composition, structure etc. Hence

  5. Effect of estrogen on secretion function and the number of pancreatic islet beta cell in ovariectomized rats%雌激素对去卵巢大鼠胰岛β细胞数量和功能的影响

    夏文芳; 陈璐璐; 曾天舒


    Objective To investigate the effect of ovariectomy and estrogen on secretion function and number of pancreatic islet beta cell in low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Thirty female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control(NC) group, streptozotocin(STZ) group, ovariectomized(OVX) group, OVX + STZ(OS) group and OVX+STZ+estradiol(OSE) group. OVX, OS and OSE groups underwent ovariectomy, while NC and STZ groups underwent just sham operation. After surgery, OSE group was treated subcutaneously with estradiol 0.2 mg/kg twice weekly. At the end of 3 weeks, STZ, OS and OSE groups were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. Then eight days later, plasma glucose and insulin levels were tested. The insulin protein, the average beta cell area and the relative beta cell mass were tested by streptavidin peroxidase conjugation method (SP). The quantification of beta cell apoptosis was performed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) protein, Bax and Bcl-2 were tested. Results With the administration of low-dose STZ, the plasma glucose was significantly higher and the insulin secretion curve after glucose loading, △I30/△G30 and modified beta cell function index(MBCI) were lower in OVX group than in other groups(all P<0.05). At the same time, the insulin protein, the relative beta cell mass and the beta cell area were dramatically decreased(all P<0.05). The beta cell apoptotic index was increased (t = 2.957, P< 0.05), the expression ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased (0.41±0.03 vs. 0.76±0.05, P<0.05). Estrogen replacement therapy could obviously inhibit these changes. Compared with OS group, glucose disturbances and insulin secretion were improved dramatically in OSE group(all P<0.05); the insulin content, the relative beta cell mass and the average beta cell area were all enhanced (all P<0.05); the beta cell apoptotic

  6. Kinetics of intraperitoneally infused insulin in rats - Functional implications for the bioartificial pancreas

    de Vos, P; Vegter, D; de Haan, B.J; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, R

    Intraperitoneal transplantation of encapsulated islets can restore normoglycemia in diabetic recipients but not normal glucose tolerance nor normal insulin responses to a physiological stimulus. This study investigates whether the intraperitoneal implantation site as such contributes to the

  7. Kinetics of intraperitoneally infused insulin in rats - Functional implications for the bioartificial pancreas

    DeVos, P; Vegter, D; DeHaan, BJ; Strubbe, JH; Bruggink, JE; VanSchilfgaarde, R


    Intraperitoneal transplantation of encapsulated islets can restore normoglycemia in diabetic recipients but not normal glucose tolerance nor normal insulin responses to a physiological stimulus. This study investigates whether the intraperitoneal implantation site as such contributes to the interfer

  8. Expression of cytokeratin-19 as a stem cell marker in different-purity islet samples of rats%大鼠不同纯度胰岛样本中干细胞标志物细胞角蛋白19的表达

    杨闯; 王济明; 杜成友; 黄艳君; 薛栋


    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic stem cells can be differentiated into endocrine functioning cells under a suitable cultivation condition, suggesting that pancreatic stem cells can be used as a new source of islet in treating diabetes mellitus.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the expression of stem cell in different purities of pancreatic islets.DESING: A controlled observation based on cells.SETTING: Third People's Hospital of Mianyang City.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted in the Center Laboratory (Key Laboratory of Chongqing City), the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from March 2005 to March 2006. Thirty healthy male SD rats, of clean grade, aged 50 days were used in this study. During the experiment, the disposal of animals corresponded to Animal Ethical Standard. Cytokeratin (CK)-19 and β-actin were designed by Shanghai Invitrogen Biological Co., Ltd.Brdu reagent, mouse anti-rat Brdu monoclonal antibody, rabbit anti-mouse (RAM) CK-19 polyclonal antibody and Brdu immunohistochemical kit were from Boster Co., Ltd. (Wuhan); HistostainTM -DS double immunohistochemical staining kit was purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Company.METHODS: Rats were intraperitoneally injected with Brdu for labeling, and subjected to perfusion with Ⅴ-type collagenase via pancreatic ducts, with pancreas being excised, ripped, beaten up, digested and centrifuged to obtain pancreatic islet sediments. After being precipitated, the sediments were divided into 3 groups. Group A: The isolated sediments of islets were not purified; Group B: The sediments were added slowly with 25% Ficoll-400 and Hanks solution for purification; Group C: The sediments were slowly added with 25% Ficoll-400, 11% Ficoll-400 for purification in order.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Expressions of Brdu and CK-19-positive cells in the islet samples were detected by immunohistochemical method, and mRNA expression of CK-19 in the different purities of islets was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain

  9. A Metabolomic Approach (1H HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy) Supported by Histology to Study Early Post-transplantation Responses in Islet-transplanted Livers

    Vivot, Kevin; Benahmed, Malika A.; Seyfritz, Elodie; Bietiger, William; Elbayed, Karim; Ruhland, Elisa; Langlois, Allan; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Sigrist, Séverine; Reix, Nathalie


    Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. 1H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific. To study islet specific inflammatory events, immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of islet transplanted livers for thrombin (indicator of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)) and granulocytes and macrophages. We observed a specific correlation between IBMIR and granulocyte and macrophage infiltration after 12 h. In parallel, we identified a metabolic response associated with transplantation: after 12 h, glucose, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione were significantly increased. An increase of glucose is a marker of tissue degradation, and could be explained by immune cell infiltration. Alanine, aspartate and glutamate are inter-connected in a common metabolic pathway known to be activated during hypoxia. An increase of glutathione revealed the presence of antioxidant protection. In this study, IBMIR visualization combined with 1H HRMAS NMR facilitated the characterization of cellular and molecular pathways recruited following islet transplantation. PMID:27766032

  10. The heterogeneity of islet autoantibodies and the progression of islet failure in type 1 diabetic patients.

    Liu, Jin; Bian, Lingling; Ji, Li; Chen, Yang; Chen, Heng; Gu, Yong; Ma, Bingqin; Gu, Wei; Xu, Xinyu; Shi, Yun; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Dalong; Sun, Zilin; Ma, Jianhua; Jin, Hui; Shi, Xing; Miao, Heng; Xin, Bing; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Zhenwen; Bu, Ruifang; Xu, Lan; Shi, Guangde; Tang, Wei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Dongmei; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Xingbo; Shi, Bimin; Dong, Jixiang; Hu, Ji; Fang, Chen; Zhong, Shao; Yu, Weinan; Lu, Weiping; Wu, Chenguang; Qian, Li; Yu, Jiancheng; Gao, Jialin; Fei, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Xueqin; Cui, Shiwei; Cheng, Jinluo; Xu, Ning; Wang, Guofeng; Han, Guoqing; Xu, Chunrong; Xie, Yun; An, Minmin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhixiao; Cai, Yun; Fu, Qi; Fu, Yu; Zheng, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Hu, Qingfang; Dai, Hao; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Kuanfeng; Li, Yifan; Shen, Jie; Zhou, Hongwen; He, Wei; Zheng, Xuqin; Han, Xiao; Yu, Liping; She, Jinxiong; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Tao


    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous in many facets. The patients suffered from type 1 diabetes present several levels of islet function as well as variable number and type of islet-specific autoantibodies. This study was to investigate prevalence and heterogeneity of the islet autoantibodies and clinical phenotypes of type 1 diabetes mellitus; and also discussed the process of islet failure and its risk factors in Chinese type 1 diabetic patients. A total of 1,291 type 1 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Demographic information was collected. Laboratory tests including mixed-meal tolerance test, human leukocyte antigen alleles, hemoglobinA1c, lipids, thyroid function and islet autoantibodies were conducted. The frequency of islet-specific autoantibody in newly diagnosed T1DM patients (duration shorter than half year) was 73% in East China. According to binary logistic regressions, autoantibody positivity, longer duration and lower Body Mass Index were the risk factors of islet failure. As the disease developed, autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase declined as well as the other two autoantibodies against zinc transporter 8 and islet antigen 2. The decrease of autoantibodies was positively correlated with aggressive beta cell destruction. Autoantibodies can facilitate the identification of classic T1DM from other subtypes and predict the progression of islet failure. As there were obvious heterogeneity in autoantibodies and clinical manifestation in different phenotypes of the disease, we should take more factors into consideration when identifying type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of islet grafts using positron-emission tomography

    Lu, Yuxin; Dang, Hoa; Middleton, Blake; Zhang, Zesong; Washburn, Lorraine; Stout, David B.; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Atkinson, Mark A.; Phelps, Michael; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.


    Islet transplantation offers a potential therapy to restore glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes patients. However, islet transplantation is not routinely successful because most islet recipients gradually lose graft function. Furthermore, serological markers of islet function are insensitive to islet loss until the latter stages of islet graft rejection. A noninvasive method of monitoring islet grafts would aid in the assessment of islet graft survival and the evaluation of interventions designed to prolong graft survival. Here, we show that recombinant adenovirus can engineer isolated islets to express a positron-emission tomography (PET) reporter gene and that these islets can be repeatedly imaged by using microPET after transplantation into mice. The magnitude of signal from engineered islets implanted into the axillary cavity was directly related to the implanted islet mass. PET signals attenuated over the following weeks because of the transient nature of adenovirus-mediated gene expression. Because the liver is the preferred site for islet implantation in humans, we also tested whether islets could be imaged after transfusion into the mouse liver. Control studies revealed that both intrahepatic islet transplantation and hyperglycemia altered the biodistribution kinetics of the PET probe systemically. Although transplanted islets were dispersed throughout the liver, clear signals from the liver region of mice receiving PET reporter-expressing islets were detectable for several weeks. Viral transduction, PET reporter expression, and repeated microPET imaging had no apparent deleterious effects on islet function after implantation. These studies lay a foundation for noninvasive quantitative assessments of islet graft survival using PET. diabetes | transplantation

  12. IDDM: an islet or an immune disease?

    Boitard, C; Larger, E; Timsit, J; Sempe, P; Bach, J F


    Insulin-dependent diabetes develops as a consequence of the selective destruction of insulin-producing cells by an autoimmune reaction. However, the precise series of events which trigger anti-islet autoreactive T cells is still being investigated. Major issues will need to be raised before a comprehensive view of the anti-islet autoimmune reaction can be delineated. These include defining the primary site of activation of autoreactive lymphocytes and exploring hypotheses to explain the chronicity of the diabetes process. These issues all relate with the more general dilemma of the actual role of the islets of Langerhans in breaking self tolerance to beta-cell antigens. By studying non-obese diabetic mice deprived of beta cells following a single injection of a high dose of alloxan at 3 weeks of age, we recently obtained evidence that the activation of autoreactive T cells requires the presence of target islet cells in order to develop.

  13. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S


    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  14. Microencapsulated neonatal porcine islet transplantation reverses the morphological changes of thyroids in diabetic rats%微囊包膜新生猪胰岛移植逆转糖尿病大鼠甲状腺形态学改变

    李佐强; 刘纯; 何军; 舒昌达


    Objective To investigate the morphological changes of the thyroids in diabetic rats undergoing the transplantation of microencapsulated neonatal porcine islets. Methods 800 microencapsulated neonatal porcine islets were transplanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Three months after the islet transplantation, all animals were killed, and the thyroid sections were observed. Results The levels of plasma glucose(PG) were (4.87 ± 0.47)mmol/L in control group (CG) and (6.44 ± 1.82)mmol/L in transplantation group (TG), and (16.12 ± 1.47)mmol/L in diabetes group (DG) before decapitation of the animals. No significant difference was found in PG between TG and CG( P >0.05), but the difference in PG between DG and CG was significant (P < 0. 001 ). The colloid areas in the follicular lumens of the thyroids in TG and DG showed no significant difference as compared with those in CG, but the cell heights of the follicular epithelium of the thyroids (CHFET) in DG had a significant difference as compared with those in CG (P < 0. 001 ), whereas no significant difference was observed in CHFET between TG and CG (P > 0.05 ). Conclusion The morphological change of the epithelial cells of the thyroid follicle in the recipients may be reversed if its PG was effectively controlled after islet transplantation, which may contribute to reversing the thyroid hyposecretion function in diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨糖尿病大鼠胰岛移植后的甲状腺形态学的变化.方法 给用链脲霉素所致的糖尿病大鼠腹腔内移植微囊包膜的新生猪胰岛800个.术后3个月将动物处死,取甲状腺切片观察.结果 动物处死前对照组及移植组的血糖水平分别为(4.87±0.47)mmol/L和(6.44±1.82)mmol/L,糖尿病组为(16.12±1.47)mmol/L,移植组与对照组比较,差异不显著(P>0.05),糖尿病组与对照组比较,差异显著(P<0.001);甲状腺滤泡腔内胶质的面积,移植组、糖尿病组分别与对照组

  15. Interaction between cAMP, volume‑regulated anion channels and the Na+‑HCO3‑‑cotransporter, NBCe1, in the regulation of nutrient‑ and hypotonicity‑induced insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets and tumoral insulin‑producing BRIN‑BD11 cells.

    Bulur, Nurdan; Crutzen, Raphael; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah; Beauwens, Renaud; Golstein, Philippe


    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) has been hypothesized to play a role in insulin secretion. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between adenosine 3',5'‑cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), volume‑regulated anion channels (VRACs) and the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate (Na+‑HCO3‑) cotransporter, NBCe1, in the regulation of nutrient‑ and hypotonicity‑induced insulin release from rat pancreatic islets and tumoral insulin‑producing BRIN‑BD11 cells. In the islets, 5‑nitro‑2‑(3‑phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and 5‑chloro‑2‑hydroxy‑3‑(thiophene‑2‑carbonyl)indole‑1‑carboxamide (tenidap) reduced glucose‑stimulated insulin release, however, only NPPB suppressed the enhancing action of cAMP analogs upon such a release. Insulin output from the BRIN‑BD11 cells was stimulated by 2‑ketoisocaproate (KIC) or extracellular hypoosmolarity. cAMP analogs and 3‑isobutyl‑1‑methylxanthine increased the insulin output recorded in the isotonic medium to a greater relative extent than that in the hypotonic medium. The secretory response to KIC or hypotonicity was inhibited by NPPB or tenidap, which both also opposed the enhancing action of cAMP analogs. Inhibitors of mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase decreased insulin output in isotonic and hypotonic media. The inhibitor of sAC, 2‑hydroxyestriol, caused only a modest inhibition of insulin release, whether in the isotonic or hypotonic medium, even when tested at a concentration of 100 µM. The omission of NaHCO3 markedly decreased the secretory response to KIC or extracellular hypotonicity. The omission of Na+ suppressed the secretory response to extracellular hypotonicity. The observations of the present study do not support the hypothesis of a major role for sAC in the regulation of insulin release.

  16. Regeneration of pancreatic islets in vivo by ultrasound-targeted gene therapy.

    Chen, S; Shimoda, M; Wang, M-Y; Ding, J; Noguchi, H; Matsumoto, S; Grayburn, P A


    This study uses a novel approach to gene therapy in which plasmid DNA is targeted to the pancreas in vivo using ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to achieve islet regeneration. Intravenous microbubbles carrying plasmids are destroyed within the pancreatic microcirculation by ultrasound, achieving local gene expression that is further targeted to β-cells by a modified rat insulin promoter (RIP3.1). A series of genes implicated in endocrine development were delivered to rats 2 days after streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The genes, PAX4, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Ngn3 and Mafa, produced α-cell hyperplasia, but no significant improvement in β-cell mass or blood glucose level 30 days after UTMD. In contrast, RIP3.1-NeuroD1 promoted islet regeneration from surviving β-cells, with normalization of glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels at 30 days. In a longer-term experiment, four of six rats had a return of diabetes at 90 days, accompanied by β-cell apoptosis on Tunel staining. Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 successfully blocked β-cell apoptosis and resulted in restoration of β-cell mass and normalization of blood glucose level for up to 90 days. This technique allows in vivo islet regeneration, restoration of β-cell mass and normalization of blood sugar, insulin and C-peptide in rats without viruses.

  17. Activin B regulates islet composition and islet mass but not whole body glucose homeostasis or insulin sensitivity

    Bonomi, Lara; Brown, Melissa; Ungerleider, Nathan; Muse, Meghan; Matzuk, Martin M.


    Based on the phenotype of the activin-like kinase-7 (ALK7)-null mouse, activins A and B have been proposed to play distinct roles in regulating pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis, with activin A acting to enhance islet function and insulin release while activin B antagonizes these actions. We therefore hypothesized that islets from activin B-null (BBKO) mice would have enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, we hypothesized that this enhanced islet function would translate into increased whole body glucose tolerance. We tested these hypotheses by analyzing glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and islet function in BBKO mice. No differences were observed in fasting glucose or insulin levels, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity compared with weight-matched young or older males. Similarly, there were no significant differences in insulin secretion comparing islets from WT or BBKO males at either age. However, BBKO islets were more sensitive to activin A, myostatin (MSTN), and follistatin (FST) treatments, so that activin A and FST inhibited and MSTN enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. While mean islet area and the distribution of islet areas were not different between the genotypes, islet mass, islet number, and the proportion of α-cells/islet were significantly reduced in BBKO islets. These results indicate that activin B does not antagonize activin A to influence whole body glucose homeostasis or β-cell function but does influence islet mass and proportion of α-cells/islet. Therefore, loss of activin B signaling alone does not account for the ALK7-null phenotype, but activin B may have important roles in modulating islet mass, islet number, and the cellular composition of islets. PMID:22739106

  18. The role of islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) in islet neogenesis.

    Lipsett, Mark; Hanley, Stephen; Castellarin, Mauro; Austin, Emily; Suarez-Pinzon, Wilma L; Rabinovitch, Alex; Rosenberg, Lawrence


    Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is a member of the Reg family of proteins implicated in various settings of endogenous pancreatic regeneration. The expression of INGAP and other RegIII proteins has also been linked temporally and spatially with the induction of islet neogenesis in animal models of disease and regeneration. Furthermore, administration of a peptide fragment of INGAP (INGAP peptide) has been demonstrated to reverse chemically induced diabetes as well as improve glycemic control and survival in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. Cultured human pancreatic tissue has also been shown to be responsive to INGAP peptide, producing islet-like structures with function, architecture and gene expression matching that of freshly isolated islets. Likewise, studies in normoglycemic animals show evidence of islet neogenesis. Finally, recent clinical studies suggest an effect of INGAP peptide to improve insulin production in type 1 diabetes and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

  19. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  20. Construction of functional pancreatic artificial islet tissue composed of fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane and pancreatic stem cells.

    Liu, Liping; Tan, Jing; Li, Baoyuan; Xie, Qian; Sun, Junwen; Pu, Hongli; Zhang, Li


    Objective To improve the biocompatibility between polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane and pancreatic stem cells, rat fibroblasts were used to modify the polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane. Meanwhile, we constructed artificial islet tissue by compound culturing the pancreatic stem cells and the fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane and explored the function of artificial islets in diabetic nude mice. Methods Pancreatic stem cells were cultured on the fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane in dulbecco's modified eagle medium containing activin-A, β-catenin, and exendin-4. The differentiated pancreatic stem cells combined with modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane were implanted subcutaneously in diabetic nude mice. The function of artificial islet tissue was explored by detecting blood levels of glucose and insulin in diabetic nude mice. Moreover, the proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic stem cells on modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane as well as the changes on the tissue structure of artificial islets were investigated by immunofluorescence and haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results The pancreatic stem cells differentiated into islet-like cells and secreted insulin when cultured on fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane. Furthermore, when the artificial islet tissues were implanted into diabetic nude mice, the pancreatic stem cells combined with polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane modified by fibroblasts proliferated, differentiated, and secreted insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic nude mice. Conclusion Pancreatic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into islet-like cells in vitro. In vivo, the artificial islet tissue can effectively regulate the blood glucose level in nude mice within a short period. However, as time increased, the structure of the artificial islets was destroyed due to the erosion of blood cells that resulted in the gradual

  1. Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR Dose Predicts Insulin Independence in Clinical Islet Autotransplantation.

    Klearchos K Papas

    Full Text Available Reliable in vitro islet quality assessment assays that can be performed routinely, prospectively, and are able to predict clinical transplant outcomes are needed. In this paper we present data on the utility of an assay based on cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR in predicting clinical islet autotransplant (IAT insulin independence (II. IAT is an attractive model for evaluating characterization assays regarding their utility in predicting II due to an absence of confounding factors such as immune rejection and immunosuppressant toxicity.Membrane integrity staining (FDA/PI, OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, islet equivalent (IE and OCR (viable IE normalized to recipient body weight (IE dose and OCR dose, and OCR/DNA normalized to islet size index (ISI were used to characterize autoislet preparations (n = 35. Correlation between pre-IAT islet product characteristics and II was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis.Preparations that resulted in II had significantly higher OCR dose and IE dose (p<0.001. These islet characterization methods were highly correlated with II at 6-12 months post-IAT (area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.94 for IE dose and 0.96 for OCR dose. FDA/PI (AUC = 0.49 and OCR/DNA (AUC = 0.58 did not correlate with II. OCR/DNA/ISI may have some utility in predicting outcome (AUC = 0.72.Commonly used assays to determine whether a clinical islet preparation is of high quality prior to transplantation are greatly lacking in sensitivity and specificity. While IE dose is highly predictive, it does not take into account islet cell quality. OCR dose, which takes into consideration both islet cell quality and quantity, may enable a more accurate and prospective evaluation of clinical islet preparations.

  2. Research on the effect of statins on insulin secretion from pancreatic islet in rats and its mechanisms%他汀类调脂药对大鼠胰岛胰岛素分泌的影响及机制研究

    常宝成; 郑妙艳; 单春艳; 杨菊红; 王颖; 任慧珠; 陈莉明; 方佩华


    目的 观察不同他汀类药物对大鼠胰岛葡萄糖刺激的胰岛素分泌(GSIS)的抑制作用及机制.方法 新鲜分离或经24 h培养的胰岛均匀分为对照组、阿托伐他汀组、氟伐他汀组和普伐他汀组,对照组给予Kreb-Ringer碳酸氢盐缓冲液,他汀类药物组分别给予100μmol/L阿托伐他汀、氟伐他汀和普伐他汀,水浴30 min或过夜培养24 h.各组经2.8、5.5、11.1、16.7、25.0 mmol/L葡萄糖刺激后,37℃水浴法测定胰岛GSIS变化,生物化学发光法测定三磷酸腺苷(ATP)含量.结果 100μmol/L阿托伐他汀水浴30 min后,在16.7 mmol/L葡萄糖刺激下,与相应对照组比较,ATP含量[(9.54±1.64)pmol/胰岛比(12.33±1.89)pmol/胰岛]及胰岛素分泌(1.60±0.21比2.39±0.30)均下降(P<0.05);100 μmol/L氟伐他汀过夜培养24 h后,在16.7 mmol/L葡萄糖刺激下,与相应对照组比较,ATP含量[(10.24±2.01)pmol/胰岛比(12.31±2.16)pmol/胰岛]及胰岛素分泌(3.12±0.32比4.17±0.37)也均下降(P<0.05).结论 阿托伐他汀、氟伐他汀通过抑制胰岛ATP的生成而抑制GSIS,抑制程度与其脂溶性强弱有关.%Objective To evaluate the inhibitory effect of statins on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of pancreatic islet in rat and to explore its mechanisms. Methods According to the average volume, freshly isolated or 24-hour cultured pancreatic islets were randomly divided into control group( incubated with Kreb-Ringer bicarbonate buffer), the atorvastatin group( incubated with 100 μ mol/L atorvastatin), the fluvastatin group (incubated with 100 μ mol/L fluvastatin)and the pravastatin group (incubated with 100 μ mol/L pravastatin). Stimulated by 2. 8,5. 5,11.1,16. 7 mmol/L and 25.0 mmol/L glucose respectively, the effect of 100 μ mol/L statins on ATP content and GSIS was compared in the four groups. GSIS was performed by the 37℃ bath incubation method and ATP content was measured by chemiluminescence method. Results Incubated with 100

  3. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity.

    Brajkovic, Saška; Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Pawlowski, Valérie; Ezanno, Hélène; Plaisance, Valérie; Zmuda, Erik; Hai, Tsonwin; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Waeber, Gérard; Abderrahmani, Amar


    Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1) is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exposure of MIN6 and isolated rat islets cells to palmitate led to reduction of the IB1 mRNA and protein content. Diminution of IB1 mRNA and protein level relied on the inducible cAMP early repressor activity and proteasome-mediated degradation, respectively. Suppression of IB1 level mimicked the harmful effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and GSIS. Conversely, ectopic expression of IB1 counteracted the deleterious effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and insulin secretion. These findings highlight the importance in preserving the IB1 content for protecting beta cell against lipotoxicity in diabetes.




    Because collagen is the major target in the enzymatic dissociation of the pancreas for islet isolation, we determined the amount of collagen and its distribution in a comparative study comprising normal pancreata of rat, dog, man, young pig, and adult pig. Collagen content was determined using a




    Because collagen is the major target in the enzymatic dissociation of the pancreas for islet isolation, we determined the amount of collagen and its distribution in a comparative study comprising normal pancreata of rat, dog, man, young pig, and adult pig. Collagen content was determined using a col

  6. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Rehana Akter


    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells for pancreatic islet transplants.


    Allogeneic islet transplantation serves as a source of insulin-secreting beta-cells for the maintenance of normal glucose levels and treatment of diabetes. However, limited availability of islets, high rates of islet graft failure, and the need for life-long non-specific immunosuppressive therapy are major obstacles to the widespread application of this therapeutic approach. To overcome these problems, pancreatic islet transplantation was recently suggested as a potential target of the "thera...

  8. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats.

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C


    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.

  9. Islet β-cell ghrelin signaling for inhibition of insulin secretion.

    Dezaki, Katsuya; Yada, Toshihiko


    Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid peptide, was isolated from the stomach, where circulating ghrelin is produced predominantly. In addition to its unique role in regulating growth-hormone release, mealtime hunger, lipid metabolism, and the cardiovascular system, ghrelin is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Ghrelin is expressed in pancreatic islets and released into pancreatic microcirculations. Ghrelin inhibits insulin release in mice, rats, and humans. Pharmacological and genetic blockades of islet-derived ghrelin markedly augment glucose-induced insulin release. The signal transduction mechanisms of ghrelin in islet β-cells are very unique, being distinct from those utilized for growth-hormone release. Ghrelin attenuates the glucose-induced cAMP production and PKA activation, which drives activation of Kv channels and suppression of the glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase and insulin release in β-cells. Insulinostatic function of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in islets is a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexpression of Gs proteins and adenylyl cyclase in normal and diabetic islets.

    Portela-Gomes, Guida M; Abdel-Halim, Samy M


    Knowledge about the relation between G proteins and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) is important for the construction of signaling paradigms to increase our understanding of signal transduction in the normal state and its alterations in pathologic states, such as type-2 diabetes. The immunocytochemical expression patterns of the stimulatory Gs proteins (G alpha-s and G alpha-olf) and the in vitro Ca2+-stimulated ACs (AC1, 3, and 8) were studied in normal and spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat pancreatic islets with use of well-characterized antibodies. The expressions of G alpha-11 and AC2, abundant in pancreatic islets, were also studied. G alpha-s and G alpha-olf were mainly expressed in insulin cells, and G alpha-11 in glucagon cells. The immunoreactivity to G alpha-s and G alpha-olf and to AC1 and AC3 was higher in the GK islets than in the controls, whereas AC8 was found only in the diabetic islets. Strong G alpha-11 and AC2 immunoreactivity was seen equally in both animal groups. G alpha-s was colocalized with all ACs, whereas G alpha-olf was mainly colocalized with AC3, and G alpha-11 with AC1. The current findings may help in drawing a more specific signaling paradigm coupling Gs proteins to ACs.

  11. Microwell scaffolds for the extrahepatic transplantation of islets of langerhans

    Buitinga, M.; Truckenmuller, R.; Engelse, M.A.; Moroni, L.; Ten Hoopen, H.W.; van Blitterswijk, C.A.; de Koning, E.J.; van Apeldoorn, A.A.; Karperien, M.


    Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver has the potential to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the suboptimal microenvironment for islets in the liver is likely to be involved in the progressive islet dysfunction that is often observed post-transplantation. Thi

  12. Transplanted human pancreatic islets after long-term insulin independence

    Muller, Y D; Gupta, Shashank; Morel, P;


    independence. Islets were pooled from two donors with respectively one and five HLA mismatches. Insulin-positive islets were found throughout the right and left liver, and absent in the pancreas. Two- and three-dimensional analysis showed that islets lost their initial rounded and compact morphology, had...

  13. Microwell scaffolds for the extrahepatic transplantation of islets of Langerhans.

    Mijke Buitinga

    Full Text Available Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver has the potential to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the suboptimal microenvironment for islets in the liver is likely to be involved in the progressive islet dysfunction that is often observed post-transplantation. This study validates a novel microwell scaffold platform to be used for the extrahepatic transplantation of islet of Langerhans. Scaffolds were fabricated from either a thin polymer film or an electrospun mesh of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT block copolymer (composition: 4000PEOT30PBT70 and were imprinted with microwells, ∼400 µm in diameter and ∼350 µm in depth. The water contact angle and water uptake were 39±2° and 52.1±4.0 wt%, respectively. The glucose flux through electrospun scaffolds was three times higher than for thin film scaffolds, indicating enhanced nutrient diffusion. Human islets cultured in microwell scaffolds for seven days showed insulin release and insulin content comparable to those of free-floating control islets. Islet morphology and insulin and glucagon expression were maintained during culture in the microwell scaffolds. Our results indicate that the microwell scaffold platform prevents islet aggregation by confinement of individual islets in separate microwells, preserves the islet's native rounded morphology, and provides a protective environment without impairing islet functionality, making it a promising platform for use in extrahepatic islet transplantation.

  14. Potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release in islets by desHis1[Glu9]glucagon amide

    Kofod, Hans; Unson, C G; Merrifield, R B


    Glucagon and secretin and some of their hybrid analogs potentiate glucose-induced release of insulin from isolated mouse pancreatic islets. It was recently shown that the synthetic glucagon analog, desHis1[Glu9]glucagon amide, does not stimulate the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate...... in the rat hepatocyte membrane, but binds well to the glucagon receptor and is a good competitive antagonist of glucagon. In the present study the effect of this analog on isolated islets was examined. desHis1-[Glu9]glucagon amide at 3 x 10(-7) M, in the presence of 0.01 M D-glucose, increased the release...

  15. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets

    Hilderink, Janneke; Spijker, Siebe; Carlotti, Françoise; Lange, Lydia; Engelse, Marten; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, Eelco; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart


    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell surv

  16. Extensive Loss of Islet Mass Beyond the First Day After Intraportal Human Islet Transplantation in a Mouse Model.

    Liljebäck, Hanna; Grapensparr, Liza; Olerud, Johan; Carlsson, Per-Ola


    Clinical islet transplantation is characterized by a progressive deterioration of islet graft function, which renders many patients once again dependent on exogenous insulin administration within a couple of years. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible engraftment factors limiting the survival and viability of experimentally transplanted human islets beyond the first day after their transplantation to the liver. Human islets were transplanted into the liver of nude mice and characterized 1 or 30 days after transplantation by immunohistochemistry. The factors assessed were endocrine mass, cellular death, hypoxia, vascular density and amyloid formation in the transplanted islets. One day posttransplantation, necrotic cells, as well as apoptotic cells, were commonly observed. In contrast to necrotic death, apoptosis rates remained high 1 month posttransplantation, and the total islet mass was reduced by more than 50% between 1 and 30 days posttransplantation. Islet mass at 30 days posttransplantation correlated negatively to apoptotic death. Vascular density within the transplanted islets remained less than 30% of that in native human islets up to 30 days posttransplantation and was associated with prevailing hypoxia. Amyloid formation was rarely observed in the 1-day-old transplants, but was commonly observed in the 30-day-old islet transplants. We conclude that substantial islet cell death occurs beyond the immediate posttransplantation phase, particularly through apoptotic events. Concomitant low vascularization with prevailing hypoxia and progressive amyloid development was observed in the human islet grafts. Strategies to improve engraftment at the intraportal site or change of implantation site in the clinical setting are needed.

  17. Silica Micro Encapsulation

    Mitchell, P.; Whitbread-Jordan, M. [KEECO (United Kingdom)


    The article explains how Silica Micro Encapsulation (SME) water treatment technology may be transferred from metal mining to coal mining operations. KEECO has been developing a unique solution for treating acid rock drainage in the metal sulphide mining sector and following trials in metal mining operations (described in the article), is preparing to transfer the technology to the coal industry. SME technology comprises metal precipitation and encapsulation accomplished with proprietary chemical, KB-1, and a group of patented chemical dosing systems, the K-series, to dose KB-1 into contaminated liquid wastes as a dry powder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Resistance to adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia in rats. Comparison of ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and mutated leptin receptors.

    Koyama, K; Shimabukuro, M; Chen, G; Wang, M Y; Lee, Y; Kalra, P S; Dube, M G; Kalra, S P; Newgard, C B; Unger, R H


    Leptin regulates appetite and body weight via hypothalamic targets, but it can act directly on cultured pancreatic islets to regulate their fat metabolism. To obtain in vivo evidence that leptin may act peripherally as well as centrally, we compared the effect of adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia on food intake, body weight, and islet fat content in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned (VMHL) rats, sham-lesioned (SL) controls, and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in which the leptin receptor is mutated. Infusion with recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA increased plasma leptin by approximately 20 ng/ml in VMHL and ZDF rats but had no effect on their food intake, body weight, or fat tissue weight. Caloric matching of hyperphagic VMHL rats to SL controls did not reduce their resistance to hyperleptinemia. Whereas prediabetic ZDF rats had a fourfold elevation in islet fat, in VMHL rats islet fat was normal and none of them became diabetic. Isolated islets from ZDF rats were completely resistant to the lipopenic action of leptin, while VMHL islets exhibited 50% of the normal response; caloric matching of VMHL rats to SL controls increased leptin responsiveness of their islets to 92% of controls. We conclude that leptin regulation of adipocyte fat requires an intact VMH but that islet fat content is regulated independently of the VMH. PMID:9710441

  19. Is islet transplantation ready for widespread use in diabetes?

    WANG Jin; WANG Qing-hua; XIA Tian; TAN Jian-ming


    Up till 2000 when Edmonton group introduced islet transplant procedure in conjunction with a novel glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen rendering 100% (n=7) of patients with type 1 diabetes insulin-independent for at least 1 year, islet transplant was taken into the clinic. Although significant progress in clinical islet transplant has occurred during recent years, challenges remain, including shortage of available donor organs, technical aspects of islet preparation and transplantation, immunological rejection post-transplant, unclear long-term outcomes of islet transplantation. Special attention is given to current limitation in islet transplantation together with new possible strategies that raise expectations for the widespread use of islet transplantation in the future.

  20. Pig islets xenotransplantation: recent progress and current perspectives

    Haitao eZhu


    Full Text Available Islet xenotransplantation is a prospective treatment to bridge the gap between available human cells and needs of patients with diabetes. Pig is the ideal candidate to obtain such available islet cells. However, potential clinical application of pig islet transplantation still faces obstacles such as inadequate yield of high-quality functional islets and xenorejection of the transplants. Adequate amounts of available islets can be obtained based on selection of a suitable pathogen-free source herd and the development of isolation and purification methods. Several studies demonstrated feasibility of successful pre-clinical pig islet xenotransplantation and provided insights and possible mechanisms of xenogeneic immune recognition and rejection. Particularly promising is the achievement of long-term insulin independence in diabetic models by means of distinct islet products and novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Nonetheless, further efforts are needed to obtain much more data on safety and efficacy to translate these findings into clinical practice

  1. Simulated Microgravity Reduces TNF-Alpha Activity, Suppresses Glucose Uptake and Enhances Arginine Flux in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)


    The present studies were designed to determine effects of microgravity upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF - alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-117,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (parginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity paradigm (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV paradigm. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  2. Altered TNF-Alpha, Glucose, Insulin and Amino Acids in Islets Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.


    The present studies were designed to determine effects of a microgravity model system upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-1 17,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (parginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity model system (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  3. Correction of diabetic pattern of insulin release from islets of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) by glucose priming in vitro.

    Nesher, R; Abramovitch, E; Cerasi, E


    Insulin release kinetics were studied in perifused islets of Langerhans, isolated from mildly hyperglycaemic and from normoglycaemic spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), a rodent predisposed to develop spontaneously non-ketotic diabetes. In both groups, insulin response to glucose (16.7 mmol/l) was delayed in comparison with that of rat islets, the release kinetics being analogous to that of human Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Thirty min priming of the isolated Acomys islets with glucose (16.7 mmol/l) resulted in potentiation of the insulin release to a second stimulation. The degree of potentiation decreased exponentially with the time interval between stimulations, showing a t1/2 of 18 min. Induction of potentiation by glucose was time-dependent, giving a maximal effect after 20 min of priming. In addition to overall amplification of the insulin response, priming with glucose accelerated markedly the initial release rates, correcting the dynamics of the response. We conclude that: (1) decreased and delayed insulin secretion is found in Acomys cahirinus before the development of hyperglycaemia; (2) induction of time-dependent potentiation in the islet by priming with glucose corrects the diabetic-type dynamics of insulin release; (3) therefore the deficient insulin release of Acomys is of a functional nature, the mechanism of potentiation bypassing the defect; (4) since insulin release in Acomys resembles that in prediabetic and diabetic man, similar conclusions might apply to the islet dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes.

  4. KCl -Permeabilized Pancreatic Islets: An Experimental Model to Explore the Messenger Role of ATP in the Mechanism of Insulin Secretion.

    Javier Pizarro-Delgado

    Full Text Available Our previous work has demonstrated that islet depolarization with KCl opens connexin36 hemichannels in β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets allowing the exchange of small metabolites with the extracellular medium. In this study, the opening of these hemichannels has been further characterized in rat islets and INS-1 cells. Taking advantage of hemicannels'opening, the uptake of extracellular ATP and its effect on insulin release were investigated. 70 mM KCl stimulated light emission by luciferin in dispersed rat islets cells transduced with the fire-fly luciferase gene: it was suppressed by 20 mM glucose and 50 μM mefloquine, a specific connexin36 inhibitor. Extracellular ATP was taken up or released by islets depolarized with 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose, depending on the external ATP concentration. 1 mM ATP restored the loss of ATP induced by the depolarization itself. ATP concentrations above 5 mM increased islet ATP content and the ATP/ADP ratio. No ATP uptake occurred in non-depolarized or KCl-depolarized islets simultaneously incubated with 50 μM mefloquine or 20 mM glucose. Extracellular ATP potentiated the secretory response induced by 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose in perifused rat islets: 5 mM ATP triggered a second phase of insulin release after the initial peak triggered by KCl-depolarization itself; at 10 mM, it increased both the initial, KCl-dependent, peak and stimulated a greater second phase of secretion than at 5 mM. These stimulatory effects of extracellular ATP were almost completely suppressed by 50 μM mefloquine. The magnitude of the second phase of insulin release due to 5 mM extracellular ATP was decreased by addition of 5 mM ADP (extracellular ATP/ADP ratio = 1. ATP acts independently of KATP channels closure and its intracellular concentration and its ATP/ADP ratio seems to regulate the magnitude of both the first (triggering and second (amplifying phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  5. The influence of porcine pancreas digestion parameters and islet histomorphology on islet isolation outcome.

    Kinasiewicz, J; Sabat, M; Antosiak-Iwańska, M; Godlewska, E; Sitarek, E; Orłowski, T


    Transplantation of the pig islets of Langerhans is considered as the future treatment for patients suffering from type I diabetes mellitus. Despite the adaptation of modified Ricordi method and highly purified collagenase, the results of pancreas digestions are precarious. Selection of proper donor and optimal digestion procedure are fundamental. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pancreas procuring parameters on pig islets yield. The pancreata were harvested from 69 market sows weighting over 150 kg. After intraductal injection of cold collagenase solution pancreata were transported in UW solution or under conditions of two layer method (TLM). In laboratory pancreata were digested at 37 degrees C according to Ricordi isolation method or stationary in the bottle. The particular parameters of isolation procedure were considered as substantial. Pig weight, volume of infused collagenase solution, TLM application and pancreas dividing before digestion positively affected islet yield. Additionally, the influence of pancreatic islet tissue histomorphology on isolation outcome was studied. Proper donor selection as well as adequate digestion parameters could improve pig islet recovery during islet isolation.

  6. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O


    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...... future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively....

  7. Islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes

    de Kort, H.; de Koning, E.; Rabelink, T.; Bruijn, J.A.; Bajema, I.


    Hanneke de Kort, research fellow1, Eelco J de Koning, associate professor, head of clinical islet transplantation programme234, Ton J Rabelink, professor of medicine, chair of department of nephrology2, Jan A Bruijn, professor immunopathology1, Ingeborg M Bajema, renal and transplantation pathologis

  8. Immune tolerance in pancreatic islet xenotransplantation

    Tian-Hua Tang; Chun-Lin Li; Xin Li; Feng-Qin Jiang; Yu-Kun Zhang; Hai-Quan Ren; Shan-Shan Su; Guo-Sheng Jiang


    AIM: To observe the effect of tail vein injection with donor hepatocytes and/or splenocytes on the islet xenotransplantation rejection.METHODS: New-bom male pigs and BALB/C mice were selected as donors and recipients respectively. Islet xenotransplantation was performed in recipients just after the third time of tail vein injection with donor hepatocytes and/or splenocytes.Macrophage phagocytosis, NK(natural killing cell) killing activity, T lymphocyte transforming function of spleen cells,antibody forming function of B lymphocytes, and T lymphocyte subsets were taken to monitor transplantation rejection. The effects of this kind of transplantation were indicated as variation of blood glucose and survival days of recipients.RESULTS: The results showed that streptozotocin (STZ) could induce diabetes mellitus models of mice. The preinjection of donor hepatocytes, splenocytes or their mixture by tail vein injection was effective in preventing donor islet transplantation from rejection, which was demonstrated by the above-mentioned immunological marks. Each group of transplantation could decrease blood glucose in recipients and increase survival days. Pre-injection of mixture of donor hepatocytes and splenocytes was more effective in preventing rejection as compared with that of donor hepatocyte or splenocyte pre-injection respectively.CONCLUSION: Pre-injection of donor hepatocytes, splenocytes or their mixture before donor islet transplantation is a good way in preventing rejection.

  9. 茶多酚减轻代谢综合征大鼠胰岛β细胞炎性损伤的机制研究%Efficacy of tea polyphenols in inhibiting inflammatory damage to islet beta cell of rats with metabolic syndrome

    夏燕萍; 陈刚; 俞茂华


    通过高糖高脂饮食诱导建立SD大鼠代谢综合征(MS)模型.茶多酚干预10周后大鼠空腹血糖、甘油三酯、胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、游离脂肪酸水平均较MS组明显下降(均P<0.05),茶多酚组胰腺组织肿瘤坏死因子α、干扰素、诱导型一氧化氮合酶的mRNA和蛋白表达较MS组明显下降(均P<0.05),白细胞介素1β蛋白表达也明显降低(P<0.05).电镜观察茶多酚组大鼠胰岛β细胞的分泌颗粒较MS组增多,细胞器结构破坏减轻.提示茶多酚可通过抑制炎性细胞因子的产生,保护胰岛β细胞免受损伤.%A rat model of metabolic syndrome was induced by high glucose plus high fat diet and treated by tea polyphenols for 10 weeks.The results showed that the levels of fasting blood glucose,triglyceride,cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,and free fatty acid in tea polyphenols treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group(all P<0.05),along with decreased TNF-α,IFN-γ,iNOS mRNA and protein expressions,and IL-1β protein expression in pancreatictissue (all P<0.05).Under electron microscope,more secretory granules in islet beta cells and impoveddisorganization of cellular organ were shown in tea polyphenols treatment group compared with metabolic syndrome group.The results suggest that tea polyphenols are able to protect islet β cells against oxidative damage via inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Phytofabrication of Bioactive Molecules Encapsulated Metallic Silver Nanoparticles from Cucumis sativus L. and Its Enhanced Wound Healing Potential in Rat Model

    Perumal Venkatachalam


    Full Text Available The present study describes a rapid method for synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles using callus (CAgNPs and leaf extracts (LEAgNPs of Cucumis sativus and evaluation of its wound healing activity in rat model. The prepared silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 350 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band. The FTIR spectroscopy measurements showed the presence of the possible biomolecules. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. TEM images showed the size of the synthesized CAgNPs with diameter ranged from 21 nm to 23 nm with polygonal shape whereas, in the case of LEAgNPs, spherical shape was noticed with an average size between 11 nm and 19 nm. The EDX results indicated the chemical composition at specific locations on synthesized nanoparticles. Furthermore the topical application of ointment prepared using synthesized AgNPs was found to show enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar albino rat model. By the 21st day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w of silver nanoparticles showed 100% potential wound healing activity than the standard drug as well as control bases. Results strongly showed that the ointment base containing LEAgNPs was found to be very effective in wound repair mechanism in the experimental rats.

  11. Management of nonfunctioning islet cell tumors

    Han Liang; Pu Wang; Xiao-Na Wang; Jia-Cang Wang; Xi-Shan Hao


    AIM: To more clearly define the clinical and pathological characteristics and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of nonfunctioning (NFICTs) islet cell tumors, and to review our institutional experience over the last 30 years.METHODS: The records of 43 patients confirmed to have nonfunctioning islet cell tumors of pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier methods and potential risk factors for survival were compared with the log-rank tests.RESULTS: The mean age was 31.63 years (range, 8 to 67 years). There were 7 men and 36 women. Twentyeight patients had a confirmed diagnosis of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma (NFICC) and benign islet cell tumors were found in 15 patients. The most common symptoms in patients with NFICTs were abdominal pain (55.8%),nausea and/or vomiting (32.6%), fatigue (25.6%) and abdominal mass (23.3%). Preoperative ultrasonic and computed tomography localized the tumors in all patients.Forty-three NFICTs were distributed throughout the pancreas, with 21 located to the right of the superior mesenteric vessels, 10 in the body of the pancreas, 6 in the tail of the pancreas, and multiple tumors were found in one patient. Thirty-nine of 43 patients (91%) underwent surgical resection. Surgical treatment was curative in 30patients (70%) and palliative in 9(21%). The resectability and curative resection rate in patients with NFICC of pancreas were 89% and 61%, respectively. The overall cumulative 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with NFICC were 58.05% and 29.03%, respectively. Radical operation and diameter of cancer small than :10 cm were positive prognostic factors in females younger than 30years old. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that radical operation was the only independent prognostic factor, P=0.007.CONCLUSION: Nonfunctioning islet cell tumors of pancreas are found mainly in young women. The long-term results for patients undergone surgery, especially curative resection are

  12. The Langerhans islet cells of female rabbits are differentially affected by hypothyroidism depending on the islet size.

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Morimoto, S; Cuevas, E


    Effects of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin levels are controversial, and its impact on the Langerhans islet morphology of adult subjects has been poorly addressed. In spite of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are more frequent in females than in males, most studies using animal models have been done in males. The effect of hypothyroidism on the immunolabeling of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) of islet cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin concentrations, morphometry of islets, and immunostaining of TRs α1-2 and β1 and TSHR of islet cells in female rabbits. Control and hypothyroid (0.02% of methimazole for 30 days) animals were used to quantify blood levels of glucose and insulin, density of islets, cross-sectional area (CSA) of islets, number of cells per islet, cell proliferation, and the immunolabeling of TRs α1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR. Student's t or Mann-Whitney-U tests, two-way ANOVAs, and Fischer's tests were applied. Concentrations of glucose and insulin, as well as the insulin resistance were similar between groups. Hypothyroidism did not affect the density or the CSA of islets. The analysis of islets by size showed that hypothyroidism reduced the cell number in large and medium islets, but not in small ones. In small islets, cell proliferation was increased. The immunoreactivity of TRα1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR was increased by hypothyroidism in all islet sizes. Our results show that hypothyroidism affects differentially the islet cells depending on the size of islets.

  13. Cellular islet autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation.

    Volkert A L Huurman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Islet cell transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes (T1D, but only a minority of recipients remains insulin-independent in the following years. We tested the hypothesis that allograft rejection and recurrent autoimmunity contribute to this progressive loss of islet allograft function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-one T1D patients received cultured islet cell grafts prepared from multiple donors and transplanted under anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction and tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF maintenance immunosuppression. Immunity against auto- and alloantigens was measured before and during one year after transplantation. Cellular auto- and alloreactivity was assessed by lymphocyte stimulation tests against autoantigens and cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor assays, respectively. Humoral reactivity was measured by auto- and alloantibodies. Clinical outcome parameters--including time until insulin independence, insulin independence at one year, and C-peptide levels over one year--remained blinded until their correlation with immunological parameters. All patients showed significant improvement of metabolic control and 13 out of 21 became insulin-independent. Multivariate analyses showed that presence of cellular autoimmunity before and after transplantation is associated with delayed insulin-independence (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively and lower circulating C-peptide levels during the first year after transplantation (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively. Seven out of eight patients without pre-existent T-cell autoreactivity became insulin-independent, versus none of the four patients reactive to both islet autoantigens GAD and IA-2 before transplantation. Autoantibody levels and cellular alloreactivity had no significant association with outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this cohort study, cellular islet-specific autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation under ATG

  14. Conservation of the sequence of islet amyloid polypeptide in five mammals is consistent with its putative role as an islet hormone.

    Nishi, M.; Chan, S J; Nagamatsu, S; Bell, G I; Steiner, D. F.


    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found in the pancreatic amyloid deposits of type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and insulinomas. We previously reported the nucleotide sequence of a human cDNA, which indicated that IAPP is a C-terminally amidated peptide derived by proteolytic processing of an 89-amino acid precursor. We now report the isolation of cDNA clones coding for cat, rat, mouse, and guinea pig IAPP precursors, obtained using the combination of...

  15. Influence of heroin withdrawal, detoxication and relapse on islet B cells and blood sugar concentration in rat%大鼠海洛因戒断、脱毒和复吸对胰岛B细胞及血糖浓度的影响

    韩晶; 梁文妹; 洪艳; 夏白娟; 胡赟; 李一欣


    Objective: To investigate the morphological and functional changes of the islet B-cells and glucose level response to heroin withdrawal induced by naloxone, methadone detoxification treatment, and relapse. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal control group (NCG) and an experiment group (EG). The EG was further divided into a heroin withdrawal group (HWG), a methadone detoxication group (MDG), and a heroin relapse group (HRG). Pancreas was drawn from each group. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to detect the expression of insulin. Radioimmu-noassay (RIA) were used to measure insulin level in the blood. Fast glucose was tested by glucose meter. Results: Immuno-histochemical staining results revealed that less insulin expressed in B cells of islets from heroin withdrawal, detoxification, and relapse rats than that in controls. Compared with controls, the insulin levels were significantly decreased in detoxification and relapse rats. Blood glucose was significantly increased response to heroin withdrawal induced by naloxone, and no differences were found during detoxification treatment and relapse compared to controls. Conclusion: During heroin abstinence, detoxification, and relapse, B cells participate in maintaining the body's blood sugar homeostasis via changing synthesis and secretion insulia%目的:探讨在大鼠海洛因戒断、脱毒治疗和复吸期间,胰岛B细胞发生的形态和功能变化以及血中葡萄糖浓度的改变.方法:正常雄性SD大鼠,随机分为正常对照组和实验组,实验组分别建立海洛因依赖戒断模型、美沙酮脱毒治疗模型和海洛因复吸模型.免疫组织化学显色、图像分析观察胰岛B细胞在戒断、脱毒和复吸期间的形态改变;放射免疫检测血清胰岛素水平的变化.血糖仪测各组空腹血糖水平的变化.结果:光镜下,戒断、脱毒和复吸期间胰岛B细胞免疫反应显色均变浅.放射免疫检测血中胰岛

  16. Oxygenation of the portal vein by intraperitoneal administration of oxygenated perfluorochemical improves the engraftment and function of intraportally transplanted islets.

    Sakai, Tetsuya; Li, Shiri; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Tanioka, Yasuki; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Yasuyuki


    One of the major obstacles for successful intraportal islet transplantation (IPIT) is early graft loss due to hypoxia. We therefore examined the effect of intraperitoneal oxygenated perfluorochemical (PFC) on oxygenation of the portal vein with respect to islet engraftment and function after IPIT in a rat model. First, we measured the oxygen tension and saturation in the portal vein of Lewis rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of oxygenated PFC. Second, blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and the number of surviving islets were measured after IPIT with oxygenated PFC (group 1), with PFC saturated by nitrogen (group 2), and without any PFC (control). Both oxygen tension and saturation in the portal vein significantly increased after injection of oxygenated PFC. In IPIT, the functional success rate in group 1 was 83.3%, compared with 16.7% in group 2 and 16.7% in the control. On the 28th posttransplantation day, the number of engrafted islets in the liver in group 1 (12.8 [SD, 3.3]) was significantly higher than that in group 2 (4.7 [SD, 3.0]) and in the control group (6.5 [SD, 3.3]). We clearly demonstrated the effect of intraperitoneal oxygenated PFC on oxygenation of the portal vein, resulting in better IPIT outcomes.

  17. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena


    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  18. Trefoil factor 3 stimulates human and rodent pancreatic islet beta-cell replication with retention of function.

    Fueger, Patrick T; Schisler, Jonathan C; Lu, Danhong; Babu, Daniella A; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Newgard, Christopher B; Hohmeier, Hans E


    Both major forms of diabetes involve a decline in beta-cell mass, mediated by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in type 1 diabetes and by increased rates of apoptosis secondary to metabolic stress in type 2 diabetes. Methods for controlled expansion of beta-cell mass are currently not available but would have great potential utility for treatment of these diseases. In the current study, we demonstrate that overexpression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in rat pancreatic islets results in a 4- to 5-fold increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, with full retention of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This increase was almost exclusively due to stimulation of beta-cell replication, as demonstrated by studies of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and co-immunofluorescence analysis with anti-bromodeoxyuridine and antiinsulin or antiglucagon antibodies. The proliferative effect of TFF3 required the presence of serum or 0.5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor. The ability of TFF3 overexpression to stimulate proliferation of rat islets in serum was abolished by the addition of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist AG1478. Furthermore, TFF3-induced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat islets cultured in serum was blocked by overexpression of a dominant-negative Akt protein or treatment with triciribine, an Akt inhibitor. Finally, overexpression of TFF3 also caused a doubling of [3H]thymidine incorporation in human islets. In summary, our findings reveal a novel TFF3-mediated pathway for stimulation of beta-cell replication that could ultimately be exploited for expansion or preservation of islet beta-cell mass.

  19. Characterization of a novel functional protein in the pancreatic islet: islet homeostasis protein regulation of glucagon synthesis in α cells.

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Darwiche, Houda; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Shupe, Thomas; Petersen, Bryon E


    We have identified a novel protein in bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells. Here we characterize this protein, hereby named islet homeostasis protein (IHoP), in the pancreatic islet. Detection of IHoP mRNA and protein was performed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Islet homeostasis protein functions were utilizing proliferation, insulin secretion by in vitro assays, and following small interfering RNA protocols for suppression of IHoP. We found that IHoP did not homolog with known pancreatic hormones. Islet homeostasis protein expression was seen in both bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells and isolated pancreatic islets. Immunohistochemistry on pancreatic islet revealed that IHoP localized to the glucagon-synthesizing α cells. Inhibition of IHoP by small interfering RNA resulted in the loss of glucagon expression, which induced low blood glucose levels (63-85 mg/dL). Subsequently, cellular apoptosis was observed throughout the islet, including the insulin-producing β cells. Islets of preonset diabetic patients showed normal expression of IHoP and glucagon; however, IHoP was lost upon onset of the disease. These data suggest that IHoP could be a new functional protein in the islet and may play a role in islet homeostasis.

  20. Dexamethasone counteracts the effect of prolactin on islet function: implications for islet regulation in late pregnancy.

    Weinhaus, A J; Bhagroo, N V; Brelje, T C; Sorenson, R L


    Islets undergo a number of up-regulatory changes to meet the increased demand for insulin during pregnancy, including increased insulin secretion and beta-cell proliferation. It has been shown that elevated lactogenic hormone is directly responsible for these changes, which occur in a phasic pattern, peaking on day 15 of pregnancy and returning to control levels by day 20 (term). As placental lactogen levels remain elevated through late gestation, it was of interest to determine whether glucocorticoids (which increase during late gestation) could counteract the effects of lactogens on insulin secretion, beta-cell proliferation, and apoptosis. We found that insulin secretion measured over 24 h in culture and acute secretion measured over 1 h in response to high glucose were increased at least 2-fold by PRL treatment after 6 days in culture. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment had a significant inhibitory effect on secretion in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations greater than 1 nM. At 100 nM, a concentration equivalent to the plasma corticosteroid level during late pregnancy, DEX inhibited secretion to below control levels. The addition of DEX (>1 nM) inhibited secretion from PRL-treated islets to levels similar to those produced by DEX treatment alone. Bromodeoxyuridine (10 microM) staining for the final 24 h of a 6-day culture showed that PRL treatment increased cell proliferation 6-fold over the control level. DEX treatment alone (1-1000 nM) did not reduce cell division below the control level, but significantly inhibited the rate of division in PRL-treated islets. YoYo-1, an ultrasensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, was added (1 microM; 8 h) to the medium after 1-3 days of culture to examine cell death. Islets examined under confocal microscopy showed that DEX treatment (100 nM) increased the number of cells with apoptotic nuclear morphologies. This was quantified by counting the number of YoYo-labeled nuclei per islet under conventional epifluorescence

  1. File list: Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp:// ...

  2. File list: Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp:// ...

  3. File list: Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp:// ...

  4. File list: Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp:// ...

  5. Pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of pancreatic islet in vitro is controlled by TLR-4 and HO-1 pathways.

    Kevin Vivot

    Full Text Available Since their isolation until implantation, pancreatic islets suffer a major stress leading to the activation of inflammatory reactions. The maintenance of controlled inflammation is essential to preserve survival and function of the graft. Identification and targeting of pathway(s implicated in post-transplant detrimental inflammatory events, is mandatory to improve islet transplantation success. We sought to characterize the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators during islet culture with a focus on Heme oxygenase (HO-1 and Toll-like receptors-4 signaling pathways. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status were evaluated after 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours of culture through TLR-4, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, CCL-2 and IL-6 secretion, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species production (Dihydroethidine staining, DHE and macrophages migration. To identify the therapeutic target, TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095 and HO-1 activation (cobalt protoporphyrin,CoPP was performed. Activation of NFκB signaling pathway was also investigated. After isolation and during culture, pancreatic islet exhibited a proinflammatory and prooxidant status (increase levels of TLR-4, COX-2, CCL-2, IL-6, and ROS. Activation of HO-1 or inhibition of TLR-4 decreased inflammatory status and oxidative stress of islets. Moreover, the overexpression of HO-1 induced NFκB phosphorylation while the inhibition of TLR-4 had no effect NFκB activation. Finally, inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathway induced a reduction of macrophages migration. These data demonstrated that the TLR-4 signaling pathway is implicated in early inflammatory events leading to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of islets in vitro. Moreover, these results provide the mechanism whereby the benefits of HO-1 target in TLR-4 signaling pathway. HO-1 could be then an interesting target to protect islets before transplantation.

  6. Tacrolimus inhibits the revascularization of isolated pancreatic islets.

    Ryuichi Nishimura

    Full Text Available AIMS: Immunosuppressive drugs could be crucial factors for a poor outcome after islet allotransplantation. Unlike rapamycin, the effects of tacrolimus, the current standard immunosuppressant used in islet transplantation, on graft revascularization remain unclear. We examined the effects of tacrolimus on islet revascularization using a highly sensitive imaging system, and analyzed the gene expression in transplanted islets by introducing laser microdissection techniques. METHODS: Islets isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP mice were transplanted into the nonmetallic dorsal skinfold chamber on the recipients. Balb/c athymic mice were used as recipients and were divided into two groups: including a control group (n = 9 and tacrolimus-treated group (n = 7. The changes in the newly-formed vessels surrounding the islet grafts were imaged and semi-quantified using multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy and a Volocity system. Gene expression in transplanted islets was analyzed by the BioMark dynamic system. RESULTS: The revascularization process was completed within 14 days after pancreatic islet transplantation at subcutaneous sites. The newly-formed vascular volume surrounding the transplanted islets in the tacrolimus-treated group was significantly less than that in the control group (p<0.05. Although the expression of Vegfa (p<0.05 and Ccnd1 (p<0.05 was significantly upregulated in the tacrolimus-treated group compared with that of the control group, no differences were observed between the groups in terms of other types of gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that tacrolimus inhibits the revascularization of isolated pancreatic islets without affecting the characteristics of the transplanted grafts. Further refinements of this immunosuppressive regimen, especially regarding the revascularization of islet grafts, could improve the outcome of islet allotransplantation.

  7. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II


    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  8. Islet-like clusters derived from mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton's Jelly of the human umbilical cord for transplantation to control type 1 diabetes.

    Kuo Ching Chao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a widespread interest in developing renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue for type I diabetes mellitus. Human mesenchymal cells isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (HUMSCs, which can be easily obtained and processed compared with embryonic and bone marrow stem cells, possess stem cell properties. HUMSCs may be a valuable source for the generation of islets. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HUMSCs were induced to transform into islet-like cell clusters in vitro through stepwise culturing in neuron-conditioned medium. To assess the functional stability of the islet-like cell clusters in vivo, these cell clusters were transplanted into the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via laparotomy. Glucose tolerance was measured on week 12 after transplantation accompanied with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy analysis. These islet-like cell clusters were shown to contain human C-peptide and release human insulin in response to physiological glucose levels. Real-time RT-PCR detected the expressions of insulin and other pancreatic beta-cell-related genes (Pdx1, Hlxb9, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, and Glut-2 in these islet-like cell clusters. The hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was significantly alleviated after xenotransplantation of islet-like cell clusters, without the use of immunosuppressants. In addition to the existence of islet-like cell clusters in the liver, some special fused liver cells were also found, which characterized by human insulin and nuclei-positive staining and possessing secretory granules. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we successfully differentiate HUMSCs into mature islet-like cell clusters, and these islet-like cell clusters possess insulin-producing ability in vitro and in vivo. HUMSCs in Wharton's Jelly of the umbilical cord seem to be the preferential source of stem cells to convert into insulin

  9. Manganese-enhanced MRI of rat brain based on slow cerebral delivery of manganese(II) with silica-encapsulated Mn x Fe(1-x) O nanoparticles.

    Chen, Wei; Lu, Fang; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Mo, Kuan-Chi; Hung, Yann; Guo, Zhi-Xuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ming-Huang; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Chen; Mou, Chung-Yuan


    In this work, we report a monodisperse bifunctional nanoparticle system, MIO@SiO2 -RITC, as an MRI contrast agent [core, manganese iron oxide (MIO); shell, amorphous silica conjugated with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC)]. It was prepared by thermal decomposition and modified microemulsion methods. The nanoparticles with varying iron to manganese ratios displayed different saturated magnetizations and relaxivities. In vivo MRI of rats injected intravenously with MIO@SiO2-RITC nanoparticles exhibited enhancement of the T1 contrast in brain tissue, in particular a time-delayed enhancement in the hippocampus, pituitary gland, striatum and cerebellum. This is attributable to the gradual degradation of MIO@SiO2-RITC nanoparticles in the liver, resulting in the slow release of manganese(II) [Mn(II)] into the blood pool and, subsequently, accumulation in the brain tissue. Thus, T1-weighted contrast enhancement was clearly detected in the anatomic structure of the brain as time progressed. In addition, T2*-weighted images of the liver showed a gradual darkening effect. Here, we demonstrate the concept of the slow release of Mn(II) for neuroimaging. This new nanoparticle-based manganese contrast agent allows one simple intravenous injection (rather than multiple infusions) of Mn(II) precursor, and results in delineation of the detailed anatomic neuroarchitecture in MRI; hence, this provides the advantage of the long-term study of neural function. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Altered islet morphology but normal islet secretory function in vitro in a mouse model with microvascular alterations in the pancreas.

    Elena Kostromina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is important for the development of pancreatic microvasculature via its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice exhibit glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in vivo, along with microvascular alterations in the pancreas. However, the specific role of STAT3 signaling in the regulation of pancreatic islet development and function is not entirely understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of STAT3 signaling in the formation and maintenance of pancreatic islets, we studied pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice. Histological analysis showed that STAT3 deficiency affected pancreatic islet morphology. We found an increased proportion of small-sized islets and a reduced fraction of medium-sized islets, indicating abnormal islet development in STAT3-KO mice. Interestingly, the islet area relative to the whole pancreas area in transgenic and control mice was not significantly different. Immunohistochemical analysis on pancreatic cryosections revealed abnormalities in islet architecture in STAT3-KO mice: the pattern of peripheral distribution of glucagon-positive α-cells was altered. At the same time, islets belonging to different size categories isolated from STAT3-KO mice exhibited normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in perifusion experiments in vitro when compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that STAT3 signaling in the pancreas is required for normal islet formation and/or maintenance. Altered islet size distribution in the KO mice does not result in an impaired islet secretory function in vitro. Therefore, our current study supports that the glucose intolerance and in vivo insulin secretion defect in pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice is due to altered microvasculature in the pancreas, and not intrinsic beta-cell function.

  11. Encapsulation of graphene in Parylene

    Skoblin, Grigory; Sun, Jie; Yurgens, August


    Graphene encapsulated between flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) demonstrates the highest known mobility of charge carriers. However, the technology is not scalable to allow for arrays of devices. We are testing a potentially scalable technology for encapsulating graphene where we replace hBN with Parylene while still being able to make low-ohmic edge contacts. The resulting encapsulated devices show low parasitic doping and a robust Quantum Hall effect in relatively low magnetic fields <5 T.

  12. 雄激素缺乏对雄性大鼠肝脏、肌组织及胰岛病理改变的影响%Influence of testosterone deficiency on pathological changes of liver, skeletal muscle and pancreatic islet of male rats

    许潇; 夏芳珍; 翟华玲; 吴晖; 张惠新; 陆颖理


    目的 观察雄激素缺乏对雄性大鼠肝脏、肌组织及胰腺病理结构的影响.方法 健康SD雄性大鼠随机分为正常对照组(n=5,给予假去势)、去势组(n=7,施行去势手术,建立雄激素缺乏模型)和替代组(n=5,施行去势手术,每日腹腔注射丙酸睾酮12.5 mg/kg替代治疗,连续10周),30周后取各组大鼠血清,放射免疫法测定血清睾酮水平;取各组大鼠肝脏、骨骼肌及胰腺组织,HE染色后行光学显微镜观察.结果 与正常对照组和替代组比较,去势组血清睾酮水平显著降低(P<0.01).光学显微镜观察示去势组大鼠肝细胞胞质内见大小不等的脂肪空泡,胞核缩小;替代组大鼠肝脏空泡数量较去势组减少.去势组大鼠肌组织大部分横纹消失,肌纤维结构紊乱,可见椭圆形透亮脂肪滴;替代组大鼠肌组织结构接近于正常对照组.正常对照组胰岛β细胞形态正常,去势组和替代组大鼠胰岛β细胞接近于正常对照组.结论 脂质沉积对去势后雄性大鼠肝脏、肌组织造成病理损伤,外源性睾酮替代治疗可以一定程度上改善病变.%Objective To observe the influence of testosterone deficiency on pathological changes of liver,skeletal muscle and pancreatic islet of male rats.Methods Healthy male SD rats were randomly assigned into normal control group (n=5,sham castration was performed),castrated group (n =7,testosterone deficiency model was established with castration) and replacement group (n =5,castration was performed,and intraperitoneal injection of 12.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate was conducted for 10 weeks).Thirty weeks later,serum concentration of testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay in each group.The tissues of liver,skeletal muscle and pancreatic islet were obtained,and were observed by light microscopy with HE staining.Results The serum concentration of testosterone in castrated group was significantly lower than those in normal control group and

  13. 大鼠幼年热卡限制对成年后胰岛β细胞质量的影响%The effect of calorie restriction at early age on their islet β cell mass in adulthood of rats

    赵晓龙; 胡予; 何晓烨


    Objective To study the effect of calorie restriction at early age of rats on their islet β cell mass in adulthood.Methods Sixteen 8-week-old male SD rats were randomized to control group (n=7) and calorie restricted group (n =9).The rats in control group took food freely,while the ones in calorie restricted group were given 70% calorie of the control group.After 24 week calorie restriction,cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were tested.The β cell mass was measured by immunohistochefistry and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pancreas homogenate were determined by ELISA.Results The increase of the body weights(45 g vs.184 g)and the level of TG [(0.61±0.15)mmol/L vs.(0.78±0.14)mmol/ L]of the rats in the calorie restricted group were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),while the β cell mass [(43.6±9.8)mg vs.(31.9± 11.6)mg],β cell mass of every milligram pancreas tissue[(89.7 ± 7.4) μg/mg vs.(44.8g ± 14.1) μg/mg] and β cell mass per body weight[(11.5±2.5) × 10-5 vs.(6.3 ±2.3) × 10-5]of the rats in the calorie restricted group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05).There were no differences in the SOD activity [(0.91±0.30)nmol/ mg protein vs.(0.68±0.14)nmol/ mg protein]and MDA level [4.97± 0.65)U /mg protein vs.(6.05 ±2.14)U/mg protein] in pancreas homogenate between the two groups (P>0.05).Conclusions Calorie restriction at early age of rats may increase the islet β cell mass in their adulthood.%目的 观察热卡限制对大鼠成年后胰岛β细胞质量的影响. 方法 将16 只 8周龄雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组7只和热卡限制组9只,对照组大鼠自由进食,热卡限制组大鼠以对照组摄食量的70%喂养,共干预24周.血脂测定指标为三酰甘油(TG)、胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固

  14. Congenital peritoneal encapsulation

    Diana; Teixeira; Vítor; Costa; Paula; Costa; Carlos; Alpoim; Pinto; Correia


    Peritoneal encapsulation(PE) is a rare congenital malformation, characterized by a thin accessory peritoneal membrane which covers all or part of the small bowel, forming an accessory peritoneal sac. Most cases areasymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during surgery and/or autopsy. Clinical presentation with intestinal obstruction is extremely rare and we report a case. A 25-year-old male, referred to emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, crampy, with 8 h evolution, associated with nausea, vomiting and constipation in the last 48 h. The abdominal examination revealed an asymmetric and fixed distension, with hard consistency on palpation of lower abdominal quadrants. The abdominal radiography reveals a small bowel distension and fluid levels. Submitted to laparoscopic surgery that recourse to conversion because there is a total peritoneal encapsulation of the small bowel. After opening the peritoneal sac, we find a rotation of mesentery, at its root, conditioning twisting of small bowel and consequently occlusion. Uneventful postoperative with discharged at the 6th day. The PE is a very rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal bowel back into the abdominal cavity in the early stages of development. Your knowledge becomes important because, although rare, it might be diagnosis in patients with intestinal obstruction, in the absence of other etiologic factors.

  15. Microencapsulated hepatocytes and islets as in vivo bioartificial liver support system

    Yue Gao; Jun Xu; Bei Sun; Hong-Chi Jiang


    AIM: To confirm the xenotransplantation of microencapsulated hepatocytes and islets as a temporary bioartificial liver support system for mice with acute liver failure (ALF).METHODS: Mice were rendered ALF by a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-gal) and their tail blood was sampled to examine differences in blood ALT,albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB) and glucose (GLU) between 4 experimental groups. Rat hepatocytes and islets were collected and microencapsulated referring to both Sun's and Fritschy's methods. Mice were grouped into control group (CG), free hepatocyte group (FHG), microencapsulated hepatocyte group (MHG) and microencapsulated hepatocyte plus islet group (HIG). Tissue samples were subjected to microscopic and electron microscopic (EM) examinations.RESULTS: The highest survival was observed in HIG,surprisingly at 100%(16/16), while the lowest was in CG at 12.5%(2/16), with inter-group statistical difference P<0.05.ALT levels revealed no statistical difference between groups but the ALB level of HIG descended by the slightest margin {q=(0.54, 0.24, 1.33), P<0.05} at the time when it reached the lowest point in all groups. TB of HIG returned to normal reference range (NRR) statistically sooner than that of others after a fierce elevation. No statistical inter-group difference was observed in GLU levels. Fusion between hepatocytes and beta cells was demonstrated giving rise to theoretical assumptions.CONCLUSION: Hepatocytes to be microencapsulated together with islets should be a preferred in vivo hepatic functional supporting system, which can dramatically prolong survival and improve living status.

  16. Human islets and dendritic cells generate post-translationally modified islet auto-antigens

    McLaughlin, Rene J; de Haan, Anne; Zaldumbide, Arnaud; de Koning, Eelco J; de Ru, Arnoud H; van Veelen, Peter A; van Lummel, Menno; Roep, Bart O


    Initiation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) requires a break in peripheral tolerance. New insights into neo-epitope formation indicate that post-translational modification of islet auto-antigens, for example via deamidation, may be an important component of disease initiation or exacerbation. Indeed, deamid

  17. Islet cytotoxicity of interleukin 1. Influence of culture conditions and islet donor characteristics

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Spinas, G A; Prowse, S J


    We recently demonstrated that the macrophage product interleukin 1 (IL-1) is cytotoxic to isolated pancreatic islets and hypothesized that IL-1 is responsible for beta-cell destruction in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We studied whether the variation in IDDM preponderance with age...

  18. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.


    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin in mice and rats were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated this material to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious in this regard.

  19. Towards engineering a novel transplantation site for pancreatic islets

    Smink, Alexandra Maria


    Intraportal pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, but the liver is not an optimal site as it is associated with massive cell-death in the graft. Several alternative sites were investigated, but the human body does not contain an adequate islet transplantation s

  20. Islet transplantation and antioxidant management A comprehensive review

    Seyed Sajad Mohseni Salehi Monfared; Bagher Larijani; Mohammad Abdollahi


    Islet transplantation as a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes has received widespread attention.Oxidative stress plays an essential role in cell injury during islet isolation and transplantation procedures.Antioxidants have been used in various studies to improve islet transplantation procedures. The present study reviews the role of oxidative stress and the benefits of antioxidants in islet transplantation procedures. The bibliographical databases Pubmed and Scopus were searched up to November 2008.All relevant human and animal in-vivo and in-vitro studies, which investigated antioxidants on islets,were included. Almost all the tested antioxidants used in the in-vitro studies enhanced islet viability and insulin secretion. Better control of blood glucose after transplantation was the major outcome of antioxidant therapy in all in-vivo studies. The data also indicated that antioxidants improved islet transplantation procedures. Although there is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual supplements, the benefits of antioxidants in islet isolation procedures cannot be ignored.

  1. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M


    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  2. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  3. High-performance encapsulation in Casanova 2

    Abbadi, Mohamed; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Cortesi, Agostino; Spronck, Pieter; Constantini, Giulia; Maggiore, G.


    Encapsulation is a programming technique that helps developers keeping code readable and maintainable. However, encapsulation in modern object oriented languages often causes significant runtime overhead. Developers must choose between clean encapsulated code or fast code. In the application domain

  4. 聚乙二醇化重组人生长激素对去垂体幼鼠胰岛分泌的影响及其机制%Effect of pegylation recombinant human growth hormone on secretion function of pancreas islet in hypophysectomized rats and its mechanism

    程盼贵; 张知新; 潘琳; 刘应科; 杨晔; 赵秋玲; 李鸿; 贺春


    PEG-rhGH (1.4 mg·kg−1·week−1), respectively. After treatment for 4 weeks, glucose tolerance test and insulin release test were performed to calculate area under the curve insulin (AUCI), area under the curve glucose (AUCG), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Serum somatostatin (SS) levels were determined. Immunohistochemistry displayed the insulin (INS), glucagon (GLU), SS, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Results Glucose tolerance test and insulin release test indicated that HOMA-IR in PEG-rhGH group declined compared with those in the control and model groups (P < 0.05), and there were no difference between rhGH and PEG-rhGH groups. The value of AUCI/AUCG in PEG-rhGH group was higher than that of rhGH group without significant difference. Protein expression of GLU indicated no difference among PEG-rhGH, control, and model groups. The INS expression in PEG-rhGH group increased compared with the control group (P<0.05). SS and PP expression in PEG-rhGH group had no difference compared with that in rhGH group, and there was no significant difference of SS in serum among each group. Conclusion Insulin resistance and decreased isletβcell secretory capacity are not observed, and no significant effects of PEG-rhGH on secretion function of pancreas islet in hypophysectomized rats are observed.

  5. Pancreas procurement from multiorgan donors for islet trasplantation.

    Ricordi, C; Mazzeferro, V; Casavilla, A; Scotti, C; Pinna, A; Tzakis, A; Starzl, T E


    The outcome of human islet isolation procedures can be significantly effected by the technique used for pancreas procurement. In fact, the final step of islet purification using discontinuous density gradients requires a significant difference between the density of the islets and the density of the non-endocrine component of the gland. Therefore, any procedure during multi-organ procurement that will result in edema or degranulation of the acinar tissue will result in failure of the islet purification step. In this report a technique for combined harvesting of liver and pancreas is presented. The use of this procedure can be of assistance to avoid damage to the pancreas that could result in a compromised islet purification for improper handling of the gland even before it arrives to the isolation facility.

  6. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Adesh S Manchanda


    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  7. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  8. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Jen-Jung Pan


    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. This entity has been reported as either primary idiopathic or secondary to other diseases. We report SEP in 2 cirrhotic patients and review the literature. Both patients had decompensated cirrhosis and episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. One patient underwent a Denver shunt placement before developing SEP. This patient remains alive and is managed conservatively. The other patient deceased from multi-organ failure after the resection of gangrened small bowel. The manifestations of SEP are often nonspecific that leads to misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis. Early diagnosis of SEP is difficult but not impossible. Surgical treatment is often required when intestinal obstruction is present. Nevertheless, patients with this problem can be treated conservatively with immunosuppressive therapy with or without total parenteral nutrition (TPN before going for surgery.

  9. Mechanically invisible encapsulations

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    the commercialisation of such devices. Therefore, this project was dedicated to exploring the possibility of using polar liquids as high dielectric constant fillers for dielectric PDMS-based elastomers. Incorporating polar liquids in the form of discrete droplets into nonpolar membrane swas expected to produce a two......-fold improvement with respect to a reference material. Firstly, dielectric constant enhancement and, secondly, a Young’s modulus decrease were anticipated. In the first approach a flow-focusing microfluidic technique was employed, in order to encapsulate polar liquids within a soft elastomeric shell. The produced...... core-shell microspheres served as a carrier for liquids, enabling the uniform dispersion of the filler droplets within PDMS prepolymer. The dielectric constant of the prepared water-PDMS composite was proven to be enhanced by 30% following the incorporation of 4.5 wt.% of water. Due to the favourable...

  10. Intra- and Inter-islet Synchronization of Metabolically Driven Insulin Secretion

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur


    mechanisms for intra-islet and inter-islet synchronization. We show that electrical coupling is sufficient to synchronize both electrical bursting activity and metabolic oscillations. We also demonstrate that islets can synchronize by mutually entraining each other by their effects on a simple model "liver......,'' which responds to the level of insulin secretion by adjusting the blood glucose concentration in an appropriate way. Since all islets are exposed to the blood, the distributed islet-liver system can synchronize the individual islet insulin oscillations. Thus, we demonstrate how intra-islet and inter...

  11. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 2b: genetically modified source pigs.

    Cowan, Peter J; Ayares, David; Wolf, Eckhard; Cooper, David K C


    Genetic modification of the source pig offers the opportunity to improve the engraftment and survival of islet xenografts. The type of modification can be tailored to the transplant setting; for example, intraportal islet xenografts have been shown to benefit from the expression of anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory transgenes, whereas cytoprotective transgenes are probably more relevant for encapsulated islets. The rapid development of pig genetic engineering, particularly with the introduction of genome editing techniques such as CRISPR-Cas, has accelerated the generation of new pig lines with multiple modifications. With pre-clinical testing in progress, it is an opportune time to consider any implications of genetic modification for the conditions for undertaking clinical trials. Obviously, the stringent requirements to fulfill designated pathogen-free status that are applied to wild-type pigs will apply equally to genetically modified (GM) source pigs. In addition, it is important from a safety perspective that the genetic modifications are characterized at the molecular level (e.g., integration site, absence of off-target mutations), the phenotypic level (e.g., durability and stability of transgene expression), and the functional level (e.g., protection of islets in vitro or in vivo, absence of detrimental effects on insulin secretion). The assessment of clinical trial protocols using GM pig islets will need to be performed on a case-by-case basis, taking into account a range of factors including the particular genetic modification(s) and the site and method of delivery.

  12. Increased expression of miR-187 in human islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Locke, J M; da Silva Xavier, G; Dawe, H R; Rutter, G A; Harries, L W


    Type 2 diabetes is characterised by progressive beta cell dysfunction, with changes in gene expression playing a crucial role in its development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and therefore alterations in miRNA levels may be involved in the deterioration of beta cell function. Global TaqMan arrays and individual TaqMan assays were used to measure islet miRNA expression in discovery (n = 20) and replication (n = 20) cohorts from individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. The role of specific dysregulated miRNAs in regulating insulin secretion, content and apoptosis was subsequently investigated in primary rat islets and INS-1 cells. Identification of miRNA targets was assessed using luciferase assays and by measuring mRNA levels. In the discovery and replication cohorts miR-187 expression was found to be significantly increased in islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with matched controls. An inverse correlation between miR-187 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was observed in islets from normoglycaemic donors. This correlation paralleled findings in primary rat islets and INS-1 cells where overexpression of miR-187 markedly decreased GSIS without affecting insulin content or apoptotic index. Finally, the gene encoding homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-3 (HIPK3), a known regulator of insulin secretion, was identified as a direct target of miR-187 and displayed reduced expression in islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest a role for miR-187 in the blunting of insulin secretion, potentially involving regulation of HIPK3, which occurs during the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis in subdermal islet transplant sites

    Shi, Wei; Pawlick, Rena; Bruni, Antonio; Rafiei, Yasmin; Pepper, Andrew R.; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Choi, Min; Malcolm, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.; Shapiro, A. M. James


    Exogenous insulin administration is the mainstay treatment therapy for patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, for select patients, clinical islet transplantation is an alternative therapeutic treatment. In this procedure, islets are transplanted into the hepatic portal vein, and despite improved success within the last decade, obstacles are still associated with this approach. It has been discovered that the subcutaneous space may be an effective alternative site for islet transplantation, and may provide advantages of easy access and potential for simple monitoring. The ability to monitor islet viability and the transplant microenvironment may be key to future success in islet transplantation. A subcutaneous device-less technique has been developed to facilitate angiogenesis in the islet transplant site, however, a method for monitoring the potential engraftment site have yet to be explored fully. Here we demonstrate the ability to track angiogenesis in mice with 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-catheter implant on both sides of the abdomen using a FujiFilm VisualSonics Vevo-LAZR system. Quantitative analysis on vessel densities exhibited gradual vessel growth successfully induced by catheter implantation. Our study demonstrates the ability of employing photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound imaging to track angiogenesis around the catheter site prior to islet transplantation.

  14. Islet expression of the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanosine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1 in human type 2 diabetes

    Yoon Kun-Ho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become increasingly clear that β-cell failure plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Free-radical mediated β-cell damage has been intensively studied in type 1 diabetes, but not in human type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of the DNA repair enzyme Ogg1 in pancreases from type 2 diabetics. Ogg1 was studied because it is the major enzyme involved in repairing 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine DNA adducts, a lesion previously observed in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, in a gene expression screen, Ogg1 was over-expressed in islets from a human type 2 diabetic. Methods Immunofluorescent staining of Ogg1 was performed on pancreatic specimens from healthy controls and patients with diabetes for 2–23 years. The intensity and islet area stained for Ogg1 was evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring. Results Both the intensity and the area of islet Ogg1 staining were significantly increased in islets from the type 2 diabetic subjects compared to the healthy controls. A correlation between increased Ogg1 fluorescent staining intensity and duration of diabetes was also found. Most of the staining observed was cytoplasmic, suggesting that mitochondrial Ogg1 accounts primarily for the increased Ogg1 expression. Conclusion We conclude that oxidative stress related DNA damage may be a novel important factor in the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes. An increase of Ogg1 in islet cell mitochondria is consistent with a model in which hyperglycemia and consequent increased β-cell oxidative metabolism lead to DNA damage and the induction of Ogg1 expression.

  15. 舒洛地特对链脲佐菌素诱导的糖尿病大鼠胰岛B细胞功能的影响%Effect of sulodexide on islet β-cell function in streptozocin induced diabetic rats

    舒冏; 曾龙驿; 王曼曼; 穆攀伟; 张国超; 陈燕铭


    Objective To study the effects of sulodexide on islet B-cell function in streptozocin induced di-abetic rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group C), dia-betic group without treatment(group D), and suledexide treatment group(group S), a single dose of streptozotocin were abdominally injected to establish the diabetic rat models. Each animal in sulodexide treated group was addition-ally fed with sulodexide of 10 mg/(kg·d) for 12 weeks,while the remained group (group C and D) were given normal water in the same period. After 12 weeks of treatment, fasting plasma glucose(FPG),fasting plasma insulin (FINS), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), triglyceride (TG), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine rates (SCr) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Insulin sensitivity index(ISI) and insulin resistant index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Results After 12 weeks, the levels of TG, LDL-C and ALT had no significant difference between group D and group S, but were higher than those in group C (P 0.05).与对照组相比,模型组和舒洛地特组APTT、PT和TT显著降低,胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)明显降低,胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)明显增高(P均<0.05);舒洛地特组与模型组相比,APTT、PT和TT明显增加[(76.18±3.96)s与(65.85±3.15)s,(24.25±3.64)s与(20.34±2.97)s,(34.56±9.13)s与(25.87±8.86)s],胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)显著升高(-4.75±0.10与-5.86±0.11),胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)显著减低(2.46±0.76与3.37±0.68,P均<0.01).结论 舒洛地特能改善链脲佐菌素诱导的糖尿病大鼠胰岛素抵抗,增加胰岛素敏感性,对糖尿病大鼠的血液高凝状态有改善作用,但时糖尿病大鼠血脂及肝肾功能的改变未见显著影响.

  16. Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets for use in a bioartificial pancreas.

    Opara, Emmanuel C; McQuilling, John P; Farney, Alan C


    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process.

  17. Clinical islet transplantation at the University of California, San Francisco.

    Posselt, Andrew M; Szot, Gregory L; Frassetto, Lynda A; Masharani, Umesh; Stock, Peter G


    The UCSF clinical islet transplant program has evolved to utilize immunosuppressive strategies that do not rely on CNIs or other nephro- and beta-cell-toxic immunosuppressive agents. These novel strategies depend on lymphocyte-depleting induction immunotherapy and maintenance immunosuppression with novel agents that focus on co-stimulation and/or lymphocyte migration blockade. These drugs are well tolerated, frequently allow establishment of insulin independence after single islet infusions, and minimize allosensitization. Our early results suggest these regimens will be attractive immunosuppressive agents for future protocols in allogeneic islet transplantation as well as protocols utilizing stem-cell-derived beta cells.

  18. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Norman O. Machado


    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  19. [Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis].

    Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Béchade, Clémence; Bouvier, Nicolas; Ficheux, Maxence; Ligny, Bruno Hurault de; Lobbedez, Thierry


    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare but devastating complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis with a high mortality rate. The incidence is between 0.5 and 2.5%, decreasing with time. PSE is defined as a clinical syndrome with signs of gastrointestinal obstruction, inflammation parameters, radiological and macroscopic changes. The duration of treatment and the cessation of peritoneal dialysis are the main risks. About 75% occured in patients on hemodialysis or after kidney transplantation. Morphological alterations are disappearance of mesothelial layer, submesothelial fibrosis, interstitial sclerosis and vasculopathy. Ultrafiltration failure, fast transport status of the peritoneal membrane and loss of sodium sieving, the most powerful predictor, are the functional abnormalities. Biomarkers in peritoneal effluent include cancer antigen 125, interleukin-6. The pathophysiology is probably a consequence of a multiple-hit process in which expression of growth factors and cytokines play a central role. Medical strategies (corticosteroids, tamoxifen) in association with parenteral nutrition and/or surgery (enterolysis) are discussed. Prevention is the use of physiological peritoneal dialysis solutions, icodextrine instead of high glucose concentration solutions and peritoneal lavage after peritoneal dialysis stopping. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Anakinra and tocilizumab enhance survival and function of human islets during culture: implications for clinical islet transplantation.

    Sahraoui, Afaf; Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Ueland, Thor; Korsgren, Olle; Foss, Aksel; Scholz, Hanne


    Pretreatment culture before islet transplantation represents a window of opportunity to ameliorate the proinflammatory profile expressed by human β-cells in duress. Anakinra (IL-1 receptor antagonist) and tocilizumab (monoclonal IL-6 receptor antibody) are two known anti-inflammatory agents successfully used in the treatment of inflammatory states like rheumatoid arthritis. Both compounds have also been shown to reduce blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. We therefore sought to evaluate the impact of anakinra and tocilizumab on human β-cells. The islets were precultured with or without anakinra or tocilizumab and then transplanted in a marginal mass model using human islets in immunodeficient mice. Islet viability was evaluated in an in vitro model. The pretreatment culture led to a significantly improved engraftment in treated islets compared to the vehicle. Anakinra and tocilizumab are not toxic to human islets and significantly reduce markers of inflammation and cell death. These results strongly support a pretreatment culture with anakinra and tocilizumab prior to human islet transplantation.

  1. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration

    Jyuhn-Huarng Juang


    Full Text Available The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue.

  2. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.


    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  3. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.


    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  4. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R


    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future.

  5. Glucose metabolism, islet architecture, and genetic homogeneity in imprinting of [Ca2+](i and insulin rhythms in mouse islets.

    Craig S Nunemaker

    Full Text Available We reported previously that islets isolated from individual, outbred Swiss-Webster mice displayed oscillations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i that varied little between islets of a single mouse but considerably between mice, a phenomenon we termed "islet imprinting." We have now confirmed and extended these findings in several respects. First, imprinting occurs in both inbred (C57BL/6J as well as outbred mouse strains (Swiss-Webster; CD1. Second, imprinting was observed in NAD(PH oscillations, indicating a metabolic component. Further, short-term exposure to a glucose-free solution, which transiently silenced [Ca2+](i oscillations, reset the oscillatory patterns to a higher frequency. This suggests a key role for glucose metabolism in maintaining imprinting, as transiently suppressing the oscillations with diazoxide, a K(ATP-channel opener that blocks [Ca2+](i influx downstream of glucose metabolism, did not change the imprinted patterns. Third, imprinting was not as readily observed at the level of single beta cells, as the [Ca2+](i oscillations of single cells isolated from imprinted islets exhibited highly variable, and typically slower [Ca2+](i oscillations. Lastly, to test whether the imprinted [Ca2+](i patterns were of functional significance, a novel microchip platform was used to monitor insulin release from multiple islets in real time. Insulin release patterns correlated closely with [Ca2+](i oscillations and showed significant mouse-to-mouse differences, indicating imprinting. These results indicate that islet imprinting is a general feature of islets and is likely to be of physiological significance. While islet imprinting did not depend on the genetic background of the mice, glucose metabolism and intact islet architecture may be important for the imprinting phenomenon.

  6. Inhibition of rejection in murine islet xenografts by CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg gene transfer

    ZHANG Jian; LI Hua; JIANG Nan; WANG Guo-ying; FU Bin-sheng; WANG Gen-shu; YANG Yang; CHEN Gui-hua


    Background Costimulatory signals play a vital role in T cell activation. Blockade of costimulatory pathway by CTLA4Ig or CD40LIg have enhanced graft survival in experimental transplantation models yet mechanisms remain undetermined.We investigated the effects of CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg gene transfer on islet xenografts rejection in rats.Methods Human islets were infected with recombinant adenoviruses containing CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg genes and implanted beneath the kidney capsule of diabetic rats. Levels of blood sugar, morphological changes, and survival of grafts were recorded. Expressions of CTLA4Ig, CD40LIg and insulin were detected by immunohistochemical staining and cytokines levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Blood glucose levels in transplant rats decreased to normal level on the 2nd day post transplantation. The mean blood glucose in the control group, CTLA4Ig transfected group, CD40LIg transfected group and CTLA4Ig +CD40LIg cotransfected group increased on days 8, 24, 21, 68, post transplantation respectively. The grafts in control group, CTLA4Ig transfected group, CD40LIg transfected group and CTLA4Ig + CD40LIg cotransfected group survived for (8±1), (29±4), (27±3), and (74±10) days, respectively. Survival in CTLA4Ig + CD40LIg cotransfected group was significantly longer. Survivals of CTLA4Ig transfected group and CD40LIg transfected group were significantly longer than control group. In controJ animals, serum interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor a concentration significantly increased within seven days post transplantation. Haematoxylin eosin staining of grafts showed live islets in situ of transplant rats without inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of insulin at islets in all experimental groups.Conclusions Transfer of CTLA4Ig and CD40Llg genes, especially the cotransfer of both, inhibits rejection of murine islet xenografts. Downregulated expressions of Th1

  7. Islet-1 is a dual regulator of fibrogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epicardial mesothelial cells

    Brønnum, Hasse; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Schneider, Mikael


    Recent reports suggest that the adult epicardium is a source of cardiac progenitor cells having the ability to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and predominantly differentiate into myofibroblasts, thereby contributing to fibrosis of the stressed myocardium. Islet-1 (Isl1......) is a widely applied marker of progenitor cells, including the epicardial mesothelial cells (EMCs). However, little is known of the general biological function of Islet-1, let alone its role in EMT of EMCs. Using rat-derived adult EMC cultures we therefore investigated the role of Isl1 expression in both non......-stimulated EMCs and during TGF-β-induced EMT. We found that Isl1 had a dual role by promoting mesenchymal features in non-stimulated EMCs, while a loss of Isl1 associated with EMT acted as a negative modulator of EMT progression as assessed on phenotype. We furthermore found that the loss of Isl1 expression...

  8. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  9. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans


    The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open pro...

  10. Uptake of the glycosphingolipid sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in vivo and in isolated islets of Langerhans

    Fredman Pam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. In pancreatic beta cells, sulfatide has been shown to be involved in insulin processing and secretion in vitro. In this study, we examined the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide and its distribution to the pancreatic beta cells. This might encourage future studies of the function(s of sulfatide in beta cell physiology in vivo. Radioactive sulfatide was given orally to mice whereafter the uptake of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent delivery to the pancreas was examined. Sulfatide uptake in pancreas was also studied in vivo by i.p. administration of radioactive sulfatide in mice, and in vitro in isolated rat islets. Isolated tissue/islets were analysed by scintillation counting, autoradiography and thin-layer chromatography-ELISA. Results Sulfatide was taken up in the gastrointestinal tract for degradation or further transport to other organs. A selective uptake of short chain and/or hydroxylated sulfatide fatty acid isoforms was observed in the small intestine. Exogenously administered sulfatide was found in pancreas after i.p, but not after oral administration. The in vitro studies in isolated rat islets support that sulfatide, independently of its fatty acid length, is endocytosed and metabolised by pancreatic islets. Conclusion Our study supports a selective uptake and/or preservation of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration and with emphasises on pancreatic sulfatide uptake, i.p. administration results in sulfatide at relevant location.

  11. Ectopic pancreatic islets in Splenic hilum and peripancreatic fat

    Vasishta RK


    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of pancreatic islets alone in the peripancreatic region and splenic hilum is an uncommon occurrence. Herein, we describe their presence in this rare location.

  12. Islet-cell dysfunction induced by glucocorticoid treatment

    van Raalte, Daniël H; Kwa, Kelly A A; van Genugten, Renate E


    Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system....

  13. Assimilating Dokdo: The Islets in Korean Everyday Life

    Brandon Palmer


    Full Text Available Sovereignty over the Tokto Islets is heatedly contested between South Korea and Japan. The Korean government and citizenry have responded to this dispute by inserting the islets into their national collective memory in multifarious ways in an attempt to strengthen their nation’s claim to Tokto. The islets are included in the material culture and public memory of the nation in ways that make them part of everyday life for millions of Koreans. Korea’s claim to Tokto is currently taught in schools, presented in museums, found in popular songs, and exploited by businesses for profit. The deeper Tokto becomes entrenched in Korean society, the less likely a compromise can be reached with Japan over the islets.

  14. Islet cell xenotransplantation: a serious look toward the clinic.

    Samy, Kannan P; Martin, Benjamin M; Turgeon, Nicole A; Kirk, Allan D


    Type I diabetes remains a significant clinical problem in need of a reliable, generally applicable solution. Both whole organ pancreas and islet allotransplantation have been shown to grant patients insulin independence, but organ availability has restricted these procedures to an exceptionally small subset of the diabetic population. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has been pursued as a potential means of overcoming the limits of allotransplantation, and several preclinical studies have achieved near-physiologic function and year-long survival in clinically relevant pig-to-primate model systems. These proof-of-concept studies have suggested that xenogeneic islets may be poised for use in clinical trials. In this review, we examine recent progress in islet xenotransplantation, with a critical eye toward the gaps between the current state of the art and the state required for appropriate clinical investigation.

  15. In situ application of hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite optimized for rapid glycemic control by subcutaneous xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation.

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Lim, Jong-Hyung; Nam, Hye-Young; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Jun-Seop; Shin, Jin-Young; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick-Chan; Jin, Sang-Man; Kim, Hang-Rae; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu


    Maximum engraftment of transplanted islets is essential for the clinical application of a subcutaneous site. Significant barriers to the current approaches are associated with their low effectiveness, complexity and unproven biosafety. Here, we evaluated and optimized a fibrin-islet composite for effective glycemic control in a subcutaneous site whose environment is highly hypoxic due to low vascularization potential. In the setting of xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation into the subcutaneous space of a diabetic mouse, the in vivo islet functions were greatly affected by the concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin. The optimized hydrogel-type fibrin remarkably reduced the marginal islet mass to approximately one tenth that of islets without fibrin. This marginal islet mass was comparable to that in the setting of the subcapsular space of the kidney, which is a highly vascularized organ. Highly vascularized structures were generated inside and on the outer surface of the grafts. A hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite established early diabetic control within an average of 3.4days after the transplantation. In the mechanistic studies, fibrin promoted local angiogenesis, enhanced islet viability and prevented fragmentation of islets into single cells. In conclusion, in situ application of hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite may be a promising modality in the clinical success of subcutaneous islet transplantation.

  16. The morphology of islets within the porcine donor pancreas determines the isolation result: successful isolation of pancreatic islets can now be achieved from young market pigs.

    Krickhahn, Mareike; Bühler, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas; Thiede, Arnulf; Ulrichs, Karin


    Clinical islet allotransplantation has become an increasingly efficient "routine" therapy in recent years. Shortage of human donor organs leads to porcine pancreatic islets as a potential source for islet xenotransplantation. Yet it is still very difficult to isolate sufficient numbers of intact porcine islets, particularly from young market pigs. In the following study islets were successfully isolated from retired breeders [4806 +/- 720 islet equivalents per gram organ (IEQ/g); n = 25; 2-3 years old; RB] and also from young hybrid pigs [2868 +/- 260 IEQ/g; n = 65; 4-6 months old; HY] using LiberasePI and a modified version of Ricordi's digestion-filtration technique. As expected, isolations from RB showed significantly better results (p organs from RB (80%) contained mainly large islets (diameter > 200 microm), in contrast to only 35% of all pancreases from HY. Remarkably, the islet size in situ, regardless whether detected in RB or HY, strongly determined the isolation result. A donor organ with predominantly large islets resulted in significantly higher numbers of IEQs compared with a donor organ with predominantly small islets [RB(Large Islets): 5680 +/- 3,318 IEQ/g (n= 20); RB(Small Islets): 1353 +/- 427 IEQ/g (n = 5); p organ prior to the isolation process. Under these conditions highly successful isolations can reliably be performed even from young market pigs.

  17. Expression and regulation of nampt in human islets.

    Karen Kover

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis of a salvage pathway and exists in 2 known forms, intracellular Nampt (iNampt and a secreted form, extracellular Nampt (eNampt. eNampt can generate an intermediate product, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, which has been reported to support insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Nampt has been reported to be expressed in the pancreas but islet specific expression has not been adequately defined. The aim of this study was to characterize Nampt expression, secretion and regulation by glucose in human islets. Gene and protein expression of Nampt was assessed in human pancreatic tissue and isolated islets by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence/confocal imaging respectively. Variable amounts of Nampt mRNA were detected in pancreatic tissue and isolated islets. Immunofluorescence staining for Nampt was found in the exocrine and endocrine tissue of fetal pancreas. However, in adulthood, Nampt expression was localized predominantly in beta cells. Isolated human islets secreted increasing amounts of eNampt in response to high glucose (20 mM in a static glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay (GSIS. In addition to an increase in eNampt secretion, exposure to 20 mM glucose also increased Nampt mRNA levels but not protein content. The secretion of eNampt was attenuated by the addition of membrane depolarization inhibitors, diazoxide and nifedipine. Islet-secreted eNampt showed enzymatic activity in a reaction with increasing production of NAD+/NADH over time. In summary, we show that Nampt is expressed in both exocrine and endocrine tissue early in life but in adulthood expression is localized to endocrine tissue. Enzymatically active eNampt is secreted by human islets, is regulated by glucose and requires membrane depolarization.

  18. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella


    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  19. Intraportal islet transplantation: the impact of the liver microenvironment.

    Delaune, Vaihere; Berney, Thierry; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Toso, Christian


    The portal vein remains the preferred site for pancreatic islet transplantation due to its easy access and low morbidity. However, despite great progress in isolation and transplantation protocols over the past few years, it is still associated with the early loss of some 50-70% of transplanted islets. The complex liver microenvironment itself presumably plays an important role in this loss. The present review focuses on the specifics of the liver microenvironment, notably the localized hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury following transplantation, the low oxygenation of the portal vein, the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, the endogenous liver immune system, and the gut-liver axis, and how they can each have an impact on the transplanted islets. It identifies the potential, or already applied, clinical interventions for improving intraportal islet survival, and pinpoints those promising areas still lacking preclinical research. Future interventions on clinical intraportal islet transplantation need to take into account the global context of the liver microenvironment, with multi-point interventions being most likely to improve early islet survival and engraftment. © 2017 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.

  20. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul


    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1-35 weeks and 12-24 months.

  1. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Zhao, Xiaojian [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton CT (United States)


    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  2. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro


    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet.

  3. The Pattern of Neural Elements in the Islets of Normal and Diseased Pancreas and in Isolated Islets

    Parviz M Pour


    Full Text Available Context The association between islet cells and neural elements, the so-called “neuro-insular complex”, has been known for centuries. Objective We examined the expression of beta-III tubulin, in normal pancreases from organ donors, surgical specimens of chronic pancreatitis, surgical specimens of ductal type carcinoma, isolated and purified islets of a 57-year-old male and the pancreases of adult Syrian golden hamsters by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to beta-tubulin. Results In the normal pancreas of humans and hamsters, beta-III tubulin was expressed in alpha- and beta-cells, but not in PP cells, neural fibers and gangliae. Occasionally, intra-and peri-insular neural elements were also found. In chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer samples, the number of beta-cells and the immunoreactivity of the beta-III tubulin antibody in islet cells were decreased in most cases. In cultured human islets, devoid of neural elements, no correlation was found between the expression of beta-III tubulin and islet cell hormones. Conclusion Beta-III tubulin is only expressed in the islets derived from the dorsal pancreas and in neural elements. In chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer swelling of intra- and peri-insular nerves occurs, possibly in response to the loss of beta-cells. The secretion of insulin and the expression of beta-tubulin seem to be regulated by nerves.

  4. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Analysis as Predictor of Islet Yield and Insulin Requirements in Autologous Islet Transplantation After Complete Pancreatectomy

    Georgiev, George Ivanov; Cercone, Renee; Tiwari, Mukesh; Rilo, Horacio L. R.


    We analyzed the pretransplant continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data of 45 patients that underwent total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation (AIT) at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Traditional and novel metrics of CGM time series were correlated to the total islet count (TIC), islet equivalents (IEQs), and weight-normalized IEQs (IEQ/kg). In a subset cohort (n = 26) we analyzed the relationship among the infused number of islets, the CGM indicators, and the first recorded insulin requirement after the procedure. We conclude that receiving a high islet yield is sufficient yet not necessary to achieve low or null insulin requirements within the first 50 days after surgery. Furthermore, CGM inertia and CGM length of curve (2 novel CGM indicators) are shown to be correlated to islet yield, and the CGMs normalized area (Ao) and time ratio above hyperglycemic level (To) are strongly correlated to insulin requirement. A screening test based on To is shown to have 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity discriminating insulin independence upon discharge. PMID:25190081

  5. Regulation of Pancreatic Islet Gene Expression in Mouse Islets by Pregnancy

    Layden, Brian Thomas; Durai, Vivek; Newman, Marsha V;


    beta cell proliferation (E13.5), and RNA levels were determined by 2 different assays (global gene expression array and G protein-coupled receptor array). Follow-up studies confirmed the findings for select genes. Differential expression of 110 genes was identified and follow-up studies confirmed......-inflammatory molecule. Complementing these studies, an expression array was performed to define pregnancy-induced changes in expression of G protein-coupled receptors which are known to impact islet cell function and proliferation. This assay, the results of which were confirmed using real time RT-PCR assays...

  6. Pancreatic Islet Survival and Engraftment Is Promoted by Culture on Functionalized Spider Silk Matrices.

    Johansson, Ulrika; Ria, Massimiliano; Åvall, Karin; Dekki Shalaly, Nancy; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My


    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is one approach for treatment of diabetes, however, hampered by the low availability of viable islets. Islet isolation leads to disruption of the environment surrounding the endocrine cells, which contributes to eventual cell death. The reestablishment of this environment is vital, why we herein investigated the possibility of using recombinant spider silk to support islets in vitro after isolation. The spider silk protein 4RepCT was formulated into three different formats; 2D-film, fiber mesh and 3D-foam, in order to provide a matrix that can give the islets physical support in vitro. Moreover, cell-binding motifs from laminin were incorporated into the silk protein in order to create matrices that mimic the natural cell environment. Pancreatic mouse islets were thoroughly analyzed for adherence, necrosis and function after in vitro maintenance on the silk matrices. To investigate their suitability for transplantation, we utilized an eye model which allows in vivo imaging of engraftment. Interestingly, islets that had been maintained on silk foam during in vitro culture showed improved revascularization. This coincided with the observation of preserved islet architecture with endothelial cells present after in vitro culture on silk foam. Selected matrices were further evaluated for long-term preservation of human islets. Matrices with the cell-binding motif RGD improved human islet maintenance (from 36% to 79%) with preserved islets architecture and function for over 3 months in vitro. The islets established cell-matrix contacts and formed vessel-like structures along the silk. Moreover, RGD matrices promoted formation of new, insulin-positive islet-like clusters that were connected to the original islets via endothelial cells. On silk matrices with islets from younger donors (<35 year), the amount of newly formed islet-like clusters found after 1 month in culture were almost double compared to the initial number of islets

  7. Pancreatic Islet Survival and Engraftment Is Promoted by Culture on Functionalized Spider Silk Matrices.

    Ulrika Johansson

    Full Text Available Transplantation of pancreatic islets is one approach for treatment of diabetes, however, hampered by the low availability of viable islets. Islet isolation leads to disruption of the environment surrounding the endocrine cells, which contributes to eventual cell death. The reestablishment of this environment is vital, why we herein investigated the possibility of using recombinant spider silk to support islets in vitro after isolation. The spider silk protein 4RepCT was formulated into three different formats; 2D-film, fiber mesh and 3D-foam, in order to provide a matrix that can give the islets physical support in vitro. Moreover, cell-binding motifs from laminin were incorporated into the silk protein in order to create matrices that mimic the natural cell environment. Pancreatic mouse islets were thoroughly analyzed for adherence, necrosis and function after in vitro maintenance on the silk matrices. To investigate their suitability for transplantation, we utilized an eye model which allows in vivo imaging of engraftment. Interestingly, islets that had been maintained on silk foam during in vitro culture showed improved revascularization. This coincided with the observation of preserved islet architecture with endothelial cells present after in vitro culture on silk foam. Selected matrices were further evaluated for long-term preservation of human islets. Matrices with the cell-binding motif RGD improved human islet maintenance (from 36% to 79% with preserved islets architecture and function for over 3 months in vitro. The islets established cell-matrix contacts and formed vessel-like structures along the silk. Moreover, RGD matrices promoted formation of new, insulin-positive islet-like clusters that were connected to the original islets via endothelial cells. On silk matrices with islets from younger donors (<35 year, the amount of newly formed islet-like clusters found after 1 month in culture were almost double compared to the initial

  8. Isolation of viable porcine islets by selective osmotic shock without enzymatic digestion.

    Atwater, I; Guajardo, M; Caviedes, P; Jeffs, S; Parrau, D; Valencia, M; Romero, C; Arriagada, C; Caamaño, E; Salas, A; Olguin, F; Atlagich, M; Maas, R; Mears, D; Rojas, E


    Islet transplantation is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but clinical results have been disappointing. Currently, islet isolation is by enzymatic digestion of the pancreas which has significant pitfalls: warm ischemia exposure, collagenase-induced damage to the islet mass and viability, poor reproducibility, high cost, a relatively low number of islets obtained per whole pancreas, and selection of islets for collagenase resistance rather than for glucose responsiveness. In the present study we performed a series of experiments in a porcine model to demonstrate the feasibility of a new isolation method based on selective osmotic shock (SOS) using very high glucose solutions, doubling or tripling physiological osmotic strength. The SOS method can be carried out at room temperature or in the cold eliminating warm ischemia time which damages the islets. The SOS method does not depend on the texture of the pancreas so all pancreases can be processed identically and the process can be fully automated. The SOS method isolates all the islets of the pancreas regardless of size and shape allowing a greater number of islets to be harvested. The SOS method avoids exposure to toxins in collagenase solutions, is inexpensive and selects for islets with high concentrations of Glut 2 transporters, representing the best glucose responding islets. The SOS method showed a comparable recovery of islets from young pig pancreas and the islets showed improved viability. We conclude that the selective osmotic shock (SOS) method of separating islets from the pancreatic tissue is superior to the collagenase method.

  9. Regenerating 1 and 3b gene expression in the pancreas of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.

    Sophie Calderari

    Full Text Available Regenerating (REG proteins are associated with islet development, β-cell damage, diabetes and pancreatitis. Particularly, REG-1 and REG-3-beta are involved in cell growth/survival and/or inflammation and the Reg1 promoter contains interleukin-6 (IL-6-responsive elements. We showed by transcriptome analysis that islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, overexpress Reg1, 3α, 3β and 3γ, vs Wistar islets. Goto-Kakizaki rat islets also exhibit increased cytokine/chemokine expression/release, particularly IL-6. Here we analyzed Reg1 and Reg3β expression and REG-1 immuno-localization in the GK rat pancreas in relationship with inflammation. Isolated pancreatic islets and acinar tissue from male adult Wistar and diabetic GK rats were used for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. REG-1 immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections with a monoclonal anti-rat REG-1 antibody. Islet cytokine/chemokine release was measured after 48 h-culture. Islet macrophage-positive area was quantified on cryostat sections using anti-CD68 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II antibodies. Pancreatic exocrine-to-endocrine Reg1 and Reg3β mRNA ratios were markedly increased in Wistar vs GK rats. Conversely, both genes were upregulated in isolated GK rat islets. These findings were unexpected, because Reg genes are expressed in the pancreatic acinar tissue. However, we observed REG-1 protein labeling in acinar peri-ductal tissue close to islets and around large, often disorganized, GK rat islets, which may retain acinar cells due to their irregular shape. These large islets also showed peri-islet macrophage infiltration and increased release of various cytokines/chemokines, particularly IL-6. Thus, IL-6 might potentially trigger acinar REG-1 expression and secretion in the vicinity of large diabetic GK rat islets. This increased acinar REG-1 expression might reflect an adaptive though unsuccessful response to deleterious

  10. Optimal pig donor selection in islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives.

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Yu, Liang; Lyu, Yi; Wang, Bo


    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited supply of islet grafts. Published studies demonstrated that pig islets could function in diabetic primates for a long time (>6 months). However, pig-islet xenotransplantation must overcome the selection of an optimal pig donor to obtain an adequate supply of islets with high-quality, to reduce xeno-antigenicity of islet and prolong xenograft survival, and to translate experimental findings into clinical application. This review discusses the suitable pig donor for islet xenotransplantation in terms of pig age, strain, structure/function of islet, and genetically modified pig.

  11. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M


    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  12. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    Russek, William F.


    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  13. Microbes encapsulated within crosslinkable polymers

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H


    The invention relates to porous films comprising crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. Viable microbes are encapsulated within the crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. The crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers are water insoluble and permeable. The invention also relates to methods of making and using such porous films.

  14. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Krebs, Frederik C


    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  15. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA


    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  16. Islet Oxygen Consumption and Insulin Secretion Tightly Coupled to Calcium Derived from L-type Calcium Channels but Not from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    Gilbert, Merle; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Reed, Benjamin J.; Sweet, Ian R.


    The aim of the study was to test whether the source of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is a determinant of beta cell function. We hypothesized that elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ caused by the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have little physiologic impact on oxygen consumption and insulin secretion. Ca2+ release from the ER was induced in isolated rat islets by acetylcholine and response of oxygen consumption rate (OCR), NAD(P)H, cytosolic Ca2+, and ...

  17. Fetal endocannabinoids orchestrate the organization of pancreatic islet microarchitecture.

    Malenczyk, Katarzyna; Keimpema, Erik; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Calvigioni, Daniela; Björklund, Peyman; Mackie, Kenneth; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Harkany, Tibor


    Endocannabinoids are implicated in the control of glucose utilization and energy homeostasis by orchestrating pancreatic hormone release. Moreover, in some cell niches, endocannabinoids regulate cell proliferation, fate determination, and migration. Nevertheless, endocannabinoid contributions to the development of the endocrine pancreas remain unknown. Here, we show that α cells produce the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in mouse fetuses and human pancreatic islets, which primes the recruitment of β cells by CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) engagement. Using subtractive pharmacology, we extend these findings to anandamide, a promiscuous endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligand, which impacts both the determination of islet size by cell proliferation and α/β cell sorting by differential activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and CB1Rs. Accordingly, genetic disruption of TRPV1 channels increases islet size whereas CB1R knockout augments cellular heterogeneity and favors insulin over glucagon release. Dietary enrichment in ω-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation in mice, which permanently reduces endocannabinoid levels in the offspring, phenocopies CB1R(-/-) islet microstructure and improves coordinated hormone secretion. Overall, our data mechanistically link endocannabinoids to cell proliferation and sorting during pancreatic islet formation, as well as to life-long programming of hormonal determinants of glucose homeostasis.

  18. Efficiencies in alginate encapsulation of vegetative explants

    The goal of this study was to improve a non-mechanized bulk encapsulation technique to standardize encapsulation procedures and reduce the labor time compared to encapsulating individual nodes. Four mm-long nodal segments from Stage II cultures of Hibiscus moscheutos L. ‘Lord Baltimore’ were encapsu...

  19. 鼠胰岛素样生长因子-1重组腺病毒的构建及其在胰岛β细胞的表达%Construction of Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Containing Rat Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Gene and Its Expression in Islet β-cells

    陈志红; 李堂; 胡素娟; 王桂琴


    This study was aimed to construct the recombinant adenovirus containing rat insulin-like growth factor 1(rIGF-1),and then to investigate its expression in islet β-cells. RNA was extracted using Trizol from rat livers. rIGF-1 cDNA was obtained using RT-PCR. The purified RT-PCR products and pAdTrack-CMV were digested using Bgl II and EcoR V and religated by T4 DNA ligase,then transformed into electro-competent JM109 bacteria and selected on Kanamycin LB plates. This plasmid pAd-CMV-rIGF-1 was linearized by PmeI and co-transformed into electro-competent BJ5183 bacteria with pAdEasy-1 and selected on Kanamycin LB plates. After having been screened,the extracted plasmid of positive bacteria was transfected into HEK 293 cells with liposome and was identified by the green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression. The recombinant adenovirus encoding rIGF-1 was named Ad-rIGF-1,and the viral particles were further amplified,purified,and its titer was about 4.0×10~8pfu/ml. Ad-rIGF-1 was transfected into rat pancreatic β cell lines-RINm5F cells,RT-PCR was carried out to detect the transfer genes. rIGF-1 protein in cells culture supernatants was detected by ELISA method,and its concentration was 91.6±26.8ng/ml. rIGF-1 was present in Ad-rIGF-1-infected RINm5F cells as measured by Western blotting. The recombinant adenovirus vector containing rIGF-1 was constructed successfully,and the rIGF-1 protein was expressed by RINm5F cells. This method provided the mechanism of rIGF-1 to prevent β cell from impairmentand to treat the case of type 1 diabetes.%构建含有鼠胰岛素样生长因子1(rIGF-1)重组腺病毒,研究其在胰岛β细胞的表达.Trizol 一步法提取大鼠肝脏组织总RNA,RT-PCR法合成鼠胰岛素样生长因1(rIGF-1) cDNA;PCR纯化产物和pAdTrack-CMV分别经BglⅡ和EcoRⅤ双酶切后纯化,T4 DNA 连接酶连接,转化JM109感受态细菌,卡那霉素平板筛选阳性克隆扩增培养,抽提质粒;经BglⅡ和EcoRⅤ双酶切及测序鉴定后,

  20. Research-Focused Isolation of Human Islets From Donors With and Without Diabetes at the Alberta Diabetes Institute IsletCore.

    Lyon, James; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Spigelman, Aliya F; Kim, Ryekjang; Smith, Nancy; O'Gorman, Doug; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, A M James; Rajotte, Raymond V; MacDonald, Patrick E


    Recent years have seen an increased focus on human islet biology, and exciting findings in the stem cell and genomic arenas highlight the need to define the key features of mature human islets and β-cells. Donor and organ procurement parameters impact human islet yield, although for research purposes islet yield may be secondary in importance to islet function. We examined the feasibility of a research-only human islet isolation, distribution, and biobanking program and whether key criteria such as cold ischemia time (CIT) and metabolic status may be relaxed and still allow successful research-focused isolations, including from donors with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Through 142 isolations over approximately 5 years, we confirm that CIT and glycated hemoglobin each have a weak negative impacts on isolation purity and yield, and extending CIT beyond the typical clinical isolation cutoff of 12 hours (to ≥ 18 h) had only a modest impact on islet function. Age and glycated hemoglobin/type 2 diabetes status negatively impacted secretory function; however, these and other biological (sex, body mass index) and procurement/isolation variables (CIT, time in culture) appear to make only a small contribution to the heterogeneity of human islet function. This work demonstrates the feasibility of extending acceptable CIT for research-focused human islet isolation and highlights the biological variation in function of human islets from donors with and without diabetes.

  1. File list: NoD.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic islets E.../ ...

  2. File list: Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 TFs and others Pancreas Pancreatic islets S...RX026702,SRX026719,SRX026720,SRX026721,SRX026714,SRX026706 ...

  3. File list: InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...3,SRX340803,SRX375327,SRX340794,SRX026707,SRX375320 ...

  4. File list: His.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Histone Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX37532...0804,SRX340799,SRX340802,SRX340809,SRX026708,SRX026713 ...

  5. File list: ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX...SRX026709,SRX026714,SRX026718,ERX321654,ERX321649,SRX026724 ...

  6. File list: DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 DNase-seq Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX873...854,ERX873852,SRX026725,SRX026723,SRX026724 ...

  7. File list: DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 DNase-seq Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX873...854,ERX873852,SRX026725 ...

  8. File list: Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 TFs and others Pancreas Pancreatic islets S...RX026719,SRX026702,SRX026720,SRX026706,SRX026721,SRX026714 ...

  9. File list: Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Unclassified Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...016328,SRX016329,SRX016330 ...

  10. File list: InP.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...5,SRX375327,SRX340803,SRX340794,SRX026707,SRX375320 ...

  11. File list: NoD.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic islets E.../ ...

  12. File list: Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Unclassified Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...016328,SRX016329,SRX016330 ...

  13. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...ERX321646,ERX321661,SRX375319,SRX026706,SRX026709,SRX026718 ...

  14. File list: NoD.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic islets E.../ ...

  15. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...SRX375319,ERX321669,SRX026709,SRX375326,SRX026706,SRX026718 ...

  16. File list: Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 TFs and others Pancreas Pancreatic islets S...RX026714,SRX026702,SRX026720,SRX026719,SRX026721,SRX026706 ...

  17. File list: InP.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...5,SRX375327,SRX340803,SRX375320,SRX340794,SRX026707 ...

  18. File list: His.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Histone Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX37532...0790,SRX026716,SRX026713,SRX026708,SRX026709,SRX026718 ...

  19. File list: Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Unclassified Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...016328,SRX016329,SRX016330 ...

  20. File list: Oth.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 TFs and others Pancreas Pancreatic islets S...RX026719,SRX026702,SRX026720,SRX026706,SRX026721,SRX026714 ...

  1. File list: InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...5,SRX340795,SRX340793,SRX340803,SRX026707,SRX375320 ...

  2. File list: DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 DNase-seq Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX873...854,ERX873852,SRX026723,SRX026725,SRX026724 ...

  3. File list: NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic islets E.../ ...

  4. File list: His.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Histone Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX37532...0809,SRX340814,SRX375319,SRX026709,SRX375326,SRX026718 ...

  5. File list: His.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Histone Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX37532...0804,SRX026716,SRX375326,SRX375319,SRX026709,SRX026718 ...

  6. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX...SRX026707,SRX375320,SRX026708,SRX026713 ...

  7. File list: DNS.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 DNase-seq Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX873...854,ERX873852,SRX026725,SRX026723,SRX026724 ...

  8. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islet_tumor mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islet tumor SRX751769,SRX751...768,SRX751770 ...

  9. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islet_tumor mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islet tumor SRX751769,SRX751...768,SRX751770 ...

  10. MRI of transplanted surface-labeled pancreatic islets with heparinized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Jung, Min Jin; Lee, Seung Soo; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Jung, Hae Song; Hwang, Jin Wook; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Sangwoo; Lee, Dong Yun


    Transplantation of insulin-secreting pancreatic islets can provide real-time regulation of blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Currently, noninvasive and repetitive monitoring of islet engraftment and function is an emerging and promising modality for successful islet transplantation. Here we report a new technique for highly sensitive in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of transplanted pancreatic islets. To this end, heparinized superparamagnetic iron oxide (heparin-SPIO) nanoparticle was newly synthesized for chemical conjugation onto islet surface. Compared to typical cellular labeling of Feridex(®) via random endocytosis, chemical conjugation of heparin-SPIO was stable and improved the hypointensity of transplanted islets due to surface modification of every islet. These heparin-SPIO-conjugated islets showed normal viability and insulin secretion, and were quantified by spin echo T(2)-weighted MR imaging with linear correlation depending on transplanted islet mass in vitro and in vivo for 30 days. Also, from the immunohistochemistry, we confirmed the existence of heparin-SPIO and insulin biosynthesis in transplanted islets. However, Feridex-uptake islets showed late glucose responsiveness according to changing glucose concentration although they could normally control the blood glucose levels in diabetic mouse. Thus, we anticipate that this surface labeling with heparin-SPIO can be directly applicable for MR imaging of transplanted islets.

  11. File list: Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Unclassified Pancreas Islets of Langerhan...s ...

  12. Technique of endoscopic biopsy of islet allografts transplanted into the gastric submucosal space in pigs

    T. Fujita (Tetsuji); K.M. McGrath (Kevin); R. Bottino (Rita); E.M. Dons (Eefje); C. Long (Cassandra); G. Kumar (Goutham); B. Ekser; G.J. Echeverri (Gabriel); A. Hata (Akira); K. Haruma (Ken); D.K.C. Cooper (David); H. Hara (Hidetaka)


    textabstractCurrently, islet cells are transplanted into the liver via portal vein infusion. One disadvantage of this approach is that it is not possible to adequately biopsy the islets in the liver to assess for rejection. Islet transplantation (Tx) into the gastric submucosal space (GSMS) can be p

  13. File list: DNS.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 DNase-seq Pancreas Islets of Langerhans h...ttp:// ...

  14. File list: His.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Histone Pancreas Islets of Langerhans SRX...SRX751758 ...

  15. File list: His.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Histone Pancreas Islets of Langerhans SRX...SRX751761 ...

  16. File list: Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 RNA polymerase Pancreas Islets of Langerh...ans ...

  17. File list: DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 DNase-seq Pancreas Islets of Langerhans h...ttp:// ...

  18. File list: Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 TFs and others Pancreas Islets of Langerh...ans SRX081539,SRX188610,SRX081538 ...

  19. File list: Unc.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islets of Langerhan...p:// ...

  1. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Oth.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 TFs and others Pancreas Islets of Langerh...ans SRX081539,SRX188610,SRX081538 ...

  3. File list: Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: His.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: His.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. Characterization of the Prediabetic State in a Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes, the ZFDM Rat

    Ghupurjan Gheni


    Full Text Available We recently established a novel animal model of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D, the Zucker fatty diabetes mellitus (ZFDM rat strain harboring the fatty mutation (fa in the leptin receptor gene. Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6–8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin GLP-1 were retained. At 10–12 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited marked glucose intolerance as well as severe insulin resistance similar to that at the earlier age. In the pancreatic islets, the insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation was maintained but the response to the incretin was diminished. In nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF rats, the insulin secretory responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin in the pancreatic islets were similar to those of ZFDM rats. As islet architecture was destroyed with age in ZFDM rats, a combination of severe insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretory response to incretin, and intrinsic fragility of the islets may cause the development of T2D in this strain.

  19. Islet-intrinsic effects of CFTR mutation.

    Koivula, Fiona N Manderson; McClenaghan, Neville H; Harper, Alan G S; Kelly, Catriona


    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most significant extra-pulmonary comorbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and accelerates lung decline. In addition to the traditional view that CFRD is a consequence of fibrotic destruction of the pancreas as a whole, emerging evidence may implicate a role for cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in the regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet. Impaired first-phase insulin responses and glucose homeostasis have also been reported in CF patients. CFTR expression in both human and mouse beta cells has been confirmed, and recent studies have shown differences in endocrine pancreatic morphology from birth in CF. Recent experimental evidence suggests that functional CFTR channels are required for insulin exocytosis and the regulation of membrane potential in the pancreatic beta cell, which may account for the impairments in insulin secretion observed in many CF patients. These novel insights suggest that the pathogenesis of CFRD is more complicated than originally thought, with implications for diabetes treatment and screening in the CF population. This review summarises recent emerging evidence in support of a primary role for endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in the development of CFRD. Summary • CF is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene • The vast majority of morbidity and mortality in CF results from lung disease. However CFRD is the largest extra-pulmonary co-morbidity and rapidly accelerates lung decline • Recent experimental evidence shows that functional CFTR channels are required for normal patterns of first phase insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell • Current clinical recommendations suggest that insulin is more effective than oral glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of CFRD. However, the emergence of CFTR corrector and potentiator drugs may offer a personalised approach to treating diabetes in the CF population.

  20. Elevating bioavailability of curcumin via encapsulation with a novel formulation of artificial oil bodies.

    Chang, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Lee, Chun-Yann; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chun-Ren; Tzen, Jason T C


    Utilization of curcumin has been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds might be elevated via encapsulation in artificial seed oil bodies. This study aimed to improve oral bioavailability of curcumin via this encapsulation. Unfortunately, curcumin was indissoluble in various seed oils. A mixed dissolvent formula was used to dissolve curcumin, and the admixture was successfully encapsulated in artificial oil bodies stabilized by recombinant sesame caleosin. The artificial oil bodies of relatively small sizes (150 nm) were stably solidified in the forms of powder and tablet. Oral bioavailability of curcumin with or without encapsulation in artificial oil bodies was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The results showed that encapsulation of curcumin significantly elevated its bioavailability and provided the highest maximum whole blood concentration (Cmax), 37 ± 28 ng/mL, in the experimental animals 45 ± 17 min (t(max)) after oral administration. Relative bioavailability calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased by 47.7 times when curcumin was encapsulated in the artificial oil bodies. This novel formulation of artificial oil bodies seems to possess great potential to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for oral administration.