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Sample records for rat descending colon

  1. Neurotransmitter implications in descending motility of longitudinal and circular muscles in rat colon

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    Zornitsa V. Gorcheva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of neurotransmitter systems in the motor activity of longitudinal or circular muscles in autonomic regulation of the motility of the colon by the nervous system is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurotransmitter implications in descending motility of longitudinal and circular muscles in rat colon. Methods. Electrically-induced (2, 5 or 10 Hz, 0.8 ms, 40 V, 20 s local or descending motor responses of longitudinal and circular muscles in isolated preparations and drugs were used to define the neurotransmitters’ role in colonic motility. Results. The spontaneous activity of the distal part of preparations manifested as high-amplitude irregular contractions more expressed in the longitudinal muscles. The electrically-induced local responses differed considerably in the two muscles: in longitudinal muscle there were frequency-dependent contractions, while initial relaxation followed by contraction was observed in circular muscle. The descending motor response resembled the pattern of the local responses, but the amplitudes were significantly less expressed, as compared to the respective local responses.

  2. Evidence for modulation of pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts in rat descending colon by Transforming Growth Factor β and Angiotensin II.

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    Pedley Kevin C

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of water and Na+ in descending colonic crypts is dependent on the barrier function of the surrounding myofibroblastic pericryptal sheath. Here the effects of high and low Na+ diets and exposure to whole body ionising radiation on the growth and activation of the descending colonic pericryptal myofibroblasts are evaluated. In addition the effect of a post-irradiation treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril was investigated. Methods The levels of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1, ACE, collagen type IV, transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1, OB cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin in both descending colon and caecum were evaluated, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, in rats fed on high and low Na+ diets (LS. These parameters were also determined during 3 months post-irradiation with 8Gy from a 60Co source in the presence and absence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Results Increases in AT1 receptor (135.6% ± 18.3, P Conclusions These results demonstrate an activation of descending colonic myofibroblasts to trophic stimuli, or irradiation, which can be attenuated by Captopril, indicative of local trophic control by angiotensin II and TGF-β release.

  3. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

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    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  4. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

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    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT.

  5. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

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    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT

  6. Resection and anastomosis of the descending colon in 43 horses.

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    Prange, Timo; Holcombe, Susan J; Brown, Jennifer A; Dechant, Julie E; Fubini, Susan L; Embertson, Rolf M; Peroni, John; Rakestraw, Peter C; Hauptman, Joe G

    2010-08-01

    To determine (1) the short- (to hospital discharge) and long- (>6 months) term survival, (2) factors associated with short-term survival, and (3) the perioperative course for horses with resection and anastomosis of the descending colon. Multicentered case series. Horses (n=43) that had descending colon resection and anastomosis. Medical records (January 1995-June 2009) of 7 equine referral hospitals were reviewed for horses that had descending colon resection and anastomosis and were recovered from anesthesia. Retrieved data included history, results of clinical and clinicopathologic examinations, surgical findings, postsurgical treatment and complications, and short-term survival (hospital discharge). Long-term survival was defined as survival > or =6 months after hospital discharge. Of 43 horses, 36 (84%) were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-eight of 30 horses with follow-up information survived > or =6 months. No significant associations between perioperative factors and short-term survival were identified. Lesions included strangulating lipoma (n=27), postfoaling trauma (4), infarction (4), intraluminal obstruction (2), and other (6). Common postoperative complications included fever and diarrhea. During hospitalization 7 horses were euthanatized or died because of septic peritonitis (3), endotoxemia (3), and colic and ileus (1). Descending colon resection and anastomosis has a favorable prognosis for hospital discharge and survival > or =6 months. The most common cause of small colon incarceration was strangulating lipoma. Complications include postoperative fever and diarrhea but the prognosis is good after small colon resection and anastomosis.

  7. Colon of the rat

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    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  8. A Case of Advanced Descending Colon Cancer in an Adult Patient with Intestinal Malrotation

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    Yoshifumi Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an operative case of advanced descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation. A 63-year-old Japanese male was suffering from left side abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and constipation. An endoscopic examination revealed an advanced tumor in the descending colon. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen revealed the thickening of the descending colon wall and superior mesenteric vein rotation. An opaque enema detected severe stenosis of the descending colon. An abdominal X-ray examination revealed the dilation of the colon and small intestine with niveau. At the insertion of an ileus tube, the C-loop of the duodenum was observed to be absent and the small intestine was located on the right side of the abdomen. After the decompression of the bowel contents, laparotomy was performed. Descending colon cancer was observed to have directly invaded the left side of the transverse colon. Left hemicolectomy, lymph node dissection, and appendectomy were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the 16th day after surgery. This report presents a rare operative case of descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation.

  9. Congenital Membrane Causing Duodenal Obstruction and Malpositioning of the Descending Colon

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    Chee-Chee Koh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A congenital membrane without intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction. Here we present an 11-year-old girl who had suffered from intermittent abdominal cramping pain and vomiting for more than 5 years. The image studies, including a plain abdomen roentgenogram and sonogram, showed no definite diagnosis. The upper gastrointestinal series and small bowel series showed the contrast was static over the third portion of the duodenum and the descending colon pulled up toward the epigastric area. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a congenital membrane extending from the right-side paraduodenal peritoneum through the third portion of the duodenum to the descending colon, which had caused obstruction of the third portion of the duodenum and malpositioning of the descending colon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature where a congenital membrane caused both duodenal obstruction and malpositioning of the descending colon.

  10. Torsion and volvulus of the transverse and descending colon in a German shepherd dog.

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    Halfacree, Z J; Beck, A L; Lee, K C L; Lipscomb, V J

    2006-08-01

    A German shepherd dog was presented two months after surgery for correction of acute gastric dilatation volvulus. The dog had been diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Radiographs revealed marked gaseous distension of one loop of intestine with a generalised increase in intestinal gas content. A 360 degrees anticlockwise rotation of the descending and transverse colon, around the longitudinal axis of the mesocolon, was diagnosed at exploratory coeliotomy. The transverse and descending colon appeared uniformly necrotic and an end-to-end colo-colic resection and anastomosis was performed. The dog initially made satisfactory postoperative progress but was euthanased on the third postoperative day after it developed an intestinal intussusception.

  11. Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a dog: case report

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    M.G.P.A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this report was to describe the clinical findings and therapeutic management of a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a Beagle. The patient presented soft stools, haematochezia, tenesmus, and dyschezia. Clinical examination revealed alterations on the ultrasonographic features of the descending colon suggestive of colitis and neoplasia. Following local mass resection, histopathology analysis revealed mild lymphoplasmocytic enteritis and papillary adenocarcinoma of the colon. Enterectomy for tumoral resection and biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes were carried out. Subsequent to the surgical procedure, it was possible to confirm the previous diagnosis and the tumor was classified as intestinal intraluminal papillary adenocarcinoma, with incomplete surgical margins. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed using carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and piroxicam, leading to remission of clinical signs and absence of any clinical or imaging alterations compatible with the patient’s previous clinical condition.

  12. A case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis

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    Augustin, Herbert; Popper, Helmut; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to the left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis. A 77-year old male patient underwent a left hemicolectomy for a descending colon cancer. He was referred to our department because of swelling and pain of the left scrotum two years and six months after surgery. High left orchiectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a metastasis of the colon carcinoma within the spermatic cord and epididymis approaching the testicle. Reports on metastatic cancer of the testis are scarce, because this metastatic cancer is extremely rare. In general, testicular pain is rare in the elderly. We suggest that any elder presenting with testicular pain deserves a complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation. PMID:24578939

  13. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

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    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  14. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community setting.

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    Matsuda, Takeru; Fujita, Hirofumi; Kunimoto, Yukihiro; Kimura, Taisei; Hayashi, Tomomi; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Yamakawa, Junichi; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ogino, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community hospital setting were evaluated. Twenty-six patients with transverse or descending colon cancers who underwent laparoscopic surgery at our hospital were included in this retrospective analysis (group A). Their outcomes were compared with those of 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer at other tumor sites (group B). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative hospital stay and morbidity rate. Extended lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently and the number of harvested lymph nodes was significantly higher in group B than in group A. However, no recurrence developed in group A, while recurrence occurred in four patients from group B. The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 100% for group A and 93.5% for group B. The 3-year overall survival rates were 100% for group A and 91.6% for group B. Laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers can be performed safely with oncological validity in a community hospital setting, provided there is careful selection of the patients and adequate lymphadenectomy considering the clinical stage of their disease. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The influence of serotonin on the mitotic rate in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinoma in rats.

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    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-01-01

    1. The mitotic rate in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of the descending colon of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of a small dose (10 microgram/kg) of serotonin resulted in an increase in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 3. Blockade of serotonin receptors by 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and depletion of tissue serotonin levels following injection of DL-6-fluorotryptophan both result in a decrease in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 4. Treatment with serotonin, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and DL-6-fluorotryptophan were all without effect on the colonic crypt cell mitotic rate.

  16. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method

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    Losnegaard, Are; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2010-01-01

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  17. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

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    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: Kwon98@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Kyun [Kyung Hee University, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jin [Kyung Hee University, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructive symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.

  18. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for advanced transverse and descending colon cancer: a single-center experience.

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    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-06-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in management of transverse and descending colon cancer remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes associated with laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancer. This cohort study analyzed 245 patients (stage II disease, n = 70; stage III disease, n = 63) who underwent resection of transverse and descending colon cancers, including 200 laparoscopic surgeries (LAC) and 45 conventional open surgeries (OC) from December 1996 to December 2010. Short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes were recorded. The operative time was longer in the LAC group than in the OC group. However, intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower and postoperative recovery time was significantly shorter in the LAC group than in the OC group. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients with stage II were 84.9% and 84.9% in the OC group and 93.7% and 90.0% in the LAC group, respectively. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients with stage III disease were 63.4% and 54.6% in the OC group and 66.7% and 56.9% in the LAC group, respectively. Use of laparoscopic surgery resulted in acceptable short-term and oncologic outcomes in patients with advanced transverse and descending colon cancer.

  19. Selective deficiencies in descending inhibitory modulation in neuropathic rats: implications for enhancing noradrenergic tone.

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    Patel, Ryan; Qu, Chaoling; Xie, Jennifer Y; Porreca, Frank; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2018-05-31

    Pontine noradrenergic neurones form part of a descending inhibitory system that influences spinal nociceptive processing. Weak or absent descending inhibition is a common feature of chronic pain patients. We examined the extent to which the descending noradrenergic system is tonically active, how control of spinal neuronal excitability is integrated into thalamic relays within sensory-discriminative projection pathways, and how this inhibitory control is altered after nerve injury. In vivo electrophysiology was performed in anaesthetised spinal nerve ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats to record from wide dynamic range neurones in the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL). In sham rats, spinal block of α2-adrenoceptors with atipamezole resulted in enhanced stimulus-evoked and spontaneous firing in the VPL, and produced conditioned place avoidance. However, in SNL rats these conditioned avoidance behaviours were absent. Furthermore, inhibitory control of evoked neuronal responses was lost but spinal atipamezole markedly increased spontaneous firing. Augmenting spinal noradrenergic tone in neuropathic rats with reboxetine, a selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, modestly reinstated inhibitory control of evoked responses in the VPL but had no effect on spontaneous firing. In contrast, clonidine, an α2 agonist, inhibited both evoked and spontaneous firing, and exhibited increased potency in SNL rats compared to sham controls. These data suggest descending noradrenergic inhibitory pathways are tonically active in sham rats. Moreover, in neuropathic states descending inhibitory control is diminished, but not completely absent, and distinguishes between spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity. These observations may have implications for how analgesics targeting the noradrenergic system provide relief.

  20. The effects of laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats

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    Hernandez, J.W.R.; Barbosa, C.A.A.; Moderno, L.A.O.; Parizzotto, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of low energy laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats were investigated by comparing natimortality and the frequency of congenital malformations in three experimental and a control group. Natimortality was not significantly different among the groups. However, cardiomegaly, anophtalmia, dilated abdominal viscera, and premature closures of cranial sutures were recorded only in the experimental groups. (author)

  1. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

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    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  2. Extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy for colorectal cancers between the distal transverse and proximal descending colon.

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    Gravante, G; Elshaer, M; Parker, R; Mogekwu, A C; Drake, B; Aboelkassem, A; Rahman, E U; Sorge, R; Alhammali, T; Gardiner, K; Al-Hamali, S; Rashed, M; Kelkar, A; Agarwal, R; El-Rabaa, S

    2016-05-01

    We report our experience with extended right hemicolectomy (ERH) and left hemicolectomy (LH) for the treatment of cancers located between the distal transverse and the proximal descending colon, and compare postoperative morbidity, mortality, pathological results and survival for the two techniques. A retrospective review was performed of a single institution series over ten years. Patients who underwent different operations, had benign disease or received palliative resections were excluded. Data collected were patient demographics, type and duration of surgery, tumour site, postoperative complications and histology results. Ninety-eight patients were analysed (64 ERHs, 34 LHs). ERH was conducted using an open approach in 93.8% of cases compared with 73.5% for LH. The anastomotic leak rate was similar for both groups (ERH: 6.3%, LH: 5.9%). This was also the case for other postoperative complications, mortality (ERH: 1.6%, LH: 2.9%) and overall survival (ERH: 50.4 months, LH: 51.8 months). All but one patient in the ERH cohort had clear surgical margins. Nodal evaluation for staging was adequate in 78.1% of ERH cases and 58.8% of LH cases. In our experience, both ERH and LH are adequate for tumours located between the distal transverse and the proximal descending colon.

  3. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

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    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  4. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

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    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  5. Anastomotic stenosis of the descending colon caused by barium granuloma formation following barium peritonitis: report of a case.

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    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Tomizawa, Kenji; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Toda, Shigeo; Matoba, Shuichiro; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Oota, Yasunori

    2014-11-01

    Anastomotic stricture reportedly often recurs following barium peritonitis, regardless of whether the anastomotic diameter is initially sufficient. However, the causes of repetitive stricture have not been clarified. We report a case that suggests the pathophysiology of recurrent anastomotic strictures following barium peritonitis. The patient was a 39-year-old Japanese man with idiopathic perforation of the descending colon after undergoing an upper gastrointestinal barium contrast study. After emergency peritoneal lavage and diverting colostomy, created using the perforated region, the patient recovered uneventfully and 3 months later, the colostomy was closed and the perforated colon was resected. However, 7 months after colostomy closure, abdominal distention gradually developed, and colonoscopy revealed an anastomotic stricture. The patient was referred to our hospital where he underwent resection of the anastomotic stricture. The surgical specimen exhibited barium granulomas not only in the subserosa of the entire specimen, but also in the submucosa and lamina propria localized in the anastomotic site. These findings suggest that barium was embedded in the submucosa and lamina propria with manipulation of the stapled anastomosis and that the barium trapped in the anastomotic site caused persistent inflammation, resulting in an anastomotic stricture.

  6. Bilateral descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

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    Khaled Abdallah

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the hypothalamus is involved in trigeminal pain processing. However, the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C remains poorly understood. Microinjections of the retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG, into the Sp5C, in rats, reveal that five hypothalamic nuclei project to the Sp5C: the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, the perifornical hypothalamic area, the A11 nucleus and the retrochiasmatic area. Descending hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C are bilateral, except those from the paraventricular nucleus which exhibit a clear ipsilateral predominance. Moreover, the density of retrogradely FG-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus varies according to the dorso-ventral localization of the Sp5C injection site. There are much more labeled neurons after injections into the ventrolateral part of the Sp5C (where ophthalmic afferents project than after injections into its dorsomedial or intermediate parts (where mandibular and maxillary afferents, respectively, project. These results demonstrate that the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal dorsal horn and Sp5C are different. Whereas the former are ipsilateral, the latter are bilateral. Moreover, hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C display somatotopy, suggesting that these projections are preferentially involved in the processing of meningeal and cutaneous inputs from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in rats. Therefore, our results suggest that the control of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn processing of nociceptive information by hypothalamic neurons is different and raise the question of the role of bilateral, rather than unilateral, hypothalamic control.

  7. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  8. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  9. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  10. The Efficacy of the Coaxial Technique Using a 6-Fr Introducer Sheath in Stent Placement for Treating the Obstructions Proximal to the Descending Colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Hwang, Dae Yong; Seong, Moo Kyung; Joh, Hee Kyung; Yoon, So Young; Cho, Yo Han; Choe, Won Hyeok [Konkuk University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy of stent placement using the coaxial technique with a stiff, long introducer sheath in patients with technical failure using an angiographic catheter for the obstructions proximal to the descending colon. Self-expandable metallic stent placement was attempted under fluoroscopy-guidance in 77 consecutive patients who had malignant colorectal obstruction. Stent placement was performed using an angiographic catheter and a guide wire. If the angiographic catheter could not be advanced over the guide wire into the obstructive lesions proximal to the descending colon, then a 6-Fr introducer sheath was used. The technical success rate, the clinical success rate and the complications were analyzed. Successful stent placement was achieved in 75 of 77 patients (97%). The angiographic catheter failed to advance into the obstructive lesions of 11 patients (M:F = 7:4: mean age, 65.5 years) whose lesions were at the level of the splenic flexure or transverse colon. Therefore, the coaxial technique was implemented in all these 11 patients using a 6-Fr stiff introducer sheath and then the stent placement was successful. There were no complications related to the use of a stiff introducer sheath. Clinical success, which was defined as relief of clinical obstructive bowel symptoms, was obtained within 24 hours in all of patients. The coaxial technique using a stiff introducer sheath can increase the technical success of fluoroscopy-guided, self-expandable metallic stent placement in patients with colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon

  11. The Efficacy of the Coaxial Technique Using a 6-Fr Introducer Sheath in Stent Placement for Treating the Obstructions Proximal to the Descending Colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Hwang, Dae Yong; Seong, Moo Kyung; Joh, Hee Kyung; Yoon, So Young; Cho, Yo Han; Choe, Won Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy of stent placement using the coaxial technique with a stiff, long introducer sheath in patients with technical failure using an angiographic catheter for the obstructions proximal to the descending colon. Self-expandable metallic stent placement was attempted under fluoroscopy-guidance in 77 consecutive patients who had malignant colorectal obstruction. Stent placement was performed using an angiographic catheter and a guide wire. If the angiographic catheter could not be advanced over the guide wire into the obstructive lesions proximal to the descending colon, then a 6-Fr introducer sheath was used. The technical success rate, the clinical success rate and the complications were analyzed. Successful stent placement was achieved in 75 of 77 patients (97%). The angiographic catheter failed to advance into the obstructive lesions of 11 patients (M:F = 7:4: mean age, 65.5 years) whose lesions were at the level of the splenic flexure or transverse colon. Therefore, the coaxial technique was implemented in all these 11 patients using a 6-Fr stiff introducer sheath and then the stent placement was successful. There were no complications related to the use of a stiff introducer sheath. Clinical success, which was defined as relief of clinical obstructive bowel symptoms, was obtained within 24 hours in all of patients. The coaxial technique using a stiff introducer sheath can increase the technical success of fluoroscopy-guided, self-expandable metallic stent placement in patients with colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon

  12. Imaging findings of leiomyosarcoma arising from the descending colon which presented as a large mass in the retroperitoneum: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yoogi; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung

    2017-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells and it usually originates from the uterus and the retroperitoneum. Leiomyosarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract is rare and leiomyosarcoma of the colon in even more rare, accounting for less than 0.1% of all colonic malignancies. It can be difficult to differentiate leiomyosarcoma from tumor of the retroperitoneum, especially if the mass invades both the colon and the retroperitoneum. We describe the imaging findings of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the descending colon which manifested as a palpable mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen and was diagnosed to be of colonic origin by identifying supply vessels of the mass on imaging studies, and the diagnosis was confirmed by surgicopathologic findings

  13. Imaging findings of leiomyosarcoma arising from the descending colon which presented as a large mass in the retroperitoneum: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoogi; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells and it usually originates from the uterus and the retroperitoneum. Leiomyosarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract is rare and leiomyosarcoma of the colon in even more rare, accounting for less than 0.1% of all colonic malignancies. It can be difficult to differentiate leiomyosarcoma from tumor of the retroperitoneum, especially if the mass invades both the colon and the retroperitoneum. We describe the imaging findings of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the descending colon which manifested as a palpable mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen and was diagnosed to be of colonic origin by identifying supply vessels of the mass on imaging studies, and the diagnosis was confirmed by surgicopathologic findings.

  14. Descending projections from the dysgranular zone of rat primary somatosensory cortex processing deep somatic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehee; Kim, Uhnoh

    2012-04-01

    In the mammalian somatic system, peripheral inputs from cutaneous and deep receptors ascend via different subcortical channels and terminate in largely separate regions of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). How these inputs are processed in SI and then projected back to the subcortical relay centers is critical for understanding how SI may regulate somatic information processing in the subcortex. Although it is now relatively well understood how SI cutaneous areas project to the subcortical structures, little is known about the descending projections from SI areas processing deep somatic input. We examined this issue by using the rodent somatic system as a model. In rat SI, deep somatic input is processed mainly in the dysgranular zone (DSZ) enclosed by the cutaneous barrel subfields. By using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as anterograde tracer, we characterized the topography of corticostriatal and corticofugal projections arising in the DSZ. The DSZ projections terminate mainly in the lateral subregions of the striatum that are also known as the target of certain SI cutaneous areas. This suggests that SI processing of deep and cutaneous information may be integrated, to a certain degree, in this striatal region. By contrast, at both thalamic and prethalamic levels as far as the spinal cord, descending projections from DSZ terminate in areas largely distinguishable from those that receive input from SI cutaneous areas. These subcortical targets of DSZ include not only the sensory but also motor-related structures, suggesting that SI processing of deep input may engage in regulating somatic and motor information flow between the cortex and periphery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Kanat, Ayhan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Yolas, Coskun; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref; Gundogdu, Betul; Duman, Aslihan; Kanat, Ilyas Ferit; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Context: Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. Aims: The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on bowel dilatation severity. Settings and Design: An experimental rabbit study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13), serum saline (SS) (SS; N = 7) and control (N = 5) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm3 in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm3 in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm3 in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies. PMID:25972712

  16. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Ozturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. Aims: The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH on bowel dilatation severity. Settings and Design: An experimental rabbit study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13, serum saline (SS (SS; N = 7 and control (N = 5 groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm 3 in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm 3 in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm 3 in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  17. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Kanat, Ayhan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Yolas, Coskun; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref; Gundogdu, Betul; Duman, Aslihan; Kanat, Ilyas Ferit; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on bowel dilatation severity. An experimental rabbit study. The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13), serum saline (SS) (SS; N = 7) and control (N = 5) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm(3) in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm(3) in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm(3) in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05). An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  18. Descending serotonergic facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT3 receptors engages spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported the importance of spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in maintaining persistent pain-like states. A descending facilitatory drive mediated through spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) originating from superficial dorsal horn NK1-expressing neurons and that relays through the parabrachial nucleus and the rostroventral medial medulla to act on deep dorsal horn neurons is known be important in maintaining these pain-like states. To determine if spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways are activated by a descending serotonergic drive, we investigated the effects of spinally administered rapamycin on responses of deep dorsal horn neurons that had been pre-treated with the selective 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron. We also investigated the effects of spinally administered cell cycle inhibitor (CCI)-779 (a rapamycin ester analogue) on deep dorsal horn neurons from rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw. Unlike some other models of persistent pain, this model does not involve an altered 5-HT3R-mediated descending serotonergic drive. We found that the inhibitory effects of rapamycin were significantly reduced for neuronal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli when the spinal cord was pre-treated with ondansetron. Furthermore, CCI-779 was found to be ineffective in attenuating spinal neuronal responses to peripheral stimuli in carrageenan-treated rats. Therefore, we conclude that 5-HT3R-mediated descending facilitation is one requirement for activation of rapamycin-sensitive pathways that contribute to persistent pain-like states. PMID:20709148

  19. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  20. Critical evaluation of colon submucosal microdialysis in awake, mobile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Cibicek

    Full Text Available Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water. To assess local microcirculation and probe function, glucose, lactate, glucose-to-lactate ratio and urea clearance were determined in the dialysates from the three postoperative days with focus on the final 24-h period. In an attempt to mitigate the expected tissue inflammatory response, one group of animals had the catheters perfused with 5-aminosalicylic acid-enriched medium with final concentration 1 μmol/L. For verification of probe position and the assessment of the surrounding foreign body reaction, standard histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed. Microdialysis of rat gut is associated with considerable technical challenges that may lead to the loss of probe function and high drop-out rate. In this setting, limited data did not allow to draw any firm conclusion regarding local anti-inflammatory effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylic acid perfusion. Although intestinal microdialysis may be suitable for larger anesthetized animals, low reproducibility of the presented method compromises its routine experimental use in awake and freely moving small-sized rodents.

  1. Laparoscopic versus open resection for transverse and descending colon cancer: Short-term and long-term outcomes of a multicenter retrospective study of 1830 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Tashiro, Jo; Araki, Ryuichiro; Okuda, Junji; Hanai, Tsunekazu; Otsuka, Koki; Saito, Shuji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials demonstrated similar oncological outcomes between laparoscopic and open colectomies, except for cases involving transverse colon and splenic flexure colon cancer. The objective of this study was to confirm the oncological safety and advantages of the short-term results of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancer in comparison with open surgery. The study data were retrospectively collected from the databases of 45 hospitals. Patients with transverse or descending colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open R0 resection were registered. The primary end-points were the 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates according to pathological stage. The secondary end-points were the short-term results, including blood loss, operative time, diet intake, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Of the 1830 eligible patients, 872 underwent open colectomy and 958 underwent laparoscopic colectomy. The median follow-up period was 38.4 months. The conversion rate to open resection was 4.5%. The 3-year overall survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients (96.2% vs 99.2%; P = 0.04); it was also higher for stage II (94.0% vs 95.5%) and stage III (87.4% vs 90.2%) patients, but there were no significant differences. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients; there were no differences between the open and laparoscopic groups among the stage II and III patients. In the multivariate analyses, laparoscopic resection was a significant factor in relapse-free survival. Laparoscopic patients had significantly lower blood loss and a significantly longer operative time than the open groups. Also, postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter and postoperative morbidity was significantly lower in the laparoscopic group. Although this

  2. Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei Dong; Kosinski, Lauren; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-06-01

    Injury to pelvic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from surgical and obstetrical trauma has long been cited as a cause for abnormal colorectal motility in humans. Using a rat model, acute transaction of these extrinsic nerves has been shown to effect colorectal motility. The aim of this study is to determine in a rat model how transection of these extrinsic nerves affects colonic transit over time. Eighty-two Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of a tunneled catheter into the proximal colon. Bilateral hypogastric, pelvic nerves (HGN and PN) or both were transected in 66 rats. The remaining 16 rats received a sham operation. Colonic transit was evaluated at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7 by injecting and calculating the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of (51)Cr after 3 h of propagation. At POD 1, transection of PNs significantly delayed colonic transit (GC = 4.9, p < 0.05), while transection of HGNs (GC = 8.5, p < 0.05) or transection of both nerves (GC = 7.8, p < 0.05) significantly accelerated colonic transit, when compared with sham operation (GC = 6.0). A significant trend toward recovery was noted in both the HGN and PN transection groups at POD 7. Damage to the extrinsic sympathetic and/or parasympathetic PNs affects colonic transit acutely. These changes in large bowel motor function normalize over time implicating a compensatory mechanism within the bowel itself.

  3. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, M G; Scobey, M W; Cassidy, K T; Geisinger, K R

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation.

  4. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  5. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  6. Electroacupuncture Inhibits the Activation of p38MAPK in the Central Descending Facilitatory Pathway in Rats with Inflammatory Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Li Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, especially p38MAPK, play a pivotal role in chronic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA relieves inflammatory pain underlying the descending pathway, that is, the periaqueductal gray (PAG, the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, and the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH. However, whether EA antagonizes inflammatory pain through regulation of p38MAPK in this descending facilitatory pathway is unclear. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA was injected into the hind paw of rats to establish inflammatory pain model. EA was administrated for 30 min at Zusanli and Kunlun acupoints at 0.5, 24.5, 48.5, and 72.5 h, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT, paw edema, and Phosphor-p38MAPK-Immunoreactivity (p-p38MAPK-IR cells were measured before (0 h and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 25, and 73 h after CFA or saline injection. EA increased PWT at 1, 3, 25, and 73 h and inhibited paw edema at 25 and 73 h after CFA injection. Moreover, the increasing number of p-p38MAPK-IR cells which was induced by CFA was suppressed by EA stimulation in PAG and RVM at 3 and 5 h and in SCDH at 5, 7, 25, and 73 h. These results suggest that EA suppresses inflammation-induced hyperalgesia probably through inhibiting p38MAPK activation in the descending facilitatory pathway.

  7. Alterations in water and electrolyte absorption in the rat colon following neutron irradiation: influence of neutron component and irradiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublineau, I; Ksas, B; Joubert, C; Aigueperse, J; Gourmelon, P; Griffiths, N M

    2002-12-01

    To study the absorptive function of rat colon following whole-body exposure to neutron irradiation, either to the same total dose with varying proportion of neutrons or to the same neutron proportion with an increasing irradiation dose. Different proportions of neutron irradiation were produced from the reactor SILENE using a fissile solution of uranium nitrate (8, 47 and 87% neutron). Water and electrolyte fluxes were measured in the rat in vivo under anaesthesia by insertion into the descending colon of an agarose gel cylinder simulating the faeces. Functional studies were completed by histological analyses. In the first set of experiments, rats received 3.8 Gy with various neutron percentages and were studied from 1 to 14 days after exposure. In the second set of experiments, rats were exposed to increasing doses of irradiation (1-4Gy) with a high neutron percentage (87%n) and were studied at 4 days after exposure. The absorptive capacity of rat colon was diminished by irradiation at 3-5 days, with a nadir at 4 days. The results demonstrate that an increase in the neutron proportion is associated with an amplification of the effects. Furthermore, a delay in the re-establishment of normal absorption was observed with the high neutron proportion (87%n). A dose-dependent reduction of water absorption by rat colon was also observed following neutron irradiation (87%n), with a 50% reduction at 3 Gy. Comparison of this dose-effect curve with the curve obtained following gamma (60)Co-irradiation indicates an RBE of 2.2 for absorptive colonic function in rat calculated at 4 days after exposure.

  8. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  9. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  10. Plasticity in One Hemisphere, Control From Two: Adaptation in Descending Motor Pathways After Unilateral Corticospinal Injury in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Chun Wen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After injury to the corticospinal tract (CST in early development there is large-scale adaptation of descending motor pathways. Some studies suggest the uninjured hemisphere controls the impaired forelimb, while others suggest that the injured hemisphere does; these pathways have never been compared directly. We tested the contribution of each motor cortex to the recovery forelimb function after neonatal injury of the CST. We cut the left pyramid (pyramidotomy of postnatal day 7 rats, which caused a measurable impairment of the right forelimb. We used pharmacological inactivation of each motor cortex to test its contribution to a skilled reach and supination task. Rats with neonatal pyramidotomy were further impaired by inactivation of motor cortex in both the injured and the uninjured hemispheres, while the forelimb of uninjured rats was impaired only from the contralateral motor cortex. Thus, inactivation demonstrated motor control from each motor cortex. In contrast, physiological and anatomical interrogation of these pathways support adaptations only in the uninjured hemisphere. Intracortical microstimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy produced responses from both forelimbs, while stimulation of the injured hemisphere did not elicit responses from either forelimb. Both anterograde and retrograde tracers were used to label corticofugal pathways. There was no increased plasticity from the injured hemisphere, either from cortex to the red nucleus or the red nucleus to the spinal cord. In contrast, there were very strong CST connections to both halves of the spinal cord from the uninjured motor cortex. Retrograde tracing produced maps of each forelimb within the uninjured hemisphere, and these were partly segregated. This suggests that the uninjured hemisphere may encode separate control of the unimpaired and the impaired forelimbs of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy.

  11. Plasticity in One Hemisphere, Control From Two: Adaptation in Descending Motor Pathways After Unilateral Corticospinal Injury in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tong-Chun; Lall, Sophia; Pagnotta, Corey; Markward, James; Gupta, Disha; Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan; Bucci, Jacqueline; Greenwald, Lucy; Klugman, Madelyne; Hill, N Jeremy; Carmel, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    After injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) in early development there is large-scale adaptation of descending motor pathways. Some studies suggest the uninjured hemisphere controls the impaired forelimb, while others suggest that the injured hemisphere does; these pathways have never been compared directly. We tested the contribution of each motor cortex to the recovery forelimb function after neonatal injury of the CST. We cut the left pyramid (pyramidotomy) of postnatal day 7 rats, which caused a measurable impairment of the right forelimb. We used pharmacological inactivation of each motor cortex to test its contribution to a skilled reach and supination task. Rats with neonatal pyramidotomy were further impaired by inactivation of motor cortex in both the injured and the uninjured hemispheres, while the forelimb of uninjured rats was impaired only from the contralateral motor cortex. Thus, inactivation demonstrated motor control from each motor cortex. In contrast, physiological and anatomical interrogation of these pathways support adaptations only in the uninjured hemisphere. Intracortical microstimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy produced responses from both forelimbs, while stimulation of the injured hemisphere did not elicit responses from either forelimb. Both anterograde and retrograde tracers were used to label corticofugal pathways. There was no increased plasticity from the injured hemisphere, either from cortex to the red nucleus or the red nucleus to the spinal cord. In contrast, there were very strong CST connections to both halves of the spinal cord from the uninjured motor cortex. Retrograde tracing produced maps of each forelimb within the uninjured hemisphere, and these were partly segregated. This suggests that the uninjured hemisphere may encode separate control of the unimpaired and the impaired forelimbs of rats with neonatal pyramidotomy.

  12. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  13. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  15. Early colonizing Escherichia coli elicits remodeling of rat colonic epithelium shifting toward a new homeostatic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Julie; Reygner, Julie; Mayeur, Camille; Ducroc, Robert; Bouet, Stephan; Bridonneau, Chantal; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Thomas, Muriel; Langella, Philippe; Cherbuy, Claire

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early colonizing bacteria on the colonic epithelium. We isolated dominant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Clostridium innocuum and a novel Fusobacterium spp., from the intestinal contents of conventional suckling rats and transferred them in different combinations into germfree (GF) adult rats. Animals were investigated after various times up to 21 days. Proliferative cell markers (Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phospho-histone H3, cyclin A) were higher in rats monocolonized with E. coli than in GF at all time points, but not in rats monocolonized with E. faecalis. The mucin content of goblet cells declined shortly after E. coli administration whereas the mucus layer doubled in thickness. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that E. coli resides in this mucus layer. The epithelial mucin content progressively returned to baseline, following an increase in KLF4 and in the cell cycle arrest-related proteins p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). Markers of colonic differentiated cells involved in electrolyte (carbonic anhydrase II and slc26A3) and water (aquaglyceroporin3 (aqp3)) transport, and secretory responses to carbachol were modulated after E. coli inoculation suggesting that ion transport dynamics were also affected. The colonic responses to simplified microbiotas differed substantially according to whether or not E. coli was combined with the other four bacteria. Thus, proliferation markers increased substantially when E. coli was in the mix, but very much less when it was absent. This work demonstrates that a pioneer strain of E. coli elicits sequential epithelial remodeling affecting the structure, mucus layer and ionic movements and suggests this can result in a microbiota-compliant state.

  16. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Fugaro, Steven

    1977-01-01

    The effect of various co- and anti-carcinogens of colon carcinogenesis on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in cultured rat colon is reported. Rat colon enzymatically converted BP into metabolites which bind to cellular macromolecules i.e., DNA and protein. Activity of aryl hydrocarbon...

  17. The effects of ghrelin on colonic anastomosis healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ceran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In addition to its roles in the stimulation of growth hormone secretion and the regulation of appetite and metabolism, ghrelin exerts immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in several organ systems. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on the healing of experimental colonic anastomoses. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10 in each. A segment of colon was excised, and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed in the distal colon. The Ghrelin Group received 10 ng/kg/day IP ghrelin for seven days postoperatively, whereas the Control Group received an identical volume of saline. On the seventh postoperative day, the anastomotic bursting pressures and hydroxyproline levels were measured, and adhesion formation around the anastomoses was examined. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast infiltration, collagen density and neovascularization. RESULTS: In the Ghrelin Group, the bursting pressure and hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher than in the Control Group. The adhesion formation scores were lower in the Ghrelin Group than in the Control Group. Although the inflammatory cell infiltration was diminished in the Ghrelin Group, the degrees of fibroblast infiltration, collagen density and neovascularization were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that ghrelin improves the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats.

  18. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1985-06-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence.

  19. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  20. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloner, A.; Rao, A.; Al-Chaer, E.D.; Meerveld, B. Greenwood-Van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liqui...

  1. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Fossati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Vittor, K [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Nano, R [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Facoetti, A [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Chiari, P [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie Universita degli Studi di Brescia (Italy); Clerici, A [Dipartimento di Chirurgia Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, C [Dipartimento di Chirurgia Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Salvucci, O [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie Universita degli Studi di Brescia (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher {sup 10}B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of {sup 10}B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  2. Colonic insufflation with carbon monoxide gas inhibits the development of intestinal inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Tomohisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is complex, and an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be established. Recently, carbon monoxide (CO has been reported to be capable of reducing inflammation by multiple mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the role of colonic CO insufflation in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in rats. Methods Acute colitis was induced with TNBS in male Wistar rats. Following TNBS administration, the animals were treated daily with 200 ppm of intrarectal CO gas. The distal colon was removed to evaluate various parameters of inflammation, including thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive substances, tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in colonic mucosa 7 days after TNBS administration. Results The administration of TNBS induced ulceration with surrounding edematous swelling in the colon. In rats treated with CO gas, the colonic ulcer area was smaller than that of air-treated rats 7 days after TNBS administration. The wet colon weight was significantly increased in the TNBS-induced colitis group, which was markedly abrogated by colonic insufflation with CO gas. The increase of MPO activity, TBA-reactive substances, and CINC-1 expression in colonic mucosa were also significantly inhibited by colonic insufflation with CO gas. Conclusions Colonic insufflation with CO gas significantly ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Clinical application of CO gas to improve colonic inflammatory conditions such as IBD might be useful.

  3. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtani N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Norimasa Ohtani, Eiji Masaki Division of Dento-oral Anesthesiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Background: Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole, or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision.Results: Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect.Conclusion: A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold. Keywords: postoperative pain, descending pathway

  4. Cocoa polyphenols and fiber modify colonic gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa intake has been associated with health benefits, improving cardiovascular function and metabolism, as well as modulating intestinal immune function. The aim of this study was to take an in-depth look into the mechanisms affected by the cocoa intake by evaluating the colonic gene expression after nutritional intervention, and to ascertain the role of the fiber of cocoa in these effects. To achieve this, Wistar rats were fed for 3 weeks with either a reference diet, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10), a diet based on cocoa fiber (CF) or a diet containing inulin (I). At the end of the study, colon was excised to obtain the RNA to evaluate the differential gene expression by microarray. Results were validated by RT-PCR. The C10 group was the group with most changes in colonic gene expression, most of them down-regulated but a few in common with the CF diet. The C10 diet significantly up-regulated the expression of Scgb1a1 and Scnn1 g and down-regulated Tac4, Mcpt2, Fcer1a and Fabp1 by twofold, most of them related to lipid metabolism and immune function. The CF and I diets down-regulated the expression of Serpina10 and Apoa4 by twofold. Similar patterns of expression were found by PCR. Most of the effects attributed to cocoa consumption on genes related to the immune system (B cell and mast cell functionality) and lipid metabolism in the colon tissue were due not only to its fiber content, but also to the possible contribution of polyphenols and other compounds.

  5. Expression and location of α-fetoprotein during rat colon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Sun, Peng; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development. METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development. PMID:19360917

  6. Collateralization of descending spinal pathways from red nucleus and other brainstem cell groups in rat, cat and monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Huisman (Margriet)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThe somatotopically organized rubrospinal pathway is the major component of the laterally descending brainstem pathways, and is especially involved in steering of fractionated movements of the distal parts of the limbs. Electrophysiological studies in cat showed that this fiber

  7. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... or in blood plasma. We conclude that a sucrose-rich diet directly or indirectly increases the mutation frequency in rat colon in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreases the level of background DNA adducts, without a direct effect on the expression of major DNA repair enzyme systems. We also...... conclude that an oxidative mechanism for this effect of sucrose is unlikely. This is the first demonstration of a genotoxic action of increased dietary sucrose in vivo. Both sucrose intake and colon cancer rates are high in the Western world, and our present results call for an examination of a possible...

  8. Modulation of ion transport across rat distal colon by cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDiener

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionin-beta-synthase and cystathionin-gamma-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and beta-cyano-L-alanine, i.e. inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e. an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl- and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl- secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter.

  9. Colonic anastomotic healing after preoperative chemo-radiotherapy in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzu, M.A.; Koeksoy, C. [Univ. of Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine; Akyol, F.H.; Uzal, D.; Kale, I.T.

    1999-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy on colonic anastomotic healing, an experimental study resembling the clinical use of neo-adjuvant concomitant 5-FU+irradiation treatment of colorectal cancer was conducted. Seventy-one male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group (I) underwent left colon resection and primary anastomosis; a sham-treated group (II); and a study group (III) which received fractionated irradiation to the whole pelvis to a total dose of 22 Gy, 5.5 Gy per fraction, in four consecutive days with linear accelerator and concomitant intra-peritoneal 5-FU for five consecutive days. The last fraction of irradiation and the last injection were given four and three days before colonic resection and anastomosis, respectively. Within each group one-half of the animals were anesthetized on the third postoperative day and one-half on the seventh postoperative day. Abdominal wound healing, intraperitoneal adhesions, anastomotic complications, and anastomotic bursting pressure measurements were recorded. Following these measurements the anastomotic segment was resected for hydroxyproline content, myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological evaluation. At three and seven days, the mean bursting pressures of the anastomoses were 36.5 mm Hg and 208 mm Hg in group I, 34.5 and 228 in group II, and 27 and 167 in group III, respectively . The burst occurred at the anastomosis in all animals tested on the third postoperative day, and 10% of group I, none in group II, and 40% of group III on the seventh postoperative day. (K.H.)

  10. Colonic anastomotic healing after preoperative chemo-radiotherapy in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzu, M.A.; Koeksoy, C.; Akyol, F.H.; Uzal, D.; Kale, I.T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy on colonic anastomotic healing, an experimental study resembling the clinical use of neo-adjuvant concomitant 5-FU+irradiation treatment of colorectal cancer was conducted. Seventy-one male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group (I) underwent left colon resection and primary anastomosis; a sham-treated group (II); and a study group (III) which received fractionated irradiation to the whole pelvis to a total dose of 22 Gy, 5.5 Gy per fraction, in four consecutive days with linear accelerator and concomitant intra-peritoneal 5-FU for five consecutive days. The last fraction of irradiation and the last injection were given four and three days before colonic resection and anastomosis, respectively. Within each group one-half of the animals were anesthetized on the third postoperative day and one-half on the seventh postoperative day. Abdominal wound healing, intraperitoneal adhesions, anastomotic complications, and anastomotic bursting pressure measurements were recorded. Following these measurements the anastomotic segment was resected for hydroxyproline content, myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological evaluation. At three and seven days, the mean bursting pressures of the anastomoses were 36.5 mm Hg and 208 mm Hg in group I, 34.5 and 228 in group II, and 27 and 167 in group III, respectively . The burst occurred at the anastomosis in all animals tested on the third postoperative day, and 10% of group I, none in group II, and 40% of group III on the seventh postoperative day. (K.H.)

  11. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  12. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Norimasa; Masaki, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole), or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride) was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision. Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect. A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold.

  13. α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Sun, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2011-06-28

    To investigate the role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 μg/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. GCs promote the development of rat colon. AFP appears to be involved, in

  14. Activins and their related proteins in colon carcinogenesis: insights from early and advanced azoxymethane rat models of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Mohamed, Amr Mohamed; Kensara, Osama Adnan; Ahmad, Jawwad; Idris, Shakir

    2016-11-11

    Activin-A may exert pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities depending on cellular context. However, little is known about its role, or the other mature activin proteins, in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study measured the expression of activin βA- & βB-subunits, activin type IIA & IIB receptors, smads 2/3/4/6/7 and follistatin in CRC induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. The results were compared with controls and disseminated according to the characteristics of histopathological lesions. Eighty male Wistar rats were allocated into 20 controls and the remaining were equally divided between short 'S-AOM' (15 weeks) and long 'L-AOM' (35 weeks) groups following injecting AOM for 2 weeks. Subsequent to gross and histopathological examinations and digital image analysis, the expression of all molecules was measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. Activin-A, activin-B, activin-AB and follistatin were measured by ELISA in serum and colon tissue homogenates. Colonic pre-neoplastic and cancerous lesions were identified in both AOM groups and their numbers and sizes were significantly (P colonic epithelial cells. There was a significantly (P cancerous tissues. Oppositely, a significant (P colonic lesions. Normal rat colon epithelial cells are capable of synthesising, controlling as well as responding to activins in a paracrine/autocrine manner. Colonic activin systems are pathologically altered during tumorigenesis and appear to be time and lesion-dependent. Activins could also be potential sensitive markers and/or molecular targets for the diagnosis and/or treatment of CRC. Further studies are required to illustrate the clinical value of activins and their related proteins in colon cancer.

  15. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars O.; Daneshvar, Bahram; Vogel, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a strain of Fischer rats carrying 40 copies of the lambda-phage on chromosome 4. Dietary sucrose was provided to the rats for 3 weeks at four dose levels including the background level in the purified diet [3.4% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, or 34.5%] without...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  16. Cytotoxicity of p-chloroamphetamine in dimethylhydrazine-induced carcinomata of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several serotonin-related compounds are cytotoxic to dimethylhydrazine-induced carcinomata of the colon of rat. This paper reports the cytotoxicity of another serotonin-related compound, p-chloroamphetamine.

  17. Translational safety biomarkers of colonic barrier integrity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Tim; Bueters, Ruud; van Heerden, Marjolein; Cuyckens, Filip; Vreeken, Rob; Goeminne, Nick; Lammens, Lieve

    2018-05-20

    The intestinal barrier controls intestinal permeability, and its disruption has been associated with multiple diseases. Therefore, preclinical safety biomarkers monitoring barrier integrity are essential during the development of drugs targeting the intestines, particularly if starting treatment early after onset of disease. Classical toxicology endpoints are not sensitive enough and therefore our objective was to identify non-invasive markers enabling early in vivo detection of colonic barrier perturbation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed intracolonically via the rectum, using sodium caprate or ibuprofen as tool compounds to alter barrier integrity. Several potentially translational biomarkers and probe molecules related to permeability, inflammation or tissue damage were evaluated, using various analytical platforms, including immunoassays, targeted metabolomics and highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Several markers were identified that allow early in vivo detection of colonic barrier integrity changes, before histopathological evidence of tissue damage. The most promising permeability markers identified were plasma fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000 and a lactulose/mannitol/sucralose mixture in urine. These markers showed maximum increases over 100-fold or approximately 10-50-fold, respectively. Intracolonic administration of the above probe molecules outperformed oral administration and inflammatory or other biomarkers, such as α 2 -macroglobulin, calprotectin, cytokines, prostaglandins and a panel of metabolic molecules to identify early and subtle changes in barrier integrity. However, optimal timing of probe administration and sample collection is important for all markers evaluated. Inclusion of these probe molecules in preclinical toxicity studies might aid in risk assessment and the design of a clinical biomarker plan, as several of these markers have translational potential. Copyright © 2018 John

  18. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...

  19. Estrogen inhibits chloride secretion caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins in female rat distal colon.

    OpenAIRE

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; O'Mahony, Fiona; Harvey, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Excessive Cl(-) secretion is the driving force for secretory diarrhea. 17β-Estradiol has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in rat distal colon through a nongenomic pathway. We examined whether 17β-estradiol inhibits Cl(-) secretion in an animal model of secretory diarrhea and the downstream effectors involved. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cholera toxin and heat-stable enterotoxin induced Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosal sheets was studied by current-voltage clamping. Selective per...

  20. The impact of short chain fatty acids on GLP-1 and PYY secretion from the isolated perfused rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Gabe, Maria Buur Nordskov; Svendsen, Berit

    2018-01-01

    chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L-cells. We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects...

  1. Bone Marrow Cell Therapy on 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-Induced Colon Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khadragy, Manal F; Nabil, Heba M; Hassan, Basmaa N; Tohamy, Amany A; Waaer, Hanaa F; Yehia, Hany M; Alharbi, Afra M; Moneim, Ahmed Esmat Abdel

    2018-01-01

    Stem cell based therapies are being under focus due to their possible role in treatment of various tumors. Bone marrow stem cells believed to have anticancer potential and are preferred for their activities by stimulating the immune system, migration to the site of tumor and ability for inducting apoptosis in cancer cells. The current study was aimed to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups: control, BMCs alone, DMH alone and BMCs with DMH. BMCs were injected intrarectally while DMH was injected subcutaneously at 20 mg/kg body weight once a week for 15 weeks. Histopathological examination and gene expression of survivin, β-catenin and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat colon tissues. This is in addition to oxidative stress markers in colon were performed across all groups. The presence of aberrant crypt foci was reordered once histopathological examination of colon tissue from rats which received DMH alone. Administration of BMCs into rats starting from zero-day of DMH injection improved the histopathological picture which showed a clear improvement in mucosal layer, few inflammatory cells infiltration periglandular and in the lamina propria. Gene expression in rat colon tissue demonstrated that BMCs down-regulated survivin, β-catenin, MDR-1 and cytokeratin 20 genes expression in colon tissues after colon cancer induction. Amelioration of the colon status after administration of MSCs has been evidenced by a major reduction of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and increasing of glutathione content and superoxide dismutase along with catalase activities. Our findings demonstrated that BMCs have tumor suppressive effects in DMH-induced colon cancer as evidenced by down-regulation of survivin, β-catenin, and MDR-1 genes and enhancing the antioxidant

  2. Enterorrafias em plano aposicional convencionale com adesivo à base de cianoacrilato no cólon descendente de eqüinos Conventional appositional pattern and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in descending colon enterorrhaphy in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Acosta Duarte

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Em eqüinos, as enterotomias no cólon descendente são necessárias para remover enterólitos, corpos estranhos e material alimentar compactado que não podem ser removidos por técnicas conservativas. Este segmento intestinal possui um suprimento sangüíneo pobre, além de predisposição a complicações pós-operatórias relacionadas à contaminação bacteriana. Assim, este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de efetuar avaliações clínicas e anatomopatológicas do emprego de adesivo tecidual à base de cianoacrilato no cólon descendente de eqüinos, comparando-o a uma técnica de sutura aposicional convencional. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada em 15 animais posicionados em decúbito lateral direito, através de laparotomia pelo flanco esquerdo, sob anestesia geral inalatória. Após a exteriorização do cólon descendente, foram realizadas duas enterotomias de cinco centímetros de extensão cada, distanciadas 20cm uma da outra. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco tempos de observação de três animais cada e sacrificados aos três, sete, 14, 35 e 70 dias de pós-operatório. O adesivo butil-2-cianoacrilato e o fio de poliglactina 910 mostraram-se igualmente apropriados para uso em enterorrafias desse órgão, sendo que o fio de poliglactina 910 provocou inflamação inicial mais intensa que o cianoacrilato e, mais tardiamente, ambos causaram inflamação granulomatosa do tipo corpo estranho observada, primeiramente, junto ao fio de poliglactina 910 (7º dia e, a partir do 35º dia, ao redor do cianoacrilato.The descending colon enterotomies in horses are necessary to remove enteroliths, foreign body and impacted material that can not be removed with conservative technique. This intestinal segment has a poor blood supply and the predisposition to post operation complications related to bacterium contamination. This trial was conducted in order to evaluate, clinically and anatomopathologically, the use of

  3. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumours in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocortical hormones have previously been shown to influence cell proliferation in many tissues. In this report, their influence on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomata is compared. Colonic tumour cell proliferation was found to be retarded following adrenalectomy and this retardation was reversible by administration of hydrocortisone, or by administration of synthetic steroids with predominantly glucocorticoid activity. Tumour cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats was not promoted by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Neither adrenalectomy, nor adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly influenced colonic crypt cell proliferation.

  4. Dietary Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Fehres, O.; Klieverik, L.; Vogels, I. M.; Tigchelaar, W.; Smorenburg, S. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of Ohm-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Ohm-6 PUFAs on the development of experimentally induced colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver were investigated quantitatively in vivo. Rats mere kept on either a lon-fat diet or on a fish oil (Ohm-3 PUFAs) or safflower oil (Ohm-6

  5. Mesencephalic cuneiform nucleus and its ascending and descending projections serve stress-related cardiovascular responses in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Sijmen; Jaarsma, D.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bohus, B.

    The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroanatomic network that underlies the cardiovascular responses of reticular formation origin in the region of the cuneiform nucleus (CNF). The study was performed in urethane anesthetized male Wistar rats. The left iliac artery was supplied with a

  6. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  7. Pacemaker activity and inhibitory neurotransmission in the colon of Ws/Ws mutant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertí, Elena; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Wang, Xuanyu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pacemaker activity and inhibitory neurotransmission in the colon of Ws/Ws mutant rats, which harbor a mutation in the c-kit gene that affects development of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In Ws/Ws rats, the density of KIT-positive cells was markedly...... as indirect innervation via ICC. In summary, loss of ICC markedly affects pacemaker and motor activities of the rat colon. Inhibitory innervation is largely maintained but nitrergic innervation is reduced possibly related to the loss of ICC-mediated relaxation....

  8. Lectin histochemistry of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    1983-10-01

    Lectins linked to fluorescein were used as carbohydrate probes to examine the goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell surface glycoconjugate alterations in an experimental rodent model of colonic neoplasia induced with parenteral 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Lectins derived from Triticum vulgare (WGA), Ricinus communis (RCA1), and Limulus polyphemus (LPA) showed reduced labeling of goblet cell mucin in these tumors, while binding with peanut lectin from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), a lectin ordinarily failing to bind to mucin in normal colon, was positive. In addition, RCA1 and LPA showed increased cell surface labeling of neoplastic epithelial cells. Finally, alterations were observed in lectin binding to "transitional" colonic mucosa adjacent to colonic tumors from carcinogen-treated rats. These findings indicate that significant alterations in both membrane and mucin glycoconjugates occur in colonic tumors and mucosa adjacent to tumors in a chemically induced experimental animal model of human colon cancer.

  9. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-08-21

    To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent.

  10. Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation

  11. Observation of rat's colon polyps in real time by mini-endoscopy and raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriana, Bibin Bintang; Mahardika, Anggara; Taketani, Akihiro; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal adenoma (CA) is a disease caused by various factors (such as genetic factors or environmental exposures). The appearance of colon polyp (CP) within colorectal might indicate the hint of CA development. Ball-lens hollow fiber Raman probe (BHRP) may has a high capability for detection of CA in living experimental animal and have already tested to rat's CP in this study, which was designed to collaborate between BHRP with mini-endoscopy to observe the biochemical alteration within normal colon tissue and rat's colon polyps in real time. BHRP and mini-endoscopy can distinguish the differences in their finger print spectra and make pictures the control and CP in the real time. At the first step, the real situation of normal colon and Rat's CP were washed by saline and observed with mini-endoscopy. BHRP was introduced to Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced Rat's CP to detect some of biochemical alteration. The main purpose of this study was to introduce mini-endoscopy to guide the BHRP for diagnosing of CP in real time and to compare it with spectra of normal colon (control group) in living rat. As the result, BHRP can provide the differences in band of control and CP group, which can inform that the biochemical of normal and CP has changed. As a major parameter to distinct normal and CP tissue were phosphatidylinositol, phosphodiester group, lipid, and collagen. Mini endoscopy and BHRP is very sensitive devices for diagnosing of CP in real time.

  12. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 μCi Na 2 51 CrO 4 ), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  13. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Al Riyami, Marwa; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A; Al-Issaei, Halima K; Farooq, Sardar A; Al-Alawi, Ahmed; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2014-02-18

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.

  14. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

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    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  15. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

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    Océane, C Martin

    2015-04-01

    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  16. Secondary effects induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane in BDIX rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Jelmera

    2004-01-01

    resulted in colon carcinomas with a high frequency (75-100%) and with a high reproducibility. However, some serious side effects are associated with this carcinogen treatment. In addition to the colorectal tumours, we found small intestinal tumours, hepatic lesions and a high frequency of mesenchymal renal...... the secondary effects of the induction of colon cancer by AOM, it is advisable to use male rats only and a maximum latency period of 32 weeks....

  17. Dietary heme injures surface epithelium resulting in hyperproliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vogel, Johan; van-Eck, Wytske Boersma; Sesink, Aloys L. A.; Jonker-Termont, Denise S. M. L.; Kleibeuker, Jan; van der Meer, Roelof

    Epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that a high intake of heme, present in red meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary heme on colonic cell homeostasis in rats. Rats were fed a purified, humanized, control

  18. Annona crassiflora Mart. fruit pulp effects on biochemical parameters and rat colon carcinogenesis

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    Vinícius Paula Venâncio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A. crassiflora Mart. a Brazilian savannah fruit, is a source of phytochemical compounds that possess a wide array of biological activities, including free radical scavenging. This native fruit proved to potentialize the mutagenic process in previous in vivo investigations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake on colonic cell proliferation and on the development of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF in male Wistar rats. The animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a diet supplemented with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp mixed in 1%, 10% or 20% (w/w for 4 weeks or 20 weeks. The carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (4 doses, 40 mg kg-1 each was used to induce colonic ACF. After euthanasia, the blood, liver and colon samples were collected for biochemical determinations, oxidative stress or ACF development analysis, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of the colonic mucosa were performed using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in normal-appearing colonic crypt and β-catenin in ACF. There was no ACF development in the colon from groups treated with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp. Also, the biochemical and oxidative stress analysis, PCNA labeling and ACF development (number, multiplicity or cellular localization of β-catenin were unchanged as a result of marolo pulp intake. Thus, the present results suggest that A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake did not exert any protective effect in the colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats.

  19. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone and T-2 Toxin on Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide-Like Immunoreactive (CGRP-LI Neurons in the ENS of the Porcine Descending Colon

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    Krystyna Makowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique. Both mycotoxins led to an increase in the percentage of CGRP-LI neurons in all types of enteric plexuses and changed the degree of co-localization of CGRP with other neuronal active substances, such as substance P, galanin, nitric oxide synthase, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide. The obtained results demonstrate that even low doses of ZEN and T-2 can affect living organisms and cause changes in the neurochemical profile of enteric neurons.

  20. Trypanosomiasis-induced megacolon illustrates how myenteric neurons modulate the risk for colon cancer in rats and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Kannen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi infected patients and rats.Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards.No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas' megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced.Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research.

  1. Combination of aging and dimethylhydrazine treatment causes an increase in cancer-stem cell population of rat colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Edi; Misra, Sandhya; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik B; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2009-07-31

    Aging is associated with increased incidence of colon cancers. It is also becoming evident that cancer stem cells (CSC) play a vital role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we reported the presence of colon cancer stem-like cells in macroscopically normal mucosa in patients with adenomatous polyps and that they increase with aging, suggesting that aging may predispose the colon to carcinogenesis. In the current study we have examined the combined effects of aging and carcinogen exposure on the status of colon CSCs in an experimental model. We used young (4-6 months) and aged (22-24 months) rats and exposed them to the carcinogen, dimethylhydroxide (DMH). We investigated the expression of colon cancer stem cell markers, CD44, CD166, EpCam, and ALDH1 as well as EGFR expression in normal colonic crypt epithelium following carcinogen treatment. Our results demonstrate that aging per se or carcinogen treatment alone causes an increase in the number of colon cancer stems cells, as evidenced by increased immunoreactive-CSC-markers positive cells in the colonic mucosa. In aged rats, carcinogen exposure results in a more pronounced increase in colon cancer stem cells. Our study shows that in aging colon the effects of carcinogens are more pronounced, and an increase in colon CSCs is one of the earliest changes preceding tumor development. Moreover, the current investigation of the use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers of colon CSC can potentially serve as a prognostic marker during screening for colon cancer.

  2. Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radcliffe, B.C.; Nance, S.H.; Deakin, E.J.; Roediger, W.E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The disposition of intravenously or luminally administered nitrite across the colonic mucosa and its effect on ion movement into or from the colon was assessed in anesthetized Porton rats using the isolated colon instilled either with sodium chloride or sodium chloride with sodium butyrate. Ionic changes in the colon after intravenous injection of 10 μmol NaNO 2 were compared with those occurring after injection of 10 μmol NaCl. After intravenous administration of nitrite, both nitrite and nitrate appeared in the colonic instillate in a ratio of 1:1. Nitrite increased chloride absorption (110%) and bicarbonate production (20%) when 40 mM butyrate was included in the instillate. Net sodium absorption, measured in the whole colon, was unchanged. Intravenous nitrite had no effect on ionic movement in the absence of butyrate. When NaNO 2 was included luminally with the sodium chloride-butyrate instillate, bicarbonate production rate increased, but sodium and chloride absorption were unaffected. Nitrite concentration in the instillate decreased during the 40-min experimental period at a rate of 0.275 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 and nitrate appeared at a rate of 0.037 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 . The authors conclude that nitrite stimulates bicarbonate production in the colon, probably by stimulating the oxidation by butyrate, the main source of CO 2 generation by the colonic mucosa

  3. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

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    Amanda L Persons

    Full Text Available The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  4. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Amanda L; Bradaric, Brinda D; Dodiya, Hemraj B; Ohene-Nyako, Michael; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shaikh, Maliha; Napier, T Celeste

    2018-01-01

    The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  5. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  6. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  7. Effects of albumin/glutaraldehyde glue on healing of colonic anastomosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despoudi, Kalliopi; Mantzoros, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Cheva, Aggeliki; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Konstantaras, Dimitrios; Symeonidis, Savvas; Pramateftakis, Manousos George; Kotidis, Efstathios; Angelopoulos, Stamatis; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of local surgical adhesive glue (albumin/glutaraldehyde-Bioglue) on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS Forty Albino-Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups, with two subgroups of ten animals each. In the control group, an end-to-end colonic anastomosis was performed after segmental resection. In the Bioglue group, the anastomosis was protected with extraluminar application of adhesive glue containing albumin and glutaraldehyde. Half of the rats were sacrificed on the fourth and the rest on the eighth postoperative day. Anastomoses were resected and macroscopically examined. Bursting pressures were calculated and histological features were graded. Other parameters of healing, such as hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations, were evaluated. The experimental data were summarized and computed from the results of a one-way ANOVA. Fisher’s exact test was applied to compare percentages. RESULTS Bursting pressures, adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition were significantly higher on the fourth postoperative day in the albumin/glutaraldehyde group than in the control group. Furthermore, albumin/glutaraldehyde significantly increased adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and collagen deposition on the eighth postoperative day. There was no difference in fibroblast activity or hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations. CONCLUSION Albumin/glutaraldehyde, when applied on colonic anastomoses, promotes their healing in rats. Therefore, the application of protective local agents in colonic anastomoses leads to better outcomes. PMID:28883693

  8. Chemopreventive effect of artesunate in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis

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    Sazal Patyar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artesunate (ART is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin. Artemisinin and its derivatives have shown profound cytotoxicity and antitumor activity in addition to antimalarial activity in various studies. As the in vivo chemopreventive efficacy of ART in colon carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, the aim of the current study was to study the chemopreventive effect of ART in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6: Group I - vehicle (1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group II - DMH (20 mg/kg, Group III - DMH + 5-fluorouracil (81 mg/kg, Group IV - DMH + ART (6.7 mg/kg. After completion of 15 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia by cervical dislocation for assessment of lipid peroxidation (LPO, antioxidant status, average number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, and cytokine levels. ART administration significantly decreased the average number of ACF/microscopic field. Similarly, LPO level was decreased and antioxidant activities were enhanced after ART treatment. ART decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and induced apoptosis in the colons of DMH-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that ART has a beneficial effect against chemically induced colonic preneoplastic progression in rats.

  9. Effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing in malnourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Rıza Haldun; Yaşar, Uğur; Ersoy, Pamir Eren; Ergül, Emre; Işıkoğlu, Semra; Erhan, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that malnutrition increases postoperative morbidity and mortality, and it may also negatively affect wound healing in the gastrointestinal tract. In the literature, there is only one study evaluating the effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing under malnourished conditions. In order to improve the data on this topic, an experimental study was planned to evaluate the effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing in malnourished rats. The study included 18 male Wistar albino rats divided into 3 groups. The control (C) group was fed ad libitum for 21 days. The malnutrition (M) group and preoperative nutrition (P) group were given 50% of the daily food consumed by the rats in Group C for 21 days to induce malnutrition. At the end of 21 days, Group P was fed ad libitum for 7 days (preoperative nutritional support). Colonic transection and end-to-end anastomosis was performed at 21 days in Group C and Group M and at 28 days in Group P. The rats were sacrificed at postoperative 4 days, anastomotic bursting pressure was measured, and samples were taken to analyze tissue hydroxyproline levels. Anastomotic bursting pressure was significantly higher in Group C than in Group M and Group P (pGroup P than in Group M (pGroup P were found to be significantly higher than those in Group M and Group C (pnutritional support increases collagen synthesis in the colon and positively affects anastomotic healing under malnourished conditions.

  10. Insight Into the Circadian Clock Within Rat Colonic Epithelial Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Martin; Rybová, Markéta; Jindráková, Zuzana; Zemanová, Zdeňka; Polidarová, Lenka; Mrnka, Libor; O´Neill, J.; Pácha, Jiří; Sumová, Alena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2007), s. 1240-1249 ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cirkadian clock * colon * NHE3 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 11.673, year: 2007

  11. A novel NSAID derivative, phospho-ibuprofen, prevents AOM-induced colon cancer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    OUYANG, NENGTAI; JI, PING; WILLIAMS, JENNIE L.

    2013-01-01

    The cancer chemopreventive properties and gastrointestinal toxicity of ibuprofen are well documented. Modification of existing NSAIDs has improved on the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent and reduced its toxicity. In this study, ibuprofen and a modified derivative (phospho-modified ibuprofen or p-ibuprofen) were used in a chemically induced model of colon cancer. Fisher 344 rats were injected with azoxymethane then treated with either ibuprofen (500 ppm) or p-ibuprofen (900 ppm) for 20 weeks to observe aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 40 weeks to evaluate tumor incidence and multiplicity. β-catenin and p65 were measured in colonic tissues by immunofluorescence staining. Equal molar doses of ibuprofen (75 and 670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (135 and 1,215 mg/kg) were administered to rats for 7 days to assess acute toxicity. The in vitro effect of p-ibuprofen on COX-2 and PGE2 synthesis, β-catenin expression and NF-κB activity were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage and HCT 116 colon cancer cells. At week 20, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen significantly reduced the multiplicity of ACF compared with control (pibuprofen and ibuprofen reduced the multiplicity of colon tumors compared with control (pibuprofen (670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (1,215 mg/kg) resulted in stomach ulceration in 85.7% (6 out of 7) and 14.3% (1 out of 7) of rats, respectively, with pibuprofen and p-ibuprofen suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation in colon cancer cells. In addition, p-ibuprofen but not ibuprofen inhibited NF-κB activation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that p-ibuprofen is a potential effective novel drug for long-term use in colon cancer prevention. PMID:23291777

  12. Aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer: comparison between a short- and medium-term bioassay for colon carcinogenesis using dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents are considered to be the earliest hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study the relationship between a short-term (4 weeks and medium-term (30 weeks assay was assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH in the rat. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg twice a week for 2 weeks and killed at the end of the 4th or 30th week. ACF were scored for number, distribution pattern along the colon and crypt multiplicity in 0.1% methylene-blue whole-mount preparations. ACF were distinguished from normal crypts by their larger size and elliptical shape. The incidence, distribution and morphology of colon tumors were recorded. The majority of ACF were present in the middle and distal colon of DMH-treated rats and their number increased with time. By the 4th week, 91.5% ACF were composed of one or two crypts and 8.5% had three or more crypts, while by the 30th week 46.9% ACF had three or more crypts. Thus, a progression of ACF consisting of multiple crypts was observed from the 4th to the 30th week. Nine well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were found in 10 rats by the 30th week. Seven tumors were located in the distal colon and two in the middle colon. No tumor was found in the proximal colon. The present data indicate that induction of ACF by DMH in the short-term (4 weeks assay was correlated with development of well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the medium-term (30 weeks assay.

  13. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-05-01

    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  14. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  15. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  16. Aldosterone induction of electrogenic sodium transport in the apical membrane vesicles of rat distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, V.M.; Kashgarian, M.; Binder, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Na-H exchange is present in apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from distal colon of normal rats. Because in intact tissue aldosterone both induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport and inhibits electroneutral sodium absorption, these studies with AMV were designed to establish the effect of aldosterone on sodium transport. An outward-directed proton gradient stimulated 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from distal colon of normal and dietary sodium depleted (with elevated aldosterone levels) experimental rats. Unlike normal AMV, proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in experimental AMV was inhibited when uptake was measured under voltage-clamped conditions. 10 microM amiloride inhibited the initial rate of proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in AMV of normal and experimental rats by 30 and 75%, respectively. In contrast, 1 mM amiloride produced comparable inhibition (90 and 80%) of 22Na uptake in normal and experimental AMV. Intravesicular-negative potential stimulated 22Na uptake in experimental but not in normal AMV. This increase was inhibited by 90% by 10 microM amiloride. An analogue of amiloride, 5-(N-ethylisopropyl) amiloride (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of electroneutral Na-H exchange in AMV of normal rat distal colon, did not alter potassium diffusion potential-dependent 22Na uptake. Increasing sodium concentration saturated proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in normal AMV. However, in experimental AMV, 22Na uptake stimulated by both proton gradient and potassium diffusion potential did not saturate as a function of increasing sodium concentration. We conclude from these results that an electrically sensitive conductive channel, not electroneutral Na-H exchange, mediates 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from the distal colon of aldosterone rats

  17. The nonfermentable dietary fiber lignin alters putative colon cancer risk factors but does not protect against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, I L; Hardman, W E; Heitman, D W

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of the diet with autohydrolyzed lignin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied using 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received eight weekly injections of DMH (9.5 mg/kg s.c.) or the saline vehicle solution and then were maintained on a basal AIN-76 fiber-free diet or the basal fiber-free diet plus 5% or 10% (wt/wt) lignin for 24 weeks. Rats were killed 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. Colon tumor incidence, location, and multiplicity were determined. Body weight, caloric intake, fecal dry weight, gut transit time, pH of cecal contents, and total fecal bile acid excretion were measured. Supplementation of the diet with 5% or 10% lignin resulted in increased fecal dry weight and total fecal bile acid excretion and in decreased gut transit time, colon pH, and fecal bile acid concentration. Dietary lignin did not significantly affect colon tumor incidence or multiplicity compared with the fiber-free diet. Thus dietary supplementation with autohydrolyzed lignin, a food fiber with good bulking characteristics, had a significant effect on several factors that have previously been linked to reduction of colon cancer risk, but the consumption of high levels of lignin did not decrease the risk for colon cancer.

  18. Optical inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex modulate descending pain pathway in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain created via chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon HC

    2017-10-01

    facial cold allodynia scores were significantly improved in the TN lesion group during optical stimulation compared to those in the control group. Thalamic neuronal activity, consisting of the firing rate (spikes/s and burst rate (bursts/s, was also decreased during optical stimulation.Conclusion: Reciprocal optical inhibition of the ACC can alleviate pain-associated behavior and decrease abnormal thalamic sensory neuron activity in the trigeminal neuropathic rat model. The descending pain pathway can modulate thalamic neurons from the ACC following optical stimulation. Keywords: optogenetics, trigeminal neuralgia, anterior cingulate cortex, neuropathic pain

  19. Effect of Chang Run Tong on the Biomechanical and Morphometric Remodeling of Colon and Rectum in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of Chang Run Tong (CRT) on the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of colon and rectum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The colonic and rectal segments were obtained from diabetic (DM), CRT-treated diabetic (T1, high dosage: 50 g/kg/day; T2...

  20. The effects of a "low-risk" diet on cell proliferation and enzymatic parameters of preneoplastic rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, D; Rao, A V; Bird, R P

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between various dietary constituents and colon cancer has been demonstrated by previous research. This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of several dietary constituents on the preneoplastic stage of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats. A nutritionally adequate, "low-risk" (LR) diet was formulated through the modulation of dietary fat, fiber, protein, vitamins A and E, and selenium. Female F344 rats were given three weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM and were maintained on either the LR diet or a "high-risk" (HR) diet. After 12 weeks, the rats were killed and the following parameters were determined: pH of colon contents, fecal beta-glucuronidase activity, tissue ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, and colonic labeling index. The pH of the colon contents and incremental labeling index were lower in the group given the LR diet and treated with AOM compared with the group given the HR diet and treated with AOM; however, no statistically significant dietary effects were observed for beta-glucuronidase and ODC activities. The results of this study indicated that the colons of rats fed the LR diet exhibited different proliferative characteristics than did the colons of rats fed the HR diet.

  1. Sucrose, glucose and fructose have similar genotoxicity in the rat colon and affect the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Baunsgaard, D.; Autrup, H.

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that a high sucrose intake increases the background level of somatic mutations and the level of bulky DNA adducts in the colon epithelium of rats. The mechanism may involve either glucose or fructose formed by hydrolysis of sucrose. Male Big Blue (R) rats were fed 30......% sucrose, glucose, fructose or potato starch as part of the diet. Mutation rates and bulky DNA adduct levels were determined in colon and liver. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids and pH were deter-mined in caecum, C-peptide was determined in plasma, biomarkers for oxidative damage....... The metabonomic studies indicated disturbed amino acid metabolism and decrease in plasma and urinary acetate as a common feature for all sugars and confirmed triglyceridemic effects of fructose. In conclusion, the genotoxicity may be related to the altered chemical environment in the caecum and thereby also...

  2. Effect of Ovarian Steroids on Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Altunbas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of steroid hormones on proliferation and apoptosis in the colon crypt epithelium. The research was conducted on adult ovariectomized (Ovx rats (Sprague Dawley. Ovx rats were injected for 15 days with 0.2 ml of sesame oil (control; C, or 17β-oestradiol (10 μg/d; E, or progesterone (2 mg/d; P, or E + P. Proliferative activity in the colon was assessed by using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA antibody. The proliferation index (PI, the number of PCNA positive cells divided by the total number of cells counted in the crypt column multiplied by 100, was calculated. PI was lower in the hormonetreated groups, especially in group P compared to that in group C. The apoptotic index (AI, the mean number of apoptotic cells, was detected by active caspase 3 immunoreactivity per crypt in the colon. AI was lower in the colon crypt epithelium of group E than that of the other groups. However, AI in the colon crypt epithelium in groups P and E + P was higher than that of both group E and group C. In addition, the colon crypt size (the number of epithelial cells lining one side of 10 well-oriented, longitudinally cut crypts was considerably lower in group E than that of the other groups. In conclusion, we showed that the decrease of AI in group E was balanced by progesterone; the decrease of PI in group P was also depressed by oestrogen.

  3. Chemoprevention by Probiotics During 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Sohini; Kamal, Rozy; Dhawan, D K; Kanwar, S S

    2018-04-01

    Probiotics are believed to have properties that lower the risk of colon cancer. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects are relatively unknown. To assess the impact of probiotics in preventing induction of colon carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into six groups viz., normal control, Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10)-treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-treated, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated, L. plantarum (AdF10) + DMH-treated and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) + DMH-treated. Both the probiotics were supplemented daily at a dose of 2 × 10 10 cells per day. DMH at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered subcutaneously twice a week for the first 4 weeks and then once every week for a duration of 16 weeks. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase as protein expression of genes involved in apoptosis were assessed during DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. DMH treatment decreased the activity of GSH, GPx, GST, SOD and catalase. However, AdF10 and LGG supplementation to DMH-treated rats significantly increased the activity of these enzymes. Further, DMH treatment revealed alterations in the protein expressions of various genes involved in the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway such as p53, p21, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3, which, however, were shifted towards normal control levels upon simultaneous supplementation with probiotics. The present study suggests that probiotics can provide protection against oxidative stress and apoptotic-related protein disregulation during experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis.

  4. [Descending ocular myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    1975-06-01

    The case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  5. Effect of irradiation on healing of newly made colonic anastomoses in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biert, J.; Wobbes, T.; Hendriks, T.; Hoogenhout, J. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    Short-term effects of radiotherapy on the healing process of newly made colonic anastomoses are investigated by measuring the anastomotic strength in a rat model. Four groups of Wistar rats were used. In all groups, rats underwent a 1 cm sigmoid resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Group I served as a control group. In group II the anastomosis was irradiated after closure of the abdominal wall with a single dose of 20 Gy of 250 kV [times] rays. Group III was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy while the abdominal wall was not closed, and the surrounding tissues were carefully covered by a lead plate, simulating intra-operative radiotherapy. Group IV was treated as group III, but a larger dose of 25 Gy was applied. Animals were sacrificed 3 or 7 days after the operation. General condition of the rats was determined by observation, weight loss, serum protein and albumin at sacrifice. Anastomotic healing was evaluated by inspection, bursting pressure, hydroxyproline and protein contents of the anastomotic segment. Direct postoperative externally irradiated rats (group II) showed a marked weight loss, hypoproteinaemia and hypo-albuminaemia because of involvement of small bowel in the irradiated volume. With respect to anastomotic healing there were no significant differences between control and irradiated groups. These data suggest that the application of a single dose of irradiation (20 and 25 Gy) on colonic anastomoses given in a direct postoperative or intraoperative model has no measurable side effect on the early healing of newly made colonic anastomoses. Direct postoperative external irradiation results in unwanted side effects in the adjacent bowel. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effect of irradiation on healing of newly made colonic anastomoses in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biert, J.; Wobbes, T.; Hendriks, T.; Hoogenhout, J.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term effects of radiotherapy on the healing process of newly made colonic anastomoses are investigated by measuring the anastomotic strength in a rat model. Four groups of Wistar rats were used. In all groups, rats underwent a 1 cm sigmoid resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Group I served as a control group. In group II the anastomosis was irradiated after closure of the abdominal wall with a single dose of 20 Gy of 250 kV x rays. Group III was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy while the abdominal wall was not closed, and the surrounding tissues were carefully covered by a lead plate, simulating intra-operative radiotherapy. Group IV was treated as group III, but a larger dose of 25 Gy was applied. Animals were sacrificed 3 or 7 days after the operation. General condition of the rats was determined by observation, weight loss, serum protein and albumin at sacrifice. Anastomotic healing was evaluated by inspection, bursting pressure, hydroxyproline and protein contents of the anastomotic segment. Direct postoperative externally irradiated rats (group II) showed a marked weight loss, hypoproteinaemia and hypo-albuminaemia because of involvement of small bowel in the irradiated volume. With respect to anastomotic healing there were no significant differences between control and irradiated groups. These data suggest that the application of a single dose of irradiation (20 and 25 Gy) on colonic anastomoses given in a direct postoperative or intraoperative model has no measurable side effect on the early healing of newly made colonic anastomoses. Direct postoperative external irradiation results in unwanted side effects in the adjacent bowel. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Effect of Tangweian Jianji on the Biomechanical and Morphometric Remodeling of Colon and Rectum in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    .01). Furthermore, the circumferential and longitudinal stiffness of the colonic wall increased in DM group compared those with CON group. TH but not TL treatment could significantly decrease the colonic wall stiffness in both directions (P...AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of TWAJJ on the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of colon and rectum in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The colonic and rectal segments obtained from diabetic (DM), TWAJJ treated diabetic (TH, high dosage: 10 g...

  8. The influence of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic monophosphate on cell proliferation in the epithelium of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in colonic carcinomata of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Dibutryl cyclic adneosine monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) was found to inhibit cell proliferation in colonic crypts and in colonic adenocarcinomata. 3. Dibutryl cAMP at very high doses was found to inhibit jejunal crypt cell proliferation but at lower doses was found to accelerate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 4. Neither bilateral adrenalectomy nor chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the ability of dibutryl cAMP to stimulate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 5. The present results are difficult to interpret in terms of known hormonal influences on cell proliferation in the tissues examined and of established actions, of these hormones on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in other tissues.

  9. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  10. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  11. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine- induced colon cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmy, G. E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group. The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH17 group. Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA and alkaline phoshatase (ALP activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH.

    Este estudio fue realizado para examinar la eficacia de la

  12. Effect of entacapone on colon motility and ion transport in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Zhe; Xu, Jing-Dong; Zheng, Li-Fei; Feng, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, on colon motility and electrolyte transport in Parkinson’s disease (PD) rats. METHODS: Distribution and expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods. The colonic smooth muscle motility was examined in vitro by means of a muscle motility recording device. The mucosal electrolyte transport of PD rats was examined by using a short-circuit current (ISC) technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). Intracellular detection of cAMP and cGMP was accomplished by radioimmunoassay testing. RESULTS: COMT was expressed in the colons of both normal and PD rats, mainly on the apical membranes of villi and crypts in the colon. Compared to normal controls, PD rats expressed less COMT. The COMT inhibitor entacapone inhibited contraction of the PD rat longitudinal muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The β2 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 blocked this inhibitory effect by approximately 67% (P fluid, as well as pretreatment using adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, indomethacin can inhibit entacapone-induced ISC by 45% (P < 0.01). When SIET was applied to measure Cl- flux changes, this provided similar results. Entacapone significantly increased intracellular cAMP content in the colonic mucosa, which was greatly inhibited by indomethacin. CONCLUSION: COMT expression exists in rat colons. The β2 adrenoceptor is involved in the entacapone-induced inhibition of colon motility. Entacapone induces cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion in the PD rat. PMID:25834315

  13. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  14. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  15. Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Armand, Lucie; Grauso, Marta; Jaffrézic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Moroldo, Marco; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-31

    High-protein diets (HPD) alter the large intestine microbiota composition in association with a metabolic shift towards protein degradation. Some amino acid-derived metabolites produced by the colon bacteria are beneficial for the mucosa while others are deleterious at high concentrations. The aim of the present work was to define the colonic epithelial response to an HPD. Transcriptome profiling was performed on colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an isocaloric normal-protein diet (NPD) for 2 weeks. The HPD downregulated the expression of genes notably implicated in pathways related to cellular metabolism, NF-κB signaling, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and cellular adhesion in colonocytes. In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. These changes at the mRNA level in colonocytes were not associated with detrimental effects of the HPD on DNA integrity (comet assay), epithelium renewal (quantification of proliferation and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot) and colonic barrier integrity (Ussing chamber experiments). The modifications of the luminal environment after an HPD were associated with maintenance of the colonic homeostasis that might be the result of adaptive processes in the epithelium related to the observed transcriptional regulations.

  16. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahgoub, Afaf; El-Medany, Azza; Mustafa, Ali; Arafah, Maha; Moursi, Mahmoud

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNFα was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNFα level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis

  17. Advantages of the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system for the rat colon rupture pressure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chengdong; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Zheng, Feng; Qin, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on colorectal anastomotic leakage to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. However, how to precisely determine if the bowel can withstand the pressure of a colorectal anastomosis experiment, which is called anastomotic bursting pressure, has not been determined. A task force developed the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system to provide precise measurement of the maximum pressure that an anastomotic colon can withstand, and to compare it with the commonly used method such as the mercury and air bag pressure manometer in a rat colon rupture pressure test. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the manual ball manometry (H) group, the tracing machine manometry pressure gauge head (MP) group, and the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system (ME) group. The rats in each group were subjected to a cut colon rupture pressure test after injecting anesthesia in the tail vein. Colonic end-to-end anastomosis was performed, and the rats were rested for 1 week before anastomotic bursting pressure was determined by one of the three methods. No differences were observed between the normal colon rupture pressure and colonic anastomotic bursting pressure, which were determined using the three manometry methods. However, several advantages, such as reduction in errors, were identified in the ME group. Different types of manometry methods can be applied to the normal rat colon, but the colonic anastomotic bursting pressure test using the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system is superior to traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23216109

  19. Apple polyphenols extract (APE) improves colon damage in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Giovanna; Tuccillo, Concetta; Ribecco, Maria T; Graziani, Giulia; Gravina, Antonietta G; Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Searching for alternative therapies that are effective, safe and less expensive of those currently used for ulcerative colitis, we investigated the efficacy of a polyphenol extract from apple in rat colitis. Rats with trinitrobenzensulphonic acid-induced colitis were treated daily with rectal administration of apple polyphenols 10(-4) M for 14 days. COX-2, TNF-α, tissue transglutaminase and calpain in colon mucosa samples were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. To ascertain the role of tissue transglutaminase in mucosal healing, wounded rat fibroblasts were incubated with cystamine (a tissue transglutaminase activity inhibitor). Colitis was associated with increased COX-2, TNF-α, calpain, and tissue transglutaminase mRNA. The protein expression of COX-2, TNF-α and calpain was increased whilst tissue transglutaminase was decreased. Apple extract treatment reduced the severity of colitis (pApple polyphenols reduced the degradation of tissue transglutaminase protein occurring through calpain action. Apple polyphenols-treated wounded fibroblast recovered within 24h showing intense immunoreactivity for tissue transglutaminase. The efficacy of apple extract is mediated by its effects on COX-2 and TNF-α. The unbalance between calpain and tissue transglutaminase may play a role in colonic damage and future therapeutic interventions in ulcerative colitis can target this mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  1. L-arginine and glycine supplementation in the repair of the irradiated colonic wall of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Picanço, Etiene; Lopes-Paulo, Francisco; Marques, Ruy G; Diestel, Cristina F; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R; de Souza, Mônica Vieira Mano; Moscoso, Gabriela Mendes; Pazos, Helena Maria F

    2011-05-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment but has harmful effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine and glycine supplementation on the colon wall of rats submitted to abdominal irradiation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I-healthy, II-irradiated with no amino acid supplementation, III-irradiated and supplemented with L-arginine, and IV-irradiated and supplemented with glycine. The animals received supplementation for 14 days, with irradiation being applied on the eighth day of the experiment. All animals underwent laparotomy on the 15th day for resection of a colonic segment for stereologic analysis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p ≤0.05. Stereologic analysis showed that irradiation induced a reduction of the total volume of the colon wall of group II and III animals compared to healthy controls, but not of group IV animals supplemented with glycine. The mucosal layer of the irradiated animals of all groups was reduced compared to healthy group I animals, but supplementation with L-arginine and glycine was effective in maintaining the epithelial surface of the mucosal layer. The present results suggest that glycine supplementation had a superior effect on the irradiated colon wall compared to L-arginine supplementation since it was able to maintain the thickness of the wall and the epithelial surface of the mucosa, whereas L-arginine maintained the partial volume of the epithelium and the epithelial surface, but not the total volume of the intestinal wall.

  2. Descending with Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Islamic exorcism or psychotropic medication? “Descending with Angels” explores two highly different solutions to the same problem: namely Danish Muslims who are possessed by invisible spirits, called jinn. A Palestinian refugee living in the city of Aarhus has been committed to psychiatric......, and directed by Christian Suhr Produced by Persona Film, November 2013 Distribution: Documentary Educational Resources (DER, Watertown) Screening format: DCP / Blu-ray / ProRes / Mpeg4 / DVD / DV SP. Original format: XDCAM 1080p Languages: Arabic, Danish, English Subtitles: English...

  3. Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, O C B; Lin, C; Naud, N; Tache, S; Raymond-Letron, I; Corpet, D E; Pierre, F H

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that heme iron from red meat is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. In carcinogen-induced-rats, a heme iron-rich diet increases the number of precancerous lesions and raises associated fecal biomarkers. Heme-induced lipoperoxidation measured by fecal thiobarbituric acid reagents (TBARs) could explain the promotion of colon carcinogenesis by heme. Using a factorial design we studied if microbiota could be involved in heme-induced carcinogenesis, by modulating peroxidation. Rats treated or not with an antibiotic cocktail were given a control or a hemoglobin-diet. Fecal bacteria were counted on agar and TBARs concentration assayed in fecal water. The suppression of microbiota by antibiotics was associated with a reduction of crypt height and proliferation and with a cecum enlargement, which are characteristics of germ-free rats. Rats given hemoglobin diets had increased fecal TBARs, which were suppressed by the antibiotic treatment. A duplicate experiment in rats given dietary hemin yielded similar results. These data show that the intestinal microbiota is involved in enhancement of lipoperoxidation by heme iron. We thus suggest that microbiota could play a role in the heme-induced promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  4. The effects of Pycnogenol(®) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değer, K Cumhur; Şeker, Ahmet; Özer, Ilter; Bostancı, E Birol; Dalgıç, Tahsin; Akmansu, Müge; Ekinci, Özgür; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Akoğlu, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) has excellent radical scavenging properties and enhances the production of antioxidative enzymes which contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract. Irradiation delivered to the abdominal region, typically results in severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by the formation of free radicals through radiolysis. Irradiation has local effects on tissues. These local effects of irradiation on the bowel are believed to involve a two-stage process which includes both short and long term components. In our study we aimed to investigate the short term effects of Pycnogenol(®) on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Sixty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. There were three groups: Group I, control group (n = 20); group II which received preoperative irradiation (n = 20); group III which received per oral Pycnogenol(®) before irradiation (n = 20). Only segmeter colonic resection and anastomosis was performed to the control group (Group I). The other groups (Group II, III) underwent surgery on the 5th day after pelvic irradiation. On postoperative days 3 and 7, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and then relaparotomy was performed. There was no statistical difference between groups with respect to biochemical parameters. Bursting pressure was significantly higher in the Control and Group III compared with the Group II. In conclusion, the present study showed that preoperative irradiation effect negatively on colonic anastomoses in rats by means of mechanical parameters and administration of Pycnogenol(®) preoperatively ameliorates this unfavorable effect. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. α-lipoic acid suppresses neuronal excitability and attenuates colonic hypersensitivity to colorectal distention in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yan Sun,1,* Pan-Pan Yang,1,* Zhen-Yuan Song,2 Yu Feng,1 Duan-Min Hu,1 Ji Hu,1 Guang-Yin Xu,3 Hong-Hong Zhang1,3 1Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology, The East District of Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases, Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: Patients with long-standing diabetes often demonstrate intestinal dysfunction, characterized as constipation or colonic hypersensitivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated the roles of voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG in colonic hypersensitivity of rats with diabetes. This study was designed to determine roles of antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA on sodium channel activities and colonic hypersensitivity of rats with diabetes. Methods: Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult female rats. Colonic sensitivity was measured by behavioral responses to colorectal distention in rats. The excitability and sodium channel currents of colon projection DRG neurons labeled with DiI were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The expressions of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 of colon DRGs were measured by western blot analysis. Results: ALA treatment significantly increased distention threshold in responding to colorectal distension in diabetic rats compared with normal saline treatment. ALA treatment also hyperpolarized the resting membrane potentials, depolarized action potential threshold, increased rheobase, and decreased frequency of action potentials evoked by ramp current stimulation. Furthermore, ALA treatment also reduced neuronal sodium current densities of DRG neurons innervating the colon from rats with diabetes. In addition, ALA

  6. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  7. Effect of early preoperative 5-fluorouracil on the integrity of colonic anastomoses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Leyla; Ozel, M Sefa; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Kara, Melih; Ozkan, Kemal Sırrı; Tellioglu, Gurkan; Krand, Osman; Koyuturk, Meral; Berber, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of chemotherapy on wound healing by giving early preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to rats with colonic anastomoses. METHODS: Sixty Albino-Wistar male rats (median weight, 235 g) were used in this study. The rats were fed with standard laboratory food and given tap water ad libitum. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1: Control group (chemotherapy was not administered), Group 2: Intraperitoneally (IP) administered 5-FU group (chemotherapy was administered IP to animals at a dose of 20 mg/kg daily during the 5 d preceeding surgery), Group 3: Intravenously (IV) administered 5-FU group. Chemotherapy was administered via the penil vein, using the same dosing scheme and duration as the second group. After a 3-d rest to minimize the side effects of chemotherapy, both groups underwent surgery. One centimeter of colon was resected 2 cm proximally from the peritoneal reflection, then sutured intermittently and subsequently end-to-end anastomosed. In each group, half the animals were given anaesthesia on the 3rd postoperative (PO) day and the other half on the 7th PO day, for in vivo analytic procedures. The abdominal incisions in the rats were dissected, all the new and old anastomotic segments were clearly seen and bursting pressures of each anastomotic segment, tissue hydroxyproline levels and DNA content were determined to assess the histologic tissue repair process. RESULTS: When the IV group was compared with the IP group, bursting pressures of the anastomotic segments on the 3rd and 7th PO days, were found to be significantly decreased, hydroxyproline levels at the anastomotic segment on the 7th PO day were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this study, we conclude that early preoperative 5-FU, administered IV, negatively affects wound healing. However, IP administered 5-FU does not negatively affect wound healing. PMID:19725150

  8. Chemo prevention of Tea Polyphenols against Tumor Growth of Hepato-Colon Cancer Induced by Azoxy methane in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the chemo prevention of tea polyphenols as anticancer agent in rats which were injected with azoxy methane (AOM) which is a potent hepato-colon carcinogen agents in rodents. The obtained data revealed a significant elevation in serum tumor markers, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cancer antigen (CA 1 9.9) in carcinogenic rats in comparison to their corresponding normal control ones. Also, there was a significant increase in the content of cytochrome P 4 50 and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in both liver and colon as well as a significant elevation in the activities of methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MRD), ethoxyresorutin-O-dealkylase (ERD) and pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase (PRD) in liver microsomes. While, glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gp x ) activity were decreased significantly in liver and colon as a result of cancer induction. On the other hand, the supplementation of black or green tea before induction of cancer in rats led to a considerable correction in all previous parameters studied. These amelioration effects dependent on magic biochemical properties of flavanols (catechins) and type of tea. In conclusion, tea polyphenols have appreciable anti-cancer efficacy on hepato colon cancer in rats. The underlying mechanisms of through which tea counteracted hepato-colon cancer were discussed

  9. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  10. Differential effects of oestrogenic hormones on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic carcinomata of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    A number of hormones, including some steroids, have previously been shown to influence the rate of cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. In this report the effect of oophorectomy and of treatment with ovarian hormones on cell proliferation in these tissues is compared. Colonic tumours cell proliferation was retarded following oophorectomy and this retardation was reversed by the administration of oestradiol, but not by the administration of progesterone. Oophorectomy did not retard cell proliferation in the colonic crypts. The possible significance of these findings in relation to age-dependent variations in the sex ratio for human bowel cancer is discussed.

  11. The effects of preoperative radiation on healing of rat colonic anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degges, R.D.; Cannon, D.J.; Lang, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of delaying surgery, after a nominal standard dose of 4500 rad was administered to the abdomen of rats, on the healing of colonic anastomoses was evaluated. Healing, as determined by bursting pressure of colonic segments, was significantly depressed (p less than 0.05) at five days after surgery in groups irradiated five or 15 days prior to surgery as compared with groups receiving either no radiotherapy or irradiation ten days prior to surgery. Five-day healing was not significantly depressed in the group irradiated ten days prior to operation as compared with the group receiving no irradiation. No significant (p less than 0.05) differences were noted at ten or 15 days after surgery between groups that were and were not irradiated. At ten days after surgery all groups had higher bursting pressures than the control group at five days after surgery. Thus, there appears to be an optimal time interval between radiation and surgery to ensure maximal colonic healing

  12. Immunohistochemical study of β-catenin in experimental colon carcinoma of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Doustar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenocarcinoma is one of the most prevalent and treatable malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies on colorectal neoplasia indicates β-catenin gene mutation and its intranuclear accumulation inside hyperplastic cells. Therefore, β-catenin may be an important prognosis and diagnostic index of this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nuclear beta-catenin expression in hyperplastic cells of colon following treatment with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. In this study, 56 wistar male rats with the age of 12 weeks and body weight of 200-300g were selected and randomly allocated into two equal treatment and control groups. In the treatment group, two subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine every week at a dose rate of 40 mg/kg were used for 4 weeks to induce colon carcinoma. The control group was given normal saline solution similarly. After 8 weeks, tissues samples of distal colon were collected from both groups for preparation of tissue sections and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistopathological study of samples revealed that nuclear β-catenin expression in the treatment group was significantly higher than the control group (p

  13. The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fermented milk kefir on X-ray-induced apoptosis in the colon of rats, we examined the apoptotic index, the mean number of apoptotic cells detected by H and E staining per crypt in the colon, in control rats and kefir-pretreated rats drinking kefir for 12 days before irradiation. Apoptotic cells were confirmed by TUNEL staining, and active caspase-3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. The cell position of apoptotic cells and active caspase-3 positive cells were examined. The apoptotic index of kefir-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) decreased 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation in comparison with control rats at crypt cell positions 1-3, 5-7, 13, and 15. Active caspase-3 expression in the kefir-treated rats was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced in comparison with control rats 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation at crypt cell positions 1-4, 13, and 15. This study indicated that kefir protects colonic crypt cells against radiation-induced apoptosis, which was most pronounced in the stem cell region of the crypt. The antiapoptotic effect of fermented milk kefir was due to the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. (author)

  14. Prolonged radiation damage in rat colon and urokinase expression in epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Masayuki; Minami, Kazunori; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    Although radiation therapy plays important role in the treatment of gynecological tumors, it may cause radiation injury as a late effect. Several recent reports show that urokinase such as urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to the repair of ulcerative lesions of the colon epithelium. We studied radiation induced enterocolitis using rat animal models. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 36 Gy at laparotomy. Histological changes and activity of urokinase system were investigated after irradiation. Ulcers were observed in irradiated field in 12 of 19 animals (63%) even at 60th week after irradiation. Urokinase expressions were observed in the margins of active ulcer. Urokinase was thought to play important role in exacerbation of ulcer formation. Expression of uPA was also observed in submucosal glands. Ischaemic changes were not observed in irradiated colon despite sclerosing vasculitis. It is suggested that uPA played reciprocal roles in radiation induced enterocolitis: healing and aggravation of ulcer. (author)

  15. Prolonged radiation damage in rat colon and urokinase expression in epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Masayuki; Minami, Kazunori; Okimoto, Tomoaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Ichiro

    2001-12-01

    Although radiation therapy plays important role in the treatment of gynecological tumors, it may cause radiation injury as a late effect. Several recent reports show that urokinase such as urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to the repair of ulcerative lesions of the colon epithelium. We studied radiation induced enterocolitis using rat animal models. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 36 Gy at laparotomy. Histological changes and activity of urokinase system were investigated after irradiation. Ulcers were observed in irradiated field in 12 of 19 animals (63%) even at 60th week after irradiation. Urokinase expressions were observed in the margins of active ulcer. Urokinase was thought to play important role in exacerbation of ulcer formation. Expression of uPA was also observed in submucosal glands. Ischaemic changes were not observed in irradiated colon despite sclerosing vasculitis. It is suggested that uPA played reciprocal roles in radiation induced enterocolitis: healing and aggravation of ulcer. (author)

  16. Effects of β-glucan on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ahmet; Deger, Kamuran Cumhur; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Ozer, Ilter; Dalgic, Tahsin; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akmansu, Muge; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ercin, Ugur; Akoglu, Musa

    2014-06-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential therapeutic modality in the management of a wide variety of tumors. We aimed to investigate the short-term effects of pelvic irradiation on the healing of colon anastomoses and to determine the potential protective effects of β-glucan in this situation. Sixty Wistar albino rats were randomized into three experimental groups: a control group (n = 20), an irradiation (IR) group (n = 20), and an irradiation+β-glucan (IR+β-glucan) group (n = 20). Only segmental colonic resection and anastomosis were performed on the control group. The IR group underwent the same surgical procedure as the control group 5 days after pelvic irradiation. In the IR+β-glucan group, the same procedure was applied as in the IR group after β-glucan administration. The groups were subdivided into subgroups according to the date of euthanasia (third [n = 10] or seventh [n = 10] postoperative [PO] day), and anastomotic colonic segments were resected to evaluate bursting pressures and biochemical and histopathological parameters. Bursting pressure values were significantly lower in the IR group (p < .001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the IR group, whereas β-glucan significantly decreased MDA levels on the third PO day (p < .001). Granulation tissue formation scores were significantly lower in the IR+β-glucan group compared with the control group and the IR group (p < .001). The results of this study indicate that irradiation has negative effects on the early healing of colon anastomoses. The administration of β-glucan ameliorates these unfavorable effects by altering bursting pressures and biochemical parameters.

  17. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations are critical for fibrin glue adherence in rat high-risk colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Portilla-de Buen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fibrin glues have not been consistently successful in preventing the dehiscence of high-risk colonic anastomoses. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in glues determine their ability to function as sealants, healers, and/or adhesives. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin on bursting pressure, leaks, dehiscence, and morphology of high-risk ischemic colonic anastomoses using fibrin glue in rats. METHODS: Colonic anastomoses in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250-350 g treated with fibrin glue containing different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were evaluated at post-operative day 5. The interventions were low-risk (normal or high-risk (ischemic end-to-end colonic anastomoses using polypropylene sutures and topical application of fibrinogen at high (120 mg/mL or low (40 mg/mL concentrations and thrombin at high (1000 IU/mL or low (500 IU/mL concentrations. RESULTS: Ischemia alone, anastomosis alone, or both together reduced the bursting pressure. Glues containing a low fibrinogen concentration improved this parameter in all cases. High thrombin in combination with low fibrinogen also improved adherence exclusively in low-risk anastomoses. No differences were detected with respect to macroscopic parameters, histopathology, or hydroxyproline content at 5 days post-anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin glue with a low fibrinogen content normalizes the bursting pressure of high-risk ischemic left-colon anastomoses in rats at day 5 after surgery.

  18. Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition on basal- and serotonin-induced ion transport in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2002-01-01

    basal conditions. Furthermore, data suggest neither the COX-1 nor the COX-2 enzyme to be of major importance for 5-HT-induced ion transport in rat colon in vitro. In conclusion, this study supports 5-HT as a mediator of chloride secretion by activating several receptor subtypes and the LOX enzyme...

  19. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the local immune response in azoxymethane-induced colon tumours in the BDIX inbred rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Agger, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    by four weekly subcutaneous azoxymethane injections in inbred rats of the BDIX/OrlIco strain in two separate studies. Azoxymethane-induced tumours show many similarities to spontaneously occurring human colon carcinomas with respect to histopathological appearance. In our studies, the overall inflammatory...

  20. Measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation times of colon cancer metastases in rat liver at 7 T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambarota, G.; Veltien, A.; van Laarhoven, H.; Philippens, M.; Jonker, A.; Mook, O. R.; Frederiks, W. M.; Heerschap, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of colon cancer metastases in rat liver at 7 T. A dedicated RF microstrip coil of novel design was built in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and, in combination with respiratory triggering,

  1. Intrinsic denervation of the colon is associated with a decrease of some colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.O. Vespúcio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of the colon is protective against the colon cancer; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the denervated colonic mucosa could be less responsive to the action of the chemical carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Three groups of 32 male Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (G1 had the colon denervated with 0.3 mL 1.5 mM benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (benzalkonium chloride, BAC; G2 received a single ip injection of 125 mg/kg DMH; G3 was treated with BAC + the same dose and route of DMH. A control group (Sham, N = 32 did not receive any treatment. Each group was subdivided into four groups according to the sacrifice time (1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after DMH. Crypt fission index, ß-catenin accumulated crypts, aberrant crypt foci, and cell proliferation were evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student t-test. G3 animals presented a small number of aberrant crypt foci and low crypt fission index compared to G2 animals after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. From the second week on, the index of ß-catenin crypt in G3 animals increased slower than in G2 animals. From the 12th week on, G2 animals presented a significant increase in cell proliferation when compared to the other groups. Colonic denervation plays an anticarcinogenic role from early stages of colon cancer development. This finding can be of importance for the study of the role of the enteric nervous system in the carcinogenic process.

  2. Microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the colon of albino rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in direct contact with the body also interacts with the immune and other systems that emphasizes the urgency of its study in various diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the taxonomic composition, population level, analytical microecological indicators and the degree of microecological disorders of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in albino rats with thyrotoxicosis. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 25 mature male albino rats weighing 220–240 g, of which 15 animals were included to the control group (intact animals, and 10 rats — to the main group. The experimental thyrotoxicosis was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions, a laparotomy was performed, a segment (up to 3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. The washed portion of the intestine was homogenized with a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. A series of ten-fold dilutions with 10–2 to 10–7 concentrations of the initial mixture were prepared. From each tube, 0.01 ml were seeded on solid optimal nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. In some animals, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as bacteroides and escherichia, are eliminated. A significant deficiency of not only bifidobacteria by 48.50 % and lactobacillus by 94.59 %, but also of bacteroides by 44.85 % was established. Determination of the quantitative dominance of each taxon showed that the dominant role of bifidobacteria in the microbiocenosis is reduced by 82.76 %, lactobacillus — by 2.20 times, and the role of bacteroides in the microbiocenosis of the epithelial biofilm of the large intestine of albino rats with the experimental thyrotoxicosis — by 43.04 %, E.coli — by 7.18 %, but the role of

  3. Effect of pretreatment with Ethanol or Ammonium Hydroxide on Helicobacter Pylori colonization in the stomach of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimi F

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for H.pylori infection have been developed to clarify the pathogenesis, testing new therapies and developing vaccines against human H.pylori infection. Although rats have been used extensively for gastric ulceration and acid secretion studies, the animal is not normally infected with H.pylori.Several chemicals such as ethanol and ammonium hydroxide can induce gastric erosion and interact with gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori in not germ-free rats in order to overcome the resistance against H. pylori in rats. After 24 h fasting, the rats were divided into three major groups. Animals in the first group were not pretreated with any chemicals. The two other groups were pretreated with ethanol (60% or ammonium hydroxide (1% before inoculation of 1 mL H. pylori suspension (3×108 cfu/ml. The results showed that H. pylori could not colonize in rats, even with ethanol or ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. An understanding of the mechanism of this resistance can help researchers to develop new therapeutic or preventive drugs against H. pylori and it is recommended to perform more investigation to clarify the reason of this resistance

  4. Estrogen inhibits chloride secretion caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins in female rat distal colon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2011-05-08

    Excessive Cl(-) secretion is the driving force for secretory diarrhea. 17β-Estradiol has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in rat distal colon through a nongenomic pathway. We examined whether 17β-estradiol inhibits Cl(-) secretion in an animal model of secretory diarrhea and the downstream effectors involved. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cholera toxin and heat-stable enterotoxin induced Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosal sheets was studied by current-voltage clamping. Selective permeabilization of apical or basolateral membranes with amphotericin B or nystatin was used to isolate basolateral K(+) channel and apical Cl(-) channel activity, respectively. 17β-Estradiol dose-dependently inhibited secretory responses to both toxins with IC(50) values of approximately 1nM. This effect was female-gender specific, with no inhibition observed in male tissues. 17β-Estradiol responses were insensitive to the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182,720. 17β-Estradiol exerted its effects downstream of enterotoxin-induced production of second messengers (cAMP and cGMP) but was dependent on PKCδ activation. In nystatin-permeabilized tissues, apical Cl(-) currents were unaffected by 17β-estradiol treatment while basolateral K(+) current was profoundly inhibited by the hormone. This current was sensitive to the specific KCNQ1 channel inhibitors chromanol 293B and HMR-1556. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol inhibits enterotoxin-induced Cl(-) secretion via a PKCδ-dependent mechanism involving inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels. These data elucidate mechanisms of 17β-estradiol inhibition of Cl(-) secretion induced by enterotoxins in intestinal epithelia, which may be relevant for the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

  5. Estrogen inhibits chloride secretion caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins in female rat distal colon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Excessive Cl(-) secretion is the driving force for secretory diarrhea. 17beta-Estradiol has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in rat distal colon through a nongenomic pathway. We examined whether 17beta-estradiol inhibits Cl(-) secretion in an animal model of secretory diarrhea and the downstream effectors involved. The effect of 17beta-estradiol on cholera toxin and heat-stable enterotoxin induced Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosal sheets was studied by current-voltage clamping. Selective permeabilization of apical or basolateral membranes with amphotericin B or nystatin was used to isolate basolateral K(+) channel and apical Cl(-) channel activity, respectively. 17beta-Estradiol dose-dependently inhibited secretory responses to both toxins with IC(50) values of approximately 1nM. This effect was female-gender specific, with no inhibition observed in male tissues. 17beta-Estradiol responses were insensitive to the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182,720. 17beta-Estradiol exerted its effects downstream of enterotoxin-induced production of second messengers (cAMP and cGMP) but was dependent on PKCdelta activation. In nystatin-permeabilized tissues, apical Cl(-) currents were unaffected by 17beta-estradiol treatment while basolateral K(+) current was profoundly inhibited by the hormone. This current was sensitive to the specific KCNQ1 channel inhibitors chromanol 293B and HMR-1556. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol inhibits enterotoxin-induced Cl(-) secretion via a PKCdelta-dependent mechanism involving inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels. These data elucidate mechanisms of 17beta-estradiol inhibition of Cl(-) secretion induced by enterotoxins in intestinal epithelia, which may be relevant for the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

  6. Exhaustive physical exercise increases the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions in untrained rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2004-12-08

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have been used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. It has been observed that exhaustive exercise increases free radical DNA oxidative damage and depresses immune function, events also related to the increased risk for cancer development. Fifteen days after a single exhaustive swimming bout in untrained rats treated with a colon carcinogen, we observed a statistically significant increased number of ACF when compared to the non-exercised group. Thus, we concluded that exhaustive exercise increased the susceptibility for colon cancer in rats. From our finding and literature data, we hypothesize that, similarly to the suggested relationship between exercise and infections, exercise could be protective against cancer or it could increase the risk for this disease depending on its type, dose and duration.

  7. Ethanol Does Not Promote MeIQx-initiated Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Based on Evidence from Analysis of a Colon Cancer Surrogate Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Kushida, Masahiko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Ozaki, Keisuke; Sukata, Tokuo; Miyata, Kaori; Ogata, Keiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the data are confounded by numerous cosegregating variables. To cast further light on the relationships between alcohol intake and colon cancer development, 21-day-old male F344/DuCrj rats were fed 200 ppm 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in their diet for 8 weeks and doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 20% of ethanol in their drinking water ad libitum for ...

  8. Carbon monoxide contributes to the constipating effects of granisetron in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, Carmela; Fanelli, Margherita; Potenza, Maria Assunta; Leo, Valentina; Montagnani, Monica; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1-100 μmol/L) were evaluated on colon specimens incubated with granisetron (3 μmol/L, 15 min), ZnPPIX (10 μmol/L, 60 min) or CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L) alone or in combination. These experiments were performed under co-treatment with or without atropine (3 μmol/L, a muscarinic receptor antagonist) or N G -nitro-L-Arginine (L-NNA, 100 μmol/L, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). Administration of granisetron (50, 75 μg/kg) in vivo significantly increased the time to first defecation ( P = 0.045 vs vehicle-treated rats), clearly suggesting a constipating effect of this drug. Although administration of ZnPPIX or hemin alone had no effect on this gastrointestinal motility parameter, ZnPPIX co-administered with granisetron abolished the granisetron-induced constipation. On the other hand, co-administration of hemin and granisetron did not modify the increased constipation observed under granisetron alone. When administered in vitro , granisetron alone (3 μmol/L) did not significantly modify the colon's contractile response to either EFS or ACh. Incubation with ZnPPIX alone (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced the colon's contractile response to EFS ( P = 0.016) but had no effect on contractile response to ACh. Co-administration of ZnPPIX and atropine (3 μmol/L) abolished the ZnPPIX-mediated decrease

  9. Expression Patterns of Cancer Stem Cell Markers During Specific Celecoxib Therapy in Multistep Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Elsayed I; Hegazi, Mona M; Kang, Jin Seok; Helmy, Hager M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) during chemicallyinduced rat multi-step colon carcinogenesis with or without the treatment with a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug (celecoxib). Two experiments were performed, the first, a short term 12 week colon carcinogenesis bioassay in which only surrogate markers for colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions, were formed. The other experiment was a medium term colon cancer rat assay in which tumors had developed after 32 weeks. Treatment with celecoxib lowered the numbers of ACF, as well as the tumor volumes and multiplicities after 32 weeks. Immunohistochemical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes LI (%) were downregulated after treatment by celecoxib. Also different cell surface antigens known to associate with CSCs such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44 and CD133 were compared between the two experiments and showed differential expression patterns depending on the stage of carcinogenesis and treatment with celecoxib. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the numbers of CD133 cells were increased in the colonic epithelium after 12 weeks while those of CD44 but not CD133 cells were increased after 32 weeks. Moreover, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity levels in the colonic epithelium (a known CSC marker) detected by ELISA assay were found down-regulated after 12 weeks, but were up-regulated after 32 weeks. The data have also shown that the protective effect of celecoxib on these specific markers and populations of CSCs and on other molecular processes such as apoptosis targeted by this drug may vary depending on the genetic and phenotypic stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, uncovering these distinction roles of CSCs during different phases of carcinogenesis and during specific treatment could be useful for targeted therapy.

  10. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  11. Red Wine and Pomegranate Extracts Suppress Cured Meat Promotion of Colonic Mucin-Depleted Foci in Carcinogen-Induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Naud, Nathalie; Nassy, Gilles; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2017-01-01

    Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.

  12. Studies on colon cancer prone rats. Spontaneous small intestinal carcinomas and tumor induction of small intestine by x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeura, Y [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1979-12-01

    Histological investigation was carried out for Wister-Furth (WF) rats, prone to cancers of the colon and small intestine. Gastric cancer was observed in about 1/4 of the rats with the cancers of the colon and the small intestine, indicating that these rats could be the model animals of the cancer family syndrome with multi-cancers in the gastrointestinal tracts. The small intestine of WF and SD (Sprague-Dowley) rats as exposed to 1000, 2 x 1000, 1500, and 2000 R of x-rays at a dose rate of 157 R/min. In each group the stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon were histologically investigated, immediately and 15, 25, and 35 weeks after irradiation. The rates of cancer occurrence in 15, 25, and 35 weeks were 5/17, 9/19, and 9/14 for WF strain and 1/8, 2/7, and 2/8 for SD strain, respectively. The rate increased with the increment of the days after irradiation. It was suggested that the atypical epithelium of the gastrointestinal tracts induced the cancer in high rates when some trigger was added.

  13. Extravirgin olive oil up-regulates CB₁ tumor suppressor gene in human colon cancer cells and in rat colon via epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Andrea; Falconi, Anastasia; Di Germanio, Clara; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Costa, Antonio; Caramuta, Stefano; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Dainese, Enrico; Cifani, Carlo; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Extravirgin olive oil (EVOO) represents the typical lipid source of the Mediterranean diet, an eating habit pattern that has been associated with a significant reduction of cancer risk. Diet is the more studied environmental factor in epigenetics, and many evidences suggest dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds on endocannabinoid system (ECS) gene expression via epigenetic regulation in both human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and rats exposed to short- and long-term dietary EVOO. We observed a selective and transient up-regulation of CNR1 gene - encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁) - that was evoked by exposure of Caco-2 cells to EVOO (100 ppm), its phenolic extracts (OPE, 50 μM) or authentic hydroxytyrosol (HT, 50 μM) for 24 h. None of the other major elements of the ECS (i.e., CB₂; GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors; and NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes) was affected at any time point. The stimulatory effect of OPE and HT on CB₁ expression was inversely correlated to DNA methylation at CNR1 promoter and was associated with reduced proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, CNR1 gene was less expressed in Caco-2 cells when compared to normal colon mucosa cells, and again this effect was associated with higher level of DNA methylation at CNR1. Moreover, in agreement with the in vitro studies, we also observed a remarkable (~4-fold) and selective increase in CB₁ expression in the colon of rats receiving dietary EVOO supplementation for 10 days. Consistently, CpG methylation of rat Cnr1 promoter, miR23a and miR-301a, previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and predicted to target CB₁ mRNA, was reduced after EVOO administration down to ~50% of controls. Taken together, our findings demonstrating CB₁ gene expression modulation by EVOO or its phenolic compounds via epigenetic mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo, may

  14. Influence of the surgical manipulation of the colon in colonic induced carcinogenesis in rats Influencia de la manipulación quirúrgica del colon en la carcinogénesis cólica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of different experimental manipulations in a model of colonic experimental carcinogenesis with pharmacological induction in the rat. Experimental design: a total of 90 Sprague-Dawley male rats, divided into three groups, were used: non-surgical (n = 30; surgical with colonic trauma (n = 20, and surgical with colo-colonic anastomosis (n = 40. Carcinogenic induction was carried out with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Colonic adenocarcinomas were identified and the number of tumors, as well as tumoral surface and percentage of tumoral surface was established. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: the number of tumors was greater in the surgical group than in the control group, and tumors preferentially develop-ed around the manipulated colon. Surface and tumoral percentage were greater in the surgical group than in the control group, being also greater in the anastomosis group than in the group with colonic trauma. Within anastomosis groups, a greater tumor surface and percentage was found in the group with titanium than in the group with reabsorbable material. Conclusions: the experimental manipulation of the colon in rats enhances drug-induced colon carcingenesis. The creation of an anastomosis further increases the carcinogenic process compared with simulated anastomosis. This process is also enhanced by the quantity of suture material included in the anastomosis, and by the non-reabsorbable nature of the materials used in the anastomotic line.Objetivo: valorar la influencia de las distintas manipulaciones experimentales en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica experimental con inducción farmacológica en la rata. Diseño experimental: se emplearon 90 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, divididas en tres grupos: no quirúrgico (n=30; quirúrgico con traumatismo cólico (n=20, y quirúrgico con anastomosis colocólica (n=40. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con

  15. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  16. Analysis of beta-catenin, Ki-ras, and microsatellite stability in azoxymethane-induced colon tumors of BDIX/Orl Ico rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Møller; Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Bonne, Anita

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to investigate whether the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer rat model mimics the human situation with regard to microsatellite stability, changes in expression of beta-catenin, and/or changes in the sequence of the proto-oncogene Ki-ras. Colon cancer ...

  17. The role of substance P in the maintenance of colonic hypermotility induced by repeated stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Luo, Hesheng; Quan, Xiaojing; Fan, Han; Tang, Qincai; Yu, Guang; Chen, Wei; Xia, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism underlying chronic stress-induced gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility has not been fully elucidated and GI hormones have been indicated playing a role in mediating stress-induced changes in GI motor function. Our objective was to study the possible role of substance P (SP) in the colonic hypermotility induced by repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) which mimics irritable bowel syndrome. Male Wistar rats were submitted to WAS or sham WAS (SWAS) (1h/day) for up to 10 consecutive days. Enzyme Immunoassay Kit was used to detect the serum level of SP. The expression of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) was investigated by Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The spontaneous contraction of muscle strip was studied in an organ bath system. L-type calcium channel currents (ICa,L) of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Fecal pellet expulsion and spontaneous contraction of proximal colon in rats were increased after repeated WAS. The serum level of SP was elevated following WAS. Immunohistochemistry proved the expression of NK1R in mucosa, muscularis and myenteric plexus. Western blotting demonstrated stress-induced up-regulation of NK1R in colon devoid of mucosa and submucosa. Repeated WAS increased the contractile activities of longitudinal muscle and circular muscle strips induced by SP and this effect was reversed by a selective NK1R antagonist. The ICa,L of SMCs in the WAS rats were drastically increased compared to controls after addition of SP. Increased serum SP level and up-regulated NK1R in colon may contribute to stress-induced colonic hypermotility. And L-type calcium channels play a potentially important role in the process of WAS-induced dysmotility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine on DNA oxidative damage of rat colon mucosa in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, L; Testa, G; De Filippo, C; Cheynier, V; Clifford, M N; Dolara, P

    2000-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported to have a variety of biological actions, including anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of an oral treatment with complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine and tea on DNA oxidative damage in the rat colon mucosa. Isolated colonocytes were prepared from the colon mucosa of rats treated for ten days with either wine complex polyphenols (57.2 mg/kg/d) or thearubigin (40 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage. Colonocyte oxidative DNA damage was analysed at the single cell level using a modification of the comet assay technique. The results show that wine complex polyphenols and tannins induce a significant decrease (-62% for pyrimidine and -57% for purine oxidation) in basal DNA oxidative damage in colon mucosal cells without affecting the basal level of single-strand breaks. On the other hand, tea polyphenols, namely a crude extract of thearubigin, did not affect either strand breaks or pyrimidine oxidation in colon mucosal cells. Our experiments are the first demonstration that dietary polyphenols can modulate in vivo oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. These data support the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols might have both a protective and a therapeutic potential in oxidative damage-related pathologies.

  19. Potentiation by cholinesterase inhibitors of cholinergic activity in rat isolated stomach and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Emma M; Cellek, Selim; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors stimulate gastrointestinal (GI) motility and are potential treatments of conditions associated with inadequate GI motility. The ability of itopride to facilitate neuronally (predominantly cholinergic) mediated contractions of rat isolated stomach, evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS), has been compared with other cholinesterase inhibitors and with tegaserod, a clinically effective prokinetic and non-selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist which also facilitates GI cholinergic function. Neostigmine greatly increased EFS-evoked contractions over a narrow concentration range (0.01-1 microM; 754+/-337% facilitation at 1 microM); higher concentrations (1, 3 microM) also increased muscle tension. Donepezil increased EFS-evoked contractions gradually over the full range of concentrations (0.01-10 microM; maximum increase 516+/-20% at 10 microM). Itopride increased the contractions even more gradually, rising to 188+/-84% at 10 microM. The butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor iso-OMPA 0.01-10 microM also increased EFS-evoked contractions, to a maximum of 36+/-5.0% at 10 microM, similar to that caused by tegaserod (35+/-5.2% increase at 1 microM). The effects of tegaserod, but not itopride were inhibited by the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB-204070A 0.3 microM. In rat isolated colon, neostigmine was again the most efficacious, causing a defined maximum increase in EFS-evoked contractions (343+/-82% at 10 microM), without changing muscle tension. Maximum increases caused by donepezil and itopride were, respectively, 57.6+/-20 and 43+/-15% at 10 microM. These data indicate that the abilities of different AChE inhibitors to increase GI cholinergic activity differ markedly. Understanding the reasons is essential if AChE inhibitors are to be optimally developed as GI prokinetics.

  20. Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects.

  1. Stimulation of Na+ -K+ -pump currents by epithelial nicotinic receptors in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Lottig, Lena; Diener, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl - secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data have shown expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl - secretion by nicotine, in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Here, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport. Ussing chamber experiments were performed, using rat distal colon with intact epithelia. Epithelia were basolaterally depolarized to measure currents across the apical membrane. Apically permeabilized tissue was also used to measure currents across the basolateral membrane in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Nicotine had no effect on currents through Cl - channels in the apical membrane or on currents through K + channels in the apical or the basolateral membrane. Instead, nicotine stimulated the Na + -K + -pump as indicated by Na + -dependency and sensitivity of the nicotine-induced current across the basolateral membrane to cardiac steroids. Effects of nicotine were inhibited by nicotinic receptor antagonists such as hexamethonium and mimicked by dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, a chemically different nicotinic agonist. Simultaneous stimulation of epithelial muscarinic and nicotinic receptors led to a strong potentiation of transepithelial Cl - secretion. These results suggest a novel concept for the cholinergic regulation of transepithelial ion transport by costimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic epithelial receptors and a unique role of nicotinic receptors controlling the activity of the Na + -K + -ATPase. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    Azoxymethane (AOM) or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM) and their paired normal mucosa (NM) were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent) and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent) and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent). Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively). Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a low degree of genomic imbalance, it is interesting to

  3. Diclofenac causes anastomotic leakage in the proximal colon but not in the distal colon of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yauw, S.T.; Lomme, R.M.; Vijver, R.J. van der; Hendriks, T.; Laarhoven, K.J. van; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with anastomotic leakage. It was studied if diclofenac affects anastomoses differently depending on the location in the gut. METHODS: Ninety-five rats were randomized to 6 groups with an anastomosis in either ileum (IL), proximal

  4. Effect of Ozone Therapy (OT on Healing of Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Peritonitis

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    Başak Erginel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ozone is a three-oxygen molecule (O3. Ozone therapy (OT is systematically effective when pathological inflammatory and immunologic processes are activated. Among of these conditions are wound healing, macular degeneration related to aging, and conditions that are ischemic or infectious. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of OT on wound healing of intestinal anastomosis in the presence of peritonitis in a rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups (n=10 including: sham (S, peritonitis (P, ozone 0 (O0, and ozone 24 (O24. In group S, only cecal dissection was carried out. The S group had only a cecal dissection and intestinal anastomosis performed, but no peritonitis. In all other groups, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP followed the cecal dissection to induce bacterial peritonitis. 24 h after puncture, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed. In group P, 24 h after CLP, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed and no ozone was administered. In group O0, immediately after the anastomosis, and in group O24, starting 24 hours after the anastomosis, an intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day ozone administration was applied for seven days. On the seventh day the animals were sacrificed, the anastomotic bursting pressures (BP and the hydroxyproline values of the anastomotic tissues were measured, and histopathologic examination of the anastomotic segment was carried out. Results: The highest BP was in group S, with 211±23.13 mmHg. The mean BP of group P was 141±56.25 mmHg, which was significantly lower than in the other two peritonitis groups that received ozone therapy, group O0 and O24, where it was 192±22 and 166±45 mmHg, respectively (p0.05. Histopathologic analyses of the anastomotic segments determined there was significantly more oedema and necrosis in the control group rats, and collagen deposition in

  5. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Maternal deprivation affects the neuromuscular protein profile of the rat colon in response to an acute stressor later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luísa V; Marvin-Guy, Laure F; Fuerholz, Andreas; Affolter, Michael; Ramadan, Ziad; Kussmann, Martin; Fay, Laurent B; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E

    2008-04-30

    Early life stress as neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) predisposes rats to alter gut functions in response to acute psychological stressors in adulthood, mimicking features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We applied proteomics to investigate whether MD permanently changes the protein profile of the external colonic neuromuscular layer that may condition the molecular response to an acute stressor later in life. Male rat pups were separated 3 h/day from their mothers during the perinatal period and further submitted to water avoidance (WA) stress during adulthood. Proteins were extracted from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle of control (C), WA and MD+WA rat colon, separated on 2D gels, and identified by mass spectrometry. MD amplified the WA-induced protein changes involved in muscle contractile function, suggesting that stress accumulation along life imbalances the muscle tone towards hypercontractility. Our results also propose a stress dependent regulation of gluconeogenesis. Secretogranin II - the secretoneurin precursor - was induced by MD. The presence of secretoneurin in myenteric ganglia may partially explain the stress-mediated modulation of gastrointestinal motility and/or mucosal inflammation previously described in MD rats. In conclusion, our findings suggest that neonatal stress alters the responses to acute stress in adulthood in intestinal smooth muscle and enteric neurons.

  7. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  8. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats

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    Toshikatsu Okumura

    2016-02-01

    Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain.

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  10. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  11. Fecal pellet output does not always correlate with colonic transit in response to restraint stress and corticotropin-releasing factor in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakade, Yukiomi; Mantyh, C.; Pappas, T.N.; Takahashi, Toku

    2007-01-01

    Fecal pellet output has been assessed as a colonic motor activity because of its simplicity. However, it remains unclear whether an acceleration of colonic transit correlates well with an increase in fecal pellet output. We examined the causal relationship between colonic transit and fecal pellet output stimulated by the central application of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and restraint stress. Immediately after intracisternal injection of CRF, 51 Cr was injected via a catheter positioned in the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after 51 Cr injection, the total number of excreted feces was counted, and then the rats were killed. The radioactivity of each colonic segment was evaluated, and the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of 51 Cr was calculated. For the restraint stress study, after administration of 51 Cr into the proximal colon, rats were submitted to wrapping restraint stress for 90 min. Then they were killed, and GC was calculated. Both restraint stress and CRF significantly accelerated colonic transit. There was a positive correlation observed between fecal pellet output and GC of colonic transit in response to restraint stress, but not CRF, when the number of excreted feces was more than three. In contrast, there was no significant correlation observed between the two in stress and CRF when the number of excreted feces was less than two. The acceleration of colonic transit in response to restraint stress and central administration of CRF does not always correlate with an increase in fecal pellet output. (author)

  12. Mild Moxibustion Decreases the Expression of Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 2 in the Colon and Spinal Cord of Rats with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cili Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that prokineticin 2 (PK2 and its receptor PKR2 play an important role in hyperalgesia, while mild moxibustion can relieve visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of mild moxibustion on the expression of PK2 and PKR2 in colon and spinal cord in IBS rat model, which was induced by colorectal distension using inflatable balloons. After mild moxibustion treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR scores were assessed by colorectal distension; protein and mRNA expression of PK2 and PKR2 in rat colon and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with normal rats, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly increased in the model group; compared with the model group, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly decreased in the mild moxibustion group. These findings suggest that the analgesia effect of mild moxibustion may be associated with the reduction of the abnormally increased expression of the PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in the colon and spinal cord.

  13. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  14. Descending perineum syndrome: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F

    2015-08-01

    The classical clinical profile of descending perineum syndrome (DPS) has been replaced by new pathophysiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic acquisitions. This paper will focus on trigger factors ranging from dyssynergic defecation to excessive straining, fecal incontinence against the backdrop of obstructed defecation, attendant rectal diseases, and therapy tailored to evolving stages of DPS.

  15. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoori, Srivani [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Srinivasan, Cidambi [Department of Statistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40502 (United States); Hein, David W. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: rcgupta@louisville.edu

    2008-02-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated {sup 32}P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N{sup 2}-DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  16. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Hein, David W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated 32 P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N 2 -DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer

  17. Enhancement of colon carcinogenesis by the combination of indole-3 carbinol and synbiotics in hemin-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; de Moraes, Leonardo N; Carvalho, Robson F; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2018-02-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) could be associated with red and processed meat intake. Experimental data supports that hemin iron, found abundantly in red meat, promotes CRC in mice and rats, while indole-3 carbinol (I3C) and synbiotics (syn) exert anti-carcinogenic activities in most studies of colon carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of I3C and syn (inulin + Bifidobacterium lactis), given separately or together, on dimethylhidrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in hemin-fed rats. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections and then, two weeks after carcinogen exposure, they began a basal diet containing hemin, hemin + I3C, hemin + syn, or hemin + I3C + syn for 23 weeks. The combination of I3C + syn significantly increased fecal water genotoxicity, tumor volume and invasiveness when compared to the hemin-fed control group. The groups fed I3C or syn alone had a significant reduction in the number of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions compared to the hemin-fed group. Dietary I3C also reduced fecal water genotoxicity. Gene expression analysis of colorectal tumors demonstrated that the combination of dietary I3C + syn increased transcript levels for Raf1 and decreased tumor progression and invasiveness related to the genes Cdh1 and Appl1. This analysis also revealed that the Tnf and Cdh1 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumors of rats that received I3C, in comparison with the hemin-fed group. These findings reveal that the joint administration of I3C and syn enhanced the development of colon tumors induced by DMH in hemin-fed rats, while they potentially reduced ACF development when given alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of combined pulse electromagnetic field stimulation plus glutamine on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Sadullah; Gedik, Ercan; Ozturk, Hayrettin; Akpolat, Veysi; Akbulut, Veysi; Kale, Ebru; Buyukbayram, Huseyin; Celik, Salih

    2009-04-01

    An experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of combined pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation plus glutamine administration on colonic anastomosis. Anastomosis of the left colon was performed in 28 rats, which were divided into four groups; Group 1: normal resection anastomosis plus oral 50 mg/kg/day glutamine; Group 2: normal resection anastomosis plus PEMF stimulation plus oral 50 mg/kg/day glutamine; Group 3: normal resection anastomosis plus PEMF stimulation; Group 4: normal resection anastomosis. On the seventh postoperative day, the animals were killed and the bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration of the anastomosis were analyzed and compared. The mean anastomotic bursting pressure in Group 2 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 4. On the other hand, the mean anastomotic bursting pressure in Group 1 was significantly higher than in Group 4. The collagen deposition and the fibroblast infiltration were significantly increased on the seventh day in Group 3 compared the other groups. On the other hand, Groups 1 and 2 had higher scores for collagen deposition and fibroblast infiltration than Group 4. In conclusion, burst pressures, hydroxyproline, and histologic features (fibroblast infiltration and collagen deposition) were improved in the PEMF group, and both PEMF and glutamine-enriched nutrition provide a significant gain in the strength of colonic anastomoses in rats.

  19. In vitro study of acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions in colon and rectum of adult and neonate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shuchita; Mandal, Maloy B

    2013-01-01

    Contractile mechanisms of different parts of the gut in adult and neonate may not be identical due to developmental processes. The present study was undertaken to investigate acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine induced contractile responses of colon and rectum in adult and neonatal albino rats. Contractile responses were recorded from isolated in vitro preparations. The dose-response curve for ACh (0.001-100 microM) revealed dose dependent increase in contractile responses. A significantly (P pheniramine (100 microM) in adult rectum. This potentiating response of pheniramine was absent in neonate rectum. Such effect was also not seen in colon of both adult and neonate. The present investigation indicates that the contractile responses induced by ACh are similar in both adult and neonate, excepting that the blocking effect of atropine in colon was more pronounced in adult as compared to neonate. Further, the results also indicated different mechanism of histamine action in adults and neonates as evidenced by the significant enhancement of contractions by pheniramine only in adult rectum. Therefore, the present results indicate the existence of a different cholinergic and histaminergic activity in adult and neonate as well as in rectal and colonic tissue.

  20. Microarray Analyses of Genes Differentially Expressed by Diet (Black Beans and Soy Flour) during Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondini, Elizabeth A; Bennink, Maurice R

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN) diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a). BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1) and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a) genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1) and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a) were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.

  1. [Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation of Different Layers of "Tianshu" (ST 25) Region on Changes of Intra-colonic Pressure in Normal Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Yi; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Xu, Bin

    2018-02-25

    To observe the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of different layers (skin, muscle, peritoneum, sub-peritoneum) of "Tianshu" (ST 25) region on proximal colonic pressure in normal rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were divided into 6 groups: all layer-needling, brushing, cutaneous needling, muscular needling, peritoneum-needling and sub-peritoneum-needling groups ( n =8 in each group). Manual needling or brushing was applied to "Tianshu" (ST 25) region. The colonic internal pressure was measured by using an amplifier and a pressure transducer-connected balloon which was implanted into the colonic cavity about 6 cm from the ileocecal valve. For rats of the all-layer needling group, an acupuncture needle was inserted into ST 25 about 1 cm deep and rotated for a while, for rats of the brushing group, a Chinese calligraphy brush pen was used to brush the skin hair for 1 min. For rats of the rest 4 groups, an acupuncture needle was inserted into the skin, muscle layer after cutting open the skin (about 0.1 cm), the peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin and muscle layers, and the sub-peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin, muscle and peritoneum layers, respectively, and rotated using the uniform reinforcing-reducing technique for about 1 min at a frequency of 120 twirlings per minute every time. During manual needling stimulation of the full layers, cutaneous layer, muscle layer, peritoneum layer and the sub-peritoneum layer of bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25), the internal pressure of proximal colon was significantly decreased relevant to pre-stimulation in each group ( P 0.05). During hair brushing of ST 25 region, the colonic pressure was observably increased relevant to pre-needling stimulation ( P ST 25 on both sides may lower internal pressure of proximal colon in normal rats, suggesting their involvement of acupuncture effect in relaxing proximal colonic contraction.

  2. Impaired barrier function by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS in rats is accompanied by increased colonic mitochondrial gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Evelien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates stimulate the gut microflora and are therefore presumed to improve host resistance to intestinal infections. However, several strictly controlled rat infection studies showed that non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS increase, rather than decrease, translocation of Salmonella towards extra-intestinal sites. In addition, it was shown that FOS increases intestinal permeability already before infection. The mechanism responsible for this adverse effect of FOS is unclear. Possible explanations are altered mucosal integrity due to changes in tight junctions or changes in expression of defense molecules such as antimicrobials and mucins. To examine the mechanisms underlying weakening of the intestinal barrier by FOS, a controlled dietary intervention study was performed. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted to a diet with or without FOS. mRNA was collected from colonic mucosa and changes in gene expression were assessed for each individual rat using Agilent rat whole genome microarrays. Results Among the 997 FOS induced genes we observed less mucosal integrity related genes than expected with the clear permeability changes. FOS did not induce changes in tight junction genes and only 8 genes related to mucosal defense were induced by FOS. These small effects are unlikely the cause for the clear increase in intestinal permeability that is observed. FOS significantly increased expression of 177 mitochondria-related genes. More specifically, induced expression of genes involved in all five OXPHOS complexes and the TCA cycle was observed. These results indicate that dietary FOS influences intestinal mucosal energy metabolism. Furthermore, increased expression of 113 genes related to protein turnover, including proteasome genes, ribosomal genes and protein maturation related genes, was seen. FOS upregulated expression of the peptide hormone proglucagon gene, in agreement with previous studies, as

  3. Dietary selenomethionine increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Yan, Lin; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Uthus, Eric O

    2011-08-01

    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. This study was to investigate whether selenium (Se) affects the methylation of globe genomic DNA and the exon-specific p53 gene. Three groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) were fed the AIN-93G basal diet supplemented with 0 [Se deficient (D)], 0.15 [Se adequate (A)], or 4 mg [Se supranutritional (S)] (Se as l-selenomethionine)/kg diet for 104 d, respectively. Rats fed the A or S diet had greater plasma and liver glutathione peroxidase activity, liver thioredoxin reductase activity, and plasma homocysteine concentration than those fed the D diet. However, compared with the A diet, rats fed the S diet did not further increase these Se-dependent enzyme activities or homocysteine concentration. In contrast, Se concentrations in kidney, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and plasma were increased in a Se-dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats fed the S diet had significantly less global liver genomic DNA methylation than those fed the D diet. However, the S diet significantly increased the methylation of the p53 gene (exons 5-8) but not the β-actin gene (exons 2-3) DNA in liver and colon mucosa compared with those fed the D diet. Taken together, long-term Se consumption not only affects selenoprotein enzyme activities, homocysteine, tissue Se concentrations, and global genomic DNA methylation but also increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in a Se-dose-dependent manner in rat liver and colon mucosa.

  4. Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. C. de Godoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control, Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD, or soluble corn fiber (SCF. Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat.

  5. δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, inhibit colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fei; Li, Guangxun; Liu, Anna B; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Zhihong; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung; Yang, Chung S

    2012-04-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T, and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, seven weeks old, were given two weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T, or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of cyclin D1 in the colon, preserved the expression of PPAR-γ, and decreased the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane. Supplementation with 0.2% δ-T, γ-T, or α-T increased the respective levels of tocopherols and their side-chain degradation metabolites in the serum and colon tissues. Rather high concentrations of δ-T and γ-T and their metabolites were found in colon tissues. Our study provides the first evidence for the much higher cancer preventive activity of δ-T and γ-T than α-T in a chemically induced colon carcinogenesis model. It further suggests that δ-T is more effective than γ-T. 2012 AACR

  6. Efficacy of geraniol but not of β-ionone or their combination for the chemoprevention of rat colon carcinogenesis

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    A. Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β-ionone (βI, a cyclic isoprenoid, and geraniol (GO, an acyclic monoterpene, represent a promising class of dietary chemopreventive agents against cancer, whose combination could result in synergistic anticarcinogenic effects. The chemopreventive activities of βI and GO were evaluated individually or in combination during colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine in 48 3-week-old male Wistar rats (12 per group weighing 40-50 g. Animals were treated for 9 consecutive weeks with βI (16 mg/100 g body weight, GO (25 mg/100 g body weight, βI combined with GO or corn oil (control. Number of total aberrant crypt foci (ACF and of ACF ≥4 crypts in the distal colon was significantly lower in the GO group (66 ± 13 and 9 ± 2, respectively compared to control (102 ± 9 and 17 ± 3 and without differences in the βI (91 ± 11 and 14 ± 3 and βI+GO groups (96 ± 5 and 19 ± 2. Apoptosis level, identified by classical apoptosis morphological criteria, in the distal colon was significantly higher in the GO group (1.64 ± 0.06 apoptotic cells/mm² compared to control (0.91 ± 0.07 apoptotic cells/mm². The GO group presented a 0.7-fold reduction in Bcl-2 protein expression (Western blot compared to control. Colonic mucosa concentrations of βI and GO (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were higher in the βI and GO groups, respectively, compared to the control and βI+GO groups. Therefore, GO, but not βI, represents a potential chemopreventive agent in colon carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, the combination of isoprenoids does not represent an efficient chemopreventive strategy.

  7. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  8. Aquaporins 1, 3 and 8 expression in irritable bowel syndrome rats' colon via NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Guanqun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-07-18

    Our research was to detect the expression of aquaporins. NF-κB in Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat models' colon so as to find novel pathogenesisof IBS. The expression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP8 of IBS model group was down-regulated while NF-κB p65 was up-regulated comparing with control group (p intestine permeability alteration might be the mechanism of IBS by down-regulating AQP1, AQP3 and AQP8 via NF-κB pathway.

  9. Influence of some bacterial and host factors on colonization and invasiveness of Escherichia coli K1 in neonatal rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wullenweber, M; Beutin, L; Zimmermann, S; Jonas, C

    1993-01-01

    Of 209 healthy infants examined, 44 (21.1%) carried Escherichia coli K1 in their feces. Of these 44 isolates, 36 (81.8%) were attributed to 10 different known clonal groups of E. coli K1 and 4 isolates represented unknown types. The influence of mannose-resistant (MR) adhesins, aerobactin production, and resistance to serum on colonization and invasiveness of E. coli K1 in orally infected inbred LEW baby rats was investigated. Strains expressing MR adhesins had significantly higher colonizati...

  10. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  11. Inhibitory effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia on 1,2-dimethylhidrazine-induced genotoxicity and preneoplastic lesions in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Carla C; Furtado, Ricardo A; Santiago, Mirian L; Manhas, Simony S; Bastos, Jairo K; Tavares, Denise C

    2014-07-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the main botanical source of green propolis, also known as 'alecrim-do-campo' and 'vassourinha', is a shrub of the Brazilian 'cerrado' and is native to the South and Southeast of Brazil. The effects of B. dracunculifolia ethyl acetate extract (Bd-EAE) were evaluated on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of male Wistar rats by the comet and ACF assays, respectively. The animals were treated by gavage with doses of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were also administered a single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg DMH and were killed after 4 h for evaluation of DNA damage. Also, two doses of 40 mg/kg of DMH were administered weekly for 2 weeks, and animals were killed 2 weeks after the last injection for evaluation of ACF development in the colon. The results showed a significant reduction in the frequency of DNA damage and ACF in the group treated with the Bd-EAE plus DMH in comparison with those treated with DMH alone, suggesting that Bd-EAE reduced DNA damage and suppressed the formation of ACF and also exerted a protective affect against colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  13. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  14. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Xinxin; BLOUIN, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaig; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, Francois; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P < 0.05 or ...

  15. Lactobacillus salivarius REN counteracted unfavorable 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced changes in colonic microflora of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Qiao, Xuewei; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Ren, Fazheng

    2011-12-01

    Probiotics and carcinogens both have a significant effect on the microfloral composition of the human intestine. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an important carcinogen, 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide on colonic microflora and the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius REN as an agent of counteracting these effects. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with redundancy analysis, we demonstrated that both 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide and L. salivarius REN significantly altered the bacterial communities of rat colons. A total of 27 bacterial strains were identified as being affected by treatment with 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide or L. salivarius REN using a t-value biplot combined with band sequencing. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide treatment increased the abundance of two potential pathogens (one Helicobacter strain and one Desulfovibrio strain), as well as reducing the abundance of two potentially beneficial strains (one Ruminococcaceae strain and one Rumen bacteria). The Helicobacter strain was initally detected in carcinogen-treated rat intestinal microflora, but L. salivarius REN treatment effectively suppressed the growth of the Helicobacter strain. These results suggested that L. salivarius REN may be a potential probiotic, efficiently acting against the initial infection with, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  17. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

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    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  18. Effects of cyclic-nucleotide derivatives on the growth of human colonic carcinoma xenografts and on cell production in the rat colonic crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that various amine hormones are able to influence the growth rate of human colorectal carcinomas propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice, and it is now well known that the effects of many amine and other hormones are mediated by cyclic nucleotides, acting as second messengers within cells. In the present study the influence of various derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate on the growth of two different lines of colorectal cancer growing in immune-deprived mice, and on the cell production rate in the colonic crypt epithelium of the rat, was assessed. Growth of each tumour line, as well as crypt-cell production, was suppressed by treatment wit N6O2' dibutyryl and N6 monobutyryl derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, on the other hand, was found to promote the growth of Tumour HXK4 and to promote crypt cell production, but to have no significant effect on Tumour HXM2.

  19. Chemoprevention of DMH-induced rat colon carcinoma initiation by combination administration of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Vaiphei, Kim; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-02-01

    Cancer research illustrated that combinatorial studies can provide significant improvement in safety and effectiveness over the monotherapy regimens. A combination of two drugs may restrain precancerous colon polyps, opening a new possible opportunity for chemoprevention of colon cancer. In this context, chemopreventive efficacy of a combination regimen of C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein present in Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium, which is a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was considered in 1,2 dimethylhyadrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, DNA fragmentation, fluorescent staining, PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test were performed along with morphological and histological analysis. DMH treatment showed a rich presence of preneoplastic lesions such as multiple plaque lesions, aberrant crypt foci, and well-characterized dysplasia. These features were reduced with piroxicam and C-phycocyanin administration. The number of apoptotic cells was featured prominently in all the groups compared with DMH. DMH treatment revealed intact high molecular weight genomic DNA with no signs of laddering/DNA fragmentation while it was noticeable significantly in control and DMH + piroxicam + C-phycocyanin. DMH group showed highest COX-2 expression and PGE(2) level in comparison with other groups. Doses of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin used in the present study were established at an anti-inflammatory range. A combination regimen of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin, rather than individually has the much greater potential for reduction of DMH-induced colon cancer development and COX-2 being the prime possible target in such chemoprevention.

  20. Roles of calcium and IP3 in impaired colon contractility of rats following multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

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    C. Zheyu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in rat colon motility, and determine the roles of calcium and inositol (1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 in colon dysmotility induced by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS caused by bacteria peritonitis. The number of stools, the contractility of the muscle strips and the length of smooth muscle cells (SMC in the colon, the concentration of calcium and IP3 in SMC, and serum nitric oxide were measured. Number of stools, fecal weight, IP3 concentration in SMC and serum nitric oxide concentration were 0.77 ± 0.52 pellets, 2.51 ± 0.39 g, 4.14 ± 2.07 pmol/tube, and 113.95 ± 37.89 µmol/L, respectively, for the MODS group (N = 11 vs 1.54 ± 0.64 pellets, 4.32 ± 0.57 g, 8.19 ± 3.11 pmol/tube, and 37.42 ± 19.56 µmol/L for the control group (N = 20; P < 0.05. After treatment with 0.1 mM acetylcholine and 0.1 M potassium chloride, the maximum contraction stress of smooth muscle strips, the length of SMC and the changes of calcium concentration were 593 ± 81 and 458 ± 69 g/cm³, 48.1 ± 11.8 and 69.2 ± 15.7 µM, 250 ± 70 and 167 ± 48%, respectively, for the control group vs 321 ± 53 and 284 ± 56 g/cm³, 65.1 ± 18.5 and 87.2 ± 23.7 µM, 127 ± 35 and 112 ± 35% for the MODS group (P < 0.05. Thus, colon contractility was decreased in MODS, a result possibly related to reduced calcium concentration and IP3 in SMC.

  1. Descending necrotising mediastinitis: Case report

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    Canan Eren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Descending necrotising mediastinitis is a rare but usually fatal infection. It commonly results of oropharyngeal and odontogenic infections. Complete recovery may be achieved by early diagnosis, prompt medical and surgical approach. We are reporting our desending necrotizing mediastinitis case secondary to tooth abscess, and it’s successfull surgical treatment.A-48-year-old man admitted with fever, exhaustion neck distendion for a week. He had a tooth abscess one week ago. Chest tomography showed neck and mediastinal air and fluid collections. Antibiothreapy was started and urgent surgical management applied. Neck drainage was performed via transcervical approach. Mediastinal drainage was performed via right thoracotomy. Continue mediastinal washing feasibility was done by drainage tubes. Drainage was ended after nonextra drainage and cultural growthless. Vital signs became stable and control tomography showed complete recovery. He was healthfull at the 6th month’s follow-up.Broad antibiothreapy, surgical management are the main approaches for descending necrotising mediastinitis. The most common surgical procedure is the combination of transcervical approach and thoracotomy. We suggest early and agressive surgical management for the complete recovery. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 228-231

  2. Perinatal supplementation of 4-phenylbutyrate and glutamine attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and improves colonic epithelial barrier function in rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désir-Vigné, Axel; Haure-Mirande, Vianney; de Coppet, Pierre; Darmaun, Dominique; Le Dréan, Gwenola; Segain, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can affect the structure and function of the intestinal barrier and increase digestive disease risk in adulthood. Using the rat model of maternal dietary protein restriction (8% vs. 20%), we found that the colon of IUGR offspring displayed decreased mRNA expression of epithelial barrier proteins MUC2 and occludin during development. This was associated with increased mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker XBP1s and increased colonic permeability measured in Ussing chambers. We hypothesized that ER stress contributes to colonic barrier alterations and that perinatal supplementation of dams with ER stress modulators, phenylbutyrate and glutamine (PG) could prevent these defects in IUGR offspring. We first demonstrated that ER stress induction by tunicamycin or thapsigargin increased the permeability of rat colonic tissues mounted in Ussing chamber and that PG treatment prevented this effect. Therefore, we supplemented the diet of control and IUGR dams with PG during gestation and lactation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and histological analysis of colons from 120-day-old offspring revealed that perinatal PG treatment partially prevented the increased expression of ER stress markers but reversed the reduction of crypt depth and goblet cell number in IUGR rats. In dextran sodium sulfate-induced injury and recovery experiments, the colon of IUGR rats without perinatal PG treatment showed higher XBP1s mRNA levels and histological scores of inflammation than IUGR rats with perinatal PG treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that perinatal supplementation with PG could alleviate ER stress and prevent epithelial barrier dysfunction in IUGR offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  4. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rat...

  5. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon

  6. In vivo targeting of surface-modified liposomes to metastatically growing colon carcinoma cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells in the rat liver.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, GL; Kamps, JAAM; Koning, GA

    1997-01-01

    We prepared immunoliposomes by covalent coupling of a randomly thiolated monoclonal antibody against the rat colon adenocarcinoma cell line CC531 to MPB-PE on the outer surface of conventional as well as PEGylated liposomes of about 100-nm diameter. We attempted to target these immunoliposomes in

  7. In situ localization of gelatinolytic activity in the extracellular matrix of metastases of colon cancer in rat liver using quenched fluorogenic DQ-gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, Olaf R. F.; van Overbeek, Claudia; Ackema, Eleonora G.; van Maldegem, Febe; Frederiks, Wilma M.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as gelatinases are believed to play an important role in invasion and metastasis of cancer. In this study we investigated the possible role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in an experimental model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. We demonstrated with gelatin

  8. The Effect of Chang Run Tong on Biomechanical Colon Remodeling in STZ-Induced Type I Diabetic Rats - Is It Related to Advanced Glycation End Product Formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Chinese medicine Chang Run Tong (CRT) effectively improved senile constipation in the clinics. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of CRT on colonic remodeling in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of the CRT...

  9. Igf1r+/CD34+ immature ICC are putative adult progenitor cells, identified ultrastructurally as fibroblast-like ICC in Ws/Ws rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X Y; Albertí, E; White, E J

    2009-01-01

    by ICC in the wild-type rat colon, suggesting them to be immature ICC. In addition, a marked increase in immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) occurred, co-localized with CD34 but not with c-Kit. A significantly higher number of Igf1r(+)/CD34(+) cells were found in Ws....../Ws compared to wild-type rat colons. These CD34(+)/Igf1r(+) cells in the Ws/Ws colon occupied the same space as FL-ICC. Hence we propose that a subset of immature ICC (FL-ICC) consists of adult progenitor cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a reduction of neurons positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase...

  10. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Colonic Structure Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine Tangshen Formula (TSF) on GI structure remodeling in the rat model of diabetes. Methods. Type 2 diabetic rats were used. Wet weight per unit length, layer thicknesses, levels of collagens I and III, nuclear factor...

  11. Electrical field stimulation promotes anastomotic healing in poorly perfused rat colon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, Rory

    2011-03-01

    Hypoperfusion of the bowel is a risk factor for anastomotic failure. Electrical field stimulation has been shown to improve repair in ischemic tissue, but its influence in hypoperfused colon has not been investigated. The hypothesis of this experimental animal study was that electrical field stimulation improves anastomotic healing in ischemic bowel.

  12. Chronic disruptions of circadian sleep regulation induce specific proinflammatory responses in the rat colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polidarová, Lenka; Houdek, Pavel; Sumová, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2017), s. 1273-1287 ISSN 0742-0528 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07711S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : aging * colon * constant light * melatonin * proinflammatory cytokine * Rgs16 * sleep disruption Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2016

  13. Melatonin inhibits prostaglandin E2- and sodium nitroprusside-induced ion secretion in rat distal colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrnka, Libor; Hock, Miroslav; Rybová, Markéta; Pácha, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 581, 1-2 (2008), s. 164-170 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP305/03/D140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * secretion * colon Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2008

  14. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  15. The influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on cell division in the intestinal epithelium and in colonic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, F M; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1984-09-01

    Various metabolites of arachidonic acid are now known to influence cell division. In this paper the effects on cell proliferation of arachidonic acid, some inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and some analogs of arachidonic acid metabolites is described. The epithelial cell proliferation rate in the jejunum, in the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Administration of arachidonic acid resulted in retardation of cell proliferation in each of the tissues examined. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Flurbiprofen) prevented this effect of arachidonic acid in the jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, but not in colonic crypts. In contrast, inhibitors of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (Benoxaprofen and BW755c) prevented the effect of arachidonic acid in the colonic crypts and reduced its effect on colonic tumours but did not alter its effect on the jejunum. An inhibitor of thromoboxane A2 synthetase (U51,605) was also able to prevent the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on colonic tumors. Treatment with 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation in jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, as did a thromboxane A2 mimicking agent, U46619. Nafazatrom, an agent that stimulates prostacyclin synthesis and inhibits lypoxygenase, promoted cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts and colonic crypts, but inhibited cell proliferation in colonic tumours.

  16. The inhibitory effect of herbal medicine -Dai Kenchu To (DKT)- on the colonic motility in rats in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulimat, M A; Ishiguchi, T; Kurosawa, S; Nakamura, T; Takahashi, T

    2001-01-01

    Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT) is a herbal medicine and is currently used as the treatment of paralytic ileus in Japan. We investigated the mechanism of beneficial effects of DKT in vitro. DKT-extract powder (DKT-EP; 30-300 microg/ml) caused a significant inhibition on carbachol (CCH: 10(-6))-induced contraction in a concentration dependent manner of the rat distal colon. DKT-EP (100 microg/ml) consists of 20 microg/ml of Zanthoxylum Fruit, 30 microg/ml of Ginseng Root and 50 microg/ml of Ginger Rhizome. Although each of them had no effect on CCH-induced muscle contraction, the combination of three ingredients caused a significant inhibition on CCH-induced contraction.

  17. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once...... a week for to or 20 weeks. Throughout the study the animals were fed I) semisynthetic casein-based control diet, 2) control diet with 20% lard, 3) control diet with 20% lard and 20% dietary fiber, or 4) control diet where most of the carbohydrate pool was substituted with sucrose and dextrin....... The composition of the different diets was designed to achieve equivalent intakes of essential nutrients. Animals were killed after 10, 20, and 31 weeks. The study showed a pronounced effect of dietary composition on the development of DMH-induced ACF. The diet high in sucrose and dextrin caused a statistically...

  18. Telmisartan attenuates colon inflammation, oxidative perturbations and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H Arab

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated the implication of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD via its proinflammatory features. Telmisartan (TLM is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that mediated its cardio-, reno- and hepatoprotective actions. However, its impact on IBD has not been previously explored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of TLM in tri-nitrobenezene sulphonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Pretreatment with TLM (10 mg/kg p.o. attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by decrease of disease activity index (DAI, colon weight/length ratio, macroscopic damage, histopathological findings and leukocyte migration. TLM suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration besides restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10. TLM also suppressed mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 and mRNA of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS proinflammatory genes with concomitant upregulation of PPAR-γ. The alleviation of TLM to colon injury was also associated with inhibition of oxidative stress as evidenced by suppression of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO besides boosting glutathione (GSH, total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. With respect to apoptosis, TLM downregulated the increased mRNA, protein expression and activity of caspase-3. It also suppressed the elevation of cytochrome c and Bax mRNA besides the upregulation of Bcl-2. Together, these findings highlight evidences for the beneficial effects of TLM in IBD which are mediated through modulation of colonic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  19. The short-circuit current of the ileum, but not the colon, is altered in the streptozotocin diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Abigail; Makwana, Rajesh; Parsons, Mike

    2006-02-01

    Ion transport in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rat colon and ileum was studied using the Ussing chamber technique. No differences were observed between control and diabetic colonic mucosal short-circuit current under either basal or carbachol (100 nmol/L-1 micromol/L)-stimulated or prostaglandin E2 (100 nmol/L-1 micromol/L)-stimulated conditions. Similarly to colonic tissues, no differences in the short circuit current in either carbachol-stimulated or prostaglandin E2-stimulated tissues were observed between control and diabetic ileal mucosa. The basal diabetic ileal short circuit current (99.58 +/- 22.67 microA) was significantly greater than that of control ileal tissues (29.67 +/- 4.45 microA). This difference was abolished by the sodium-glucose-cotransporter inhibitor, phloridzin (50 micromol/L) (118.00 +/- 28.09 microA vs. 25.60 +/- 4.59 microA) and was also prevented by the replacement of glucose with mannitol in the buffer bathing the apical side of the tissue (control: 17.05 +/- 5.85 microA vs. 17.90 +/- 3.10 microA). Acetazolamide (450 micromol/L; a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), amiloride, and bumetanide (100 micromol/L each; Na+-channel blockers), piroxicam (50 micromol/L; a COX1 cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and ouabain (1 mmol/L; a K+ transport inhibitor) had no effect on the basal short circuit current of either control or diabetic ileal tissues. This indicated that the alteration in the basal short circuit current of diabetic ileal tissues was due to a change in cellular glucose transport, whereas the evoked changes in short circuit current were unaffected by the diabetic state.

  20. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  1. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2010-11-01

    Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transfer of proteins from the small to the large intestine, there is little information on the consequences of the use of such diets on the composition of large intestine content and on epithelial cell morphology and metabolism. Rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein), and absorptive colonocytes were observed by electron microscopy or isolated for enzyme activity studies. The colonic luminal content was recovered for biochemical analysis. Absorbing colonocytes were characterized by a 1.7-fold reduction in the height of the brush-border membranes (P = 0.0001) after HP diet consumption when compared with NP. This coincided in the whole colon content of HP animals with a 1.8-fold higher mass content (P = 0.0020), a 2.2-fold higher water content (P = 0.0240), a 5.2-fold higher protease activity (P = 0.0104), a 5.5-fold higher ammonia content (P = 0.0008), and a more than twofold higher propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate content (P hyperproteic diet ingestion causes marked changes both in the luminal environment of colonocytes and in the characteristics of these cells, demonstrating that hyperproteic diet interferes with colonocyte metabolism and morphology. Possible causal relationships between energy metabolism, reduced height of colonocyte brush-border membranes, and reduced water absorption are discussed.

  2. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  3. Genomic priming of the antisecretory response to estrogen in rat distal colon throughout the estrous cycle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    The secretion of Cl(-) across distal colonic crypt cells provides the driving force for the movement of fluid into the luminal space. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in secretion in females, which is dependent on the novel protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) isozyme and PKA isoform I targeting of KCNQ1 channels. This sexual dimorphism in the E2 response is associated with a higher expression level of PKC delta in female compared with the male tissue. The present study revealed the antisecretory response is regulated throughout the female reproductive (estrous) cycle and is primed by genomic regulation of the kinases. E2 (1-10 nm) decreased cAMP-dependent secretion in colonic epithelia during the estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. A weak inhibition of secretion was demonstrated in the proestrus stage. The expression levels of PKC delta and PKA fluctuated throughout the estrous cycle and correlated with the potency of the antisecretory effect of E2. The expression of PKC delta and PKA were up-regulated by estrogen at a transcriptional level via a PKC delta-MAPK-cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated pathway indicating a genomic priming of the antisecretory response. PK Cdelta was activated by the membrane-impermeant E2-BSA, and this response was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The 66-kDa estrogen receptor-alpha isoform was present at the plasma membrane of female colonic crypt cells with a lower abundance found in male colonic crypts. The study demonstrates estrogen regulation of intestinal secretion both at a rapid and transcriptional level, demonstrating an interdependent relationship between both nongenomic and genomic hormone responses.

  4. Interaction of PHM, PHI and 24-glutamine PHI with human VIP receptors from colonic epithelium: comparison with rat intestinal receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laburthe, M.; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C.; Moroder, L.

    1985-01-01

    PHM, the human counterpart of porcine Peptide Histidine Isoleucine amide (PHI), is shown to be a VIP agonist with low potency on human VIP receptors located in colonic epithelial cell membranes. Its potency is identical to that of PHI but by 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of VIP itself in inhibiting 125 I-VIP binding and in stimulating adenylate cyclase activity. This contrasts markedly with the behavior of PHI on rat VIP receptors located in intestinal epithelial cell membranes where PHI is a potent agonist with a potency that is 1/5 that of VIP. In another connection, the authors show that 24-glutamine PHI has the same affinity as 24-glutamic acid PHI (the natural peptide) for rat or human VIP receptors. These results indicate that while PHI may exert some physiological function through its interaction with VIP receptors in rodents, its human counterpart PHM is a very poor agonist of VIP in human. Furthermore, they show that the drastic change in position 24 of PHI (neutral versus acid residue) does not affect the activity of PHI, at least on VIP receptors. 21 references, 1 figure

  5. Effect of lead on cholinergic contractile function in the forestomach, ileum and colon of the male Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, including colic, are signs of lead poisoning in man, but the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated. In order to understand the effects of lead on acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated responses, studies were undertaken to determine the isometric contractile response to methacholine, KCl and electric field stimulation in rat forestomach, ileum and colon under conditions of in vitro and in vivo treatment with lead acetate. Rats were dosed with 4% lead acetate in their diet, NIH-07, for 7 weeks, which resulted in renal and hematologic toxicity and blood lead levels of 180-389 ug/dl (1.2 x 10 -5 M). Tissues from in vivo treated rats were exposed to 1.2 x 10 -5 M lead acetate during in vitro contractile studies. E/sub max/ or ED 50 methacholine was not affected by 1.2 x 10 -5 M lead acetate, administered in vitro to control tissue. In the forestomach, a 10-fold higher concentration of lead (16 x 10 -5 M), administered in vitro, increased baseline tension and inhibition response to methacholine. However, in vivo lead treatment potentiated response to methacholine in the forestomach and increased baseline tension in the presence of physostigmine. The EFS response, attributable to ACh release, was not affected in the forestomach or ileum by 1.2 x 10 -5 M in vitro lead treatment. These data indicate that lead, administered in vivo in concentrations which cause renal and hematologic toxicity, does not impair cholinergic contractile response in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Instead, the response to methacholine may be potentiated in the forestomach. Possible mechanisms of lead-induced potentiation of baseline or evoked tension include increased levels of non-elicited ACh release, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase or sensitization of muscarinic receptors

  6. Effect of Saccharomyces Boulardii Cell Wall Extracts on Colon Cancer Prevention in Male F344 Rats Treated with 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Olivier; Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca R; Vu, Khanh D; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii cell wall extracts on colon cancer prevention in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was investigated. A crude insoluble glucan (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day) and a crude mannoprotein extract (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg/day) were administered in rats by gavage for 12 weeks along with a high fat low fiber diet whereupon rats were sacrificed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted in the colon. Moreover, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) and harmful fecal enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase) were quantified in the liver and in the caecum, respectively. Results showed a reduction in ACF counts, a decreased β-glucuronidase activity and an increased QR activity when rats were treated only with insoluble glucan. While these enzymatic modulations may be constituted one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the reduction of ACF counts observed, the reduction of ACF counts caused by insoluble glucan should be addressed, at least, as a biomarker of their cancer-prevention properties. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrated that crude cell wall extract obtained from S. boulardii could have a potential role in colon cancer prevention in vivo by revealing the potential implication of QR and β-glucuronidase modulation.

  7. Estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract of female rats upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Pan

    Full Text Available Co-morbidity of bladder, bowel, and non-specific pelvic pain symptoms is highly prevalent in women. Little evidence is present on modulation of pelvic pain syndromes by sex hormones, therefore, the objective of this study was to clarify the effects of hormonal fluctuations within the estrous cycle on regulatory neuropeptides in female rats using a model of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The estrous cycle in female rats (Sprague-Dawley, 230-250 g was assessed by vaginal smears and weight of uterine horns. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction was induced by a single inflammatory insult to the distal colon. Protein expression of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, nerve growth factor (NGF, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the pelvic organs, sensory ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord was compared in rats in proestrus (high estrogen vs diestrus (low estrogen. Under normal physiological conditions, concentration of SP and CGRP was similar in the distal colon and urinary bladder during all phases of the estrous cycle, however, acute colitis induced a significant up-regulation of CGRP content in the colon (by 63% and urinary bladder (by 54%, p≤0.05 to control of rats in proestrus. These changes were accompanied by a significant diminution of CGRP content in L6-S2 DRG after colonic treatment, likely associated with its release in the periphery. In rats with high estrogen at the time of testing (proestrus, experimental colitis caused a significant up-regulation of BDNF colonic content from 26.1±8.5 pg/ml to 83.4±32.5 pg/ml (N = 7, p≤0.05 to control and also induced similar effects on BDNF in the urinary bladder which was also up-regulated by 5-fold in rats in proestrus (p≤0.05 to respective control. Our results demonstrate estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization, which may contribute to pain fluctuations in female patients

  8. Inbred rats as a model to study persistent renal colonization and associated cellular immune responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection...

  9. Influence of omentoplasty on colonic anastomosis in animals submitted to hemorrhagic shock in rats Influência da omentoplastia na anastomose cólica de animais submetidos a choque hemorrágico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bolzam-Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze influence of omentoplasty on anastomosis in descending colon of rats. Rats were submitted to the hypovolemic shock of the hemorrhagic type by the Biomechanical Test of Pressure of Rupture by Liquid Distension (BTPRLD. In addition, establish a type of acute anemia in rats that are provided to the study. METHODS: Comparative study between two groups of animals with ten rats in each one, all submitted to hemorrhagic shock for 30% volemic removal by the carotid artery. An anastomosis was performed in left colon. An anastomosis was performed in the left colon. Group 1 took place anastomosis with Polyvinyl Chloride (P.V.C film to prevent the adhesions formation on sature line. Group 2 placed the great omentum around the anastomosis. Euthanasia occurred on the fifth day, when the anastomoses were submitted to the biomechanical test of pressure of rupture by liquid distension (BTPRLD. RESULTS: High rupture pressure was gained with omentoplasty group in relation to the group in which anastomosis was protected from adhesions formation. A statistical significance was noted. CONCLUSION: Protection by great omentum has increased the anastomosis resistance of the shocked animals. Also, the proposed hemorrhagic shock type has proven to be useful for this study.OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência da omentoplastia sobre anastomose realizada em cólon descendente de ratos que foram submetidos a choque hipovolêmico do tipo hemorrágico, por meio do Teste Biomecânico de Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquido. Além disso, estabelecer modelo de anemia aguda em rato que se preste ao referido estudo. MÉTODOS: Estudo comparativo entre dois grupos de animais com 10 ratos em cada, todos submetidos a choque hemorrágico por retirada volêmica de 30% através da artéria carótida, sendo realizada anastomose em cólon esquerdo. No grupo 1 realizou-se proteção da anastomose com película de polivinilcloreto para impedir a formação de ader

  10. Effect of rofecoxib on colon chemical carcinogenesis at colonic anastomotic area in the rat Influencia del rofecoxib en la carcinogénesis cólica perianastomótica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the effect of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib on the incidence of perianastomotic colonic tumors in a model of chemical carcinogenesis in the rat. Experimental design: experimental study with 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n = 15 with colocolic anastomosis and chemical carcinogenesis with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine (1-2 DMH; rofecoxib 0.0027% (n = 15 with colonic anastomosis, chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of dietary rofecoxib at doses of 27 parts per million (ppm, and rofecoxib 0.0058% (n = 15 with colonic anastomosis, chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of dietary rofecoxib at doses of 58 ppm. Carcinogenic induction was performed with 1-2 DMH at a weekly dose of 25 mg/kg of weight for 18 weeks, and colonic tumors induced were analyzed in postoperative week 20. The main parameter evaluated was the percentage of colonic neoplastic tissue, which relates tumor surface area to the colon's surface area. Results: rofecoxib at doses of 2.5 mg/kg or 0.0058 ppm significantly reduced chemical colon carcinogenesis in rats, both in the perianastomotic area and the rest of the colon (p Objetivo: investigar el efecto de un inhibidor selectivo de la ciclooxigenasa-2, rofecoxib, en la incidencia de tumores cólicos perianastomóticos en un modelo de carcinogénesis farmacológica en ratas. Diseño experimental: estudio experimental con 45 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los tres grupos: control (n = 15, con anastomosis colo-cólica y carcinogénesis con 1-2 dimetilhidracina; rofecoxib 0,0027% (n = 15, con anastomosis cólica y carcinogénesis farmacológica y adición de rofecoxib en la dieta a dosis de 27 partes por millón, y rofecoxib 0,0058% (n = 15, con anastomosis, carcinogénesis y adición de rofecoxib en la dieta a dosis de 58 ppm. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con 1-2 DMH a dosis semanal de 25 mg/kg de peso

  11. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93 and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote

  12. The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre- or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Thorup, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dietary sugar on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane (AOM). The potential role of sugar as either a co-initiator or a promoter was investigated by giving diets high...... in sucrose and dextrin (61%) during either the pre-initiation, the initiation, and/or the post initiation stage of the ACF development. The colonic cell proliferation, activity of colonic phase II enzymes, and a biomarker of lipid peroxidation were additionally examined in order to obtain information...... on the specific mechanisms involved in the suggested effect of sucrose and dextrin on ACF development. The number of large sized and the total number of ACF were significantly increased by feeding sucrose and dextrin in the post-initiation period. No positive association between colonic cell proliferation and ACF...

  13. Intraoperative bowel irrigation improves anastomotic collagen metabolism in the left-sided colonic obstruction but not covering colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, N; Bender, O; Memişoğlu, K; Yalçiner, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intraoperative colonic irrigation and proximal diverting end colostomy after segmental bowel resection in experimental left-colonic obstruction on anastomotic healing. Simple obstruction of descending colon was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h we performed segmental colonic resection and anastomosis in the control group (n = 15); resection, anastomosis, and covering colostomy in the colostomy group (n = 14); resection and anastomosis after antegrade colonic lavage through cecum by using isotonic saline solution in the irrigation group (n = 13). In rats that were killed 7 days later anastomotic dehiscence and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration at the anastomosis were measured. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of anastomotic dehiscence, bursting site, or pressure. The hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in the irrigation group than the control group (P = 0.025) and the colostomy group (P = 0.029), but no difference was noted between the control group and the colostomy group. These findings suggest that intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation in the acute left-sided colonic obstruction positively affects collagen metabolism at the anastomotic site; if the anastomosis is performed without bowel cleansing, covering colostomy does not improve collagen metabolism.

  14. [Effect of Electroacupuncture at "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Tianshu" (ST 25) for Colonic Motility and D 2 Receptor in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Guo, Meng-Wei; Gao, Yu-Shan; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Lan, Ying; Ji, Mao-Xian; Wu, Yan-Ying; Li, Kai-Ge; Tan, Li-Hua; Sui, Ming-He

    2018-01-25

    To observe and compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) for colonic motility and the expression of colon dopamine D 2 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rats, and to explore the specificity of different meridians and different acupoints. Forty Wistar newborn rats were randomly divided into blank, model, Tianshu and Neiguan groups. Separation of mother and child and acetic acid coloclyster combined with colorectal distension were used to establish IBS model in the model, Tianshu and Neiguan groups. At the age of 9 weeks, EA at bilateral ST 25 and PC 6 were applied in the corresponding groups 5 times, once every other day. After the intervention, the Bristol fecal score, the latent period of abdominal retraction reflex and the number of contraction waves were recorded. The expression of dopamine D 2 receptor was detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the blank group, the Bristol fecal score of the model group was higher ( P <0.01), the 1 st contraction wave latent period was shorter ( P <0.01), the number of contraction waves in 90 s increased ( P <0.01), the immunoreactive expression of D 2 receptor in colon decreased ( P <0.01). Compared with the model group, the Bristol fecal scores of the Tianshu and Neiguan groups decreased ( P <0.01), the 1 st contraction wave latent periods were longer ( P <0.01), the numbers of contraction waves in 90 s decreased ( P <0.01), the positive expressions of D 2 receptor in colon increased ( P <0.01, P <0.05). Compared with the Tianshu group, the immunoreactive expression of D 2 receptor in the Neiguan group decreased ( P <0.01). EA at ST 25 and PC 6 can improve the symptoms of colonic motility in IBS rats. The effect of EA at ST 25 is better, which indicates that different meridians and different acupoints play specific effects.

  15. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, François; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-15

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P diet, whereas the amount of butyrate in feces was increased (P diet consumption allows maintenance in the luminal butyrate concentration and thus its metabolism in colonocytes despite modified microbiota composition and increased substrate availability. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Inhibition of beta-catenin and KRAS expressions by Piper betle in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer of male Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Faezah; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the chemopreventive effect of Piper betle (PB) on preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci [ACF]) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats and its effect on colorectal cancer biomarkers (beta-catenin, KRAS, p53 and p21). A total of 32 male Fischer 344 rats were divided into phase 1 and phase 2 groups (8 and 24 weeks of AOM administration, respectively). Each phase was divided into 4 groups: control or normal saline (NS) (1 mL/kg), AOM (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks), PB (75 mg/kg body weight) and AOM + PB. PB was force-fed to rats a week after the second dose of AOM and NS. The colon was cut open longitudinally for methylene blue and immunohistochemistry staining. AOM administration showed formation of ACF at 8 and 24 weeks. PB, however, did not reduce ACF formation at either week, but it managed to reduce beta-catenin expression and KRAS found highly expressed in the AOM group of phase 1 rats. No immunoreactivities of p53 and p21 were detected in phase 2 rats, but instead inflammatory cells were visible in between the lesions. PB may act as a potential chemopreventive agent in the early stage of colon carcinogenesis by suppressing the expressions of beta-catenin and KRAS.

  17. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary low-dose sucrose modulation of IQ-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue((TM)) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Hansen, Max; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose increases 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon. In this study, we investigated the role of sucrose in IQ-induced genotoxicity of the colon mucosa and liver. Big Blue(TM) rats were fed with IQ (20 ppm...... in feed) and/or sucrose (3.45 or 6.85 wt.% in feed) for 3 weeks. IQ increased DNA strand breaks in the colon, whereas the mutation frequency was increased in the liver. The level of IQ-induced DNA adducts was elevated in both colon mucosa cells and liver. In the liver, high sucrose intake increased...... the level of DNA adducts above that of IQ and low sucrose intake. Oxidative DNA damage detected in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, or endonuclease HI or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were unaltered in the colon and liver. Expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 mRNA levels...

  20. Combination Of Aging And Dimethylhydrazine Treatment Causes An Increase In The Stem Cell Population Of Rat Colonic Crypts

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Edi; Misra, Sandhya; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik B.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2009-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased incidence of colon cancers. It is also becoming evident that cancer stem cells (CSC) play a vital role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we reported the presence of colon cancer stem-like cells in macroscopically normal mucosa in patients with adenomatous polyps and that they increase with aging, suggesting that aging may predispose the colon to carcinogenesis. In the current study we have examined the combined effects of aging and...

  1. Effects of a probiotic soy product and physical exercise on formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in rat colons in a short-term model of carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Elizeu A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose In this study the influence of moderate or intense physical exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soya product fermented with Enterococcus faecium, on the development of colon cancer induced chemically in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, was investigated. Methods Eighty male Wistar SPF rats were randomly allocated to 8 groups (n = 10. One week after the start of the program of product ingestion and/or physical activity, all animals except the controls (group I were injected subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg b.w. of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. This procedure was repeated at the end of the second week. At the end of the 6-week experiment, all the animals were euthanized; the colons were removed and numbers of ACF was estimated. Results Twenty-four days after the induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, it was evident that the formation of ACF was not significantly reduced by the ingestion of the fermented product, by intense or moderate physical activity or by a combination of these factors, in comparison with the positive control group of rats (p Conclusion The results reported in this article show that consumption of the fermented soy product described here and the practice of physical exercise (intense or moderate were incapable, separately or combined, of inhibiting the formation of ACF in DMH-induced rats. The intense physical exercise led to an increased number of foci in the colons of these rats and, probably, to greater susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

  2. The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on human colon cells and inflammation in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Youn Wha; Chi, Sung-Gil; Joo, Yeong-Shil; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2009-02-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has beneficial effects in the treatment of intestinal inflammation; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which these effects occur. We investigated the effects of S. boulardii on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), using human HT-29 colonocytes and a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. The effect of S. boulardii on gene expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Northern blot and Western blot assays. Pharmacological inhibitors for various signaling pathways were used to determine the signaling pathways implicated in the S. boulardii regulation of PPAR-gamma and IL-8. We found that S. boulardii up-regulated and down-regulated PPAR-gamma and IL-8 expression at the transcription level, both in vitro and in vivo (P Saccharomyces boulardii blocked tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) regulation of PPAR-gamma and IL-8 through disruption of TNF-alpha-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. Furthermore, S. boulardii suppressed colitis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in vivo (P boulardii reduces colonic inflammation and regulates inflammatory gene expression.

  3. Green tea, phytic acid, and inositol in combination reduced the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Janak; Verghese, Martha; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L

    2011-11-01

    Experimental as well as epidemiologic studies in human populations provide evidence that consumption of phytochemicals reduces the incidence of degenerative diseases. Green tea (GT) catechins are known for their antioxidative potential. Phytic acid (PA) also acts as a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. After an acclimatization period of 1 week, nine groups of rats (15 rats per group) were initially assigned to consume AIN 93 G diet and later AIN 93 M diet after 20 weeks of age. Treatments were given in drinking water. All rats received azoxymethane injections (16 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Rats were killed at 45 weeks of age by CO(2) euthanasia. Tumor incidence (93.76%) and the number of tumors per tumor-bearing rat ratio (2.25) were significantly (P<.05) higher in the control group compared with treatment groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly (P<.05) higher in rats fed combinations of 2% GT+PA+I and GT+PA (33.25 ± 1.23 and 29.83 ± 1.10 μmol/mL, respectively) compared with other groups. These findings suggest that the synergistic effect of the 2% level of GT, PA, and I may reduce the incidence of colon tumors and therefore have potential as a chemopreventive agent.

  4. Effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Andiroba and Orbignya phalerata (Babassu in colonic healing in rats

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    Cícero Evandro Soares Silva

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the healing effect of the babassu aqueous extract and andiroba oil on open wounds in the cecum of rats. Methods: fifty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 18: 1 babassu group with application of aqueous extract of babassu; 2 andiroba group with application of the oil; and 3 control group, with application of saline solution. All procedures were done by gavage. Each group was divided into three subgroups of six animals according to the observation period of 7, 14 or 21 days. From each animal was removed caecum fragment of 1.5cm² diameter. The areas of the lesions were analyzed macroscopically and resected specimens by light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Results: abscess and infection were observed in two aroeira group animals, and in one only hematoma. In relationship to adhesions degree, babassu group had higher incidence of grade II while in the control and aroeira groups predominated adhesions grade I. On microscopic examination on day 7 fibroblast proliferation was greater in aroeira and lower in babassu group (p=0.028. On the 14th day polymorphonuclear were less pronounced in babassu (p=0.007. As for the resistance test of air insufflation, it was observed that in all andiroba group in all tested days showed be higher. As for collagen, on the 7th day it was present in 100% of animals of aroeira group. On the 14th day was more pronounced in the control group and at day 21 similar results were found in the control and aroeira groups. Conclusion: animals in babassu and andiroba groups showed better cecum healing compared to the control group.

  5. Sequential radioimmunotherapy with 177Lu- and 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody BR96 in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Bäck, Tom

    2014-01-01

    for small, established tumors. A combination of such radionuclides may be successful in regimens of radioimmunotherapy. In this study, rats were treated by sequential administration of first a 177Lu-labeled antibody, followed by a 211At-labeled antibody 25 days later. METHODS: Rats bearing solid colon...... carcinoma tumors were treated with 400 MBq/kg body weight 177Lu-BR96. After 25 days, three groups of animals were given either 5 or 10 MBq/kg body weight of 211At-BR96 simultaneously with or without a blocking agent reducing halogen uptake in normal tissues. Control animals were not given any 211At-BR96....... The rats suffered from reversible myelotoxicity after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential administration of 177Lu-BR96 and 211At-BR96 resulted in tolerable toxicity providing halogen blocking but did not enhance the therapeutic effect....

  6. Taxonomic structure and population level of colon microbial contents in white rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

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    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Production of numerous biologically active compounds and their metabolites by intestinal microflora, interaction with the immune and other systems is of great importance while studying its changes in various diseases, one of which is thyrotoxicosis. So, the purpose of this study was to determine the severity of intestine microbioma disorder in white rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis (ET. Materials and methods. Studies were carried out on 25 mature male white rats (15 — control group, 10 — research group. ET was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions a laparotomy was performed, a section (2–3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. Sterile 0.9% NaCl solution was added to the content. Series of ten-fold dilutions with a concentration of the initial mixture of 10–2 to 10–11 was prepared. From each test tube 0.01 ml was seeded on solid nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. The results of the study demonstrated that in ET animals the main microbioma is represented by bacteria Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and also opportunistic enterobacteria (Escherichia, Proteus, Klebsiella, peptococcus, staphylococci and clostridia. This is accompanied by the elimination of Peptostreptococcus, Enterococcus from bacterial biotope and the contamination of K. oxytoca and staphylococci. There was a pronounced deficit of bifidobacteria by 42.81 %, lactobacillus by 22.57 %, normal intestinal bacillus by 16.48 %. By the population level, the coefficient of quantitative dominance and the significance factor, the leading place is occupied by bacteroids, role of which is increased by 21.72 %, and lactobacillus role decreases by 39.31 %, bifidobacteria decreases by 51.48 % and E. coli decreases by 57.49 %. In this case, the role of peptococcus 3

  7. Soybean and fish oil mixture increases IL-10, protects against DNA damage and decreases colonic inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis

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    Carvalho Patrícia O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It was investigated whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could influence colonic injury, tissue DNA damage, cytokines and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and plasma corticosterone in DSS-induced colitis rats. Male weaning Wistar rats were fed for 47 days with an AIN-93 diet with control (C, fish (F or a mixture of fish and soybean oil (SF. The colitis was induced from day 36 until day 42 by 3% DSS in drinking water. On day 48, blood samples were collected for corticosterone determination. The distal colon was excised for histological analysis and to quantify the cytokine (IL-4, IL-10 and INF-γ, MPO and DNA damage. The disease activity index (DAI was recorded daily during colitis induction. The DAI, MPO, histological analyses showed decreases only in the SF group compared with the C group. IL-10 was increased and DNA damage was reduced in the groups F and SF, and an inverse correlation between these variables was found. There were no differences in corticosterone, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Soybean and fish oil mixture may be effective in improving colonic injury and DNA damage, and it could be an important complementary therapy in UC to reduce the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and prevent colorectal cancer.

  8. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase Cγ-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis

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    Duan-yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1 and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  9. Distribution of voltage-dependent and intracellular Ca2+ channels in submucosal neurons from rat distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Matthias; Bader, Sandra; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We recently observed a bradykinin-induced increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in submucosal neurons of rat colon, an increase inhibited by blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels. As the types of Ca(v) channels used by this part of the enteric nervous system are unknown, the expression of various Ca(v) subunits has been investigated in whole-mount submucosal preparations by immunohistochemistry. Submucosal neurons, identified by a neuronal marker (microtubule-associated protein 2), are immunoreactive for Ca(v)1.2, Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)2.2, expression being confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. These data agree with previous observations that the inhibition of L- and N-type Ca2+ currents strongly inhibits the response to bradykinin. However, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments have revealed that bradykinin does not enhance Ca2+ inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Consequently, bradykinin does not directly interact with Ca(v) channels. Instead, the kinin-induced Ca2+ influx is caused indirectly by the membrane depolarization evoked by this peptide. As intracellular Ca2+ channels on Ca(2+)-storing organelles can also contribute to Ca2+ signaling, their expression has been investigated by imaging experiments and immunohistochemistry. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) have been functionally demonstrated in submucosal neurons loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Histamine, a typical agonist coupled to the phospholipase C pathway, induces an increase in the fura-2 signal ratio, which is suppressed by 2-aminophenylborate, a blocker of IP3 receptors. The expression of IP3R1 has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, ryanodine, tested over a wide concentration range, evokes no increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration nor is there immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in these neurons. Thus, rat submucosal neurons are equipped

  10. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

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    Ritter Michael

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms.

  11. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.

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    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP, including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats.

  12. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  13. A mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor TGP-580 accelerates colonic ulcer healing by stimulating angiogenesis in the ulcer bed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Szabo, S

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we reported that TGP-580, a mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), accelerated the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of TGP-580 on the healing of colonic ulcers. In male Sprague Dawley rats, ulcers were induced in the colon 6 cm from the anus by enema of 50 μl of 3% N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylator. The lesions were examined under a dissecting microscope (x10). The concentration of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and both the distribution of bFGF and the density of microvessels in the ulcer bed were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The content of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was markedly increased associated with ulcer healing, and ulcer healing was significantly delayed by intravenous administration of a monoclonal antibody for bFGF (MAb 3H3) once daily for 10 days. In the ulcer bed, many cells such as fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and macrophages were positively stained with bFGF antiserum. TGP-580, human bFGF or dexamethasone was given intracolonally twice daily for 10 days, starting the day after ulcer induction. TGP-580 (0.2 - 20 μg/ml, 200 μl/rat) dose-dependently accelerated ulcer healing, and its effect was more than 10 times stronger than that of human bFGF. Density (μm/0.01 mm(2)) of microvessels in the ulcer bed was significantly increased by treatment with TGP-580, and there was a good correlation between the density of microvessels and the decrease of ulcerated area (R(2) = 0.633). On the other hand dexamethasone (20 μg/ml) inhibited angiogenesis in the ulcer bed and delayed ulcer healing. These results suggest that angiogenesis in the ulcer bed plays an important role in ulcer healing, and that bFGF mutein TGP-580 accelerated colonic ulcer healing, at least in part, by stimulating angiogenesis, whereas glucocorticoids may delay the healing by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  14. Diversity of Cortico-descending Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Caminiti, Roberto; Rouiller, Eric M

    2018-01-01

    The axonal composition of cortical projections originating in premotor, supplementary motor (SMA), primary motor (a4), somatosensory and parietal areas and descending towards the brain stem and spinal cord was characterized in the monkey with histological tract tracing, electron microscopy (EM) a...

  15. Dietary elevated sucrose modulation of diesel-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, L.; Moller, P.; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose possesses either co-carcinogenic or tumor-promoter effects in colon carcinogenesis induced by genotoxic carcinogens. In this study we investigated the role of sucrose on diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced genotoxicity in the colonic mucosa and liver......-breaks and DNA adducts in liver. DEP and sucrose treatment did not have any effect on mutation frequency in colon and liver. Oxidative DNA damage detected as 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and endonuclease III or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites was unaltered in colon and liver....... The mRNA expression levels of the DNA repair enzymes N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and ERCC1 (part of the nucleotide excision repair complex) measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were increased in liver by DEP feeding. In colon...

  16. 125I-[Tyr0,D-Trp8]somatostatin-14 binding sites in the locus coeruleus of the rat are located on both ascending and descending projecting noradrenergic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, J.; Bluet-Pajot, M.T.; Llorens-Cortes, C.; Kordon, C.; Mounier, F.; Senut, M.C.; Videau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioautographic determinations of 125I-[Tyr0,D-Trp8]somatostatin-14 (125I-SRIF) binding sites were performed on frozen serial sections of the locus coeruleus (LC) of control rats and of rats subjected to either bilateral microinjections of 6 hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the LC or unilateral microinjection into the ascending noradrenergic bundles. These experiments were performed in order to determine whether 125I-SRIF binding was localized to noradrenergic-containing cells and in which regions the cells which contain the binding sites are projecting. The extent of the lesions was assessed by measuring norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus (88% decrease as compared to sham-operated animals) for bilateral LC lesions and in the frontal cortex (87% reduction vs. contralateral side) for unilateral bundle lesions. In control rats, 125I-SRIF binding sites were restricted to the boundaries of the LC and followed closely the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled cells. Three weeks after bilateral injections of 6-OHDA, 125I-SRIF binding decreased by 79% in all regions of the LC. In contrast, unilateral destruction of the ascending noradrenergic bundles resulted in a moderate decrease only in the middle part of the LC with a more important effect in the dorsal (55%) than in the ventral (24%) portion of the nucleus. These data demonstrate that: (1) most SRIF receptors in the LC are located in the vicinity of NE-containing cell bodies and (2) NE-containing cells bearing SRIF receptors project to the forebrain as well as to other terminal areas located more caudally in the brain. These data suggest a general role for SRIF in the control of the multiple functions of the LC

  17. Effect of aging on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats Efeitos do envelhecimento na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing of the colonic anastomoses in old and young adult rats. METHODS: Fifty six Wistar rats were allocated in two groups, the young animals aged on average 110 days and the old animals aged average 762 days. Under anesthesia, the rats underwent a midline laparotomy and the colon was sectioned 2 cm above the peritoneal deflection. An end-to-end interrupted one layer colonic anastomosis was performed and the animals sacrificed on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A 4 cm segment of colon containing the anastomosis was submitted to bursting pressure tests. The paraffin-embedded tissue blocs were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Sirius Red. Histochemical methods such as PCNA, LCA and CD34 were also used. RESULTS: The colonic anastomosis resistance was greater in the old rats group on the 3rd postoperative day (p=0,0000. Collagen concentration was higher in the anastomosis of the young animals on the 14th and 21st postoperative days (p=0,0475, p=0,0346 respectively, with a significantly greater concentration of collagen type I. The concentration of collagen type III, the epithelial lining rate and the angiogenesis were similar in the study groups. CONCLUSION: Despite some differences between the two groups regarding the healing process and considering that failures in the colonic anastomosis wound healing could not be demonstrated, we can concluded that aging itself does not interfere in the wound healing process.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos adultos, jovens e velhos. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e seis ratos machos, Wistar foram alocados em dois grupos, um de animais adultos jovens com idade media de 110 dias e outro de animais velhos, com idade media de 762 dias. Sob anesthesia os ratos forma submetidos a uma laparotomia mediana e o cólon foi seccionado 2 cm acima da reflexão peritoneal. Uma anastomose término-terminal foi feita e avaliada após 3, 7, 14

  18. Refined carbohydrate enhancement of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon induced by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1996-01-01

    ,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM), the use of a diet-related colon cancer initiator, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) formed during meat cooking, would probably give a more relevant insight into diet-related colon carcinogenesis......The aberrant crypt foci (ACF) bioassay has been used extensively to study the early effects of different dietary components on the colonic mucosa of laboratory rodents. ACF are proposed to represent preneoplastic lesions of colon cancer. Compared to the normally used initiators 1....... In the present study it is shown that a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ doses (0.03% in the diet) throughout a study period of 10 weeks has a significant effect on the induction of ACF in the colon of male F344 rats. In addition, the study illustrates that the incidence of the IQ-induced ACF can...

  19. Effects of sucrose and cornstarch on 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colon and liver carcinogenesis in F344 rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Poulsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of sucrose and cornstarch on colon and liver carcinogenesis induced by 0.02% of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the feed. Male F344 rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups were fed diets...... high in either cornstarch (68%) or sucrose (34% sucrose/34% cornstarch) and were initiated with IQ. The remaining two groups received the same two diets but did not receive any IQ. In both liver and colon, administration of IQ resulted in a higher level of DNA adducts. In animals not dosed with IQ......, sucrose increased the adduct level in both organs but to a lower level than IQ. However, simultaneous administration of IQ and sucrose did not further increase the adduct level. Both IQ and sucrose increased the expression of the DNA-repair enzyme ERCC1 in the liver. In the colon, the number of large...

  20. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarek Elmaghraby, T.; Korraa, S.S.; Maher, M.M.; Hassan, N.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  1. Colonic and Hepatic Modulation by Lipoic Acid and/or N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation in Mild Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabiana Andréa; de Andrade, Kívia Queiroz; de Araújo, Orlando Roberto Pimentel; Santos, Juliana Célia de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that have not yet been tested on mild ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aims to evaluate the action of LA and/or NAC, on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in colonic and hepatic rat tissues with mild UC, induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (2% w/v). LA and/or NAC (100 mg·kg·day−1, each) were given, once a day, in the diet, in a pretreatment phase (7 days) and during UC induction (5 days). Colitis induction was confirmed by histological and biochemical analyses (high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and Multiplex®). A redox imbalance occurred before an immunological disruption in the colon. NAC led to a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. In the liver, DSS did not cause damage but treatments with both antioxidants were potentially harmful, with LA increasing MDA and LA + NAC increasing H2O2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and transaminases. In summary, NAC exhibited the highest colonic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, while LA + NAC caused hepatic damage. PMID:27957238

  2. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  3. Yerba mate tea and mate saponins prevented azoxymethane-induced inflammation of rat colon through suppression of NF-kB p65ser(311) signaling via IkB-a and GSK-3ß reduced phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerba mate tea (YMT) has a chemopreventive role in a variety of inflammatory diseases. The objective was to determine the capability of YMT and mate saponins to prevent azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic inflammation in rats. YMT (2% dry leaves, w/v, as a source of drinking fluid) (n = 15) and mat...

  4. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...

  5. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  6. Positive effect of Chang Run Tong on colonic remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mechanisms involved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Sha, Hong; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It has been documented that the Chinese medicine Chang Run Tong (CRT) has a positive effect on constipation which is a prominent symptom in diabetic patients. This present study investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of CRT on colonic remodeling in streptozotocin (STZ...

  7. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    barium enema studies have indicated increasing world prevalence ... Other diagnostic modalities include barium enema, computerised ... This is in contrast to the findings in our patient when colonoscopy was carried out, in which the diverticula were more at the descending colon-left sided, and were found to be bleeding.

  8. Dietary fat and fiber interact to uniquely modify global histone post-translational epigenetic programming in a rat colon cancer progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triff, Karen; McLean, Mathew W; Callaway, Evelyn; Goldsby, Jennifer; Ivanov, Ivan; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-16

    Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin. In general, poor correlation was observed between differentially transcribed (DE) and enriched genes (DERs) at multiple epigenetic levels. The combinatorial diet (fish oil + pectin) uniquely affected transcriptional profiles in the intestinal epithelium, e.g., upregulating lipid catabolism and beta-oxidation associated genes. These genes were linked to activated ligand-dependent nuclear receptors associated with n-3 PUFA and were also correlated with the mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle and the inhibition of lipogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the chemoprotective fish oil + pectin combination diet uniquely induces global histone state modifications linked to the expression of chemoprotective genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  9. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  11. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain.

  12. Neurochemical phenotype and function of endomorphin 2-immunopositive neurons in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Qing eLi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and activity of endomorphins (EMs, which are endogenous m-opioid receptor (MOR ligands in the gastrointestinal tract (GI, have yet to be elucidated. The current study aimed to shed light on this topic. EM2 was expressed in the enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus of the mid-colon. Of the EM2-immunoreactive (EM2-IR neurons, 53 ± 4.6%, 26 ± 4.5%, 26 ± 2.8% and 49 ± 4.2% displayed immunopositive staining for choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, substance P (SP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS, respectively. A bath application of EM2 (2 mM enhanced spontaneous contractile amplitude and tension, which were reversed by β-FNA (an antagonist of MOR but not NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ether (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of NOS or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP6-28 (an antagonist of the VIP receptor in the colonic strips. EM2 significantly suppressed inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs in 14 of the 17 examined circular muscle cells, and this effect was not antagonized by preincubation in L-NAME. EM2 was widely expressed in interneurons and motor neurons in the myenteric plexus and presynaptically inhibited fast IJPs, thereby enhancing spontaneous contraction and tension in the colonic smooth muscle.

  13. Neurochemical phenotype and function of endomorphin 2-immunopositive neurons in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Ping; Wang, Xi-Yu; Gao, Chang-Jun; Liao, Yong-Hui; Qu, Juan; He, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Guo-Du; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and activity of endomorphins (EMs), which are endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) ligands in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), are yet to be elucidated. The current study aimed to shed light on this topic. EM2 was expressed in the enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus of the mid-colon. Of the EM2-immunoreactive (EM2-IR) neurons, 53 ± 4.6%, 26 ± 4.5%, 26 ± 2.8% and 49 ± 4.2% displayed immunopositive staining for choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), respectively. A bath application of EM2 (2 μM) enhanced spontaneous contractile amplitude and tension, which were reversed by β-FNA (an antagonist of MOR) but not NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ether (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of NOS) or VIP6-28 (an antagonist of the VIP receptor) in the colonic strips. EM2 significantly suppressed inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in 14 of the 17 examined circular muscle cells, and this effect was not antagonized by preincubation in L-NAME. EM2 was widely expressed in interneurons and motor neurons in the myenteric plexus and presynaptically inhibited fast IJPs, thereby enhancing spontaneous contraction and tension in the colonic smooth muscle.

  14. Two-Port Laparoscopic Descending Colostomy with Separated Stomas for Anorectal Malformations in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gine, Carlos; Santiago, Saioa; Lara, Alba; Laín, Ana; Lane, Victoria Alison; Wood, Richard J; Levitt, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  We describe a two-port laparoscopic technique to create a colostomy in the descending colon with separated stomas for newborns with anorectal malformations. Material and Methods  Six patients with an anorectal malformation underwent this procedure in the early-neonatal period. The surgical technique was performed with two ports, which allows for an accurate inspection of the abdominal contents. The first loop of the sigmoid colon is grasped through the first port and exteriorized while the attachments to the left retroperitoneum and direction of the loop are checked with the scope introduced in the second port. The division of the colon is performed extracorporally, the colon irrigated of meconium, and the distal colon moved to the second port incision. Both stomas are then fixed to the abdominal wall. Results  The time of the procedure ranged from 50 to 90 minutes. A Mullerian duplication was noted in one case. Oral intake was started during the first 12 to 24 hours. No complications were seen during or after the procedure. Conclusions  This technique allows for the precise localization of the colostomy with direct visualization, provides for the inspection of the internal genitalia, eliminates the incision between the two stomas and its complications, allows for painless stoma bag changes immediately after surgery, avoids twisting of the colostomy, and permits a cosmetically pleasing incision at the colostomy closure. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2 -NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2 -NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2 -NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2 -treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.

  16. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  17. High Dietary Intake of Sodium Selenite Does Not Affect Gene Mutation Frequency in Rat Colon and Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we reported that both Se deficiency and Cu deficiency decreased plasma homocysteine (pHcys) and increased plasma glutathione (pGSH) in rats. We also showed that the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), which catalyzes the rate limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, w...

  18. Effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on chronic visceral hypersensitivity in a radio-induced colonic ulceration model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Patients who undergo pelvic radiotherapy may develop significant incidence of undesirable chronic gastrointestinal complications resulting from radiation-induced damages around the tumour. Chronic visceral pain is one of the radiation-induced side effects that greatly affects the quality of life of 'cancer survivors'. The lack of effective analgesic treatment highlights the importance of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. In our laboratory, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) based approach showed beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative effects in a rat model of irreversible radiationinduced colonic ulcers. The goal of my work was to assess the relevance of this model to study radiation-induced visceral persistent hypersensitivity and its modulation by MSC treatment. We first demonstrated that this model is associated with long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity and central neuronal sensitization. In this context we showed then that mast cells (MC) are involved in the mechanism of peripheral sensitization. Moreover, we suggested the implication of the neuro-mediator NO . in the pathophysiology of persistent radiation-induced visceral hypersensitivity. We also suggested that MSC treatment reversed radiation-induced hypersensitivity by a mechanism that in part may involve the modulation of MC activation and/or the decrease in the number of MC and nerve fiber interactions. In addition, MSC treatment reduced the percentage of nitrinergic neurons, increased after irradiation, and restored colonic muscular contractibility. Such processes may promote the therapeutic benefit of MSC observed in our study. In conclusion, this work provided new insights on the therapeutic benefit of MSC in our study model and a new argument in favour of their use in a future clinical trial to cure abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy side effects. (author) [fr

  19. Influence of rofecoxib on experimental colonic carcinogenesis in rats Influencia del rofecoxib sobre la carcinogénesis cólica experimental en ratas

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    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the effect of a selective cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, in the prevalence of experimental colon tumors in rats. Experimental design: experimental study with 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into four groups: a control group without experimental manipulation (n = 5; b pharmacological carcinogenesis with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrocloride (n = 10; c pharmacological carcinogenesis and addition of acetylsalicylic acid (AAS (n = 10; and d carcinogenesis and addition of rofecoxib (n = 10. Carcinogenesis was induced with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine at a weekly dose of 25 mg/kg for 18 weeks. Colon tumors were isolated at 20 weeks. Antiinflammatory agents were given at a dose of AAS 30 mg/kg and rofecoxib at 3 mg/kg. Results: the percentage of colonic tumors was significantly reduced in the rofecoxib group. This result was found for all tumors and for the malignant lesions, adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the percentage of drug-induced neoplastic glandular tissue in rats.Objetivo: investigar el efecto de un inhibidor selectivo de la ciclooxigenasa-2, rofecoxib, en la incidencia de tumores cólicos a nivel experimental. Diseño experimental: estudio experimental con 35 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos: a control (n=5, sin manipulación experimental; b carcinogénesis farmacológica (n=10; c carcinogénesis farmacológica y ácido acetilsalicílico (n=10, con administración de este fármaco al tiempo de la carcinogénesis farmacológica; y d carcinogénesis farmacológica y rofecoxib (n=10 con administración de este fármaco junto a la carcinogénesis farmacológica. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con 1-2 dimetilhidrazina dihidrocloruro a dosis semanal de 25 mg/kg de peso durante 18 semanas. Se analizaron los tumores cólicos inducidos en la semana 20. Los antiinflamatorios se administraron por vía oral a razón de

  20. Radioprotection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-initiated colon cancer in rats using low-dose γ rays by modulating multidrug resistance-1, cytokeratin 20, and β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, H M; Hassan, B N; Tohamy, A A; Waaer, H F; Abdel Moneim, A E

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiation is a widely used therapy for solid tumors. However, high-dose ionizing radiation causes apoptosis, transforms normal cells into tumor cells, and impairs immune functions, leading to the defects in the removal of damaged or tumor cells. In contrast, low-dose radiation has been reported to exert various beneficial effects in cells. This experimental study investigated the effect of γ rays at low dose on the development of colorectal tumor in a 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Colorectal tumor model was induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) once a week for 15 weeks. Starting from zero day of DMH injection, a single low dose of whole-body γ irradiation of 0.5 Gy/week was applied to the rats. A significant reduction in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and elevation in the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were observed after γ irradiation comparing with DMH group. Moreover, γ ray reduced the expressions of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), β-catenin, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) those increased in DMH-treated rats. However, survivin did not change with γ ray treatment. A histopathological examination of the DMH-injected rats revealed ulcerative colitis, dysplasia, anaplasia, and hyperchromasia. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the colon of rats exposed to γ rays. In conclusion, the present results showed that low-dose γ ray significantly inhibited DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by modulating CK20, MDR1, and β-catenin expression but not survivin expression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Selective up-regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor expression in myenteric plexus after TNBS induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Donald D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA spinal cord receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia following inflammation. It is unclear, however, if changes in NMDA subunit receptor gene expression in the colonic myenteric plexus are associated with colonic inflammation. We investigated regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor gene expression in TNBS induced colitis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g–250 g were treated with 20 mg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS diluted in 50% ethanol. The agents were delivered with a 24 gauge catheter inserted into the lumen of the colon. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after induction of the colitis, their descending colon was retrieved for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; a subset of animals' distal colon was used for two-dimensional (2-D western analysis and immunocytochemistry. Results NR1-exon 5 (N1 and NR1-exon 21 (C1 appeared 14, 21 and 28 days after TNBS treatment. NR1 pan mRNA was up-regulated at 14, 21, and 28 days. The NR1-exon 22 (C2 mRNA did not show significant changes. Using 2-D western analysis, untreated control rats were found to express only NR1001 whereas TNBS treated rats expressed NR1001, NR1011, and NR1111. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated NR1-N1 and NR1-C1 to be present in the myenteric plexus of TNBS treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest a role for colonic myenteric plexus NMDA receptors in the development of neuronal plasticity and visceral hypersensitivity in the colon. Up-regulation of NMDA receptor subunits may reflect part of the basis for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in conditions such as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. A combinatorial approach for analyzing the number of descendants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is devoted to a study of the number of descendants of node j in random increasing trees, previously treated in [5, 8, 10, 15], and also to a study of the number of descendants of node j in pairs of random trees generated by a certain growth process generalizing the corresponding analysis of various classes of ...

  3. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  4. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

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    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  5. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  6. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  7. Evaluation of tumor suppressor gene expressions and aberrant methylation in the colon of cancer-induced rats: a pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymetálková, Veronika; Vannucci, Luca; Korenková, Vlasta; Procházka, Pavel; Slyšková, Jana; Vodičková, Ludmila; Rusňáková, Vendula; Bielik, Ludovít; Burocziová, Monika; Rossmann, Pavel; Vodička, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 10 (2013), s. 5921-5929 ISSN 0301-4851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917; GA ČR GPP304/11/P715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378041 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : colorectal cancer * rats * mRNA expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J); EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.958, year: 2013

  8. Structural Change in Microbiota by a Probiotic Cocktail Enhances the Gut Barrier and Reduces Cancer via TLR2 Signaling in a Rat Model of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuugbee, Eugene Dogkotenge; Shang, Xueqi; Gamallat, Yaser; Bamba, Djibril; Awadasseid, Annoor; Suliman, Mohammed Ahmed; Zang, Shizhu; Ma, Yufang; Chiwala, Gift; Xin, Yi; Shang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Structural change in the gut microbiota is implicated in cancer. The beneficial modulation of the microbiota composition with probiotics and prebiotics prevents diseases. We investigated the effect of oligofructose-maltodextrin-enriched Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria bifidum, and Bifidobacteria infantum (LBB), on the gut microbiota composition and progression of colorectal cancer. Sprague Dawley rats were acclimatized, given ampicillin (75 mg/kg), and treated as follows; GCO: normal control; GPR: LBB only; GPC: LBB+ 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH); and GCA: DMH only (cancer control). 16S V4 Pyrosequencing for gut microbiota analysis, tumor studies, and the expression of MUC2, ZO-1, occludin, TLR2, TLR4, caspase 3, COX-2, and β-catenin were conducted at the end of experiment. Probiotic LBB treatment altered the gut microbiota. The relative abundance of genera Pseudomonas, Congregibacter, Clostridium, Candidactus spp., Phaeobacter, Escherichia, Helicobacter, and HTCC was decreased (P cancer control. The altered gut microbiota was associated with decreased tumor incidence (80 % in GPC vs. 100 % in GCA, P = 0.0001), tumor volume (GPC 84.23 (42.75-188.4) mm(3) vs. GCA 243 (175.5-344.5) mm(3), P cancer control GCA (P colon cancer development by decreasing tumor incidence, multiplicity/count, and volume via enhanced TLR2-improved gut mucosa epithelial barrier integrity and suppression of apoptosis and inflammation.

  9. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  10. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  11. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  12. Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica em lesões actínicas de colo de ratos: aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos Hiperbaric oxygen in actinic lesions of rat colon: morphological and morphometric aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Lyra Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação da oxigenação hiperbárica em lesões actínicas provocadas por radiação ionizante no colo distal de ratas. Métodos: Foram utilizadas 32 ratas adultas distribuídas em quatro grupos. I - sham; II - oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (OHT; III - radioterapia (RT, e IV - radioterapia e oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (da mesma maneira que nos grupos II e III. Segmentos de colo distal foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. Resultados: Os resultados do experimento mostraram lesão das glândulas intestinais, vasodilatação e infiltrado leucocitário na lâmina própria e submucosa no colo dos animais pertencentes ao grupo RT que diminuiu acentudadamente após a oxigenioterapia hiperbárica. Conclusão: A oxigenitoterapia hiperbárica atenua as alterações morfológicas da mucosa e submucosa do cólon distal de ratas com enterite induzida por radiação ionizante.Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hiperbaric oxygen on the radiation-induced actinic lesions in the rat distal colon. Methods: Thirty-two Wistar female rats were divided into four groups: I - sham; II - hiperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT; III - radiotherapy (RT, e IV - radiotherapy and hiperbaric oxygen (the same manner of II and III group. Fragments of distal colon were fixed into 10% formadehyde and proceeded for the histological routine and morphology. Results: The experimental results showed the intestinal gland lesions, vasodilation and infiltrated leucocytes in propria laminae and submucosae in rat colon of GIII that accentuated colon after hiperbaric oxygen Conclusion: Hiperbaric oxygen attenuated the morphological changes in the mucosae and submucosae of the rat distal colon with radiation-induced inflammatory process.

  13. Successful outcome of descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to neck trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurowski, K.; Matuszek, I.; Nunez, C. F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is an uncommon form of mediastinitis that can rapidly progress to septicemia. The optimal surgical approach still remains controversial. In this paper we would like to present a case of descending necrotizing mediastinitis that was treated successfully by means of thoracic drainage through trans-thoracic approach. In our case DNM occurred as a complication of oropharyngeal abscesses and a complication of cervical spine trauma. (authors)

  14. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  15. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  16. Deflazacort e cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. Estudo experimental em ratos Deflazacort and colonic anastomotic healing. An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O deflazacort é um novo corticóide com os mesmos efeitos antiinflamatórios dos demais, porém com menos efeitos colaterais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do deflazacort na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 75 ratos Wistar foram randomizados em três grupos para receberem os seguintes tratamentos por gavagem: grupo controle (N=24= solução fisiológica; grupo deflazacort (N=25= 0,1 mg/Kg/dia dessa droga e, grupo dexametasona (N=26= 0,5 mg/Kg/dia substância. Após seis dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à secção colônica, seguida de anastomose primária em um ponto situado a 2 cm acima da reflexão peritoneal. O tratamento com as soluções foi mantido até o sacrifício, que ocorreu no 3º ou no 6º dia de PO. Observou-se na necrópsia sinais de peritonite e deiscência de sutura. Realizou-se o teste de pressão de ruptura das anastomoses e dosou-se nessa região a concentração de hidroxiprolina e proteinas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença em relação à ocorrência de deiscência e peritonite. A pressão de ruptura foi semelhante no 3º dia. No 6º dia, ela foi maior (p BACKGROUND: Deflazacort, a new corticosteroid is claimed to induce less collateral effects than other corticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the healing of colonic anastomosis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 75 Wistar rats were randomized to receive daily by gavage, one of the following treatments: control group (N=24 - 1 ml of saline; deflazacort (N=25 - 1 ml of this drug containing 0.15mg/ml (0,1 mg/kg/day, and dexamethasone (N=26 - 1 ml containing 0.03 mg/ml of this drug (0.5 mg/kg/day. After 6 days of treatment, the animals underwent laparotomy followed by section and immediate colonic anastomoses in a point 2 cm above peritoneal reflexion. Treatment in each group was carried out until the animals were killed on the third of a six postoperative day. At

  17. The intratumoral distribution of radiolabeled 177Lu-BR96 monoclonal antibodies changes in relation to tumor histology over time in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örbom, Anders; Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Ohlsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2013-08-01

    The therapeutic effect of radioimmunotherapy depends on the distribution of the absorbed dose in relation to viable cancer cells within the tumor, which in turn is a function of the activity distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 monoclonal antibodies targeting the Lewis Y antigen over 7 d using a syngeneic rat model of colon carcinoma. Thirty-eight tumor-bearing rats were intravenously given 25 or 50 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 per kilogram of body weight and were sacrificed 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, or 168 h after injection, with activity measured in blood and tumor samples. Adjacent cryosections of each tumor were analyzed in 3 ways: imaging using a silicon-strip detector for digital autoradiography, staining for histologic characterization, or staining to determine the distribution of the antigen, vasculature, and proliferating cells using immunohistochemistry. Absorbed-dose rate distribution images at the moment of sacrifice were calculated using the activity distribution and a point-dose kernel. The correlations between antigen expression and both activity uptake and absorbed-dose rate were calculated for several regions of interest in each tumor. Nine additional animals with tumors were given unlabeled antibody to evaluate possible immunologic effects. At 2-8 h after injection, activity was found in the tumor margins; at 24 h, in viable antigen-expressing areas within the tumor; and at 48 h and later, increasingly in antigen-negative areas of granulation tissue. The correlation between antigen expression and both the mean activity and the absorbed-dose rate in regions of interest changed from positive to negative after 24 h after injection. Antigen-negative areas also increased over time in animals injected with unlabeled BR96, compared with untreated tumors. The results indicate that viable Lewis Y-expressing tumor cells are most efficiently treated during the initial uptake period. The activity then seems

  18. Dose response study of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil on mammary and colon carcinogenesis pretreated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing Lei; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Kumiko; Iwata, Toshio; Kasai, Masaaki; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hirose, Masao; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-07-10

    To clarify the chemopreventive effects of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on mammary and colon carcinogenesis, 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received diet containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, or 2% CFA-S subsequent to five times subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. and a single 50 mg/kg b.w. intragastric application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) during the first 11 days. The experiment was terminated at week 36. Numbers of mammary tumors, colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and proliferative indices of mammary tumors, and colon epithelium were analyzed. The 1% dose was found to be optimal for suppression of carcinogenesis in both target organs, a good correlation being noted with between data for cell proliferation. These results suggest that a diet containing appropriate levels of CFA-S may be useful for prevention of mammary and colon cancer.

  19. Bacterial translocation in rats nonfunctioning diverted distal colon Translocação bacteriana no coto colônico distal desfuncionalizado de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether the alterations of the diverted colon segment mucosa, evidenced in fecal colitis, would be able to alter Bacterial Translocation (BT. METHODS: Sixty-two Wistar male rats ranging from 220 to 320 grams of weight, were divided in two groups: A (Colostomy and B (Control, with 31 animals each one. In group A, all animals underwent end colostomy, one stoma, in ascending colon; and in the 70th POD was injected in five rats, by rectal route diverted segment - 2ml of a 0.9% saline solution in animals (A1 subgroup; in eight it was inoculated, by rectal route, 2ml of a solution containing Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (American Type Culture Collection, in a concentration of 10(8 Colony Forming Unit for milliliters (CFU/ml - A2 Subgroup; in ten animals the same solution of E. coli was inoculated, in a concentration of 10(11 CFU/ml (A3 Subgroup; and in eight it was collected part of the mucus found in the diverted distal colonic segment for neutral sugars and total proteins dosage (A4 subgroup. The animals from the group B underwent the same procedures of group A, but with differences in the colostomy confection. In rats from subgroups A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, and B3 2ml of blood were aspirated from the heart, and fragments from mesenteric lymphatic nodule, liver, spleen, lung and kidney taken for microbiological analysis, after their death. This analysis consisted of evidencing the presence of E. coli ATCC 25922 CFU. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA Tests were applied as analytic techniques for association of variables. RESULTS: The occurrence of BT was evidenced only in those animals in which inoculated concentration of E. coli ATCC 25922, reached levels of 10(11CFU/ml, i.e. in Subgroups A3 and B3, although, being significantly greater (80% in those animals without colostomy (subgroup B3 when compared to the ones with colostomy (20% from the subgroup A3 (P OBJETIVO: Investigar se as alterações do cólon desfuncionalizado, evidenciadas na

  20. Colonic sensory and motor function in irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C.H.M. (Cornelis Hermanus Maria)

    2003-01-01

    Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2: left-colonic motility patterns were studied in fully ambulant non-constipated IBS patients compared to healthy controls. (HAPCs) were identified. In IBS the descending colon had a decreased overall frequency of phasic contractions and motility index

  1. Impact of location on outcome after penetrating colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Shahan, Charles P; Parks, Nancy A; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies examining suture line failure after penetrating colon injuries have focused on right- versus left-sided injuries. In our institution, operative decisions (resection plus anastomosis vs. diversion) are based on a defined management algorithm regardless of injury location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of injury location on outcomes after penetrating colon injuries. Consecutive patients with full thickness penetrating colon injuries for 13 years were stratified by age, injury location and mechanism, and severity of shock. According to the algorithm, patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Destructive wounds underwent resection plus anastomosis in the absence of comorbidities or large preoperative or intraoperative transfusion requirements (>6 U of packed red blood cells); otherwise, they were diverted. Injury location was defined as ascending, transverse, descending (including splenic flexure), and sigmoid. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine whether injury location was an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality. Four hundred sixty-nine patients were identified: 314 (67%) underwent primary repair and 155 (33%) underwent resection. Most injuries involved the transverse colon (39%), followed by the ascending colon (26%), the descending colon (21%), and the sigmoid colon (14%). Overall, there were 13 suture line failures (3%) and 72 abscesses (15%). Most suture line failures involved injuries to the descending colon (p = 0.06), whereas most abscesses followed injuries to the ascending colon (p = 0.37). Multivariable logistic regression failed to identify injury location as an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality after adjusting for 24-hour transfusions, base excess, shock index, injury mechanism, and operative management. Injury location did not affect morbidity or mortality after penetrating colon injuries. Nondestructive injuries should be primarily

  2. The plasticity of descending controls in pain: translational probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, A H

    2017-07-01

    Descending controls, comprising pathways that originate in midbrain and brainstem regions and project onto the spinal cord, have long been recognised as key links in the multiple neural networks that interact to produce the overall pain experience. There is clear evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that both peripheral and central sensitisation play important roles in determining the level of pain perceived. Much emphasis has been put on spinal cord mechanisms in central excitability, but it is now becoming clear that spinal hyperexcitability can be regulated by descending pathways from the brain that originate from predominantly noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. One pain can inhibit another. In this respect diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) are a unique form of endogenous descending inhibitory pathway since they can be easily evoked and quantified in animals and man. The spinal pharmacology of pathways that subserve DNIC are complicated; in the normal situation these descending controls produce a final inhibitory effect through the actions of noradrenaline at spinal α 2 -adrenoceptors, although serotonin, acting on facilitatory spinal 5-HT 3 receptors, influences the final expression of DNIC also. These descending pathways are altered in neuropathy and the effects of excess serotonin may now become inhibitory through activation of spinal 5-HT 7 receptors. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is the human counterpart of DNIC and requires a descending control also. Back and forward translational studies between DNIC and CPM, gauged between bench and bedside, are key for the development of analgesic therapies that exploit descending noradrenergic and serotonergic control pathways. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Revisiting colostomy irrigation: a viable option for persons with permanent descending and sigmoid colostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dea J; Arnold Long, Mary; Bauer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is the regular irrigation of the bowel for persons with a permanent colostomy of the descending or sigmoid colon. Although this technique was first described in the 1920s, a recent study of 985 WOC nurses found that almost half (47%) do not routinely teach CI to persons with colostomies. In a systematic review (Evidence-Based Report Card) published in this issue of the Journal, we summarized current best evidence concerning the effect of CI on bowel function and found that irrigation reduces the frequency of bowel elimination episodes and allows some patients to reduce or eliminate ongoing use of a pouching system. This article describes techniques for teaching CI and discussed additional findings associated with CI.

  4. Effect of diets fortified with tomatoes or onions with variable quercetin-glycoside content on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Femia, A.P.; Caderni, G.; Ianni, M.; Salvadori, M.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Collins, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Dolara, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Onion and tomato are vegetables widely consumed by humans and epidemiological studies show an inverse association between vegetable consumption and colon cancer risk; however, the effect on colon cancer of diets containing high levels of vegetables like onion and tomato are not clear.

  5. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  6. Urine concentrating mechanism: impact of vascular and tubular architecture and a proposed descending limb urea-Na+ cotransporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzler, William H.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    We extended a region-based mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney, previously developed by us, to represent new anatomic findings on the vascular architecture in the rat inner medulla (IM). In the outer medulla (OM), tubules and vessels are organized around tightly packed vascular bundles; in the IM, the organization is centered around collecting duct clusters. In particular, the model represents the separation of descending vasa recta from the descending limbs of loops of Henle, and the model represents a papillary segment of the descending thin limb that is water impermeable and highly urea permeable. Model results suggest that, despite the compartmentalization of IM blood flow, IM interstitial fluid composition is substantially more homogeneous compared with OM. We used the model to study medullary blood flow in antidiuresis and the effects of vascular countercurrent exchange. We also hypothesize that the terminal aquaporin-1 null segment of the long descending thin limbs may express a urea-Na+ or urea-Cl− cotransporter. As urea diffuses from the urea-rich papillary interstitium into the descending thin limb luminal fluid, NaCl is secreted via the cotransporter against its concentration gradient. That NaCl is then reabsorbed near the loop bend, raising the interstitial fluid osmolality and promoting water reabsorption from the IM collecting ducts. Indeed, the model predicts that the presence of the urea-Na+ or urea- Cl− cotransporter facilitates the cycling of NaCl within the IM and yields a loop-bend fluid composition consistent with experimental data. PMID:22088433

  7. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44±0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71±0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64±0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94±0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52±0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0±0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0±0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 ±0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70±0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33±0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia

  8. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K. [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44{+-}0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71{+-}0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64{+-}0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94{+-}0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52{+-}0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 {+-}0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70{+-}0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33{+-}0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia.

  9. Electrocautery-induced localized colonic injury elicits increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in small bowel and decreases jejunal alanine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, Kassem; Mourad, Fadi H; Noutsi, Bakiza; Saadé, Nayef E

    2015-01-01

    Colitis is associated with functional abnormalities in proximal non-inflamed gut areas, but animal models to study small bowel dysfunction in colitis have limitations. This study aims to determine small intestinal alanine absorption and cytokine expression in a novel model of colonic ulceration induced by electro-cautery. A descending colon ulcer was induced in rats by a bipolar electro-cautery probe. Ulcer score was determined using Satoh's criteria. Jejunal alanine absorption was measured immediately and at different time intervals post ulcer induction. Levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein and m-RNA were determined in mucosal scrapings obtained from the colon, duodenum, jejunum and ileum at various time intervals after colonic ulcer induction. The mean ulcer score was 3 up to 48h, followed by healing by 96h post ulcer induction. Small bowel histology was normal throughout. Jejunal alanine absorption was reduced by 12-34% immediately and up to 72h after cautery and returned to normal at 96h. IL-1 and TNF-α mRNA increased significantly in the colon, duodenum, jejunum and ileum 3h post electro-cautery and returned to normal at 48h, while that of IL-6 increased significantly at 48h post ulcer induction. Similarly, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels increased in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon up to 48h post ulcer induction. Electrically induced localized colonic injury increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in non-inflamed segments of the small intestine and was associated with derangements of jejunal absorptive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P.; Sheikhi, M.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Saeb, S.; Shokrpour, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα), MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray). Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy) after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group). DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF radiation was

  11. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarram P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC. Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα, MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray. Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group. DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF

  12. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  13. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, B. van

    2004-01-01

    Background. Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  14. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, van B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  15. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erk, Marjan J; Teuling, Eva; Staal, Yvonne C. M.; Huybers, Sylvie; Van Bladeren, Peter J; Aarts, Jac MMJG; Van Ommen, Ben

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  16. Entanglement entropy for descendent local operators in 2D CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Guo, Wu-Zhong; He, Song; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2015-01-01

    We mainly study the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy of the states locally excited by the descendent operators in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs). In rational CFTs, we prove that the increase of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy for a class of descendent operators, which are generated by L"("−")L̄"("−") onto the primary operator, always coincide with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the corresponding primary operator. That means the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for these descendent operators are the same as the ones of their corresponding primary operator. For 2D rational CFTs with a boundary, we confirm that the Rényi entropy always coincides with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the primary operator during some periods of the evolution. Furthermore, we consider more general descendent operators generated by ∑d_{_n__i_}_{_n__j_}(∏_iL_−_n__i∏_jL̄_−_n__j) on the primary operator. For these operators, the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy get additional corrections, as the mixing of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic Virasoro generators enhance the entanglement. Finally, we employ perturbative CFT techniques to evaluate the Rényi entropy of the excited operators in deformed CFT. The Rényi and entanglement entropies are increased, and get contributions not only from local excited operators but also from global deformation of the theory.

  17. CASE REPORT Dual (type IV) left anterior descending artery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about 1.38%. [1,3] This anomaly is seen relatively often with congenital malformations such as complete transposition of the great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot.[2]. When a short or hypoplastic LAD is detected, a differential diagnosis should be sought. There may be a long dominant posterior descending branch of the RCA, ...

  18. DESCENDING PATHWAYS AND THE HOPPING RESPONSE IN THE RABBIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOBBELEN, JF; GRAMSBERGEN, A; VANHOF, MW

    1992-01-01

    Descending pathways were studied in 5 adult rabbits by means of HRP, injected in the cervical spinal cord (in C2 and C3) at the right side. Results indicate the existence of pathways from the contralateral motor cortex, bilateral projections from the red nuclei, from the vestibular nuclei and from

  19. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats Efeitos morfoquantitativos do diabetes agudo sobre os neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montserrat D.P. Furlan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute diabetes on the density and size of the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats were investigated. The injection of streptozotocin was followed by a period of observation of seven days, during which the diabetic animals showed weight loss, excessive food and water intake, large urinary debt and hyperglicemia. The whole-mounts from the proximal colon were stained with the techniques of Giemsa and of the NADH-diaphorase, and the employment of these techniques made it possible to verify a decrease on the neuronal density and on the cell body size of the myenteric neurons in the colon of the diabetic rats. These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol.Foram investigados os efeitos do diabetes agudo sobre a densidade e o tamanho dos neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos. À injeção de estreptozootocina seguiu-se um período de observação de sete dias, durante os quais os animais diabéticos apresentaram perda de peso, ingestão excessiva de alimento e água, grande débito urinário e hiperglicemia. Os preparados de membrana do colo proximal foram corados pelas técnicas de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. A aplicação dessas técnicas permitiu constatar uma redução da densidade neuronal e do tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios mioentéricos no colo dos ratos diabéticos. Essas observações foram discutidas em termos da patofisiologia do diabetes e do protocolo experimental.

  20. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  1. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe coincidência entre os sintomas do climatério e o aparecimento acentuado dos sinais de envelhecimento da pele. Estudos, em modelos animais, mostraram que o estrógeno é uma espécie de mediador crítico na cicatrização de feridas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da influência da terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH em anastomoses de cólon, feitas em ratas. MÉTODOS: Utilizam 3 grupos de ratas Wistar, um grupo de ooforectomizadas com TRH feita com 50mg de estrógeno e 2 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, um de ooforectomizadas e sem TRH e um de ratas laparotomizadas e não ooforectomizadas. Realizaram a ooforectomia e a confirmação da condição hormonal após 28 dias. Em seguida instituíram a TRH ou de solução fisiológica, diariamente. Após 2 meses fizeram uma colotomia esquerda com anastomose término-terminal e estudaram a resistência e a densidade de colágeno com 7 e 14 dias. RESULTADOS: As anastomoses dos cólons das ratas sem TRH eram menos resistentes do que as do grupo controle tanto no 7.º dia (p=0,0488 como no 14.º dia (p=0,0115. A densidade de colágeno foi menor no 7.º dia (p=0,0210 com menor presença de colágeno I (p=0,0023 e de colágeno III (p=0,0470. No 14.º dia estas diferenças permaneceram significantes. Nas anastomoses dos cólons das ratas com TRH as diferenças, em relação ao grupo controle, não foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A falta dos hormônios ovarianos leva à menor resistência e atrasa a maturação de anastomoses do cólon, em ratas e estas deficiências são compensadas pela TRH.PURPOSE: The symptoms of the climacteric coincide with the marked appearance of signs of skin aging. Studies on animal models have shown that estrogen is a critical mediator in wound healing. The authors report a study of the influence of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT on colon anastomoses performed in female rats. METHODS: Three groups of Wistar rats were used: one submitted to oophorectomy

  2. Estudo da motilidade espontânea de segmentos de cólon ascendente, transverso e descendente de ratos, em banhos fisiológicos para órgãos isolados Study of spontaneous motility of parts of colon in physiologic chamber for isolated organ, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodrigues de Sales

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as diferenças na freqüência, amplitude de contrações, traçados negativos e forma das ondas. MÉTODOS: Fez-se um estudo da motilidade espontânea de segmentos de cólon ascendente, transverso e descendente de ratas, em banhos fisiológicos para órgãos isolados. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se grande variabilidade de freqüências e amplitudes das contrações registradas. Embora tenha havido predominância de contrações fortes no cólon descendente e de contrações menores no cólon transverso, todos os tipos de ondas foram encontrados nos três segmentos. CONCLUSÕES: O cólon apresenta motilidade muito variável, não permitindo identificar padrão característico inconfundível para cada um dos três segmentos, ascendente, transverso e descendente. O cólon transverso apresentou maior quantidade de traçados negativos, menor amplitude de contrações e menor freqüência de contrações. O cólon descendente apresentou o menor número de traçados negativos e a maior média de amplitude de contrações dos três segmentos.PURPOSE: The aim was to identify the difference in frequency, amplitude of contractions, negative tracing and shape of the waves. METHODS: We made one study of spontaneous motility of parts of colon from mouse, in physiologic chamber for isolated organ. RESULTS: It was found the biggest frequence variability and amplitude of contractions registered. Although there has been predominancy of strong contractions in the descending colon and weaker contractions in the transverse one, all kinds of waves were found in the three segments. CONCLUSIONS: The colon shows variable motility, which does not permit identify the unmistakable characteristic pattern for each of the three segments, ascendent, transverse and descending. The transverse colon shows a bigger quantity of negative traces, smaller amplitude of contractions and less frequency of contractions. The descending colon showed a smaller number of

  3. Ascending Midbrain Dopaminergic Axons Require Descending GAD65 Axon Fascicles for Normal Pathfinding

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    Claudia Marcela Garcia-Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold.

  4. Placement of a Colonic Stent by Percutaneous Colostomy in a Case of Malignant Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Herrero, Helena; Paul Diaz, Laura; Pinto Pabon, Isabel; Lobato Fernandez, Rosa

    2001-01-01

    We present a patient with disseminated stomach cancer who presented with symptoms of acute obstruction of the splenic flexure of the colon caused by tumor spread. During a first attempt to insert a colon stent through the anus under endoscopic guidance as final palliative therapy, it was not possible to reach the region of the stricture, and iatrogenic perforation of the descending colon occurred, which resolved favorably under conservative management. A second attempt to insert a stent was made via percutaneous puncture of the transverse colon, approaching the region of the stricture by a descending route. The procedure was completed without complications and the patient's symptoms improved. Stent placement via percutaneous puncture of the colon has not previously been described in the literature. It may be an alternate route in cases of proximal strictures in which access through the anus has been unsuccessful even with the aid of endoscopic guidance

  5. Constitutive modeling of the passive inflation-extension behavior of the swine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh; Chen, Huan; Ahuja, Aashish; Krieger, Joshua F; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R 2 =0.94±0.02). The model revealed that the circumferential muscle layer does not provide significant mechanical support under passive conditions and the circumferential load is actually carried by the submucosa layer. The stress analysis permitted by the model showed that the colon tissue can distend up to 30% radially without significant increase in the wall stresses suggesting a highly compliant behavior of the tissue. This is in-line with the requirement for the tissue to easily accommodate variable quantities of fecal matter. The analysis also showed that the descending colon is significantly more compliant than the spiral colon, which is relevant to the storage function of the descending colon. Histological analysis showed that the swine colon possesses a four-layer structure similar to the human colon, where the longitudinal muscle layer is organized into bands called taeniae, a typical feature of the human colon. The model and the estimated parameters can be used in a Finite Element framework to conduct simulations with realistic geometry of the swine colon. The resulting computational model will provide a foundation for virtual assessment of safe and effective devices for the treatment of colonic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The CT diagnostic value of emergency intestinal obstruction caused by colon carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuohong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the value of CT in the diagnosis of emergency intestinal obstruction (EIOB) caused by colon carcinoma. Methods: 17 cases with EIOB caused by colon carcinoma were submitted to CT scanning. Contrast enhanced scans were performed in 11 cases. The locations and characters of EIOB in CT imaging were recorded and compared with operation results. Results: The locations of the obstructions were 3 cases in cecum, 1 in ascending colon, 1 in transverse colon, 2 in descending colon, and 10 in sigmoid colon. Compared with operation results, the accuracy of CT in locating obstruction was 94%, and in qualitative diagnosis of colon carcinomas was 70%. Conclusion: CT can display very well the obstruction location of EIOB, and It has certain value in character izing colon carcinoma with EIOB. (authors)

  7. Influence of a Dietary Fiber on Development of Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in archived colon tissue from animals in a previous study was examined. The animals were fed a semisynthetic casein-based diet in which the carbohydrate pool was substituted with a dietary beet fiber (Fibeta) as the only source of fiber. Oral doses...... experimental data. The present state of knowledge could indicate that ACF represent true preneoplastic lesions progressing into colon tumors or that ACF and colon tumors represent two parallel independent events as a consequence of the cancer initiation (i.e., the ACF not being preneoplastic lesions per se)....... between duration of intake of high-fiber diet and number of animals with ACF, as well as the total number of ACF and number of small A CF (1-3 crypts) per affected animal. The previously reported data showed no protective effect of the dietary fiber at any stage of the colorectal carcinogenic process...

  8. Influence of arterial hypertension on colonic healing in rats Influência da hipertensão arterial na cicatrização colônica em ratos

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    Gilberto Luiz Ortolan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluation of colonic healing in spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Fifty male, young and inbred rats were used. Twenty-five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY as control and twenty-five spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR as an experimental group. Colotomy and bowel suture at 2.5 cm from the peritoneal reflection were performed. All animals were allocated randomly into sub-groups for review at the third, seventh and fourteenth days after surgery. We evaluated the concentration of angiotensin II, the burst pressure, epithelialization, the organization of the tunics of the bowel wall, inflammatory response and collagen deposition. RESULTS: The burst pressure, epithelialization, organization of the tunics and collagen deposition was not significant between groups. The inflammatory reaction was more intense in the control group on the third postoperative day (p=0.023 as the experimental group on the remaining time. CONCLUSION: Systemic arterial hypertension in rats did not influence significantly the healing process of colonic anastomoses.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a cicatrização colônica em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos machos, jovens e isogênicos. Vinte e cinco ratos da linhagem Wistar Kyoto (WKY como controle e vinte e cinco ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR como grupo experimento. Realizou-se colotomia e colorrafia a 2,5 cm da reflexão peritoneal. Alocaram-se os animais aleatoriamente em sub-grupos para avaliação no terceiro, sétimo e décimo quarto dias de pós-operatório. Foram avaliados a concentração de angiotensina II, a resistência da anastomose à insuflação, a epitelização, a organização das túnicas da parede intestinal, a reação inflamatória e a deposição de colágeno. RESULTADOS: A avaliação da resistência da anastomose, epitelização, organização das túnicas e deposição de colágeno não foi significativa entre os grupos. A reação inflamatória foi mais intensa no

  9. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  10. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

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    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  11. The Last Descendant of Tycho Brahe Lives in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.

    On 24 October 1601 passed away, in the 55th year of his life, the great astronomer Tycho Brahe. Now, four centuries since his death, his last descendant is living in Romania: Lydia Baroness Løvendal-Papae. An encyclopedic culture and training as hers can rarely be found today; she also is an excellent specialist in genealogy and heraldry. She has not only the merit of studying the cosmic symbols in heraldry, but especially that of establishing the genealogical tree of the famous Danish astronomer. She also holds a genealogical record: as the last descendant of the old Danish dynasty, she descends from all European dynasties, including the founders of the Romanian countries. We shall dwell here neither upon the great personality of Tycho Brahe, nor on his role in the modern astronomy. We shall not refer to the Tycho catalogue resulted from the space mission Hipparcos. We shall dwell upon the ancient aristocratic family Brahe. The oldest firm mention goes as far back as in 1364, but there are data enough on the existence of some members of this family in the 13th century. The Brahe family was related to a no less famous family, that of the Barons Løvendal. One of the ancestors of Lydia Baroness Løvendal is the renowned Ulrik Frederik Voldemar, Baron, then Count Lovendal, marshal of France (1700-1755), whose name was assigned to one of the most important boulevards of Paris.

  12. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  13. The Impact of the Organism on Its Descendants

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    Patrick Bateson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, evolutionary biologists have taken the view that an understanding of development is irrelevant to theories of evolution. However, the integration of several disciplines in recent years suggests that this position is wrong. The capacity of the organism to adapt to challenges from the environment can set up conditions that affect the subsequent evolution of its descendants. Moreover, molecular events arising from epigenetic processes can be transmitted from one generation to the next and influence genetic mutation. This in turn can facilitate evolution in the conditions in which epigenetic change was first initiated.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and mechanical resistence of the colonics anastomosis in rats with peritonitis Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica e resistência mecânica das anastomoses cólicas em ratos com peritonite

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    Antonio Angelo Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO on the mechanical resistance of anastomosis performed in rats' distal colon presenting peritonitis induced by ligature and cecal punction using the Total Energy Rupture biomechanical test (ETR. METHODS: It was used 45 rats divided into three groups of 15 animals each. In Control Group (CG, it was performed anastomosis in distal colon without peritonitis. In Peritonitis Group (PG, it was performed anastomosis six hours after the induction of peritonitis by ligature and cecal punction. In Hyperbaric Chamber Group (HCG, it was performed six hours after the induction of peritonitis by ligature and cecal punction. The animals on CG and PG were kept at place air while the animals on HCG were placed on an experimental hyperbaric chamber in order to inhale oxygen at 100%, two absolute atmospheres, for 120 minutes, for four consecutive days. Euthanasia took place on the fifth day of the experiment. All the animals underwent to Total Energy Rupture Biomechanical Resistance test (ETR. Total Energy Rupture was defined as the necessary internal energy stored up to promote the colon rupture after an external traction force imposition. RESULTS: The Peritonitis Group presents smaller average ETR than Control Group. There was no statistical difference between Peritonitis Group and Hyberbaric Chamber Group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy did not alter the mechanical resistance of anastomosis performed in distal colon of rats under the presence of peritonitis induced by ligature and cecal puncture.OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (HBO sobre a resistência mecânica de anastomoses realizadas em cólon distal de ratos na presença de peritonite induzida por ligadura e punção cecal utilizando o teste biomecânico de Energia Total de Ruptura (ETR. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 45 ratos distribuídos em três grupos de 15 animais. No Grupo Controle (GC, realizou

  15. Ruptured mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon in a child : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma of the colon is extremely rare in pediatric patients, and due to the preponderance of poor histological characteristics and the difficulty of diagnosis, the prognosis in children is quite unfavorable. We describe a case of ruptured and disseminated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the descending and sigmoid colon in a 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass containing tiny calcifications and poorly enhanced hypodense portions in the thickened descending and sigmoid colon, as well as abundant ascites. Where images reveal a mass with low attenuation, calcifications, and aggressive dissemination, mucinous adenocarcinoma may be preferentially included in the differential diagnosis of a pedriatic colon tumor. (author)

  16. Responsibility of parents for misdemeanors committed by their descendants

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    Ristivojević Branislav R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the authors' attention are certain questions concerning the responsibility for the acts of other persons in the misdemeanor law of the Republic of Serbia. Under certain conditions, if a child or a minor (descendants commits a misdemeanor, instead of him or together with him, other persons can be held responsible as well, foremost his parents who had not exercised due supervision. There is a difference between the responsibility of a parent whose children have committed a misdemeanor and are under 14, and that of a parent whose children are between 14 and 18 years old. Therefore, there is a difference in terms of responsibility of the parent depending on if the person who committed the misdemeanor is, from the perspective of the Misdemeanor Law, a child or a minor. The authors critically analyze the articles of the Misdemeanor Law that concern the responsibility of the parent for the misdemeanors committed by their descendants. In the end, they conclude that the Misdemeanor Law undermines one of the essential legal principle that the 'scope of rights has to correspond to the scope of obligations and responsibility'.

  17. Bilateral anterior thalamic low densities in descending transtentorial herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Chikao; Watanabe, Takao

    1985-02-01

    Round, well-demarcated, symmetrical low densities in a bilateral thalamus in a case of descending transtentorial herniation due secondarily to acute traumatic left subdural hematoma are reported. An 8-year-old boy, on whom emergency surgery was refused by his parents, showed a marked shift due to the hematoma on admission; this was followed by a low density in the left PCA territory and round, equivocal hypodensities in the anterior thalamus 44 hours post-trauma. The equivocal hypodensities became definite, well-demarcated, round low densities situated symmetrically in the anterior thalamus on the 39th day post-trauma. Akinetic mutism was noted at this time. The symmetrical low densities and the PCA-territory low density persisted as late as the 39th day post-trauma, suggesting infarcts. The downward stretch of the bilateral thalamoperforators, which was effected by a narrowing of the interpeduncular fossa with an approximation of the bilateral perforators, plus a downward shift of the PCA due to descending transtentorial herniation, was assumed to be the mechanism involved. (author).

  18. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

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    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  19. Participation: A Descending Road of the Metaphysical Cognition of Being

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    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we see in the world the fact that there are many beings, and we indicate that the particular beings exist in a compositional way, we face the task of learning about a new problem: how can we define and determine the relations between beings and between the elements within a being? Although the theory of participation has roots that go back to Plato, and so to a philosophy in which the pluralism of being was rejected and which accepted an identity-based conception of being, participation finds its ontological rational justification only (and ultimately in the pluralistic and compositional conception of being. With the description of participation as a “descending road” in the cognition of being, we are restricting ourselves to the presentation of how participation is understood in realistic metaphysics (while we shall leave aside the history of the question. We will show the aspects of participation that provide a foundation for wisdom-oriented cognition, and we will show the specific character of participation-oriented cognition as a “descending road.”

  20. Effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis Efeitos da bromoprida na cicatrização de anastomoses no cólon esquerdo de ratos sob sepse abdominal induzida

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    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups to receive either bromopride (experimental group- E or saline (control group- C. Each group was divided into subgroups of ten animals each to be euthanized on third (E3 and C3 or seventh day (E7 and C7 after surgery. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats underwent segmental left colon resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Adhesion formation, tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration were assessed. Histomorphometry of collagen and histopathological analysis were also performed. RESULTS: On postoperative third day, anastomoses in bromopride-treated animals showed lower tensile strength (p=0.02 and greater reduction in hydroxyproline concentration (p=0.04 than in control animals. There was no statistical difference in these parameters on seventh day, and the remaining parameters were similar across subgroups. Collagen content was also similar across subgroups. CONCLUSION: In the presence of abdominal sepsis, the administration of bromopride was associated with decreased tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration in left colonic anastomoses in rats three days after surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bromoprida sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon esquerdo de ratos na presença de sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos distribuídos em grupos contendo 20 animais para administração de bromoprida ou salina. Cada grupo foi dividido em subgrupos contendo dez animais, para eutanásia no terceiro ou no sétimo dia de pós-operatório. A indução da sepse foi realizada pelo método de ligadura e punção do ceco. Foi realizada ressecção de um segmento do cólon esquerdo e anastomose término-terminal. À re-laparotomia, foi avaliada a quantidade total de aderências e removido um segmento colônico contendo a anastomose

  1. [Assessment of the impact of vitamin and dietary fiber content in the diet on the characteristics of protective colon microbiota populations of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Yu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2015-01-01

    The content of lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the experiment in rats with varying levels of vitamins and dietary fiber was studied. The study was performed on 48 male weanling Wistar rats randomized into 8 groups, with the creation of vitamin deficiency (30 d.) and its further compensation (5 d.). Vitamin content in the semisynthetic diet in rats of the control group N 1 corresponded to 100% of a daily adequate intake. In the similar composition of the diet of the control group N 2 wheat bran was added in amount of 5% of the weight of the diet. In groups N 3–8 rats received a diet with the reduced amount of vitamin mixture by 5 times (20% of the adequate intake) and the total exclusion of tocopherol, thiamine and riboflavin from the mixture. The wheat bran (5% of diet mass) was added to the diets in Groups N 4, 6, 8. At the stage of compensation of deficiency rats were fed with the diets with increased content of vitamin mixture: Group 5–6 to 80% 7–8 to 200% (100 and 220% of the adequate intake, respectively), and the groups N 3–4 continued to receive deficient diet with or without wheat bran until the end of the experiment. After 35 days rats were anesthetized with ether, decapitated, necropsied and the cecum segments were selected for quantitative microbiological analysis of its contents. It has been shown that the addition of wheat bran to vitamin deficient diet lead to the reduction of the manifestation of physical sign of hypovitaminosis. It also eliminated the differences in the integrated index of growth and development of rats in comparison with the group without vitamin deficiency. It was found that the vitamin deficiency in the diet, regardless of the presence or absence of wheat bran, led to a significant reduction of the number of lactobacilli in the intestinal contents, but almost did not affect the number of normal and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The compensation of deficiency during 5 days lead to the increased number of

  2. Airway fungal colonization compromises the immune system allowing bacterial pneumonia to prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Damien; Gaudry, Stéphane; Khoy-Ear, Linda; Aloulou, Meryem; Phillips-Houlbracq, Mathilde; Bex, Julie; Skurnik, David; Denamur, Erick; Monteiro, Renato C; Dreyfuss, Didier; Ricard, Jean-Damien

    2013-09-01

    To study the correlation between fungal colonization and bacterial pneumonia and to test the effect of antifungal treatments on the development of bacterial pneumonia in colonized rats. Experimental animal investigation. University research laboratory. Pathogen-free male Wistar rats weighing 250-275 g. Rats were colonized by intratracheal instillation of Candida albicans. Fungal clearance from the lungs and immune response were measured. Both colonized and noncolonized animals were secondarily instilled with different bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus). Bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was evaluated in the presence of interferon-gamma, the main cytokine produced during fungal colonization. The effect of antifungal treatments on fungal colonization and its immune response were assessed. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa pneumonia was compared in antifungal treated and control colonized rats. C. albicans was slowly cleared and induced a Th1-Th17 immune response with very high interferon-gamma concentrations. Airway fungal colonization favored the development of bacterial pneumonia. Interferon-gamma was able to inhibit the phagocytosis of unopsonized bacteria by alveolar macrophages. Antifungal treatment decreased airway fungal colonization, lung interferon-gamma levels and, consequently, the prevalence of subsequent bacterial pneumonia. C. albicans airway colonization elicited a Th1-Th17 immune response that favored the development of bacterial pneumonia via the inhibition of bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Antifungal treatment decreased the risk of bacterial pneumonia in colonized rats.

  3. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  4. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  5. An extinct vertebrate preserved by its living hybridogenetic descendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sylvain; Dufresnes, Christophe

    2017-10-06

    Hybridogenesis is a special mode of hybrid reproduction where one parental genome is eliminated and the other is transmitted clonally. We propose that this mechanism can perpetuate the genome of extinct species, based on new genetic data from Pelophylax water frogs. We characterized the genetic makeup of Italian hybridogenetic hybrids (P. kl. hispanicus and esculentus) and identified a new endemic lineage of Eastern-Mediterranean origin as one parental ancestor of P. kl. hispanicus. This taxon is nowadays extinct in the wild but its germline subsists through its hybridogenetic descendant, which can thus be considered as a "semi living fossil". Such rare situation calls for realistic efforts of de-extinction through selective breeding without genetic engineering, and fuels the topical controversy of reviving long extinct species. "Ghost" species hidden by taxa of hybrid origin may be more frequent than suspected in vertebrate groups that experienced a strong history of hybridization and semi-sexual reproduction.

  6. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  7. Angiodysplasia of the colon: A report of two cases and review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no anorexia, abdominal swelling, diarrhea, or hematochezia. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography showed normal findings. Colonoscopy done, reaching the ileo-cecal valve and caecum, showed an area of dilated tortuous blood vessel (vascular ectasia) in the wall of the descending colon approximately 45 cm ...

  8. Testicular Descend, How and Why: A Review Article

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    Sujan Narayan Agrawal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The testis develops in the dorsal abdominal wall, and then descends to scrotum. The development begins as early as 6th week of intrauterine life and is completed by fifth month of intrauterine life. The testis may get arrested during its descent from dorsal abdominal wall to scrotum. The anomalies of descent includes cryptorchism (and its variant like anarchism, monarchism or partially descended testis, ectopic testis, persistent processus vaginalis and encysted hydrocoel of spermatic cord etc. Cryptorchism is usually diagnosed during the new born examination. The recognition of this condition, identification of associated syndromes, proper diagnostic evaluation and timely treatment by surgical urologist is important to prevent adverse consequences like sterility, congenital hernia & hydrocoel, testicular carcinoma etc. Objectives: the objective of this review is to study the role of gubernaculum in the testicular migration process. Material & Method: We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal life. This article provides an overview of role of gubernaculum and other factors responsible for gonadal migration. Results: In the first phase of testicular migration the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal end of gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis. The lower end reaches to bottom of scrotum. A failure in the proper functioning of gubernaculum causes cryptorchism. Rarely male gonads may deviate from main pathway due to presence of many tails of distal gubernaculum, and it may give rise to ectopic testis. The processus vaginalis usually closes by birth. If it remains patent, it leads to congenital hernia, hydrocoel, encysted hydrocoel etc. Conclusion: the gubernaculum presents a significant structure during

  9. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as

  10. Efeitos da esplenectomia na peritonite causada por lesão traumática do cólon: estudo em ratos Effects of splenectomy on peritonitis produced by a colonic injury: study in rats

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    Luís Sérgio Nassif

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da esplenectomia na infecção intra-abdominal com bactérias da flora enteral, liberadas para a cavidade abdominal através de uma lesão induzida no cólon de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 animais, sendo 20 do Grupo A1 (normais sem sutura da lesão, 22 do Grupo A2 (normais com sutura da lesão e 22 do Grupo B (esplenectomizados e com sutura da lesão. Os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia mediana e a indução da peritonite intra-operatória foi obtida através de lesão do cólon previamente distendido pela introdução de uma sonda naso-gástrica via retal e injeção de 2 ml de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos de lavado abdominal obtido por swab esterelizado e exame microscópico de segmento suturado do cólon de amostras obtidas dos grupos A2 e B com 48hs, 96hs e 12 dias de pós-operatório. Todos os animais foram submetidos a necropsia por ocasião do óbito ou no 12º. dia de pós-operatório quando os sobreviventes foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Agentes bacterianos semelhantes foram encontrados nos três grupos: E.coli (100%; Enterococcus faecalis (97%; P. mirabilis (90%; Klebsiela pneumoniae (70%; Citobacter freundi (70% e Enterobacter aglomerans (63%. O exame microscópico revelou menor reação inflamatória no grupo esplenectomizado. A causa da morte na maioria foi peritonite nas primeiras 96hs. Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade entre os animais do Grupo B (80% em relação ao Grupo A2 (sem mortalidade e em relação ao Grupo A1 (35%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade em vigência de peritonite nos animais esplenectomizados em relação aos animais que não foram esplenectomizados.BACKGROUND: Study the effects of splenectomy on the intra-abdominal infection by bowel flora, consequent to a colonic injury in Wistar rats. METHODS: We used 64 animals, 20 for Group A1 (normal with colon lesion left open, 22 for Group

  11. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary ...

  12. CT findings of non-specific colonic edema in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings and clinical significance of colonic edema in liver cirrhosis. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 221 cases of clinically diagnosed liver cirrhosis in 173 patients. In 30 of these [23 men and six women aged between 35 and 67(mean, 54) years], colonic edema was present. We evaluated its distribution (ascending, transverse or descending colon), analysed serum albumin and bilirubin levels, and in both the colonic edema and non-colonic edema group, determined whether ascites was present. Thus, we sought correlation between the presence of colonic edema, the severity of liver cirrhosis, and each parameter. CT revealed colonic edema in 30 of 221 cases(14%). Of the 30, 13 cases(43%) were diffuse colonic edema and 17(57%) were regional edema. Among these 17 cases, 12(71%) were seen only in the ascending colon, while five(29%) were seen in both the ascending and transverse colon. In the group with colonic edema, the mean level of serum albumin was 2.6g/dl, and that of serum bilirubin was 4.9mg/dl ; 20 patients(67%) had ascites. In the group without colonic edema, mean levels of serum albumin and serum bilirubin were 3.0g/dl and 4.1mg/dl, respectively ; 43 patients(30%) had ascites. There was no significant statistical difference in serum albumin and bilirubin levels between the colonic edema and non-colonic edema group(p>0.05), though ascites was more common among the former group. In cases of liver cirrhosis, CT evidence of colonic edema is not uncommon. The ascending colon is most frequently involved, though disease severity does not vary significantly according to site. When CT reveals the presence of colonic edema, further diagnostic evaluation is not necessary if there is no evidence of clinical symptoms

  13. Efeito da desnutrição na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos Effects of malnutrition on colonic anastomosis healing: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Molina Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    efficient since a significant loss of body weight was observed in the experimental group. The malnutrition group of rats presented pathologic data all suggestive of lower prognostic and higher mortality rate. In conclusion, malnutrition interferes with the normal colonic anastomosis healing and increases the mortality rate.

  14. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

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    Murray B. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995734. Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%. Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed.

  15. Probiotic and lactulose: influence on gastrointestinal flora and pH value in minimal hepatic encephalopathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Man; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence on gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal after lactulose and probiotic treatment on rat experimental minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) induced by thioactamide (TAA). MHE was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA. 48 male MHE models were then randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 12); MHE group (n = 12) received tap water ad libitum only; lactulose group (n = 12) and probiotics group (n = 12) gavaged respectively with 8 ml/kg of lactulose and 1.5 g/kg of probiotic preparation Golden Bifid (highly concentrated combination probiotic) dissolved in 2 ml of normal saline, once a day for 8 days. The latency of Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) I was used as objective index of MHE. Counts of gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal were examined respectively. Compared to MHE group, counts of gastrointestinal flora has greatly decreased, ratio of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae has greatly increased, pH value of colon has greatly descended (P 0.05). Both lactulose and probiotics can effectively prevent bacteria translocation and overgrowth, intensify CR, improved value of B/E, and acidify intestinal, decreased pH value of colon. Probiotic compound Golden Bifid is as useful as lactulose for the prevention and treatment of MHE. Probiotic therapy may be a safe, natural, well-tolerated therapy appropriate for the long-term treatment of MHE.

  16. Age-related loss of EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP) in the aging colon is a potential risk factor for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eva M; Levi, Edi; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Hu; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2004-12-01

    Although in Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGF-receptor (EGFR) in mucosa of much of the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, regulation of this process is poorly understood. We hypothesize that loss of suppressor of EGFR may partly be responsible for this process. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of EGFR related protein (ERRP), a recently identified negative regulator of EGFR, in the colonic mucosa during aging and following administration of the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH) that resulted in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are considered to be precursor of adenoma and carcinoma. In Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGFR in the colonic mucosa, as evidenced by 30-35% increase in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR in the proximal and distal colon of aged (20-22 months old) than in young (4-6 months old) rats. In contrast, the levels of ERRP in both regions of the colon of aged rats were decreased by 50-60%, compared to their younger counterparts. Administration of DMH, which induced a greater number of ACF in the colon of aged rats than in young animals, resulted in a corresponding reduction in ERRP in the colon. These results suggest that loss of ERRP expression is a common event during aging and early stages of chemically induced colon cancer. We also suggest that loss of ERRP could be a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer in the older population.

  17. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  18. [A case of strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia with necrosis and rupture of the colon and herniation into a left hemithorax in an adult (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, M; Georgoulis, J; Gatos, M; Dariotis, A

    This is a case report of a successful repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 48 years old male that contained the transverse colon which was strangulated and ruptured in the left thoracic cavity. It was approached in two stages. First through a laparotomy the proximal part of the transverse colon was divided. The side going to the hernial sac was sutured and the proximal stump was anastomosed to the descending colon. In a second stage, two days later, through a felt thoracotomy the strangulated and ruptured colon was resected and the distal stump of the transverse colon was sutured and the hernia repaired.

  19. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  20. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  1. No reduction with ageing of the number of myenteric neurons in benzalkonium chloride treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S B; Demarzo, M M P; Vinhadeli, W S; Llorach-Velludo, M A; Zoteli, J; Herrero, C F P S; Zucoloto, S

    2002-10-04

    The number of myenteric neurons may be reduced by topical serosal application of benzalkonium chloride (BAC). We studied the effects of ageing in the population of neurons that survive after the application of BAC. Ten treated and ten control animals were killed at intervals of 2, 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. We performed myenteric neurons counting in serially cut histological preparations of the descending colon. The control animals revealed a continuous loss of myenteric neurons number with increasing of age. Interestingly, contrary to control animals, the BAC-treated rats presented no neuron loss with ageing at any experimental time. The reasons for their survival with ageing could be related to a neuroplasticity phenomenon.

  2. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synchronous perforation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small intestine and colon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baidoun Fadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small and large bowel presenting as a perforated viscus entity with peritonitis is extremely rare. A thorough literature review did not reveal any cases where primary lymphoma of the jejunum presented with perforation and peritonitis synchronously with primary lymphoma of the descending colon. Case presentation This report concerns a 64-year-old Caucasian woman admitted with severe abdominal pain and fever. An emergency laparotomy revealed a large mass with perforation in the proximal jejunum with intense mesenteric thickening and lymphadenopathy. The descending colon was edematous and covered with fibrinous exudate. Histopathological examination of the resected segment of jejunum revealed a T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. On post-operative day 10, a computed tomography scan of our patient's abdomen and pelvis showed leakage of contrast into the pelvis. Re-exploration revealed perforation of the descending colon. The histopathology of the resected colon also showed T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Her post-operative course was complicated by acute renal and respiratory failure. The patient died on post-operative day 21. Conclusions Lymphoma of the small intestine has been reported to have a poor prognosis. The synchronous occurrence of lesions in the small intestine or colon is unusual, and impacts the prognosis adversely. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to improve the prognosis of bowel perforation in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. [Colon and rectum histoplasmosis in a patient from Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Figueroa, Christian; Sánchez Cerna, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a male patient of 52 years old with a 3 months history of pushing, tenesmus, hematochezia, pain while defecating, lost of 18 kg of weight, fever, fecaloid and purulent discharge through an perianal hole. During the colonoscopy procedure, we found many ulcers in the ascending, transverse and descending colon.We also found an elevated lesion of about 5 cm in the rectum. We used hematoxylin - eosin and Gomori-Grocott stain in the biopsies and identified many microorganisms inside macrophages which were compatible with histoplasmosis. ELISA tests for HIV, HTLV I- II were negative. Colon and rectal histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient is extremely rare. There are few cases of colonic histoplasmosis reported.

  5. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE κ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u 2 , led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  6. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  7. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  8. Avaliação dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após aplicação de enemas com peróxido de hidrogênio: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of lipid peroxidation levels on mucosa colonic cells afther application of hydrogen peroxide in enemas: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Helena Sousa Marques

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de clisteres contendo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 determina o aparecimento de quadros graves de colite, algumas vezes de evolução fatal. É possível que a colite induzida por H2O2 possa ocorrer pela quebra da barreira funcional do epitélio cólico por estresse oxidativo. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após instilação de H2O2 no reto excluso de trânsito fecal. Método: Vinte seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a colostomia proximal terminal no cólon descendente e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram randomizados em dois grupos segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado duas ou quatro semanas após a derivação intestinal. Cada grupo experimental foi dividido e dois subgrupos segundo aplicação de clisteres, em dias alternados, contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou H2O2 a 3%. O diagnóstico de colite foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de dano oxidativo tecidual pela dosagem de malondialdeído por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram analisados com os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, estabelecendo-se nível de significância de 5% (pThe use of rectal enemas with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 determines the onset of severe colitis, sometimes with fatal evolution. It is possible that H2O2-induced colitis can occur by damage to the functional epithelial barrier of the colon by oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of present study was evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa after instillation of H2O2 into the rectum excluded from fecal transit. Method: Twenty six male Wistar rats were undergone to proximal terminal colostomy in the descending colon and distal mucous fistula. The animals were randomized in two experimental groups according to the sacrifice was made two or four weeks after diversion of the fecal stream. Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups second application of

  9. Radiogenic stenosis of the colon following hypernephroma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaghipour, A.I.

    1973-01-01

    Refering to extensive home and foreign literature and to the number of 200 patients who were treated during the last 12 years, this paper reports about the radiogenic damage of the colon after irradiating renal tumors. Although no side dispositions of these types of radiation damage were mentioned in the literature, it was noticed in the group of the patients asked as well as in an Anglo-Saxon publication that both after conventional and after cobalt treatment exclusively the upper descending colon resp. the left half of the transverse colon showed alterations in the sense of a stenosing radiation colitis. The possible causes like differing topography of the colon as well as an individual disposition for increased radiation sensibility are discussed. The results of the clinical examination and the radiological symptoms colon stenosis in the number of the patients examined are shown casuistically, the successful surgical treatment of the colon stenosis is put briefly. This should help to contradict the reservations against a combined therapy for renal tumors and make the prognoses of malignant growth more pleasant. (orig.) [de

  10. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  11. Apoptotic effects of inositol hexaphosphate on biomarker Itpr3 in induced colon rat carcinogenesis Efeito de apoptose do inositol hexafosfato no marcador biológico Itpr3 em carcinogênese induzida de colo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Guido

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of the modulation of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 in the biological immunohistochemistry expression of cellular signaling marker apoptosis, in model of carcinogenesis of colon induced by azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: Wistar rats (N=112 distributed in 4 groups (n=28: Control; B, AOM (5 mg kg-1, 2x, to break week 3; C, IP6 (in water 1%, six weeks; D, IP6+AOM. Weekly euthanasia (n=7, from week three. Immunohistochemistry of ascendant colon with biological marker inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor type III (Itpr3. Quantification of the immune-expression with use of computer-assisted image processing. Analysis statistics of the means between groups, weeks in groups, groups in weeks, and established significance when pOBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da modulação do inositol hexafosfato (IP6 na expressão imunoistoquímica de marcador biológico de sinalização celular de apoptose, em modelo de carcinogênese induzida pelo azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (N=112 distribuídos em 4 grupos (n=28: A, controle; B, AOM (5 mg Kg-1, 2x, a partir semana 3; C, IP6 (em água a 1%, seis semanas; D, IP6+AOM. Eutanásia semanal (n=7, a partir de semana três. Imunoistoquímica de colo ascendente com marcador biológico inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type III (Itpr3. Quantificação da imunoexpressão com uso de processamento imagem assistida computador. Análise estatística da expressão média entre grupos, semanas em grupos e grupos em semanas, e estabelecido significância quando p<0.05. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se diferença significante entre grupos na expressão de Itpr3, p<0.0001; com diminuição Itpr3 de grupo BxD, p<0.001. CONCLUSÃO: O inositol hexafostato promove a modulação de marcador biológico com diminuição Itpr3 em carcinogênese de colo.

  12. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  13. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  14. Effects of hyperglycemia and aging in angiogenesis and reepithelization of colonic anastomoses in rats Efeitos da hiperglicemia e do envelhecimento sobre a angiogênese e a reepitelização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Luiz Nóbrega

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate angiogenesis and reepithelization of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS: 82 Wistar rats, divided into: young normoglycemic, old normoglycemic and hyperglycemic. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. Glycemia was assessed before induction, at 24 hours and after 90 days, when a colotomy and an anastomosis were performed, assessed at days 3, 7, and 14. Samples were prepared by immuno-histochemistry (PCNA and antifactor VIII. RESULTS: Mean glycemia after 90 days streptozotocin induction was 244,95 mg/dl. Day 7, reepithelization was greater in the young group than in the old normoglycemic (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a angiogênese e a reepitelização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos. MÉTODOS: 82 ratos Wistar divididos em: jovens normoglicêmicos, velhos normoglicêmicos e hiperglicêmicos. Diabetes foi induzido com estreptozotocin. Glicemia foi medida antes da indução, após 24 horas e 90 dias, quando realizou-se colotomia seguida de anastomose, a qual foi estudada no 3.º, 7.º e 14.º dia.Peças foram preparadas por imunohistoquímica (PCNA e Antifator VIII. RESULTADOS: Glicemia média após 90 dias foi de 244,95 mg/dl. No 7.º dia, a reepitelização foi maior no grupo jovem que nos grupos velho normoglicêmico (p<0,0001 e velho hiperglicêmico (p<0,0001. Dia 14, mantiveram-se as diferenças entre os grupos jovem e velhos normoglicêmico (p<0,0001 e hiperglicêmico (p<0,0001. Os dois grupos velhos não diferiram entre si. Nos três períodos a angiogênese foi maior no grupo jovem do que nos velhos normoglicêmicos (p3=0.014, p7<0.0001; p14<0.0001 e que nos velhos hiperglicêmicos (p3=0.014, p7<0.0001; p14<0.0001. No 3.º dia, os grupos velhos não foram diferentes (p3=0.627, mas no 7.º e no 14.º, a angiogênese foi maior no grupo normoglicêmico (p7=0.042; p14=0.005. CONCLUSÃO: Idade é importante para a reepitelização e angiogênese das anastomoses colônicas. Hiperglicemia interfere principalmente na angiogênese.

  15. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Samuel; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Araújo Correia, Luís

    2016-08-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with sudden left quadrant abdominal pain and hematochezia. There was no history of trauma. He denied other symptoms or taking off-the-counter medication. His medical history was relevant for ischemic and aortic-mitral valve disease with prosthetic valves for which he was medicated with aspirin and warfarin. On physical examination the patient presented normal vital signs with tenderness on palpation of the left side of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed moderate anemia (10.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (135.000x10^9 U/L) with therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.53). Colonoscopy revealed an extensive area of erythematous and bluish mucosa with an apparent torsion of the proximal descending colon around a volumous hematoma measuring 6.5x3 cm (Figure 1 A-C). Urgent abdominal CT confirmed the presence of a large intramural hematoma of the descending colon (Figure 2 A-B). A conservative approach was adopted with temporary suspension of anticoagulation. Given the high thrombotic risk, abdominal ultrasound was performed after 72 hours showing considerable reduction in the size of the hematoma. Anti-coagulation was then resumed without complications. One month later, colonoscopy was repeated showing complete healing of the mucosa. The increasing use of anti-aggregating and anti-coagulant therapy, especially in elderly patients, explains the increasing incidence of bleeding events seen in this population. However, gastrointestinal hematomas are estimated to occur in only 1 for every 250.000 anti-coagulated patients. Diagnosis is based on characteristic radiologic findings. While most parietal hematomas can be approached conservatively, surgery is indicated in the presence of complications or persistence of the hematoma.

  16. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  17. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  18. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  19. Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduce the effects of ischemia on colonic anastomosis in laparoscopic colon resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Seyfi; Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan; Sozen, Selim; Bali, Ilhan; Yesildag, Ebru; Celik, Atilla; Guzel, Savas; Sahin, Onder; Ay, Hakan; Topcu, Birol

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal pressure causes a decrease in the splanchnic blood flow and the intramucosal pH of the bowel, as well as increasing the risk of ischemia in the colon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the ischemia caused by laparoscopy in colonic anastomosis in an experimental model of laparoscopic colonic surgery. We divided 30 male Wistar albino rats into three groups: Group A was the control (open colon anastomosis); Group B received LCA (laparoscopic colon anastomosis); while Group C received both LCA and HBOT. Each group contained ten animals. We placed Group C (LCA and HBOT) in an experimental hyperbaric chamber into which we administered pure oxygen at 2.1 atmospheres absolute 100% oxygen for 60 min for ten consecutive days. The anastomotic bursting pressure value was found to be higher in the open surgery group (226 ± 8.8) (Group A). The result for Group C (213 ± 27), which received HBOT, was better than that for Group B (197 ± 27). However, there was no statistically significant difference between Group B and Group C. Group A showed better healing than the other groups, while significant differences in the fibroblast proliferation scores were found between Groups A and B. In terms of tissue hydroxyproline levels, a significant difference was found between Groups A and B and between Groups A and C, but not between Groups B and C. HBOT increases the oxygen level in the injured tissue. Although HBOT might offer several advantages, it had only a limited effect on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats with increased intra-abdominal pressure in our study. Anastomosis, Colon, Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment, Oxidative Stress.

  20. Effects of carprofen on the integrity and barrier function of canine colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Catherine A; Hosgood, Giselle; Morgan, Timothy W; Hedlund, Cheryl S; Hicks, Merrin; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2008-02-01

    To measure effects of carprofen on conductance and permeability to mannitol and histologic appearance in canine colonic mucosa. Colonic mucosa from 13 mature mixed-breed dogs. Procedures-Sections of mucosa from the transverse colon and proximal and distal portions of the descending colon were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanized. Sections were mounted in Ussing chambers. Carprofen (400 microg/mL) was added to the bathing solution for treated sections. Conductance was calculated at 15-minute intervals for 240 minutes. Flux of mannitol was calculated for three 1-hour periods. Histologic examination of sections was performed after experiments concluded. Conductance was graphed against time for each chamber, and area under each curve was calculated. Conductance X time, flux of mannitol, and frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for an effect of region and carprofen. Carprofen significantly increased mean conductance X time, compared with values for control (untreated) sections for all regions of colon. Carprofen significantly increased mean flux of mannitol from period 1 to period 2 and from period 2 to period 3 for all regions of colon. Carprofen caused a significant proportion of sections to have severe sloughing of cells and erosions involving >or= 10% of the epithelium, compared with control sections. Carprofen increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol in canine colonic mucosa. Carprofen resulted in sloughing of cells and erosion of the colonic mucosa. These findings suggested that carprofen can compromise the integrity and barrier function of the colonic mucosa of dogs.

  1. Comparative study of the hyperbaric hyperoxygenation in ischemic colonic loops in rats Estudo comparativo da hiperoxigenação hiperbárica em alças cólicas isquêmicas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelo Rocha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze and to evaluate the effect of the hyperbaric hyperoxygenation in the mechanical resistance of ischemic colon of rats. METHODS: Eighty rats, distributed in four groups of 20 animals in each one, were used. In group 1 (G1, the control group, ischemia was not caused. Group 2 was submitted to the lesser degree of ischemia. Group 3 was submitted to the intermediate degree of ischemia. In group 4, a bigger degree of intestinal ischemia was provoked. Each group was divided in two sub-groups of ten animals each: with hyperbaric chamber (CC and without hyperbaric chamber (SC. The animals of the four CC subgroups were placed in an experimental hyperbaric chamber in order to inhale oxygen at 100%, at two Absolute Atmospheres, for 120 minutes, for a four-day consecutive period. The animals of the four SC subgroups were kept in environment air during the five days of the experiment. All animals have been submitted to the mechanical study of the intestinal loop by the pressure test of the rupture by liquid distension. The euthanasia occurred in the fifth post-operative day. RESULTS: Considering the ischemia factor, the four groups were different among them (p=0.0001. There was no statistical difference between subgroups CC and SC (p=0.3461. CONCLUSION: The hyperbaric oxygen-therapy did not present improvement on the induced ischemia in rats upright colic loop.OBJETIVO: Analisar e avaliar os efeitos da hiperoxigenação hiperbárica na resistência mecânica do cólon isquêmico de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 80 ratos distribuídos em quatro grupos de 20 animais. No grupo 1, grupo controle, não se provocou isquemia. O grupo 2 foi submetido ao grau menor de isquemia. O grupo 3 foi submetido ao grau intermediário de isquemia. No grupo 4, provocou-se grau maior de isquemia intestinal. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos de dez animais cada: com câmara hiperbárica (CC e sem câmara hiperbárica (SC. Os animais dos quatro

  2. Volvulus of the Sigmoid Colon during Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Fabrício Ribeiro Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic obstruction due to sigmoid colon volvulus during pregnancy is a rare but complication with significant maternal and fetal mortality. We describe a case of sigmoid volvulus in a patient with 33 weeks of gestation that developed complete necrosis of the left colon. Case. 27-year-old woman was admitted with 3 days of abdominal distention, vomit, and the stoppage of the passage of gases and feces. She was admitted with poor clinical conditions with septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and signs of diffuse peritonitis. Abdominal radiography showed severe dilation of the colon with horseshoe signal suggesting a sigmoid volvulus, pneumoperitoneum and we could not we could not identify fetal heartbeats. With a diagnosis of complicate sigmoid volvulus she was underwent to the laparotomy where we found necrosis of all descending colon due to double twist volvulus of the sigmoid. We performed a colectomy with a confection of a proximal colostomy, and closing of the rectal stump. Due to an uncontrollable uterine bleeding during cesarean due, it was required a hysterectomy. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course thereafter and was discharged on a regular diet on the 15th postoperative day.

  3. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  4. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  5. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  6. the priests and the descendants of levi in the book of malachi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fanie Snyman for his hospitality and for all his generous efforts to make my stay ... This interpretation of the descendants of Levi has long since found many ...... 1998. Malachi. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New.

  7. Is there equity in use of healthcare services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe S; Hempler, Nana F; Waldorff, Frans B

    2012-01-01

    Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilisation in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could be explaine...

  8. [Coarctation of the descending aorta. A rare form of connatal aortic stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammwitz, E; Schöttler, M; Brix, F; Poser, H L; Langkau, G; Yükseltan, I

    1983-07-01

    A clinical diagnosis of a coarctation of the aorta was made in a 17-year-old female hypertensive patient. Angiography revealed an atypical stenosis of the descending aorta which was surgically corrected. The causes of aortic stenoses are discussed.

  9. Performance and physiological effects of different descending strategies for cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Phil W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p  .05). Importantly, pedalling did not invoke a performance benefit (p > .05) on the descent used in this study. Significantly greater heart rate and oxygen uptake (both p bike athletes focus on skills to increase descending speed without the addition of pedalling, and that equipment be used to decrease vibrations nearer to those seen on the road.

  10. Mural Thrombus in the Normal-Appearing Descending Thoracic Aorta of a Chronic Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Habib; Hsu, Judy; Winchell, Patricia Jo; Daoko, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology. PMID:24391341

  11. A study of the variation of colonic positioning in the pararenal space as shown by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassopoulos, P.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Cavouras, D.; Pantelidis, N.

    1990-01-01

    In a review of 1708 consecutive CT examinations of the abdomen the position of the ascending and descending colon in relation to the posterial and lateral edge of the kidney was studied. It was found that part of the colon was positioned posterior or posterolateral to the kidney's edge in percentages that varied between 14.2% and 0.9% in the different sex groups at the levels of upper, mid- and lower poles of the right and left kidney. It is concluded that this anatomical variation should be known if colon perforation is to be avoided during percutaneous nephrostomy of biopsy. (author). 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.

    1978-01-01

    The descending colon of 4 month and 2 year old mice was exposed to 1250 rad X-rays. This killed most of the epithelial cells. The surviving cells formed new crypts and surface epithelium in animals of both ages. Not all of the crypts were replaced. The irradiated area contained not more than 80% of the control number of crypts per section for at least 6 weeks after irradiation. In the young mice new crypts were much larger and the labelling index (LI) was much higher than in unirradiated animals during the first week after irradiation. In the old mice the overshoot in LI and crypt size began later and continued longer than in young animals. This may be because the control of cell proliferation was much less precise in old than in young mice. The irradiation was repeated, in attempt to age prematurely the epithelial cells by increasing the number of divisions they underwent. The overshoot in LI and cells per crypt was smaller after a second dose than after the first in both young and old mice. There was almost no overshoot after a third dose was given to young mice. Increasing the number of divisions undergone by the surviving epithelial cells did not change the timing of repopulation in young mice compared to that found in old mice. Little evidence was found for the presence of a limited proliferative lifespan in colon epithelial cells. (author)

  13. Transplantation of colon carcinoma into granulation tissue induces an invasive morphotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, K. P.; Zeeman-Boeschoten, I. M.; Keep, R. F.; Das, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    The stroma surrounding many malignant tumors resembles granulation tissue. To test the hypothesis that such stroma stimulates tumor invasiveness, we compared, by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the growth patterns of CC531 rat colon adenocarcinoma in 2 experimental situations: (i)

  14. Diurnal variations in proliferation and crypt survival suggest a small target cell population in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, J.; Hamilton, E.

    1986-01-01

    Male C57BLasup(t) mice of two ages, 3-5 months (young) and 14-15 months (old) were given 11 or 15Gy whole body irradiation at different times through the day. The mice were killed after 4.5 days and the number of surviving crypts per circumference of jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and descending colon were scored. These results show crypt survival in the small and large intestine of 15-month-old mice. In the ileum the maximum crypt survival was found at 04.00 h and the minimum at 08.00 h. In the jejunum and both regions of the colon the maximum crypt survival occurred at 16.00 h. The nadir of crypt survival after 15 Gy was at 04.00 h in the jejunum and at 20.00 and 24.00 h in the transverse and descending colon, respectively. In young mice, crypt survival levels were similar to those found in old animals except at 04.00 h. when survival in the jejunum and ileum fell to 0.0004+-0.0002 and 0.0007+-0.0004, respectively. The lowest crypt survival in the colon of young mice also occurred at 04.00 h and in all four tissues the greatest number of crypts survived irradiation at 24.00 h. (author)

  15. Efficient intracellular delivery of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine into colon cancer cells by targeted immunoliposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, GA; Kamps, JAAM; Scherphof, GL

    2002-01-01

    Immunoliposomes, liposomes with monoclonal antibodies attached, are being developed for targeting the anti-cancer drug 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) to colon cancer cells. A monoclonal antibody against the rat colon carcinoma CC531 was covalently coupled to liposomes containing a dipalmitoylated

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : The cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of dietary heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    1999-01-01

    The intake of a Western diet with a high amount of red meat is associated with a high risk for colon cancer. We hypothesize that heme, the iron carrier of red meat, is involved in diet-induced colonic epithelial damage, resulting in increased epithelial proliferation. Rats were fed purified control

  17. Analysis of age, sex, location, size and multiplicity of colonic diverticulosis in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Chang, Jae Chun; Kwoen, Hyuk Po; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Recently, colonic diverticulosis in Korea is one of rapidly increased disease in its incidence but it is different from that of western counties in the incidence or developing pattern. So, authors reviewed 1921 cases of double contrast study performed during 20 months, from Jan 1st , 1987 to Aug 30th, 1988 at the Department of Radiology. Yeungnam University Hospital to analyzed current disease pattern of the colonic diverticulosis. The results were as follows; 1. The incidence were 11.8%(226/1921) and predominant in male. 2. The mean age of patients was 48.41 years and older in female, but their incidence was not increased with advancing age over 6th decade. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 7.6 and higher in cases involving several anatomic location than limited to one location. 4. Diverticulosis more commonly involved several anatomic location than one location. 5. Left sided colonic diverticulosis was found in relatively older age group and more frequently involved descending colon than sigmoid colon most commonly seen in western people. 6. Recently, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is increasing in both the right and left colon, which is thought to be due to various factors and partly to the routine use of double contrast study of the colon

  18. Analysis of age, sex, location, size and multiplicity of colonic diverticulosis in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Mi Young; Chang, Jae Chun; Kwoen, Hyuk Po; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    Recently, colonic diverticulosis in Korea is one of rapidly increased disease in its incidence but it is different from that of western counties in the incidence or developing pattern. So, authors reviewed 1921 cases of double contrast study performed during 20 months, from Jan 1st , 1987 to Aug 30th, 1988 at the Department of Radiology. Yeungnam University Hospital to analyzed current disease pattern of the colonic diverticulosis. The results were as follows; 1. The incidence were 11.8%(226/1921) and predominant in male. 2. The mean age of patients was 48.41 years and older in female, but their incidence was not increased with advancing age over 6th decade. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 7.6 and higher in cases involving several anatomic location than limited to one location. 4. Diverticulosis more commonly involved several anatomic location than one location. 5. Left sided colonic diverticulosis was found in relatively older age group and more frequently involved descending colon than sigmoid colon most commonly seen in western people. 6. Recently, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is increasing in both the right and left colon, which is thought to be due to various factors and partly to the routine use of double contrast study of the colon.

  19. [The trends in clinical characteristics of colon cancer in last two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-nan; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Wei-yang; Miao, Zheng; Tang, Xiao-yan; Qian, Jia-ming

    2010-03-01

    To explore the changing of clinical features of colon cancer within 20 years, in order to help early diagnosis and screening of colon cancer in China. A total of 1233 cases of colon cancer in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 1989 - 2008 were retrospectively studied. All patients were divided into two groups according to the date of onset (1989 - 1998 and 1999 - 2008), the demographic features, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, colonoscopy characteristics and pathological stage were analyzed. Comparing with 1989 - 1998, in recently 10 years, the morbidity of colon cancer increased, more female and old patients appeared; hematochezia significant less (51.8% vs 31.7%, P colon in 1989 - 1998 (44.6%) shift to sigmoid colon (38.7%) and descending colon (22.7%) up to now. Operation was the first choice of treatment, the early stage (Duke A) patients significant increased (9.3% vs 23.8%, P colon cancer obviously increased, the age was become elder and female patients were increased. The clinical manifestation became more nonspecific. According with the improvement of stool occult blood, serum CEA and colonoscopy detective method and wild spread using, more and more early stage patients were diagnosed. The location of tumor shift from right side to left side, and coincidence with west countries gradually.

  20. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  1. Obstructive Left Colon Cancer Should Be Managed by Using a Subtotal Colectomy Instead of Colonic Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chung Ki; Lee, Donghyoun; Jung, Kyung Uk; Lee, Sung Ryol; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study compared a subtotal colectomy to self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion as a bridge to surgery for patients with left colon-cancer obstruction. Methods Ninety-four consecutive patients with left colon-cancer obstruction underwent an emergency subtotal colectomy or elective SEMS insertion between January 2007 and August 2014. Using prospectively collected data, we performed a retrospective comparative analysis on an intention-to-treat basis. Results A subtotal colectomy and SEMS insertion were attempted in 24 and 70 patients, respectively. SEMS insertion technically failed in 5 patients (7.1%). The mean age and rate of obstruction in the descending colon were higher in the subtotal colectomy group than the SEMS group. Sex, underlying disease, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and pathological stage showed no statistical difference. Laparoscopic surgery was performed more frequently in patients in the SEMS group (62 of 70, 88.6%) than in patients in the subtotal colectomy group (4 of 24, 16.7%). The overall rate of postoperative morbidity was higher in the SEMS group. No Clavien-Dindo grade III or IV complications occurred in the subtotal colectomy group, but 2 patients (2.9%) died from septic complications in the SEMS group. One patient (4.2%) in the subtotal colectomy group had synchronous cancer. The total hospital stay was shorter in the subtotal colectomy group. The median number of bowel movements in the subtotal colectomy group was twice per day at postoperative 3–6 months. Conclusion A subtotal colectomy for patients with obstructive left-colon cancer is a clinically and oncologically safer, 1-stage, surgical strategy compared to SEMS insertion as a bridge to surgery. PMID:28119864

  2. Optimization of visibility and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in colonic mucosa in Wistar rats Otimização da visibilidade e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Test immersion of microscopy samples in water as an aid to visualizing and quantifying aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rat colon mucosa. METHODS: Carcinogenesis was induced with azoxymethane in Wistar rats kept on a conventional diet or a hypercaloric diet containing unsaturated fat. Fifteen weeks after induction, colon samples were retrieved and fixated in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The samples were divided into segments (distal, middle, proximal and stained with 1% toluidine blue. The technique tested in the study consisted of immersing microscopy samples in distilled water in order to eliminate the problem of light reflection known from conventional microscopy. RESULTS: When samples were immersed in water during microscopy, significantly more ACF could be visualized in all colon segments than with the conventional method proposed by Bird. CONCLUSION: Immersing microscopy samples in water aids the visualization and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon mucosa fixed in formaldehyde.OBJETIVO: Otimizar a visibilização de focos de criptas aberrantes (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Colo de rato Wistar, sob diferentes dietas e submetidos a iniciação de carcinogênese pelo azoximetano há 4 meses, foram previamente lavados, abertos e fixados em solução de formalina a 10% por 24 horas. Após serem corados em azul de toluidina a 1%, foram divididos em segmentos distal, médio e proximal e imersos em água destilada para quantificação de FCA. RESULTADOS: No método de imersão foi visibilizado maior quantidade de focos de criptas aberrantes em todos os segmentos cólicos, com diferença significante, quando comparado com o método de Bird. CONCLUSÃO: O método de imersão otimiza a visibilização e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica (ratos Wistar fixada em solução de formalina a 10%.

  3. Glucocorticoid Availability in Colonic Inflammation of Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergang, Peter; Leden, Pavel; Bryndová, Jana; Žbánková, Šárka; Mikšík, Ivan; Kment, M.; Pácha, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2008), s. 2160-2167 ISSN 0163-2116 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8576; GA ČR GA305/07/0328 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 77/2006C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : glucocorticoids * 11beta hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase 1 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2008

  4. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  5. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  6. Effects of ascending and descending climbers on space elevator cable dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoji; Otsuka, Kiyotoshi; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Doi, Hinata

    2018-04-01

    Based on a mass-point model, the cable dynamics of a space elevator during a climber's travel motion are examined. The cable response during a single operation of one ascending or descending climber is analyzed first, and then, based on the results, the cable dynamics for simultaneous operation of an ascending and a descending climber are evaluated. For the single operation, bending is significant when the climber is traveling near the Earth's surface. The cable also inclines with periodic oscillation as a result of a Coriolis force corresponding to the climber velocity. However, simultaneous operation of ascending and descending climbers can suppress the inclination of the cable by almost a factor of ten. In simultaneous operation, compared to single operation, a descending climber has a smaller amplitude of libration angle and less cable bending, while an ascending climber has a smaller amplitude when the climber is traveling at a higher altitude with climber velocities of 200 km/h and 400 km/h. The phase of the oscillation of the overall cable is found to be close to that of the descending climber. Cable bending is suppressed for any examined climber velocity, but the dependency of this suppression of displacement on climber velocity is not found. In summary, simultaneous operation can surely suppress the inclination of the cable via the cancellation of Coriolis forces by the two climbers.

  7. The descendants of the first quasars in the BlueTides simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Garcia, ThomasJae; Feng, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Supermassive blackholes with masses of a billion solar masses or more are known to exist up to z = 7. However, the present-day environments of the descendants of first quasars are not well understood and it is not known if they live in massive galaxy clusters or more isolated galaxies at z = 0. We use a dark matter-only realization (BTMassTracer) of the BlueTides cosmological hydrodynamic simulation to study the halo properties of the descendants of the most massive black holes at z = 8. We find that the descendants of the quasars with most massive black holes are not amongst the most massive haloes. They reside in haloes of with group-like (˜1014 M⊙) masses, while the most massive haloes in the simulations are rich clusters with masses ˜1015 M⊙. At z = 0, the distribution of halo masses of these quasar descendants is similar to that of the descendants of least massive black holes, which indicates that they are likely to exist in similar environments. By tracing back to the z = 8 progenitors of the most massive (cluster sized) haloes at z = 0; we find that their most likely black hole mass is less than 107 M⊙; they are clearly not amongst the most massive black holes. For haloes above 1015 M⊙, there is only 20 per cent probability that their z = 8 progenitors hosted a black hole with mass above 107 M⊙.

  8. A comparison of methods of assessment of scintigraphic colon transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Patricia Noel; Goldberg, Paul A; Fataar, Abdul Basier; Mann, Michael M

    2006-06-01

    There is no standard method of analysis of scintigraphic colonic transit investigation. This study was designed to compare 4 techniques. Sixteen subjects (median age, 37.5 y; range, 21-61 y), who had sustained a spinal cord injury more than a year before the study, were given a pancake labeled with 10-18 MBq of (111)In bound to resin beads to eat. Anterior and posterior images were acquired with a gamma-camera 3 h after the meal and then 3 times a day for the next 4 d. Seven regions of interest, outlining the ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, rectosigmoid, and total abdominal activity at each time point, were drawn on the anterior and posterior images. The counts were decay corrected and the geometric mean (GM), for each region, at each time point calculated. The GM was used to calculate the percentage of the initial total abdominal activity in each region, at each time point. Colonic transit was assessed in 4 ways: (a) Three independent nuclear medicine physicians visually assessed transit on the analog images and classified subjects into 5 categories of colonic transit (rapid, intermediate, generalized delay, right-sided delay, or left-sided delay). (b) Parametric images were constructed from the percentage activity in each region at each time point. (c) The arrival and clearance times of the activity in the right and left colon were plotted as time-activity curves. (d) The geometric center of the distribution of the activity was calculated and plotted on a graph versus time. The results of these 4 methods were compared using an agreement matrix. Though simple to perform, the visual assessment was unreliable. The best agreement occurred between the parametric images and the arrival and clearance times of the activity in the right and left colon. The different methods of assessment do not produce uniform results. The best option for evaluating colonic transit appears to be a combination of the analog images

  9. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Colon Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Asayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with colon involvement that was difficult to distinguish from primary colon cancer. A 60-year-old man was admitted with a 1-month history of diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed a large tumor (10.6×11.6 cm at the splenic flexure of the colon. Colonoscopy showed completely round ulcerative lesions, and biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Left hemicolectomy, resection of the jejunum and pancreas body and tail, and splenectomy were performed based on a diagnosis of descending colon cancer (cT4N0M0, stage IIB, and surgery was considered to be curative. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed as moderately differentiated acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas by immunohistochemical staining (pT3N0M0, stage IIA. Multiple liver metastases with portal thrombosis were found 8 weeks postoperatively. Despite combination chemotherapy with oral S-1 and gemcitabine, the patient died of hepatic failure with no effect of chemotherapy 14 weeks postoperatively. Correct diagnosis was difficult to determine preoperatively from the clinical, CT, and colonoscopy findings. Moreover, the disease was extremely aggressive even after curative resection. Physicians should consider pancreatic cancer in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  10. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  11. [Descending control of quiet standing and walking: a plausible neurophysiological basis of falls in elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Quiet standing and walking are generally considered to be an automatic process regulated by sensory feedback. In our report "Astasia without abasia due to peripheral neuropathy," which was published in 1994, we proposed that forced stepping in patients lacking the ankle torque is a compensatory motor control in order to maintain an upright posture. A statistical-biomechanics approach to the human postural control system has revealed open-loop (descending) control as well as closed-loop (feedback) control in quiet standing, and fractal dynamics in stride-to-stride fluctuations of walking. The descending control system of bipedal upright posture and gait may have a functional link to cognitive domains. Increasing dependence on the descending control system with aging may play a role in falls in elderly people.

  12. Union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hannemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing literature on the dynamics of immigrant fertility and mixed marriages, but partnership transitions among immigrants and ethnic minorities are little studied. Objective: This study investigates union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply the techniques of event history analysis. We contrast partnership trajectories of various immigrant groups and compare these with those of the 'native' British population. Results: The analysis shows significant differences in partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Women of Caribbean origin have the highest cohabitation and the lowest marriage rates, whereas cohabitation remains rare among immigrants from South Asia and their descendants, as most of them marry directly. Immigrants from the Caribbean region and their descendants also show higher divorce rates than 'native' British women, whereas women of South Asian origin have a low divorce risk.

  13. Is there Equity in Use of Healthcare Services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Background: Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilization in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could...... were linked to registries on healthcare utilization. Using Poisson regression models, contacts to hospital, emergency room (ER), general practitioner (GP), specialist in private practice, and dentist were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for health symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and proxies...... of integration. Results: In adjusted analyses, immigrants and their descendents had increased use of ER (multiplicative effect=1.19–5.02 dependent on immigrant and descendent group) and less frequent contact to dentist (multiplicative effect=0.04–0.80 dependent on the group). For hospitalization, GP...

  14. Effects of autonomic nerve stimulation on colorectal motility in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei Dong; Ridolfi, Timothy J.; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease processes of the colon and rectum, including constipation and incontinence, have been associated with abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system. However, the autonomic innervation to the colon and rectum are not fully understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of stimulation of vagus nerves, pelvic nerves (PN) and hypogastric nerves (HGN) on colorectal motility in rats. Methods Four strain gauge transducers were implanted on the proximal colon, mid colon, distal colon and rectum to record circular muscle contractions in rats. Electrical stimulation was administered to the efferent distal ends of the cervical vagus nerve, PN and HGN. Motility index (MI) was evaluated before and during stimulation. Key Results Electrical stimulation (5–20 Hz) of the cervical vagus elicited significant contractions in the mid colon and distal colon, whereas less pronounced contractions were observed in the proximal colon. PN stimulation elicited significant contractions in the rectum as well as the mid colon and distal colon. Atropine treatment almost completely abolished the contractions induced by vagus nerve and PN stimulation. HGN stimulation caused relaxations in the rectum, mid colon and distal colon. The relaxations in response to HGN stimulation were abolished by propranolol. Conclusions & Inferences Vagal innervation extends to the distal colon, while the PN has projections in the distribution of the rectum through the mid colon. This suggests a pattern of dual parasympathetic innervation in the left colon. Parasympathetic fibers regulate colorectal contractions via muscarinic receptors. The HGN mainly regulates colorectal relaxations via beta-adrenoceptors. PMID:20067587

  15. Descending brain neurons in larval lamprey: Spinal projection patterns and initiation of locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Albert C.; Jackson, Adam W.; Holmes, Tamra; Thurman, Suzie; Davis, G.R.; McClellan, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    In larval lamprey, partial lesions were made in the rostral spinal cord to determine which spinal tracts are important for descending activation of locomotion and to identify descending brain neurons that project in these tracts. In whole animals and in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, brain-initiated spinal locomotor activity was present when the lateral or intermediate spinal tracts were spared but usually was abolished when the medial tracts were spared. We previously showed that descending brain neurons are located in eleven cell groups, including reticulospinal (RS) neurons in the mesenecephalic reticular nucleus (MRN) as well as the anterior (ARRN), middle (MRRN), and posterior (PRRN) rhombencephalic reticular nuclei. Other descending brain neurons are located in the diencephalic (Di) as well as the anterolateral (ALV), dorsolateral (DLV), and posterolateral (PLV) vagal groups. In the present study, the Mauthner and auxillary Mauthner cells, most neurons in the Di, ALV, DLV, and PLV cell groups, and some neurons in the ARRN and PRRN had crossed descending axons. The majority of neurons projecting in medial spinal tracts included large identified Müller cells and neurons in the Di, MRN, ALV, and DLV. Axons of individual descending brain neurons usually did not switch spinal tracts, have branches in multiple tracts, or cross the midline within the rostral cord. Most neurons that projected in the lateral/intermediate spinal tracts were in the ARRN, MRRN, and PRRN. Thus, output neurons of the locomotor command system are distributed in several reticular nuclei, whose neurons project in relatively wide areas of the cord. PMID:20510243

  16. Integration of Descending Command Systems for the Generation of Context-Specific Locomotor Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda H. Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion.

  17. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  18. [Distribution of the male lineages of Genghis Khan's descendants in northern Eurasian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Wozniak, M; Denisova, G A; Dambueva, I K; Dorzhu, C M; Grzybowski, T; Zakharov, I A

    2007-03-01

    Data on the variation of 12 microsatellite loci of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3 were used to screen lineages included in the cluster of Genghis Khan's descendants in 18 northern Eurasian populations (Altaian Kazakhs, Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Khakassians, Shorians, Tyvans, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Buryats, Khamnigans, Evenks, Mongols, Kalmyks, Tajiks, Kurds, Persians, and Russians; the total sample size was 1437 people). The highest frequency of haplotypes from the cluster of the Genghis Khan's descendants was found in Mongols (34.8%). In Russia, this cluster was found in Altaian Kazakhs (8.3%), Altaians (3.4%), Buryats (2.3%), Tyvans (1.9%), and Kalmyks (1.7%).

  19. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  20. Is There a Proximal Migration of Colon Cancers? An Experience from Regional Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda YG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancers stands 3rd in males and 2nd in females in order of frequency of most common cancers worldwide and in developed countries. And is 4th common in males and 5th common in females in developing countries. Colonic tumors located at the caecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, and splenic flexure were defined as right sided colon cancer and tumors located at the descending colon, sigmoid, rectosigmoid and rectum were defined as left sided colorectal cancer. The difference in percentage deviation is statistically not significant and present study concludes that there is no actual migration of colon cancers towards right side. In the present study there is higher proportion of males being affected with Right colon cancers group which is significant and doesn’t go in accordance with the literature published, where females are more affected. Since this is institutional based study there is further need for studies based on population. As the mean age at presentation was very earlier than in the developed countries, the thrust is in us to have an effective screening programs.

  1. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measur...

  2. 65Zn kinetics as a biomarker of DMH induced colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2012-01-01

    Dietary factors are considered crucial for the prevention of initiating events in the multistep progression of colon carcinoma. There is substantial evidence that zinc may play a pivotal role in host defense against several malignancies, including colon cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of zinc utilization following experimental colon carcinogenesis in rat model. The rats were segregated into two groups viz., untreated control and DMH treated. Colon carcinogenesis was established through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30mg/Kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Whole body 65 Zn kinetics followed two compartment kinetics, with Tb1 representing the initial fast component of the biological half-life and Tb2, the slower component. The present study revealed a significant depression in the Tb1 and Tb2 components of 65 Zn in DMH treated rats. Further, DMH treatment caused a significant increase in the percent uptake values of 65 Zn in the colon, small intestine, kidney and blood, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver. Subcellular distribution revealed a significant increase in 65 Zn uptake in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions following 16 weeks of DMH supplementation. The present study demonstrated a slow mobilization of zinc during promotion of experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis and provides a physiological basis for the role of zinc in colon tumorigenesis, a paradigm which may have clinical implications in the management of colon cancer. (author)

  3. Complicated colonic intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.

  4. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes...

  5. PROMOTION OF TRIHALOMETHANE-INDUCED COLON, ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) BY A HIGH FAT DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:Bromodichloromethane (BOCM) and tribromomethane (TBM) enhanced neoplasia in the large intestine of rats when given by corn oil gavage; BOCM in the drinking water to male rats did not induce colon tumors, but did increase liver tumors. However, TBM and a mixture o...

  6. Cartographies of the Political Camp of Afro-Descendents in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Lao-Montes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out, in general terms, what it calls the political camp of Afro-descendents in Latin America. After establishing a series of theoretical and methodological criteria for the historical analysis of black movements in modernity and the Afro-American movements in particular, the article focuses on the emergence of afro-descendant movements in Latin America during the last part of the 1980s. One of the principal arguments is that in the 1990s a political camp of afro-descendents starts to emerge in the region of Latin America based on a series of developments, including the emergence of new social movements that included ethno-racial movements of Afros and indigenous people, events of regional importance like the contra-celebration of 1492 in 1992, the World Conference against Racism 2001 in Durban, South Africa, and the effects of the neoliberal pattern of globalization. The political camp of Afro-descendents is composed not only of social movements, but also of state actors and transnational actors (such as the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. The article concludes with an analysis of the challenges and perspectives of Afro-American politics in general and of Afro-Latin movements in particular considering the current crisis of the modern/colonial world-system.

  7. [Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: the need for early diagnosis and aggressive treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, M.C.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Three patients developed descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM): a 44-year-old man due to poor dental status; a 54-year-old women due to a throat infection, 6 weeks after a tooth extraction; and a 30-year-old man a few days after a tooth extraction. Presenting symptoms were dyspnoea, fever,

  8. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Holstege (Gert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractFor a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be

  9. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1991-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be presented of these

  10. Dissecting aneurysm of arch and descending thoracic aorta presenting as a left sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of massive hemorrhagic effusion is malignancy. Herein we present a case of dissecting aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta presenting initially with shortness of breath due to left sided massive pleural effusion. Effusion was hemorrhagic in nature with high hematocrit value. CT scan of thorax with CT angiogram was done and that revealed the diagnosis.

  11. The oligosaccharidic content of the glycoconjugates of the prepubertal descended and undescended testis: lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, Gherardo; Sgambati, Eleonora; Thyrion, Giorgia D Zappoli; Vichi, Debora; Orlandini, Giovanni E

    2004-01-01

    The saccharidic content of the glycoconjugates has been studied in the descended the undescended testes of a 8 years old boy. For this purpose, a battery of seven HRP-conjugated lectins (SBA, DBA,PNA,WGA,UEAI, LTA and ConA) was used. D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-L-fucose sugar residues, which were present in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells of the normally positioned prepubertal testis, were not detected in the same cells of the undescended testis. The Leydig's cells of the descended testis appeared characterized by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine which was absent in the rare and atrophic Leydig's cells of the cryptorchid testis. Differences in sugar residues distribution between the descended and the undescended testis were also detected in the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules. Peritubular myoid cells in the undescended testis only reacted with PNA, after neuraminidase digestion, thus revealing the presence of D-galactose (beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid. In this study a complete distributional map of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the descended and undescended prepubertal testis is reported.

  12. ranching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Branching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery is important in explaining variations in occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis, informing management strategies for coronary heart disease and interventional cardiology. Data on African populations are, however, scarce. Since coronary heart disease is ...

  13. Left anterior descending coronary artery dissection during ventricular tachycardia ablation – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordic Kresimir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fascicular left ventricular tachycardia (VT is the second most frequent idiopathic left VT in the setting of a structurally normal heart. Catheter ablation is curative in most patients with low complication rates. We report a case of ostial left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD occlusion during fascicular ventricular tachycardia ablation.

  14. Fertility among descendants of immigrants in Belgium: The role of the partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Landschoot, L.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Van Bavel, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research on the fertility behavior of descendants of immigrants has focused on female characteristics and has largely neglected those of the male partner. One key aspect is whether the partner is of same (endogamous) or of different (exogamous) ethnic origin. Moreover, the male partner

  15. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  16. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  17. Are immigrants and descendants with ill health more prone to unemployment? Evidence from 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has established that both ill health and minority status are associated with unemployment. Less is known, however, about the interplay between having ill health and being from minority background. The present study examines whether immigrants and descendants with ill health are particularly prone to unemployment during an economic downturn in Europe. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) cross-sectional data material is utilized, and linear probability models are estimated. The analysis is run for countries in which the two minority samples are acceptably large (N ≥ 100), resulting in 18 included European countries. The year 2011 is chosen because it is possible to identify both immigrants and descendants in EU-SILC due to a module on intergenerational transfer of disadvantages. The results indicate - as expected - that both ill health and minority status are independently related to higher unemployment likelihood. Immigrants and descendants with ill health, however, are not particularly likely to be unemployed. This finding is robust to a number of sensitivity tests, and the empirical pattern is very similar across the 18 included countries. Both minority status and ill health are associated with high unemployment probability in Europe. However, there does not seem to exist a 'double disadvantage' for immigrants and descendants with ill health, which is in line with a human capital perspective on how employers evaluate potential employees. Both a non-native-sounding name and bad health status are interpreted as a risk factor, but there is no reason to expect ill health to lower the productivity level more if the applicant is a descendant or immigrant.

  18. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  19. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  20. Absorption of wheat starch in patients resected for left-sided colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Nielsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)--and especially butyrate--has been shown possibly to impede cell proliferation and regulate cell differentiation of colonocytes. In patients with diverticular disease or benign polyps in the colon...... a hyperabsorption of potato starch in the small intestine has been found. We have investigated the absorption of wheat starch in 15 patients radically resected for cancer in the descending or sigmoid colon, and the results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. The starch malabsorption was quantified...... also similar in patients and controls. The results do not support the theory that hyperabsorption of starch is characteristic of patients with malignant disease in the large intestine....

  1. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with

  2. Fecal blood loss in patients with colonic polyps: a comparison of measurements with 51chromium-labeled erythrocytes and with the Haemoccult test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, P.; Holtermueller, K.H.; Preiss, J.; Fischer, J.; Ewe, K.; Schreiber, H.J.; Berres, M.

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative determinations of fecal daily blood loss after intravenous administration of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes in 44 patients with colonic polyps and in 11 controls were compared with the results of the daily performed Haemoccult test without dietary restrictions. A total of 642 stool specimens was analyzed for 51 Cr loss and the Haemoccult test. The mean fecal daily blood loss in the 34 patients with adenomatous polyps of the descending colon and rectosigmoid was 1.36 +/- 0.14 ml/day (mean +/- SEM), in the 10 patients with polyps of the ascending and transverse colon it was 1.28 +/- 0.31 ml/day, and in the 11 controls 0.62 +/- 0.07 ml/day. There was no positive Haemoccult test in the controls. In fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the descending colon and rectosigmoid containing 2.0-3.99 ml blood/day, the Haemoccult-test was positive in 86%. Fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the ascending colon and transverse colon containing equal blood loss yielded a positive Haemoccult test result in 26%. Thus, the positivity of the Haemoccult test is determined by the fecal daily blood loss and the anatomic location of colonic bleeding sites

  3. The Laparoscopic Approach in the Treatment of Diverticular Colon Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo, J. C. Martin; Blanco, J. I.; de la Cuesta, C.; Atienza, R.

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The experience with treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD) by the laparoscopic method is analyzed. Methods: Between January 1994 and July 1997, a group of 22 patients with criteria for symptomatic diverticular disease in the descending and sigmoid colon underwent laparoscopy with average resections of 40 cm. Intra-abdominal mechanical anastomosis completed the procedure. Results: The operative morbidity was 28%. Two cases, in acute diverticulitis phase, were reconverted to open surgery, and three cases presented postoperative rectorrhagia which ceased spontaneously. No long-term complications have been found. Postoperative hospitalization was 4-8 days (mean 5.5) and mean operative time was 165 minutes (range 120-240). Conclusions: Nevertheless, the learning curve precise to practice this type of surgery, the acceptable morbity-mortality rates which the laparoscopic method presents, especially with these high-risk groups of patients (age > 65, high blood pressure, etc), encouraged us to modified the criteria indicating surgery for the disease, offering first choice operative treatment with efficiency and safety. However, we feel that those patients with acute complications of diverticular colon disease must be excluded initially for laparoscopic approach. PMID:9876730

  4. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, Mark A; Singal, Ashwani K; Monga, Amit; Chaparala, Geeta; Khan, Amir M; Palmon, Ron; Mendoza, John Reagan D; Lirio, Juan P; Rosman, Alan S; Spungen, Ann; Bauman, William A

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI.

  5. Successful management of a benign anastomotic colonic stricture with self-expanding metallic stents: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Song; Sun, Long; Li, Xiao; Zheng, Xiao-Hua

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of and complications associated with metallic stent placement for treatment of anastomotic colonic strictures. METHODS: A 46-year-old man underging two procedures of surgery for perforation of descending colon due to a traffic accident presented with pain, abdominal distention, and inability to defecate. Single-contrast barium enema radiograph showed a severe stenosis in the region of surgical anastomosis and the patient was too weak to accept another laparotomy. Under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance, we placed two metallic stents in the stenosis site of the anastomosis of the patient with anastomotic colonic strictures. RESULTS: In this case of postsurgical stenosis, the first stent relieved the symptoms of obstruction, but stent migration happened on the next day so an additional stent was required to deal with the stricture and relieve the symptoms. CONCLUSION: This case confirms that metallic stenting may represent an effective treatment for anastomotic colonic strictures in the absence of other therapeutic alternatives. PMID:15526381

  6. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, M.P.; Luchtenborg, M.; Goeij, A.F. de; Brink, M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Bruine, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate baseline fat intake and the risk of colon and rectal tumors lacking MLH1 (mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2) repair gene expression and harboring mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat

  7. Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-03-14

    To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies.

  8. Whiplash evokes descending muscle recruitment and sympathetic responses characteristic of startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Daniel WH; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions. PMID:24932015

  9. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  10. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis following dental extraction. Radiological features and surgical treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Risco-Rojas, Roberto; Román-Romero, Leticia; Moreno-García, Carlos; López García, Cipriano

    2011-07-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) following dental extraction is an extremely serious infection with a high mortality rate. Oral infection may rapidly descend into the mediastinum across the retropharyngeal and retrovisceral spaces. Once established, mediastinitis is rapidly followed by sepsis and death. If DNM is suspected cervical and thoracic CT must be carried out urgently. After this, prompt control of the upper airway with tracheostomy, aggressive surgical debridement of the deep cervical spaces and mediastinum, and intravenous broad spectrum antibiotic therapy are mandatory. The present paper reports two new cases of DNM following dental extraction, and focuses on radiological features of abscess progression through the cervical spaces down into the mediastinum. 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrete torsion in non-geometric orbifolds and their open-string descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Morales, Jose F.; Pradisi, Gianfranco

    2000-01-01

    We discuss some Z N L xZ N R orbifold compactifications of the type IIB superstring to D=4,6 dimensions and their type I descendants. Although the Z N L xZ N R generators act asymmetrically on the chiral string modes, they result into left-right symmetric models that admit sensible unorientable reductions. We carefully work out the phases that appear in the modular transformations of the chiral amplitudes and identify the possibility of introducing discrete torsion. We propose a simplifying ansatz for the construction of the open-string descendants in which the transverse-channel Klein-bottle, annulus and Moebius-strip amplitudes are numerically identical in the proper parametrization of the world-sheet. A simple variant of the ansatz for the Z 2 L xZ 2 R orbifold gives rise to models with supersymmetry breaking in the open-string sector

  12. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations of coke descending behavior in a coke dry quenching cooling shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanhui; Zhang Xinxin; Yu Quan; Shi Zhongyin; Liu Zhicheng; Zhang Hu; Liu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    A viscous flow model based on the Navier-Stokes equation is developed to describe coke descending behavior in the 1/7-scaled-down experimental setup of an actual 75 t/h cooling shaft. It is found that the internal friction due to cokes viscosity significantly influences the descending behavior of cokes in the lower part of the shaft, while the external wall friction dominates the sluggish flow of the cokes in the shaft. An asymptotic friction coefficient expression is proposed for granular mixtures flowing along the shaft wall modified from normal wall tress, and the concept of bulk solid viscosity is introduced to describe the internal friction between coke particles. The results simulated by the present model are compared with those by the potential flow and the kinematic model without friction. The viscous flow model is quite good to simulate the bulk coke flow as the physically important frictions are engaged

  14. The importance of the descending monoamine system for the pain experience and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Anthony H

    2009-01-01

    Brainstem and midbrain areas engage descending facilitatory and inhibitory neurones to potentiate or suppress the passage of sensory inputs from spinal loci to the brain. The balance between descending controls, both excitatory and inhibitory, can be altered in various pain states and can critically determine the efficacy of certain analgesic drugs. There is good evidence for a prominent α2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibitory system and for 5-HT3 receptor-mediated excitatory control of spinal cord activity that originates in supraspinal areas. Given the multiple roles of these transmitters in pain and functions such as sleep, depression, and anxiety, the link between spinal and supraspinal processing of noxious inputs (via the monoamine transmitters) could be pivotal for linking the sensory and affective components of pain and their common co-morbidities, and also may potentially explain differences in pain scores and treatment outcomes in the patient population. PMID:20948695

  15. When Is Visual Information Used to Control Locomotion When Descending a Kerb?

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, John G.; Timmis, Matthew A.; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Descending kerbs during locomotion involves the regulation of appropriate foot placement before the kerb-edge and foot clearance over it. It also involves the modulation of gait output to ensure the body-mass is safely and smoothly lowered to the new level. Previous research has shown that vision is used in such adaptive gait tasks for feedforward planning, with vision from the lower visual field (lvf) used for online updating. The present study determined when lvf information is ...

  16. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  17. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ache

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs. First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs 'coding-space' because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This