Sample records for rare earths metal

  1. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Wang, Shijie


    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  2. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.


    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  3. Gyroscopic g factor of rare earth metals

    Ogata, Y.; Chudo, H.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Matsuo, M.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.


    We develop the in situ magnetization measurement apparatus for observing the Barnett effect consisting of a fluxgate sensor, a high speed rotor with frequencies of up to 1.5 kHz, and a magnetic shield at room temperature. The effective magnetic field (Barnett field) in a sample arising from rotation magnetizes the sample and is proportional to the rotational frequency. The gyroscopic g factor, g ' , of rare earth metals, in particular, Gd, Tb, and Dy, was estimated to be 2.00 ± 0.08, 1.53 ± 0.17, and 1.15 ± 0.32, respectively, from the slopes of the rotation dependence of the Barnett field. This study provides a technique to determine the g ' factor even in samples where the spectroscopic method may not be available.

  4. Some Rare Earth Metallic Organohydrides with Biindenyl as the Ligand


    @@ Introduction It is well known that organometallic hydrides of rare earth metals are the catalysts and reducing reagents for the catalysis polymerization of alkenes and the catalysis hydrogenation of alkenoalkynes. There are four methods for the syntheses of organometallic hydrides of rare earth metals: (1) the thermal atomization of metals, I. E. , the interaction of a rare earth metal with alkenes with a terminal alkyne; (2) the Ln-C σ bond is broken with H2; (3) metallic hydride replacement[1], I. E., NaBH4, LiA1H4 and Na can be used to react with organometallic compounds of rare earth metals; (4) the elimination ofβ-H, I. E. , in the presence of LiC1, the elimination of theβ-H of the alkyl compounds of rare earth metals gives the target product. The organohydrides of biindenyl samarium, biindenyl gadolinium and biin denyl dysprosium were obtained with NaH reduction method.

  5. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.


    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  6. Electrons and Spin Waves in Heavy Rare Earth Metals

    Mackintosh, A. R.


    Although the main principles governing the magnetic interactions and magnetic ordering in rare earth metals have been qualitatively understood for some time, it is only relatively recently that a sufficiently detailed study has been made of their electronic and magnetic excitations to place this ...

  7. Recovery of rare earth metals through biosorption:An overview

    Nilanjana Das; Devlina Das


    Rare earth metals (REMs) are a series of 17 elements that have widespread and unique applications in high technology, power generation, communications, and defense industries. These resources are also pivotal to emergent sustainable energy and car-bon alternative technologies. Recovery of REMs is interesting due to its high market prices along with various industrial applications. Conventional technologies, viz. precipitation, filtration, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, ion exchange, super critical extraction, electrowinning, electrorefining, electroslag refining, etc., which have been developed for the recovery of REMs, are not economically attractive. Biosorption represents a biotechnological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent tool for the recovery of rare earth metals from aqueous solutions. A variety of biomaterials such as algae, fungi, bacteria, resin, activated carbon, etc., have been reported to serve as potential adsorbents for the recovery of REMs. The metal binding mechanisms, as well as the parameters in-fluencing the uptake of rare earth metals and isotherm modeling are presented here. This article provides an overview of past achievements and current scenario of the biosorption studies carried out using some promising biosorbents which could serve as an economical means for recovering REMs. The experimental findings reported by different workers will provide insights into this re-search frontier.

  8. Electronic Structure of Rare-Earth Metals. II. Positron Annihilation

    Williams, R. W.; Mackintosh, Allan


    The angular correlation of the photons emitted when positrons annihilate with electrons has been studied in single crystals of the rare-earth metals Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, and in a single crystal of an equiatomic alloy of Ho and Er. A comparison of the results for Y with the calculations...... of Loucks shows that the independent-particle model gives a good first approximation to the angular distribution, although correlation effects probably smear out some of the structure. The angular distributions from the heavy rare-earth metals are very similar to that from Y and can be understood...... qualitatively in terms of the relativistic augmented-plane-wave calculations by Keeton and Loucks. The angular distributions in the c direction in the paramagnetic phases are characterized by a rapid drop at low angles followed by a hump, and these features are associated with rather flat regions of Fermi...

  9. Growth of oriented rare-earth-transition-metal thin films

    Fullerton, E.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wu, X.Z. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)


    Rare-earth-transition-metal thin films are successfully grown by magnetron sputtering onto single-crystal MgO substrates with epitaxial W buffer layers. The use of epitaxial W buffer layers allows oriented single-phase films to be grown. Sm-Co films grown onto W(100), have strong in-plane anisotropy and coercivities exceeding 5 T at 5 K whereas Fe-Sm films have strong perpendicular anisotropy and are magnetically soft.

  10. Electron-phonon coupling in the rare-earth metals

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mertig, I.


    We have estimated the strength of the mass enhancement of the conduction electrons due to electron-phonon interaction in the rare metals Sc, Y, and La–Lu. The underlying self-consistent energy bands were obtained by means of the scalar relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method, and the electron......-phonon parameters were calculated within the Gaspari-Gyorffy formulation. For the heavier rare earths Gd–Tm spin polarization was included both in the band-structure calculations and in the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling to take into account the spin splitting of the conduction electrons induced by the 4...

  11. Solution thermodynamics of rare-earth metal ions - physicochemical study-

    Amerkhanova, Sh K; Shlyapov, R M; Uali, A S [Buketov Karaganda state university, University str., 28, Karaganda, 100028 (Kazakhstan)], E-mail:


    The results of the studying of interactions in multicomponent systems 'polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - rare-earth element ion - nitrate of sodium - water' are represented. It is established that for rubidium (I) ions temperature and ionic strength is render destroying action, and for yttrium (III) ions the influence of these factors has return character which is connected with features of an electronic structure of metal ion. It is revealed that a dominating role of non-electrostatic formation composed, hence, the formation of donor-acceptor connection of 'metal - ligand' occurs through atom of oxygen.

  12. Luminescence enhancement of rare earth ions by metal nanostructures



    Well-ordered metal structures,i.e.arrays of nanosized tips on silver surface for studies of the luminescence enhancement of absorbed media with rare earth ions were used.These arrays were prepared by the metal evaporation on track membranes.Calculations of resonance frequencies of tips regarded as semispheroids were done taking into account the interaction between dipoles of tips.They were used to discuss experimental results for media with Eu(NO3)3·6H2O salt basing on data for bulk silver dielectric function.

  13. Correlations in rare-earth transition-metal permanent magnets

    Skomski, R., E-mail:; Manchanda, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NCMN, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States); Kashyap, A. [School of Basic Science, IIT Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh (India)


    It is investigated how electron-electron correlations affect the intrinsic properties of rare-earth transition-metal magnets. Focusing on orbital moment and anisotropy, we perform model calculations for 3d-4f alloys and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for NdCo{sub 5}. On an independent-electron level, the use of a single Slater determinant with broken spin symmetry introduces Hund's rule correlations, which govern the behavior of rare-earth ions and of alloys described by the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA + U approximations to DFT. By contrast, rare-earth ions in intermetallics involve configuration interactions between two or more Slater determinants and lead to phenomena such as spin-charge distribution. Analyzing DFT as a Legendre transformation and using Bethe's crystal-field theory, we show that the corresponding density functionals are very different from familiar LSDA-type expressions and outline the effect of spin-charge separation on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  14. Synthesis and luminescence of some rare earth metal complexes

    Bochkarev, Mikhail N.; Pushkarev, Anatoly P.


    In the present paper the synthesis, photoand electroluminescent properties of new rare earth metal complexes prepared and studied at the Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry during the last decade are reviewed. The obtained compounds give luminescence in UV, visible and NIR regions. The substituted phenolates, naphtholates, mercaptobenzothiazolate, 8-oxyquinolinolate, polyfluorinated alcoholates and chalcogenophosphinates were used as ligands. The synthesis and structure of unusual three-nuclear sulfidenitride clusters of Nd and Dy are described. The new excitation mechanism of ytterbium phenolates and naphtholates, which includes the stage of reversible reduction of Yb to divalent state and oxidation of the ligands in the excitation process, is discussed.

  15. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen


    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  16. Homometallic rare-Earth metal phosphinidene clusters: synthesis and reactivity.

    Wang, Kai; Luo, Gen; Hong, Jianquan; Zhou, Xigeng; Weng, Linhong; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Lixin


    Two new trinuclear μ3 -bridged rare-earth metal phosphinidene complexes, [{L(Ln)(μ-Me)}3 (μ3 -Me)(μ3 -PPh)] (L=[PhC(NC6 H4 iPr2 -2,6)2 ](-) , Ln=Y (2 a), Lu (2 b)), were synthesized through methane elimination of the corresponding carbene precursors with phenylphosphine. Heating a toluene solution of 2 at 120 °C leads to an unprecedented ortho CH bond activation of the PhP ligand to form the bridged phosphinidene/phenyl complexes. Reactions of 2 with ketones, thione, or isothiocyanate show clear phospha-Wittig chemistry, giving the corresponding organic phosphinidenation products and oxide (sulfide) complexes. Reaction of 2 with CS2 leads to the formation of novel trinuclear rare-earth metal thione dianion clusters, for which a possible pathway was determined by DFT calculation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Supramolecular structures constructed from three novel rare earth metal complexes

    Huaze Dong; Xiaojun Feng; Xia Liu; BiN Zheng; Jianhong Bi; Yan Xue; Shaohua Gou; Yanping Wang


    Three rare earth metal supramolecular complexes, {[Tb(2)4](ClO4)3·2H2O(1), [Eu(2)2(H2O)5] (ClO4)3(2) and [Gd(NO3)3(2)2]·2CH3CH2OH(3) ( 2 = 3-Dimethylamino-1-pyridin-2-yl-propenone), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure analysis reveals that the coordination numbers of three complexes (1–3) are 8, 9 and 10, respectively. Three complexes assembled into 3D frameworks based on C-H⋯O, O-H⋯O hydrogen bond linkages.

  18. Molecular rare-earth-metal hydrides in non-cyclopentadienyl environments.

    Fegler, Waldemar; Venugopal, Ajay; Kramer, Mathias; Okuda, Jun


    Molecular hydrides of the rare-earth metals play an important role as homogeneous catalysts and as counterparts of solid-state interstitial hydrides. Structurally well-characterized non-metallocene-type hydride complexes allow the study of elementary reactions that occur at rare-earth-metal centers and of catalytic reactions involving bonds between rare-earth metals and hydrides. In addition to neutral hydrides, cationic derivatives have now become available.

  19. The DNA-binding and bioactivity of rare earth metal complexes.

    Yang, Li; Wang, Bochu; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai


    Recently more and more attention is paid to the rare earth metal complexes, because the properties of the rare earth metals are similar to those of the transition metals such as the similar atomic and the ionic radius. A large number of rare metal complexes were synthesized, and their bioactivities were also studied. This review highlights recent researches on the interaction of some rare earth metal complexes with DNA, analyzes how the configuration of the complexes influences the binding affinity, and focuses on the pharmacological activities of the complexes, such as anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-virus.

  20. Syntheses and structures of new rare-earth metal tetracyanidoborates

    Falk, Fanni; Hackbarth, Liisa; Koeckerling, Martin [Anorganische Festkoerperchemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3a, 18059, Rostock (Germany); Herkert, Lorena; Mueller-Buschbaum, Klaus; Finze, Maik [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Institut fuer nachhaltige Chemie and Katalyse mit Bor (ICB), Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    Six new rare-earth metal tetracyanidoborates were prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals of these salts contain co-crystallized solvent molecules, such as water, acetone, ethanol, or diethyl ether. In [La(EtOH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{B(CN)_4}{sub 3}] (1), [La(EtOH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{B(CN)_4}{sub 3}].Et{sub 2}O (2), and [Y(EtOH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{B(CN)_4}{sub 3}].EtOH (6) the tetracyanidoborate anions are all or in part bonded to the RE{sup 3+} ions, whereas in [Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}][B(CN){sub 4}]{sub 3}.(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO (3), [Er(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}][B(CN){sub 4}]{sub 3}.(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO (4), and [Lu(EtOH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][B(CN){sub 4}]{sub 3}.EtOH.0.5H{sub 2}O (5) the [B(CN){sub 4}]{sup -} anions are not coordinated to the central metal atoms. Only in 1, one of the three crystallographically independent [B(CN){sub 4}]{sup -} anions acts as a bridging ligand. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    Hedrick, James B.


    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  2. Crystal Fields in Dilute Rare-Earth Metals Obtained from Magnetization Measurements on Dilute Rare-Earth Alloys

    Touborg, P.; Høg, J.


    Crystal field parameters of Tb, Dy, and Er in Sc, Y, and Lu are summarized. These parameters are obtained from magnetization measurements on dilute single crystals, and successfully checked by a number of different methods. The crystal field parameters vary unpredictably with the rare-earth solute....... B40, B60, and B66 are similar in Y and Lu. Crystal field parameters for the pure metals Tb, Dy, and Er are estimated from the crystal fields in Y and Lu....

  3. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.


    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  4. Magnetic Behavior of Some Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Perovskite Oxide Systems

    Kenji Yoshii; Akio Nakamura; Masaichiro Mizumaki; Naoshi Ikeda; Jun'ichiro Mizuki


    Magnetic properties were investigated for the rare-earth 3d-transition metal oxides with the perovskite structure. Intriguing magnetic phenomena were reviewed for a few systems:magnetization peak effect in the titanates, magnetization reversal in the chromites and metallic ferromagnetism in the cobaltites. The results suggest an important role of the rare-earth ions for the magnetic properties of such complex oxides.

  5. Rare Earth Application in Sealing Anodized Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites


    A new method for corrosion protection of Al-based metal matrixcomposites (MMC) was developed using two-step process, which involves anodizing in H2SO4 solution and sealing in rare earth solution. Corrosion resistance of the treated surface was evaluated with polarization curves.The results showed that the effect of the protection using rare earth sealing is equivalent to that using chromate sealing for Al6061/SiCp. The rare earth metal salt can be an alternative to the toxic chromate for sealing anodized Al MMC.

  6. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd, E-mail:


    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX{sub 3}) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ((T{sub 3}R{sub 11})X{sub 15}-type, P6{sub 3}/m), tetramers ((T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 28}(R{sub 4}) (P-43m), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 20} (P4{sub 2}/nnm), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 24}(RX{sub 3}){sub 4} (I4{sub 1}/a) and (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 23} (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ((Ru{sub 5}La{sub 14}){sub 2}Br{sub 39}, Cc) of (TR{sub r}){sub n} (n=2–5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (X{sup i}) as well as outer (X{sup a}) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i–i, i–a and/or a–i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of (TR{sub 6}) octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the (TR{sub r}) clusters share common faces. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth-metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms (TR{sub 6}) may connect via common edges or faces to form dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers of which the tetramers are the most prolific. Packing effects and electron counts play an important role. - Highlights: • Rare-earth metal cluster complexes encapsulate transition metal atoms. • Oligomers are built via connection of octahedral clusters via common edges or faces. • Dimers through pentamers with closed structures are known. • Tetramers including a tetrahedron of endohedral atoms are the most prolific.

  7. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))


    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  8. Progress of Study on Application of Rare Earth Metals in Steels

    Wang Longmei; Lin Qin; Ji Jingwen; Lan Denian


    With the improvement of the clean steel by degrees, the functions of rare earth metals in steel are more focused on modification of inclusions and micro alloying.The new study concerning the application of RE metals in clean steels were investigated by ICP, metallographic examination, SEM, EDS, EPMA, TEM and IMMA.The mechanism of corrosion resistance in the weather resistance steel was clarified.The mechanism of abrasion resistance and the life of fatigue enhanced in the RE - heavy rails steel were discussed.Progress in study of application of rare earth metals in steels (including weather resistance steel, low alloy steel, and heavy rails steel) was covered in this paper.

  9. High-purity rare-earth metals: preparation, properties, and application

    Kol'chugina; N.; B.; Burkhanov; G.; S.; Chistyakov; O.; D.; Burkhanov; Yu.; S.


    In recent years, the ever-growing interest of investigators to the study of rare-earth metals REM) is observed owing to unique properties of the metals and potential uses in electronics, laser technology, space technology, medicine, and many other high-technology applications.……

  10. High-purity rare-earth metals: preparation, properties, and application


    @@ In recent years, the ever-growing interest of investigators to the study of rare-earth metals REM) is observed owing to unique properties of the metals and potential uses in electronics, laser technology, space technology, medicine, and many other high-technology applications.

  11. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT...

  12. Rare Power China begins reinvigorate the rare earth industry after decades of underselling the valua metals

    HU YUE


    On May 19,the State Council released Guidelines to Promote Sustainable and Sound Development of the Rare Earth Industry,delivering a strong boost to the fragmented industry.Rare earth elements,a collection of 17 elements,are among the most soughtafter materials for modern manufacturing.Their unique magnetic and phosphorescent properties make them vital ingredients in sophisticated hi-tech devices like batteries,magnets,wind turbines,cellphones,electric cars and flat-screen televisions.However,mining and smelting the elements are difficult and costly.

  13. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles.

    Derom, S; Berthelot, A; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Colas des Francs, G


    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) is achieved by tuning either the dipolar or the quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ion's excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved.

  14. Structure of Some 4f Rare Earth Liquid Metals - A Charged Hard Sphere Approach

    P.B. Thakor; P.N. Gajjar; A.R. Jani


    A well-established pseodopotential is used to study the structure of some 4f rare earth liquid metals (Ce,Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb). The structure factor S(q), pair distribution function g(r), interatomic distance r1, and coordination number n1 are calculated using Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) reference system. To introduce the exchange and correlation effects, the local field correction due to Sarkar et al. (S) is applied. The present investigation is successful in generating the structural information of Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb 4f rare earth liquid metals.

  15. Effect of Rare Earth Metals on the Microstructure of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Saleh A. Alkahtani


    Full Text Available The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting temperature with no marked change in the temperature of Al-Si eutectic precipitation. Additionally, rare earth metals have no modification effect up to 1.5 wt %. In addition, La and Ce tend to react with Sr leading to modification degradation. In order to achieve noticeable modification of eutectic Si particles, the concentration of rare earth metals should exceed 1.5 wt %, which simultaneously results in the precipitation of a fairly large volume fraction of insoluble intermetallics. The precipitation of these complex intermetallics is expected to have a negative effect on the alloy performance.

  16. Effect of Rare Earth Metals on the Microstructure of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Alkahtani, Saleh A.; Elgallad, Emad M.; Tash, Mahmoud M.; Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H.


    The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting temperature with no marked change in the temperature of Al-Si eutectic precipitation. Additionally, rare earth metals have no modification effect up to 1.5 wt %. In addition, La and Ce tend to react with Sr leading to modification degradation. In order to achieve noticeable modification of eutectic Si particles, the concentration of rare earth metals should exceed 1.5 wt %, which simultaneously results in the precipitation of a fairly large volume fraction of insoluble intermetallics. The precipitation of these complex intermetallics is expected to have a negative effect on the alloy performance. PMID:28787844

  17. Effect of Rare Earth Metals on the Microstructure of Al-Si Based Alloys.

    Alkahtani, Saleh A; Elgallad, Emad M; Tash, Mahmoud M; Samuel, Agnes M; Samuel, Fawzy H


    The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting temperature with no marked change in the temperature of Al-Si eutectic precipitation. Additionally, rare earth metals have no modification effect up to 1.5 wt %. In addition, La and Ce tend to react with Sr leading to modification degradation. In order to achieve noticeable modification of eutectic Si particles, the concentration of rare earth metals should exceed 1.5 wt %, which simultaneously results in the precipitation of a fairly large volume fraction of insoluble intermetallics. The precipitation of these complex intermetallics is expected to have a negative effect on the alloy performance.

  18. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui


    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained.

  19. On the single-ion Magnetic Anisotropy of the Rare-Earth Metals

    Kolmakova, N.P.; Tishin, A.M.; Bohr, Jakob


    The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data....

  20. High-Field Magnetization of Light Rare-Earth Metals

    McEwen, K.A.; Cock, G.J.; Roeland, L.W.;


    The magnetization of single crystals of Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, and Pr-Nd alloys has been measured in fields up to 37 T (370 kG). The results give new information on the magnetic properties of these metals. Of particular interest is a first-order transition from a nonmagnetic to a metamagnetic phase...... in double-hexagonal close-packed Pr, due to the crossing of crystal-field levels, when a field of about 32 T is applied in the hard direction at low temperatures....

  1. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  2. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.


    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  3. Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of rare earth metals from the spent Ni-metal hydride batteries.

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R


    Nickel-metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) contain not only the base metals, but valuable rare earth metals (REMs) viz. La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce as well. In view of the importance of resource recycling and assured supply of the contained metals in such wastes, the present study has focussed on the leaching of the rare earth metals from the spent Ni-MH batteries. The conditions for the leaching of REMs from the spent batteries were optimized as: 2M H2SO4, 348K temperature and 120min of time at a pulp density (PD) of 100g/L. Under this condition, the leaching of 98.1% Nd, 98.4% Sm, 95.5% Pr and 89.4% Ce was achieved. Besides the rare earth metals, more than 90% of base metals (Ni, Co, Mn and Zn) were also leached out in this condition. Kinetic data for the dissolution of all the rare earth metals showed the best fit to the chemical control shrinking core model. The leaching of metals followed the mechanism involving the chemical reaction proceeding on the surface of particles by the lixiviant, which was corroborated by the XRD phase analysis and SEM-EDS studies. The activation energy of 7.6, 6.3, 11.3 and 13.5kJ/mol was acquired for the leaching of neodymium, samarium, praseodymium and cerium, respectively in the temperature range 305-348K. From the leach liquor, the mixed rare earth metals were precipitated at pH∼1.8 and the precipitated REMs was analyzed by XRD and SEM studies to determine the phases and the morphological features.

  4. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.;


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  5. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa.

    Samudrala, Gopi K; Thomas, Sarah A; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K


    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence hcp → Sm type → dhcp → distorted fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.


    SHEN Zhiquan; ZHANG Fuyao; ZHANG Yifeng


    Pervaporation separation of water-acetic acid mixtures through Poly (AN-co-AA)membranes and rare earth metal ions treated Poly(AN-co-AA)membranes was investigated for the first time. The results showed that the treatment with rare earth metal ions could greatly improve the characteristics of the separation of water-acetic acid mixtures.

  7. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.


    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  8. Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures

    Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun; Mann, Maxwell; Beach, Geoffrey S. D., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead to spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.

  9. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Metals Doped ZnO Monolayer

    Changlong Tan


    Full Text Available The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of rare-earth metals doped ZnO monolayer have been investigated using the first-principles calculations. The induced spin polarization is confirmed for Ce, Eu, Gd, and Dy dopings while the induced spin polarization is negligible for Y doping. The localized f states of rare-earth atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. ZnO monolayer undergoes transition from semiconductor to metal in the presence of Y, Ce, Gd, and Dy doping. More interestingly, Eu doped ZnO monolayer exhibits half-metallic behavior. Our result demonstrates that the RE-doping is an efficient route to modify the magnetic and electronic properties in ZnO monolayer.

  10. Ground-state properties of rare-earth metals: an evaluation of density-functional theory.

    Söderlind, Per; Turchi, P E A; Landa, A; Lordi, V


    The rare-earth metals have important technological applications due to their magnetic properties, but are scarce and expensive. Development of high-performance magnetic materials with less rare-earth content is desired, but theoretical modeling is hampered by complexities of the rare earths electronic structure. The existence of correlated (atomic-like) 4f electrons in the vicinity of the valence band makes any first-principles theory challenging. Here, we apply and evaluate the efficacy of density-functional theory for the series of lanthanides (rare earths), investigating the influence of the electron exchange and correlation functional, spin-orbit interaction, and orbital polarization. As a reference, the results are compared with those of the so-called 'standard model' of the lanthanides in which electrons are constrained to occupy 4f core states with no hybridization with the valence electrons. Some comparisons are also made with models designed for strong electron correlations. Our results suggest that spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization are important, particularly for the magnitude of the magnetic moments, and that calculated equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and magnetic moments show correct trends overall. However, the precision of the calculated properties is not at the level of that found for simpler metals in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the electronic structures do not accurately reproduce x-ray photoemission spectra.

  11. Low temperature route for the synthesis of rare earth transition metal borides and their hydrides

    Kramp, S.; Febri, M.; Joubert, J.C. [CNRS UMR 5628, Saint Martin d`Heres (France)


    Synthesis of rare earth-based alloys by the ORD technique consists in the reduction of rare earth oxides in a melt of calcium under argon, and simultaneous diffusion-reaction of the just formed rare earth metal with the other elements. This method has been applied with success to numerous ternary borides containing transition metals such as the magnetic alloys Y{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B, LnCo{sub 4}B, and YCo{sub 3}B{sub 2}. By using a small excess of Ca, boride particles grow in a viscous slurry media containing unreacted (melted) Ca and nanosize CaO particles. Single phase boride alloys can be obtained at 1000{degrees}C as loose micrometer-size particles of very high crystal quality as confirmed by the sharp diffraction peaks on the corresponding X-ray diagrams. Particles can be easily recovered by gentle wishing in diluted weak acid solution, and dried under vacuum at room temperature. This rather low temperature technique is particularly adapted to the synthesis of incongruent melting phases, as well as for the alloys containing volatile rare earth elements (Sm, Yb, Tb,...).

  12. A Low Temperature Route for the Synthesis of Rare Earth Transition Metal Borides and Their Hydrides

    Kramp, S.; Febri, M.; Joubert, J. C.


    Synthesis of rare earth-based alloys by the ORD technique consists in the reduction of rare earth oxides in a melt of calcium under argon, and simultaneous diffusion-reaction of the just formed rare earth metal with the other elements. This method has been applied with success to numerous ternary borides containing transition metals such as the magnetic alloys Y2Co14B, LnCo4B, and YCo3B2. By using a small excess of Ca, boride particles grow in a viscous slurry media containing unreacted (melted) Ca and nanosize CaO particles. Single phase boride alloys can be obtained at 1000°C as loose micrometer-size particles of very high crystal quality as confirmed by the sharp diffraction peaks on the corresponding X-ray diagrams. Particles can be easily recovered by gentle washing in diluted weak acid solution, and dried under vacuum at room temperature. This rather low temperature technique is particularly adapted to the synthesis of incongruent melting phases, as well as for the alloys containing volatile rare earth elements (Sm, Yb, Tb,…).

  13. Rare Earth Resolution

    Mei Xinyu


    BEFORE the early 1970s, China had no rare earth exports, and the world rare earth market was dominated by the United States, Europe and Japan. In the 1970s, China began to enter the world rare earth market and its share has picked up sharply in the following decades. Today, having the monopoly over global rare earth production, China must improve the benefits from rare earth production, not only from producing individual rare earth products, but also from mastering the intensive processing of rare earth products.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of anhydrous rare earth metal nitrates, rare earth acetates and rare earth oxyacetates; Synthese und Charakterisierung wasserfreier Seltenerdmetall-Nitrate, -Acetate und -Oxyacetate

    Heinrichs, Christina


    Anhydrous rare-earth metal (RE) nitrates, RE nitrate monohydrates and RE acetates were synthesized by thermal dehydration of RE nitrate hydrates and RE acetate hydrates in an argon flow or vacuum. RE oxyacetates were synthesized by thermal decomposition of RE acetates. Furthermore praseodymium carbonate hydroxide was synthesized by heating Pr carbonate hydrate. The compounds were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and, for selected examples, measurements with high-resolution synchrotron radiation were performed. Three new crystal structure types were found for RE nitrates: RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with RE = La - Sm (type I) crystallize monoclinically in space group C2/c with Z = 16 (CN = 12, 11). RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with RE = Y, Eu - Yb (type II) crystallize monoclinically in space group P2{sub 1}/c with Z = 4 (CN = 10) and Lu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (type III) monoclinically in space group I2/a with Z = 16 (CN = 8, 7). With decreasing CN (coordination number) a structural trend within the RE nitrates is observed: The RE nitrates of type I with the largest RE{sup 3+} cations build a three-dimensional network, the RE nitrates of type II form close packed layers and the preliminary structural model of Lu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (type III) with the smallest RE{sup 3+} cation shows layers and chains. The product of the dehydration of Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} . n H{sub 2}O was indexed monoclinically in space group P2{sub 1}/c. Monohydrates RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} . H{sub 2}O with RE = Dy - Yb crystallize isotypically with Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} . H{sub 2}O in the triclinic space group P anti 1 with Z = 2 (CN = 9). Pr(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} does not crystallize in the known Pr acetate type but in the trigonal space group R anti 3 with Z = 18 (CN = 10) isotypically with the La acetate type which was only known for La(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} and Ce(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} up to now. In addition to the known Ho acetate type a new crystal structure type (Ho acetate type II) was found for

  15. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro


    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system.

  16. Recovery of rare earths from acid leach solutions of spent nickel-metal hydride batteries using solvent extraction

    夏允; 肖连生; 田吉英; 李兆洋; 曾理


    The extraction of rare earths from acid leach solutions of spent nickel-metal hydride batteries using a primary amine ex-tractant of N1923 was studied. The effects of feed pH, temperature, agitation rate and time on the extraction of rare earths, as well as stripping agent composition and concentration, phase ratio on the stripping were investigated. In addition, the extraction isotherm was determined. The pilot plant test results showed that the extraction of rare earths reached 99.98% after a five-stage counter current ex-traction. The mixed rare earths oxalates with the 99.77% purity of rare earth elements and impurity content less than 0.05% were ob-tained by the addition of oxalic acids in loaded strip liquors. The extractant exhibited good selectivity of rare earths over base metals of iron, nickel, copper and manganese.

  17. Thermal oxidation of the surface of binary aluminum alloys with rare-earth metals

    Akashev, L. A.; Popov, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Shevchenko, V. G.


    The kinetics of oxidation of the surface of Al alloys with 1-2.5 at % rare-earth metals (REMs) at 400-500°C in air was studied by ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The addition (1-2.5 at % REM) of all rare-earth metals to aluminum was shown to increase the thickness of the oxide layer. The addition of surfactant and chemically active REMs (Yb, Sm, La, and Ce) increased the rate of oxidation of solid aluminum most effectively. The oxidation can be accelerated by the polymorphic transformations of the individual REM oxides in the film. The surface activity of Sm with respect to solid Al was confirmed by XRS.

  18. Distribution of Rare Earth Metals in Technogenic Wastes of Energy Enterprises (Results of the Laboratory Studies

    Alexandr Ivanovich Khanchuk


    Full Text Available The results of the research interaction between ash and slag samples from Vladivostok TPP’s landfills saturated with underburning and ammonium hydrodifluoride were given. It was found out that the reactions of the main components of a concentrate with NH4HF2 are flowing with creation of complex ammonium fluoro-metalate. It is shown that the distribution of REM (rare earth metals between foam and heavier products is going during the flotation process of carbon-containing ash and slag samples without significant concentrating. It is shown that the water leaching of fluoridated product lets transfer silicone, aluminum and iron salts into solution and concentrate rare earth elements in insoluble residue in the form of complex salts of NaLnF4 general formula. We propose a schematic diagram of hydrodifluoride recycling of carbon-containing sample, which provides concentrating of REM with incomplete separation of macro-components.

  19. Formation of an integrated holding company to produce rare-earth metal articles

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Grishaev, S. I.


    The possibility of formation of a Russian holding company for the production of rare-earth metal articles under conditions of its increasing demand on the world market is considered. It is reasonable to ensure stable business operation on the market under conditions of state-private partnership after the fraction of soled products is determined and supported by the competitive advantages of Russian products.

  20. No Giant Two-Ion Anisotropy in the Heavy-Rare-Earth Metals

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A new Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators is applied to the heavy-rare-earth metals. The Er data for the cone phase have been analyzed successfully with single-ion anisotropy and isotropic exchange interaction. The Tb data can be understood on the same basis. The previously found large two......-ion anisotropy was due to an inadequate treatment of the large single-ion anisotropy leading to an incorrect expression for the spin-wave energy....

  1. Optimization of film synthesized rare earth transition metal permanent magnet systems

    Cadieu, F.J.


    Progress is reported in three areas: high coercivity Sm-Fe-Ti-V, Sm-Fe-Zr, and two element Sm-Fe Sm{sub 5}(Fe,T){sub 17} type crystalline phases; ThMn{sub 12} type pseudobinary SmFe{sub 12-x}T{sub x}(0{le}{times}{le}1.5); and sputter process control for the synthesis of precisely textured rare earth-transition metal magnetic films. (DLC)

  2. Neutral binuclear rare-earth metal complexes with four μ₂-bridging hydrides.

    Rong, Weifeng; He, Dongliang; Wang, Meiyan; Mou, Zehuai; Cheng, Jianhua; Yao, Changguang; Li, Shihui; Trifonov, Alexander A; Lyubov, Dmitrii M; Cui, Dongmei


    The first neutral rare-earth metal dinuclear dihydrido complexes [(NPNPN)LnH2]2 (2-Ln; Ln = Y, Lu; NPNPN: N[Ph2PNC6H3((i)Pr)2]2) bearing μ2-bridging hydride ligands have been synthesized. In the presence of THF, 2-Y undergoes intramolecular activation of the sp(2) C-H bond to form dinuclear aryl-hydride complex 3-Y containing three μ2-bridging hydride ligands.

  3. Influence of rare earth metals on the nucleation and solidification behavior of iron and 1045 steel

    Li, H.; McLean, A.; Rutter, J. W.; Sommerville, I. D.


    Two series of experiments have been conducted to determine the influence of rare earth additions on the nucleation and crystallization behavior of pure iron and 1045 steel. In the first series, additions of rare earth suicide or cerium dioxide powder to two-Kg 1045 steel ingots indicated that rare earth suicide can refine the as-cast structure of such ingots. However, if the holding time after rare earth silicide addition is over two minutes, the grain refinement decreases. With cerium dioxide additions, a relatively large columnar zone was obtained. In the second series, the effects of cerium metal or cerium dioxide powder additions on the degree of undercooling obtainable in pure iron and 1045 steel were examined by the lévitation melting method. Surface tension measurements of the levitated droplets were carried out at the same time to investigate the possible effects of surface tension variations on the nucleation and crystallization behavior of the metals. The experimental data show that rare earth inclusions can greatly reduce the degree of undercooling of iron and steel, and that a small amount of dissolved cerium can further reduce the degree of undercooling of levitated droplets. The structure and reaction products obtained with Fe-Ce levitated droplets were examined with both optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The experimental results clearly indicated that cerium solute redistribution during solidification is the dominant factor in refining the as-cast structure. A nucleation and solidification model for the Fe-Ce levitated droplets has been developed, which can successfully explain the experimental results.

  4. Effect of Rare Earth Metals on Structure and Properties of Electroless Co-B Alloy Coating

    宣天鹏; 张雷; 黄秋华


    The effect of rare earth metals cerium, lanthanum and yttrium on chemical composition, structure and properties of electroless Co-B alloy coating was studied. By plasma transmitting spectrograph, electron energy spectrometer, X-ray diffractometter, micro-hardometer and vibratory sample magnetometer the chemical constitution, structure and properties of the alloy coatings were analyzed and inspected. The results show that with a tiny quantity of rare earth metal added into Co-B alloy coating, the content of boron is decreased in the alloy coatings, and the kinds of rare earth metal have enormous effect on the structure and properties of electroless Co-B alloy coating. At the same time electroless Co-B alloy with amorphous structure is transformed to electroless Co-B-RE alloy with microcrystalline or crystalline structure. In this way microhardness of the coatings is increased remarkably. Cerium and lanthanum would also increase the saturated magnetic intensity and decrease coercitive force of the coating. So soft magnetization of the coatings would be improved.

  5. Distribution of Rare Earth Metals in Technogenic Wastes of Energy Enterprises (Results of the Laboratory Studies)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Khanchuk; Aleksandr Alekseevich Yudakov; Mikhail Azaryevich Medkov; Leonid Nikolayevich Alekseyko; Andrey Vasilyevich Taskin; Sergey Igorevich Ivannikov


    The results of the research interaction between ash and slag samples from Vladivostok TPP’s landfills saturated with underburning and ammonium hydrodifluoride were given. It was found out that the reactions of the main components of a concentrate with NH4HF2 are flowing with creation of complex ammonium fluoro-metalate. It is shown that the distribution of REM (rare earth metals) between foam and heavier products is going during the flotation process of carbon-containing ash and slag samples ...

  6. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Opiela M.; Grajcar A.


    The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and...

  7. Rare earth metals in North America; Zeldzame aardmetalen in Noord-Amerika

    Louzada, K.


    The uncertain supply of rare earth metals (Rare Earth Elements) from China for the high tech industry in the U.S. is a barrier for innovation and the high-tech manufacturing industry. Many rare earths are applied in permanent magnets for sustainable energy generation and for energy storage systems in for example electric cars. Also other sectors feel the pressure of shortages. The federal government in the USA and US companies use the opportunity to encourage research into recycling, reducing the use and finding alternatives for rare earths. Canada sees in the uncertain supply and dwindling reserves in the USA and elsewhere an economic opportunity. Canada can start the development of hitherto unprofitable reserves of valuable materials. Both in the USA and Canada, the number of exploration projects in the mining industry has grown significantly [Dutch] De onzekere aanvoer van zeldzame aardmetalen (Rare Earth Elements) uit China voor de hightechindustrie vormt in de VS een hindernis voor innovatie en voor de hightech maakindustrie. Met name in permanente magneten voor duurzame energieopwekking en energieopslagsystemen voor bijvoorbeeld elektrische auto's worden veel zeldzame aardmetalen verwerkt. Ook andere sectoren staan onder druk. De federale overheid en bedrijven in de VS maken van de gelegenheid gebruik om onderzoek naar de recycling, vermindering van het gebruik en alternatieven voor zeldzame aardmetalen te stimuleren. Canada ziet de onzekere aanvoer en slinkende reserves in de VS en elders als een economische kans. Het land kan tot nu toe onrendabele voorkomens van de waardevolle materialen gaan ontwikkelen. Zowel in de VS als in Canada is het aantal exploratieprojecten in de mijnbouw aanzienlijk gegroeid.

  8. High-pressure phase transitions in rare earth metal thulium to 195 GPa.

    Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Samudrala, Gopi K; Tsoi, Georgiy M; Vohra, Yogesh K


    We have performed image plate x-ray diffraction studies on a heavy rare earth metal, thulium (Tm), in a diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 195 GPa and volume compression V/V₀ = 0.38 at room temperature. The rare earth crystal structure sequence, hcp →Sm-type→ dhcp →fcc → distorted fcc, is observed in Tm below 70 GPa with the exception of a pure fcc phase. The focus of our study is on the ultrahigh-pressure phase transition and Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 70 and 195 GPa. The hexagonal hR-24 phase is seen to describe the distorted fcc phase between 70 and 124 GPa. Above 124 ± 4 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of -1.5%. The equation of state data shows rapid stiffening above the phase transition at 124 GPa and is indicative of participation of f-electrons in bonding. We compare the behavior of Tm to other heavy rare-earths and heavy actinide metals under extreme conditions of pressure.

  9. Enhanced Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Glass Containing Nanometer-Sized Metallic Particles

    JIA You-Hun; ZHONG Biao; YIN Jian-Ping


    The enhanced laser cooling performance of rare-earth-ions-doped glasses containing small particles is predicted. This is achieved by the enhancement of local field around rare earth ions, owing to the surface plasmon resonance of small metallic particles. The role of energy transfer between ions and the particle is theoretical discussed. Depending on the particle size and the ion emission quantum efficiency, the enhancement of the absorption and the fluorescence is predicted. Moreover, taking Yb3+-doped ZBLAN as example, the cooling power and heat-light converting efficiency are calculated. It is finally concluded that the absorption and the fluorescence are greatly enhanced in these composite materials, the cooling power is increased compared to the bulk material.

  10. Impact Wear Properties of Metal-Plastic Multilayer Composites Filled with Glass Fiber Treated with Rare Earth Element Surface Modifier

    程先华; 薛玉君


    The friction and wear properties of metal-plastic multilayer composites filled with glass fiber, which is treated with rare earth element surface modifier, under impact load and dry friction conditions were investigated. Experimental results show that the metal-plastic multilayer composite filled with glass fiber exhibits excellent friction and impact wear properties when using rare earth elements as surface modifier for the surface treatment of glass fiber.

  11. Afganistan and rare earths

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  12. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    Han, M. K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x)81

  13. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    Han, Mi-Kyung [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn13-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3.6Zn13-xAl7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x

  14. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.


    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  15. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.


    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Glass-Ceramics Doped with Rare Earth Oxide and Heavy Metal Oxide

    陈国华; 刘心宇; 成钧


    Cordierite-based glass-ceramics with non-stoichiometric composition doped with rare earth oxide (REO2) and heavy metal oxide (M2O3) respectively were fabricated from glass powders. After sintering and crystallization heat treatment, various physical properties, including compact density and apparent porosity, were examined to evaluate the sintering behavior of cordierite-based glass-ceramics. Results show that the additives both heavy metal oxide and rare earth oxide promote the sintering and lower the phase temperature from μ- to α-cordierite as well as affect the dielectric properties of sintered glass-ceramics. The complete-densification temperature for samples is as low as 900 ℃. The materials have a low dielectric constant (≈5), a low thermal expansion coefficient ((2.80~3.52)×10-6 ℃-1) and a low dissipation factor (≤0.2%) and can be co-fired with high conductivity metals such as Au, Cu, Ag/Pd paste at low temperature (below 950 ℃), which makes it to be a promising material for low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrates.

  17. Molecular heterometallic hydride clusters composed of rare-earth and d-transition metals.

    Shima, Takanori; Luo, Yi; Stewart, Timothy; Bau, Robert; McIntyre, Garry J; Mason, Sax A; Hou, Zhaomin


    Heteromultimetallic hydride clusters containing both rare-earth and d-transition metals are of interest in terms of both their structure and reactivity. However, such heterometallic complexes have not yet been investigated to a great extent because of difficulties in their synthesis and structural characterization. Here, we report the synthesis, X-ray and neutron diffraction studies, and hydrogen addition and release properties of a family of rare-earth/d-transition-metal heteromultimetallic polyhydride complexes of the core structure type 'Ln(4)MH(n)' (Ln = Y, Dy, Ho; M = Mo, W; n = 9, 11, 13). Monitoring of hydrogen addition to a hydride cluster such as [{(C(5)Me(4)SiMe(3))Y}(4)(μ-H)(9)Mo(C(5)Me(5))] in a single-crystal to single-crystal process by X-ray diffraction has been achieved for the first time. Density functional theory studies reveal that the hydrogen addition process is cooperatively assisted by the Y/Mo heteromultimetallic sites, thus offering unprecedented insight into the hydrogen addition and release process of a metal hydride cluster.

  18. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira


    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extraction is needed for REMs recovery from the solutions after nitric acid leaching of phosphorus production slag. The process of the three-steps counter current extraction of rare earth


    E. P. Lisachenko


    Full Text Available Among the rare-earth metals with natural radioactive isotopes, lantan, lutetium and samarium are allocated a relatively high specific activity. The formation of the additional external radiation keep it close to the significance of the materials to the radiation categories of materials with a high content of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium family, lanthanum value is much less. Samarium, with acceptable toxicology content in the working area, forms the internal exposure to the limits for professionals. The use of these elements in science and industry requires the radiation-hygienic evaluation.

  20. Narcissistic self-sorting in self-assembled cages of rare Earth metals and rigid ligands.

    Johnson, Amber M; Wiley, Calvin A; Young, Michael C; Zhang, Xing; Lyon, Yana; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J


    Highly selective, narcissistic self-sorting can be achieved in the formation of self-assembled cages of rare earth metals with multianionic salicylhydrazone ligands. The assembly process is highly sensitive to the length of the ligand and the coordination geometry. Most surprisingly, high-fidelity sorting is possible between ligands of identical coordination angle and geometry, differing only in a single functional group on the ligand core, which is not involved in the coordination. Supramolecular effects allow discrimination between pendant functions as similar as carbonyl or methylene groups in a complex assembly process.

  1. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  2. Japanese Rare Earth Market


    Since China cancelled export rebate in May this year,prices of magnetic materials related rare earth productscontinuously rose. Increasing production cost is largelyattributed to investment in environmental protectionequipments. Prices of Nd and Dy metals rose 20~30% over thebeginning of this year.Price of Nd was USD 11.5 - 12/Kg from USD 9/Kg at theend of 2004, up 30%. Price of Dy rose to USD 65- 70/Kg fromUSD 50/Kg early this year, up 20%. Price of Pr climbed to USD13.5 - 14/Kg from USD 11/Kg, up 30%. Pri...

  3. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    M. Opiela


    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  4. Improvement of corrosion resistance of magnesium metal by rare earth elements

    Takenaka, Toshihide [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)], E-mail:; Ono, Takami; Narazaki, Yuji; Naka, Yusuke; Kawakami, Masahiro [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)


    Mg metal containing rare earth metals (REs) can be electrowon directly by molten salt electrolysis. The clarification of the optimum RE content in Mg is necessary to fix the electrolytic conditions in the direct electrowinning of Mg with RE. From this point of view, effect of RE addition in Mg metal on its corrosion property was studied in detail in this study. The specimen was prepared by adding La, Nd, or Ce in melted Mg metal, and its corrosion resistance was examined by an immersion test in 3 mass%-NaCl solution at room temperature. The corrosion resistance of Mg was improved greatly by adding a small amount of RE, whereas the excess addition of RE deteriorated the corrosion resistance. The optimum RE content was about 0.5 mass%. In this study, the corrosion property of Mg with an artificial surface oxide layer was also studied to clarify the effect of surface oxide. The corrosion resistance of Mg was particularly strengthened by conversion coating in a solution including La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, with Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. This result suggests that the surface oxide film consisting of both Mg and RE gives ideal corrosion resistance to Mg metal. Mg metal with conversion coating including RE should also be of use as a corrosion-resistant material.

  5. Synthesis and Structures of A Series of Novel Rare Earth Transition Metal Sulfates


    Seven new rare earth transition metal sulfates were synthesized by hydrothermal reactions under conditions slightly above the critical point of water. Their crystal structures were determined from single crystal X-ray data. The compositions of the new compounds can be represented by two general formulae: REM(OH)3(SO4) and RE2M(OH)3(SO4)2F(H2O) with RE=Gd, Tb, Dy; M=Ni, Cu. Three different crystal structure types were found for the formula REM(OH)3(SO4). The structures of the new compounds all feature infinite chains of REOn coordination polyhedra, which are connected to chains of CuO6 or NiO6 octahedra. The limited size range of the rare earth cations observed in these compounds is most likely because of interactions between the octahedral chains and the chains of REOn polyhedra. The new compounds are closely related to the known yttrium transition metal sulfates.

  6. Preparation and mechanism study of bulk pure rare-earth metals with amorphous and nanocrystalline structures

    LI ErDong; SONG XiaoYan; ZHANG JiuXing; LU NianDuan


    The preparation and the mechanism study of bulk pure rare-earth metals with amorphous and nanocrystalline structures, which were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS), were carried out in this paper. With different processing parameters, the amorphous, two phases of amorphous and nanocrystalline, and complete nanocrystalline microstructures have been obtained. The nano-grain sizes in the bulk nanocrystalline materials are found smaller than the original powder particles sizes, which may change the conventional viewpoint that the grains in the sintered bulk are generally coarser than the raw powder particles. The technique developed in the present work can be extended to the preparation of many other nano bulk metal materials, and thus enables the studies of the nano-size effects on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of bulk nano materials.

  7. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.


    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  8. Rare Earth Metal Complexes of Bidentate Nitroxide Ligands: Synthesis and Electrochemistry.

    Kim, Jee Eon; Bogart, Justin A; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    We report rare earth metal complexes with tri- and bidentate ligands including strongly electron-donating nitroxide groups. The tridentate ligand 1,3,5-tris(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene (H3arene-triNOx) was complexed to cerium(IV) in a 2:1 ligand-to-metal stoichiometry as Ce(Harene-triNOx)2 (1). Cyclic voltammetry of this compound showed stabilization of the tetravalent cerium cation with a Ce(IV/III) couple at E1/2 = -1.82 V versus Fc/Fc(+). On the basis of the uninvolvement of the third nitroxide group in the coordination chemistry with the cerium(IV) cation, the ligand system was redesigned toward a simpler bidentate mode, and a series of rare earth metal-arene-diNOx complexes were prepared with La(III), Ce(IV), Pr(III), Tb(III), and Y(III), [RE(arene-diNOx)2](-) ([2-RE](-), RE = La, Pr, Y, Tb) and Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, where H2arene-diNOx = 1,3-bis(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene. The core structures were isostructural throughout the series, with three nitroxide groups in η(2) binding modes and one κ(1) nitroxide group coordinated to the metal center in the solid state. In all cases except Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, electrochemical analysis described two subsequent, ligand-based, quasi-reversible redox waves, indicating that a stable [N-O•] group was generated on the electrochemical time scale. Chemical oxidation of the terbium complex was performed, and isolation of the resulting complex, Tb(arene-diNOx)2·CH2Cl2 (3·CH2Cl2), confirmed the assignment of the cyclic voltammograms. Magnetic data showed no evidence of mixing between the Tb(III) states and the states of the open-shell ligand.

  9. sup 29 Si magic angle spinning NMR spectra of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, and rare earth metal ion exchanged Y zeolites

    Chao, Kueijung; Chern, Jeryoung (Tsinghua Univ., Taiwan (China))


    The variation of the extraframework cation location in groups IA and IIA metals and rare earth metal (RE) Y zeolites as a function of the dehydration and the rehydration is monitored by {sup 29}Si MAS NMR. Unheated hydrated zeolites give similar {sup 29}Si spectra as they present the similar cation distributions. Upon dehydration a high-field shift is observed which correlates with the distortion of bond angles in silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. The line shapes of {sup 29}Si spectra depend on the nature and the location of the exchangeable cations and the occupancy of the different sites in dehydrated and rehydrated states. The correlation between the line shape of {sup 29}Si spectra and the migration of cations from the supercages to the sodalite cages after heating treatment was studied. The results of {sup 29}Si NMR agree with the known structure data.

  10. Tracking environmental impacts in global product chains - Rare Earth Metals and other critical metals used in the cleantech industry

    Pathan, A.; Schilli, A.; Johansson, J.; Vehvilaeinen, I.; Larsson, A.; Hutter, J.


    Metals form a central part of the global economy, but their extraction and supply are linked to several environmental and social concerns. This study aims to create a picture of the supply chain of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) and other critical metals used in the clean technology (cleantech) sectors of electric vehicles and solar panels. The study examines how Nordic cleantech companies are aware and acting on the challenges related to the lifecycle of these metals and what are the potentials to minimise environmental and social impacts. Recommendations of the study can be summarised as three initiatives: establishment of an awareness platform and roundtable initiative (short-term), research and information gathering (mid-term), and development of closed-loop solutions (long-term). (Author)

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of total rare earth (RE) metals from polymetallic manganese nodule leaching solution

    PK Parhi; KH Park; CW Nam; JT Park


    The study on the solvent extraction for quantitative and selective separation of total rare earth metals from the polymetallic nodule leach liquor was investigated. The typical leach liquor bearing 0. 094 g/L total rare earth, 0. 23 g/L Mn, 0.697 g/L Cu, 0.2 g/L Fe, 0.01 g/L Co and 0.735 g/L Ni was subjected to the removal iron content by precipitation method using Ca(OH)2 at pH 3.95, prior to solvent extraction of rare earth metals. Three different organo-phosphoric acid reagents (D2EHPA, PC88A, Cyanex 272) were used to ascertain their performances and selectivity towards the loading of rare earth metals in presence of other base metals. Based on the results of eq. pH effect, the performances of above three extractants followed the order as:D2EHPA>PC88A>Cyanex 272. To ensure the absence of extraction of base metals (Cu, Co, Ni), the eq. pH of the solution was optimized at the level of 2.21, though higher rare earth metal extraction efficiency was observed at higher eq. pH with either of the extractants. The complete process flow diagram for substantial recovery of total rare earth was developed using D2EHPA. Extraction isotherm plot was constructed at A:O=12:1, 3-stages and pHe=2.21, using 0.8 mol/L D2EHPA and the predicted condition of this study was further confirmed by 6-Cycles Counter Current Simulation (CCS) study. The stripping of total rare earth from loaded organic phase (LO) was conducted using HCl solution. Mc-Cabe Thiele diagram study carried out at A:O=1:5 using 4 mol/L HCl showed that three theoretical stages were needed for quantitative stripping of total rare earth. The subsequent stripped solution resulted thus led to contain total rare earth of 5.6 g/L indicating a very high enrichment of total metals by solvent extraction (SX) process.

  12. Technique for recovering rare-earth metals from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating

    Ryo Sasai


    Full Text Available To selectively recover rare-earth metals with higher purity from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating, we investigated the mechano-chemical treatment of spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder with a reaction solution of HCl and (COOH2 at room temperature. The results of various experiments showed that the mechano-chemical treatment with HCl and (COOH2 is very effective for recovering the rare-earth metals contained in spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder; the recovery rate and purity of the rare-earth metals were 95.3 and 95.0 mass%, respectively, under optimal conditions ([HCl] = 0.2 mol/dm3 and [(COOH2] = 0.25 mol/dm3.

  13. Thermodynamics analysis of the rare earth metals and their alloys with indium in solid state

    Vassiliev, V.P., E-mail: [Chemical Department, Lomonossov University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Benaissa, Ablazeze [Département des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, Université M’hamed Bougara, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Taldrik, A.F. [Institute of Superconductivity and Solid State Physics, Academician Kurchatov 1, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)


    Graphical abstract: Gibbs energies of formation vs. RE atomic numbers in REIn{sub 3}. Highlights: •Set of experimental values was collected for REIn{sub 3} phases. •Thermodynamic functions of formation were calculated at 298 K and 775 K. •Experimental and calculated values were compared. -- Abstract: Nonlinear correlative analyses between thermodynamic and some physico-chemical properties of rare-earth metals (RE) and their alloys with indium are performed for the isostructural phases RE and REIn{sub 3}. The thermodynamics values (Gibbs energies of formation, enthalpies of formation, and entropies of formation at 298 K and 775 K and standard entropies) of LnIn{sub 3} phases are calculated on the basis of calorimetry and potentiometry results. The proposed correlation between physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties agrees for all the isostructural phases REX (X are others elements of the periodic table). The resulting thermodynamic data are recommended for metallurgical handbook.

  14. Coordination Polymerization of Renewable 3-Methylenecyclopentene with Rare-Earth-Metal Precursors.

    Liu, Bo; Li, Shihui; Wang, Meiyan; Cui, Dongmei


    Coordination polymerization of renewable 3-methylenecyclopentene has been investigated for the first time using rare-earth metal-based precursors bearing various bulky ligands. All the prepared complexes catalyze controllable polymerization of 3-methylenecyclopentene into high molecular weight polymers, of which the NPN- and NSN-tridentate non-Cp ligated lutetium-based catalytic systems exhibited extremely high activities up to 11 520 kg/(molLu ⋅h) in a dilute toluene solution (3.2 g/100 mL) at room temperature. The resultant polymers have pure 1,4-regioregularity (>99 %) and tailorable number average molecular weights (1-20×10(4) ) with narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index (PDI)=1.45-1.79). DFT simulations were employed to study the polymerization mechanism and stereoregularity control. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Theory of Temperature Dependence of the Magnetization in Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Alloys

    Szpunar, B.; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    It is shown that the temperature dependence of the magnetic moments and Curie and ferrimagnetic compensation temperatures for Gdl-xTx (T = Co, Ni, and Fe) and Y1-xCox can be accounted for by a simple model assuming a RKKY interaction between the rare-earth moments and the transition-metal pseudo-spin......1-xCox durch ein einfaches Model1 erklärt werden können, das eine RKKY-Wechsel-wirkung zwischen den Momenten der Seltenen Erden und des Pseudo-Spins des Übergangsmetalls annimmt. Die Wechselwirkung wird durch ein effektives Legierungsmedium übermittelt, das mit der CPA-Theorie und elliptischen...

  16. Influence of selected rare earth metals on structural characteristics of 42CrMo4 steel

    J. Drápala


    Full Text Available The influence of rare earth metals (REM addition on solidification structure of the low-carbon 42CrMo4 steel was investigated. Alloys were prepared by means of a centrifugal casting. The addition of cerium, praseodymium or mischmetal in the steel produced greatly improved solidification structure with a suppressed columnar grain zone, finer grain size in the equiaxed grain zone. The additions occurred in the steel bath in the form of REM oxide and/or oxide-sulphide inclusions and as dissolved REM segregated along with other elements at prior grain boundaries and interdendritic spaces. Microstructure (light microscope, SEM/EDX chemical microanalysis, and TOF-SIMS analysis – mapping of elements in the structure of alloys were obtained.

  17. Recording experiments on rare-earth transition-metal thin films studied with Lorentz microscopy

    Greidanus, F.J.A.M.; Jacobs, B.A.J.; Spruit, J.H.M. (Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands)); Klahn, S. (Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorium Hamburg, D-2000 Hamburg (DE))


    Domains written thermomagnetically under recording conditions in rare-earth transition-metal thin films are studied with Lorentz microscopy. New technique in which the magneto-optical layer is deposited on specially prepared silicon wafer disks, provided with Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ windows is described. This technique allows direct observation of the written domain patterns in the electron microscope. It is demonstrated that the nucleation process plays a crucial role when writing in TbFeCo. Different compositions, having different temperature dependencies of the magnetic properties, lead to remarkably different domain-formation behaviour. With the detailed insight into the shape and structure of domains obtained by Lorentz microscopy, carrier and noise levels obtained from recording experiments can be understood. This is demonstrated with data on GdTbFe. It is shown that magnetic-field modulation, apart from the advantage of direct overwrite, offers the possibility of very high density recording.

  18. Structures of rare earth-transition metal rich compounds derived from CaCu5 type


    The properties of materials have a close connect ion to their crystal structures. Rare earth (R)-transition metal (T) rich compo und are the focus of investigation in the search for new hard magnetic materials . As the basis for the study of stabilized effect of the third component on the fo rmation of RT5 derivative and its influence of the occupied sites on magnetic properties, in this paper, the possible derivative compounds based on the RT5 primitive unit cell of the CaCu5 structure type formed through the ordered or disordered substitution of dumbbell pair 2T atoms for the R atoms at some sit es, and the structural relationship between the derivatives and the prototype ar e summarized.

  19. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.


    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 69 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were able to track magnetic ordering temperature only till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hcp phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remains localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  20. Spin-orbit qubits of rare-earth-metal ions in axially symmetric crystal fields.

    Bertaina, S; Shim, J H; Gambarelli, S; Malkin, B Z; Barbara, B


    Contrary to the well-known spin qubits, rare-earth-metal qubits are characterized by a strong influence of crystal field due to large spin-orbit coupling. At low temperature and in the presence of resonance microwaves, it is the magnetic moment of the crystal-field ground state which nutates (for several micros) and the Rabi frequency Omega(R) is anisotropic. Here, we present a study of the variations of Omega(R)(H(0)) with the magnitude and direction of the static magnetic field H(0) for the odd 167Er isotope in a single crystal CaWO(4):Er(3+). The hyperfine interactions split the Omega(R)(H(0)) curve into eight different curves which are fitted numerically and described analytically. These "spin-orbit qubits" should allow detailed studies of decoherence mechanisms which become relevant at high temperature and open new ways for qubit addressing using properly oriented magnetic fields.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of mixed rare earth-alkali metal or ammonium fluorides

    由芳田; 黄世华; 时秋峰


    The recent results on hydrothermal synthesis of mixed rare earth-alkali or ammonium fluorides were presented. The initial ratios of the starting materials, pH value and reaction temperature were the critical factors for obtaining the single-phase product. Four main types of complex rare earth fluorides, AREF4, A2REF5, ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A=Na+, K+, Rb+, NH4+), appeared in the primary hydrothermal reactions. The correlation between cation sizes and the formation of mixed rare earth fluorides under mild hydro...

  2. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den


    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  3. Processing of rare earth concentrates

    Pamela Alex; R. C. Hubli; A.K. Suri


    The paper describes process details for extraction of rare earths from an intermediate grade concentrate of Madhya Pradesh region in India and a South African slag. The xenotime concentrate obtained from the former place was an intermediate grade (47%) rare earth phosphate containing both monazite and xenotime. The South African slag was a low-grade waste product typically containing only 4% of rare earths. The rare earth resource concentrates have been treated individually by different methods such as alkali fusion and alkali leaching to convert them into their mixed oxides. Both types of materials have been processed and greater than 98% solubilization of metal values has been achieved in the intermediate grade xenotime and 80% from the South African slag. The residue of xenotime hydroxide has been washed thoroughly to collect the sodium phosphate, as by-product and the slurry pH have been adjusted to separate rare earths from thorium effectively. Other impurities such as uranium and iron have been removed by precipitation of rare earths by oxalic acid. It has been possible to recover >95% yttrium along with other rare earth oxides.

  4. Effects of rare earth oxide on hardfacing metal microstructure of medium carbon steel and its refinement mechanism

    HAO Feifei; LIAO Bo; LI Da; LIU Ligang; DAN Ting; REN Xuejun; YANG Qingxiang


    The electrodes for hardfacing medium carbon steel with six additions of rare earth oxide were developed in this work. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the microstructure, inclusion and the fractograph of the hardfacing metal were observed. Then, the effects of rare earth oxide on microstructure and inclusions in hardfacing metal were analyzed. The effectiveness of rare earth oxide as heterogeneous nuclei of δ-Fe was calculated with the misfit theory. The results showed that, the microstructure of hardfacing metal was composed of ferrite and small amount of pearlite. The microstructure was refined at first and then coarsened with the increase of rare earth oxide addition. The fractograph was changed from brittle to equiaxed dimples, then became quasi-cleavage and cleavage gradually.The calculated results showed that, the ferrite grain size could be refined because that LaA1O3 as heterogeneous nuclei ofδ-Fe was moderately effective, and the ferrite grain size was coarsened because the misfits between Ce2O3 and δ-Fe, Ce2O2S and δ-Fe were increased with futher increase of rare earth oxide addition.

  5. Red-emitting alkaline-earth rare-earth pentaoxometallates powders prepared by metal carboxylates solution

    Kyu-Seog Hwang; Sung-Dae Kim; Seung Hwangbo; Jin-Tae Kim


    Moisture-insensitive metal carboxylates that are mostly liquids at room temperature have been first applied to the preparation of strontium europium aluminate (Sr2EuAlO5) powders for red-emitting phosphor under near ultraviolet radiation. Strontium naphthenate, aluminium-2-ethylhexanoate and europium-2-ethylhexanoate were dissolved with toluene to prepare starting solution. Precursor pyrolyzed at 500 °C for 240 min was finally annealed at 900–1200 °C for 240 min in Ar. X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission–scanning electron microscope and fluorescent spectrophotometer were used to evaluate structural and optical properties. For the 1000 °C-annealed powders with regular shape and narrow size distribution confirmed by FE–SEM observation, strong red emission at 615nm under the excitation of 395nm maximum was reached, then the higher annealed samples at above 1100 °C gave the lower emission intensities.

  6. Rare Earths; The Fraternal Fifteen (Rev.)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. [Iowa State University; Ames Laboratory


    Rare earths are a set of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. They are not rare and not earths; they are metals and quite abundant. They are studied to develop commercial products which are beneficial to mankind, and because some rare earths are important to fission products.

  7. A rare earth alloy as a synthetic reagent: contrasting homo metallic rare earth and hetero bimetallic outcomes

    Deacon, G.B.; Forsyth, C.M.; Junk, P.C.; Leary, S.G. [Monash Univ., School of Chemistry, Clayton (Australia)


    Reaction of LaNi{sub 5} with 2,2'-dipyridyl-amine (HNpy{sub 2}) at 170 C under vacuum gave crystals of dimeric [La(Npy{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 2} as a previously unknown eight-coordinate isomer (1a) (two {mu}-{eta}{sup 2}:{eta}{sup 2} and two terminal chelating (Namide,Npy) Npy{sub 2} ligands), which reverts to the known ten coordinate isomer (1b) on recrystallization from THF/PhMe, thereby establishing linkage isomerism of a [Ln(Npy{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 2} complex for the first time. Reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOQ) with excess LaNi{sub 5} alloy at 190 C resulted in extraction of both metals and the formation of hetero-bimetallic [Ni{sub 2}La(OQ){sub 7}] (2). The trinuclear complex has two terminal, fac-octahedral nickel(II) sites, each bound to three chelating 8-quinolinolate anions which bridge through the oxygen atoms to the lanthanum(III) centre. The eight-coordinate lanthanum environment is completed by a chelating OQ ligand. (authors)

  8. Strategic design and refinement of Lewis acid-base catalysis by rare-earth-metal-containing polyoxometalates.

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Sugawa, Midori; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kamata, Keigo; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka


    Efficient polyoxometalate (POM)-based Lewis acid-base catalysts of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs (TBA(6)RE-POM, RE = Y(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), or Dy(3+)) were designed and synthesized by reactions of TBA(4)H(4)[γ-SiW(10)O(36)] (TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with RE(acac)(3) (acac = acetylacetonato). TBA(6)RE-POM consisted of two silicotungstate units pillared by two rare-earth-metal cations. Nucleophilic oxygen-enriched surfaces of negatively charged POMs and the incorporated rare-earth-metal cations could work as Lewis bases and Lewis acids, respectively. Consequently, cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds with trimethylsilyl cyanide ((TMS)CN) was efficiently promoted in the presence of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs via the simultaneous activation of coupling partners on the same POM molecules. POMs with larger metal cations showed higher catalytic activities for cyanosilylation because of the higher activation ability of C═O bonds (higher Lewis acidities) and sterically less hindered Lewis acid sites. Among the POM catalysts examined, the neodymium-containing POM showed remarkable catalytic performance for cyanosilylation of various kinds of structurally diverse ketones and aldehydes, giving the corresponding cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers in high yields (13 substrates, 94-99%). In particular, the turnover frequency (714,000 h(-1)) and the turnover number (23,800) for the cyanosilylation of n-hexanal were of the highest level among those of previously reported catalysts.

  9. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ July 20~31 Rare earth market still went downward, which was mainly led by sluggish demand for didymium products. Weak demand by domestic NdFeB market was attributed to continuous price falling of didymium mischmetal.

  10. The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    Kwo-Hsiung Young


    Full Text Available Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15 are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.

  11. pH-metric and thermodynamic studies of rare earth metal chelates

    Alok Vyas; R. P. Mathur


    Proton ligand stability constants of hydroxybenzoic acid containing nitro group (2-Hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid and 3-Hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid) were determined through Irving-Rossoti pH titration technique. The stability constants of rare earth metal chelates con-taining 2-Hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid and 3-Hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid as ligands were studied in aqueous medium at different ionic strength (μ=0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L) and temperatures (298, 308 and 318±0.1 K). The values of stability constant were evaluated through different computational methods like successive approximation, least square treatment, correction term method, and convergence method. The observed value of thermodynamic parameters (△G°, △H° and △S°) favors the complex formation between metal and ligands. The order of stability constant was found to be Pr(Ⅲ)

  12. A rare earth-based metal-organic framework for moisture removal and control in confined spaces

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    A method for preparing a metal-organic framework (MOF) comprising contacting one or more of a rare earth metal ion component with one or more of a tetratopic ligand component, sufficient to form a rare earth-based MOF for controlling moisture in an environment. A method of moisture control in an environment comprising adsorbing and/or desorbing water vapor in an environment using a MOF, the MOF including one or more of a rare earth metal ion component and one or more of a tetratopic ligand component. A method of controlling moisture in an environment comprising sensing the relative humidity in the environment comprising a MOF; and adsorbing water vapor on the MOF if the relative humidity is above a first level, sufficient to control moisture in an environment. The examples relate to a MOF created from 1,2,4,5-Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl )benzene (BTEB) as tetratopic ligand, 2-fluorobenzoic acid and Y(NO3)3, Tb(NO3)3 and Yb(NO3)3 as rare earth metals.

  13. Dynamic polarizabilities of rare-earth-metal atoms and dispersion coefficients for their interaction with helium atoms

    Chu, X.; Dalgarno, A.; Groenenboom, G.C.


    The dynamic scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the rare-earth-metal atoms are calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. The frequency-dependent polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies are used to determine the isotropic and orientation-dependent van der Waals coefficients for th

  14. Bis(imidazolin-2-iminato) rare earth metal complexes: synthesis, structural characterization, and catalytic application.

    Trambitas, Alexandra G; Melcher, Daniel; Hartenstein, Larissa; Roesky, Peter W; Daniliuc, Constantin; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    Reaction of anhydrous rare earth metal halides MCl(3) with 2 equiv of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH) and 2 equiv of trimethylsilylmethyl lithium (Me(3)SiCH(2)Li) in THF furnished the complexes [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] (M = Sc, Y, Lu). The molecular structures of all three compounds were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The coordination spheres around the pentacoordinate metal atoms are best described as trigonal bipyramids. Reaction of YbI(2) with 2 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) and 2 equiv of the imino ligand Im(Dipp)NH in tetrahydrofuran did not result in a divalent complex, but instead the Yb(III) complex [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)YbI(THF)(2)] was obtained and structurally characterized. Treatment of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] with 1 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) resulted in the formation of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)M(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(n)]. The coordination arrangement of these compounds in the solid state at the metal atoms is similar to that found for the starting materials, although the introduction of the neosilyl ligand induces a significantly greater distortion from the ideal trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(2)] was used as precatalyst in the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization reaction of various terminal aminoalkenes and of one aminoalkyne. The complex showed high catalytic activity and selectivity. A comparison with the previously reported dialkyl yttrium complex [(Im(Dipp)N)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2)(THF)(3)] showed no clear tendency in terms of activity.

  15. Synthesis and structural diversity of trivalent rare-earth metal diisopropylamide complexes.

    Spallek, Tatiana; Heß, Oliver; Meermann-Zimmermann, Melanie; Meermann, Christian; Klimpel, Michael G; Estler, Frank; Schneider, David; Scherer, Wolfgang; Tafipolsky, Maxim; Törnroos, Karl W; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Sirsch, Peter; Anwander, Reiner


    A series of rare-earth metal diisopropylamide complexes has been obtained via salt metathesis employing LnCl3(THF)x and lithium (LDA) or sodium diisopropylamide (NDA) in n-hexane. Reactions with AM : Ln ratios ≥3 gave ate complexes (AM)Ln(NiPr2)4(THF)n (n = 1, 2; Ln = Sc, Y, La, Lu; AM = Li, Na) in good yields. For smaller rare-earth metal centres such as scandium and lutetium, a Li : Ln ratio = 2.5 accomplished ate-free tris(amido) complexes Ln(NiPr2)3(THF). The chloro-bridged dimeric derivatives [Ln(NiPr2)2(μ-Cl)(THF)]2 (Ln = Sc, Y, La, Lu) could be obtained in high yields for Li : Ln = 1.6-2. The product resulting from the Li : La = 1 : 1.6 reaction revealed a crystal structure containing two different molecules in the crystal lattice, [La(NiPr2)2(THF)(μ-Cl)]2·La(NiPr2)3(THF)2. Recrystallization of the chloro-bridged dimers led to the formation of the monomeric species Ln(NiPr2)2Cl(THF)2 (Ln = Sc, Lu) and La(NiPr2)3(THF)2. The reaction of YCl3 and LDA with Li : Y = 2 in the absence of THF gave a bimetallic ate complex LiY(NiPr2)4 with a chain-like structure. For scandium, the equimolar reactions with LDA or NDA yielded crystals of tetrametallic mono(amido) species, {[Sc(NiPr2)Cl2(THF)]2(LiCl)}2 and [Sc(NiPr2)Cl2(THF)]4, respectively. Depending on the Ln(iii) size, AM, and presence of a donor solvent, ate complexes (AM)Ln(NiPr2)4(THF)n show distinct dynamic behaviour as revealed by variable temperature NMR spectroscopy. The presence of weak LnCH(iPr) β-agostic interactions, as indicated by Ln-N-C angles <105°, is corroborated by DFT calculations and NBO analysis.

  16. Influence of Rare Earth Metals on Microstructure and Inclusions Morphology G17CrMo5-5 Cast Steel

    Kasińska J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents influence of rare earth metals (REM on the microstructure and morphology of non-metallic inclusions of G17CrMo5-5 cast carbon steel The research has been performed on successive industrial melts. Each time about 2000 kg of liquid metal was modified. The REM was in the form of mishmetal of the composition 49, 8% Ce, 21, 8% La, 17, 1% Nd, 5, 5% Pr and 5, 35% the rest of REM. Therareearth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace.

  17. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.


    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  18. Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Rare Earth Metal on LC4 Al Alloy with Spilt Cell Technique


    A new method of studying the corrosion inhibition mechanism of rare earth metal(REM) on LC4 Al alloy with the spilt cell technique was studied. The principle and experimental method of the spilt cell technique were analyzed. By measuring the change of net-electric current between the two electrodes caused by the change of the amount of oxygen in the solution and the addition of CeCl3, the influence of corrosive performance of CeCl3 on LC4 super-power aluminum alloy in the 0.1 mol*L-1 NaCl solution was investigated. Meanwhile, the conditional changes of pH values, CeCl3 solution, additire and time of performance were also studied. Finally, the features of electrode surface were revealed by using SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). By combining these with other electric chemical techniques, such as potential-time curve, polarization curve et al.

  19. In Vivo Uptake of Rare Earth Metals by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa; Maiorana, Antonio


    Rare earth metals (REM) are a group of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and the lanthanides. In relation to atomic volume and geological behavior, the lanthanides are further subdivided into light, medium and heavy REM. They find many applications in the technological field; however, their impact on the human health is still conflicting and, for many aspects, unknown. During a research program carried on 113 cases of female breast cancer, immunohistochemically categorized in Her2-positive (29 cases), Her2-negative (57 cases) and triple negative (27 cases), aimed to evaluate the role of environmental particulate in carcinogenesis by elemental microanalysis, for the first time in literature we have detected a REM uptake, in detail europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy) and praseodymium (Pr), inside the neoplastic cells belonging to a single triple negative breast cancer. Curiously, the woman affected by this form of malignancy had worked in the ceramic industry, a well-known source of REM, during her life, and she was the one and only patient of our series to be dedicated to this activity. The medical repercussions of our findings are here discussed: in fact, a REM detection in only 1 of 113 examined cases seems to exclude active roles in breast carcinogenesis and discloses new possibilities for therapeutic developments in triple negative breast cancer.

  20. Stabilization effects of third element on CaCu5 type derivatives of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics


    Part of the results of the key project "Search for novel rare-earth functional materials" supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China is reviewed. In combination with reports in literature, the effects of the third element M on the formation and stability of La2(Co, M)17, R(Fe, M)12 and R3(Fe, M)29 intermetallic compounds are discussed by considering mixing enthalpy of M with rare-earth, Fe and Co, and atomic radius, electronegativity and electronic configurations, etc. It is concluded that the mixing en thalpy and atomic radius dominate the preferential sites and the minimum amount of M required to stabilize a structure, which ultimately affect the magnetic properties of a compound prominently. This review should provide some heuristic hints for exploiting novel rare-earth transition metal functional materials and for improving their performance.

  1. Metal loading effect on rare earth element binding to humic acid: Experimental and modelling evidence

    Marsac, Rémi; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline


    The effect of metal loading on the binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) was studied by combining ultrafiltration and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry techniques. REE-HA complexation experiments were performed at pH 3 for REE/C molar ratios ranging from ca 4 × 10 -4 to 2.7 × 10 -2. Results show that the relative amount of REE bound to HA strongly increases with decreasing REE/C. A middle-REE (MREE) downward concavity is shown by patterns at high metal loading, whereas patterns at low metal loading display a regular increase from La to Lu. Humic Ion Model VI modelling are close to the experimental data variations, provided that (i) the ΔLK 2 parameter (i.e. the Model VI parameter taken into account the presence of strong but low density binding sites) is allowed to increase regularly from La to Lu (from 1.1 to 2.1) and (ii) the published log KMA values (i.e. the REE-HA binding constants specific to Model VI) are slightly modified, in particular with respect to heavy REE. Modelling approach provided evidence that logKdREE patterns with varying REE/C likely arises because REE binding to HA occurs through two types of binding sites in different density: (i) a few strong sites that preferentially complex the heavy REE and thus control the logKdREE atterns at low REE/C; (ii) a larger amount of weaker binding sites that preferentially complex the middle-REE and thus control the logKdREE pattern at high REE/C. Hence, metal loading exerts a major effect on HA-mediated REE binding, which could explain the diversity of published conditional constants for REE binding with HA. A literature survey suggests that the few strong sites activated at low REE/C could be multidentate carboxylic sites, or perhaps N-, or P-functional groups. Finally, an examination of the literature field data proposed that the described loading effect could account for much of the variation in REE patterns observed in natural organic-rich waters (DOC > 5 mg L -1 and 4

  2. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  3. Rare earth metals appliance for magnetic admixtures recovery from mineral premixes

    A. A. Shevtsov


    Full Text Available The analysis of the material composition metallomagnetic admixtures of mineral premix. It is shown that the dressed metallomagnetic impurity includes low-magnetic particles with low magnetic susceptibility. Removing these particles from the product stream in process of magnetic separation using high-energy rare earth magnets is a challenging task.

  4. Homoleptic rare-earth metal(III) tetramethylaluminates: structural chemistry, reactivity, and performance in isoprene polymerization.

    Zimmermann, Melanie; Frøystein, Nils Age; Fischbach, Andreas; Sirsch, Peter; Dietrich, H Martin; Törnroos, Karl W; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Anwander, Reiner


    The complexes [Ln(AlMe4)3] (Ln=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Ho, Lu) have been synthesized by an amide elimination route and the structures of [Lu{(micro-Me)2AlMe2}3], [Sm{(micro-Me)2AlMe2}3], [Pr{(micro-Me)2AlMe2}3], and [La{(micro-Me)2AlMe2}2{(micro-Me)3AlMe}] determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures reveal a distinct Ln3+ cation size-dependency. A comprehensive insight into the intrinsic properties and solution coordination phenomena of [Ln(AlMe4)3] complexes has been gained from extended dynamic 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies, as well as 1D 89Y, 2D 1H/89Y, and 27Al NMR spectroscopic investigations. [Ce(AlMe4)3] and [Pr(AlMe4)3] have been used as alkyl precursors for the synthesis of heterobimetallic alkylated rare-earth metal complexes. Both carboxylate and siloxide ligands can be introduced by methane elimination reactions that give the heterobimetallic complexes [Ln{(O2CAriPr)2(micro-AlMe2)}2(AlMe4)(C6H14)n] and [Ln{OSi(OtBu)3}(AlMe3)(AlMe4)2], respectively. [Pr{OSi(OtBu)3}(AlMe3)(AlMe4)2] has been characterized by X-ray structure analysis. All of the cerium and praseodymium complexes are used as precatalysts in the stereospecific polymerization of isoprene (1-3 equivalents of Et2AlCl as co-catalyst) and compared to the corresponding neodymium-based initiators reported previously. The superior catalytic performance of the homoleptic complexes leads to quantitative yields of high-cis-1,4-polyisoprene (>98%) in almost all of the polymerization experiments. In the case of the binary catalyst mixtures derived from carboxylate or siloxide precatalysts quantitative formation of polyisoprene is only observed for nLn:nCl=1:2. The influence of the metal size is illustrated for the heterobimetallic lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium carboxylate complexes, and the highest activities are observed for praseodymium as a metal center in the presence of one equivalent of Et2AlCl.

  5. Synthesis of rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) and their properties of adsorption desulfurization

    刘想; 王景艳; 李庆远; 蒋赛; 张天浩; 季生福


    The rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) materials, Ln(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF), were synthesized using the rare earth metal (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Y) and 1,3,5-trimesic acid (BTC) as a metal ion center and ligand, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the Ln-MOFs structural features. The property of adsorption desul-furization of Ln-MOFs materials was evaluated with thiophene/n-octane as model oil. The results showed that Ln-MOFs with rare earth metals Sm, Eu, Tb and Y had perfect crystalline and good adsorption desulfurization ability. Y(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF) material had a comparatively better activity for the adsorption desulfurization with desulfurization rate up to 80.7%and the sulfur adsorption ca-pacity was found 30.7 mgS/g(Y-MOFs). The Ln-MOFs materials had excellent reusability.

  6. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Rare earth market continued drop tendency.There was not much transaction of didymium oxide and the alloy. Affected by reduced order of NdFeB magnetic materials and inactive dealings of didymium mischmetal,price of didymium mischmetal had dropped from RMB ¥95,000~98,000/ton to RMBY 93,000~95,000/ton currently.

  7. Microstructure and composition of rare earth-transition metal-aluminium-magnesium alloys

    Lia Maria Carlotti Zarpelon


    Full Text Available The determination of the microstructure and chemical composition of La0.7-xPr xMg0.3Al 0.3Mn0.4Co0.5 Ni3.8 (0 < x < 0.7 metal hydride alloys has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The substitution of La with Pr changed the grain structure from equiaxial to columnar. The relative atomic ratio of rare earth to (Al, Mn, Co, Ni in the matrix phase was 1:5 (LaNi5-type structure. Magnesium was detected only in two other phases present. A grey phase revealed 11 at.% Mg and the concentration ratios of other elements indicated the composition to be close to PrMgNi4. A dark phase was very heterogeneous in composition, attributed to the as-cast state of these alloys. The phases identified by XRD analysis in the La0.7Mg0.3Al0.3Mn0.4Co 0.5Ni3.8 alloy were: La(Ni,Co5, LaAl(Ni,Co4, La2(Ni,Co7 and AlMn(Ni,Co2. Praseodymium favors the formation of a phase with a PuNi3-type structure. Cobalt substituted Ni in the structures and yielded phases of the type: Pr(Ni,Co5 and Pr(Ni,Co3.

  8. Palladium-rare-earth metal alloys-advanced materials for hydrogen power engineering


    Hydrogen of no less than 99. 999 % (vol. fraction) purity is a principal power media of hydrogen power engineering. A single method for the preparation of high purity hydrogen consists in its separation from vapour-gas mixtures via the selective diffusion of hydrogen through a palladium membrane. The rate of hydrogen diffusion and the strength and stability during the operation in aggressive gases are important characteristics of palladium membranes. The increase in the strength, plasticity, and hydrogen-permeability of membrane alloys can be reached by alloying palladium with the formation of solid solutions.The formation of wide ranges of palladium-rare-earth metal (REM) solid solutions is an interesting feature of palladium. Earlier, we have shown that the alloying of Pd with REM substantially increases the rate of hydrogen diffusion and markedly increases the strength of palladium on retention of the adequate plasticity.In this work, we have studied alloys of the Pd-Y and Pd-Y-Me systems. It was shown that the following conditions should be satisfied to prepare high-quality alloys exhibiting high service properties: (1)the use of high-purity components (whose purity is no less than 99.95%, mass fraction), in particular,high-purity Y prepared by vacuum distillation, and (2) holding the reached purity for the final product.For this purpose, we suggested a cycle of manufacturing operations including the preparation of a vacuumtight foil of 50 (m thick as the final stage.The hydrogen-permeability of the alloys was measured at different temperatures and hydrogen pressures. The instability of operation of binary Pd-Y alloys w alloying the composition with a Ⅷ Group metal. For example, the alloy of the optimum composition Pd-8Y-Me in the annealed state exhibits the following mechanical properties: HV= 75 kg/mm2 , σu = 58 kg/mm2 , and δ= 20%. Its hydrogen-permeability (QH2) measured as a function of the temperature exceeds that of the Pd-23Ag alloy (that is widely

  9. Optimization of film synthesized rare earth transition metal permanent magnet systems. Progress report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    Cadieu, F.J.


    Progress is reported in three areas: high coercivity Sm-Fe-Ti-V, Sm-Fe-Zr, and two element Sm-Fe Sm{sub 5}(Fe,T){sub 17} type crystalline phases; ThMn{sub 12} type pseudobinary SmFe{sub 12-x}T{sub x}(0{le}{times}{le}1.5); and sputter process control for the synthesis of precisely textured rare earth-transition metal magnetic films. (DLC)

  10. China Nonferrous Metal Invested 1.3-billion in a Rare Earth Separation Project in Xinfeng,Guangdong


    <正>On the 9th Oct,a signing ceremony on project investment and construction was held between China Nonferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co.,Ltd.and the Xinfeng County Government,Guangdong.According to agreement,the company will invest RMB 1.3 billion in Xinfeng County to develop a rare earth separation project in the south,in

  11. A mini-review on rare earth metal-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic remediation of wastewater.

    Saqib, Najm Us; Adnan, Rohana; Shah, Irfan


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered a useful material for the treatment of wastewater due to its non-toxic character, chemical stability and excellent electrical and optical properties which contribute in its wide range of applications, particularly in environmental remediation technology. However, the wide band gap of TiO2 photocatalyst (anatase phase, 3.20 eV) limits its photocatalytic activity to the ultraviolet region of light. Besides that, the electron-hole pair recombination has been found to reduce the efficiency of the photocatalyst. To overcome these problems, tailoring of TiO2 surface with rare earth metals to improve its surface, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated by many researchers. The surface modifications with rare earth metals proved to enhance the efficiency of TiO2 photocatalyts by way of reducing the band gap by shifting the working wavelength to the visible region and inhibiting the anatase-to-rutile phase transformations. This review paper summarises the attempts on modification of TiO2 using rare earth metals describing their effect on the photocatalytic activities of the modified TiO2 photocatalyst.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth oxide transition-metal arsenides and selenides

    Peschke, Simon Friedrich


    The present thesis includes two different quaternary systems that have been studied extensively. On the one hand, several samples of the REFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} family of iron-based superconductors were prepared using a novel solid state metathesis reaction, which also provided a possibility to prepare late rare-earth compounds of this family at ambient pressure. Comparison of structural and physical properties of those samples with samples from conventional solid state and high pressure syntheses revealed both, commonalities as well as striking differences. The observations gave reason to the conclusion that superconducting properties strongly depend, beside electronic infl uence, on the structural parameters. On the other hand, the quaternary system RE-T-Se-O with T = Ti-Mn was investigated using a NaI/KI flux mediated synthesis route. It has been shown that oC -La{sub 2}O{sub 2}MnSe{sub 2} is exclusively accessible in su fficient purity by the use of a fl ux material. Therefore, further syntheses in this quaternary system were performed by a flux mediated synthesis route leading to a large amount of new materials. Among them, a new polymorph mC-La{sub 2}O{sub 2}MnSe{sub 2} which forms, together with La{sub 4}MnSe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and La{sub 6}MnSe{sub 4}O{sub 6}, the series La{sub 2n+2}MnSe{sub n+2}O{sub 2n+2}. In addition, the alternative preparation method also enabled a large scale synthesis of the first examples of rare-earth chromium oxyselenides with chromium in the oxidation state +II, namely RE{sub 2}CrSe{sub 2}O{sub 2} (RE = La-Nd), which opened the door to study their magnetism in detail by powder neutron diffraction and muon spin rotation techniques. Research into the La-V-Se-O system revealed the first fi ve quaternary compounds of this family with interesting magnetic properties including ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, metamagnetism and more complex behaviour. In addition, the crystal structure of two new quaternary titanium containing

  13. On halide derivatives of rare-earth metal(III) oxidomolybdates(VI) and -tungstates(VI)

    Schleid, Thomas; Hartenbach, Ingo [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic Chemistry


    Halide derivatives of rare-earth metal(III) oxidomolybdates(VI) have been investigated comprehensively over the last decade comprising the halogens fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. Iodide-containing compounds are so far unknown. The simple composition REXMoO{sub 4} (RE=rare-earth element, X=halogen) is realized for X=F almost throughout the complete lanthanide series as well as for yttrium. While ytterbium and lutetium do not form any fluoride derivative, for lanthanum, only a fluoride-deprived compound with the formula La{sub 3}FMo{sub 4}O{sub 16} is realized. Moreover, molybdenum-rich compounds with the formula REXMo{sub 2}O{sub 7} are also known for yttrium and the smaller lanthanoids. For X=Cl the composition REClMoO{sub 4} is known for yttrium and the whole lanthanide series, although, four different structure types were identified. Almost the same holds for X=Br, however, only two different structure types are realized in this class of compounds. In the case of halide derivatives of rare-earth metal(III) oxidotungstates(VI) the composition REXWO{sub 4} is found for chlorides and bromides only, so far. Due to the similar size of Mo{sup 6+} and W{sup 6+} cations, the structures found for the tungstates are basically the same as for the molybdates. With the larger lanthanides, the representatives for both chloride and bromide derivates exhibit similar structural motifs as seen in the molybdates, however, the crystal structure cannot be determined reliably. In case of the smaller lanthanoids, the chloride derivatives are isostructural with the respective molybdates, although the existence ranges differ slightly. The same is true for rare-earth metal(III) bromide oxidotungstates(VI).

  14. Imidazolin-2-iminato complexes of rare earth metals with very short metal-nitrogen bonds: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Panda, Tarun K; Trambitas, Alexandra G; Bannenberg, Thomas; Hrib, Cristian G; Randoll, Sören; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    The reactions of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH, 1-H) with trimethylsilylmethyl lithium (LiCH(2)SiMe(3)) and anhydrous rare earth metal trichlorides MCl(3) afforded the imidazolin-2-iminato complexes [(1)MCl(2)(THF)(3)] (2a, M = Sc; 2b, M = Y; 2c, M = Lu) and [(1)GdCl(2)(THF)(2)] x [LiCl(THF)(2)] (2d). Treatment of complexes 2 with dipotassium cyclooctatetradienide, K(2)(C(8)H(8)) resulted in the formation of two- or three-legged piano-stool complexes of the type [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))M(1)(THF)(n)] (3a, M = Sc, n = 1; 3b, M = Y, n = 2; 3c, M = Lu, n = 2; 3d, M = Gd, n = 2). X-ray diffraction analyses of all eight complexes 2 and 3 revealed the presence of very short metal-nitrogen bonds, which are among the shortest ever observed for these elements. [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Sc(1)(THF)] (3a) reacted with 2,6-dimethylphenyl isothiocyanate (Xy-NCS) to form the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition product 4, which contains a thioureato-N,N' moiety. The related COT-titanium complex [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))TiCl(1)] (6) could be obtained from [(1)TiCl(3)] (5) by reaction with K(2)(C(8)H(8)) and was structurally characterized. As a theoretical analysis of the nature of the metal-nitrogen bond, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for complexes 3a and 6 and also for the model complexes [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Sc(NIm(Me))] (7), [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Ti(NIm(Me))](+) (8), and [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Ti(NXy)] (9), revealing a marked similarity of the bonding in imidazolin-2-iminato and conventional imido metal complexes.

  15. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon


    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  16. Model calculation of the static magnetic susceptibility in light rare earth metallic systems

    Hammoud, Y.; Parlebas, J. C.


    Using the impurity Anderson model in the large N_f approximation, where N_f is the orbital and spin degeneracy of the f level, we calculate the zero temperature static paramagnetic susceptibility of light rare earth metallic systems. The calculation is performed for large values of the Coulomb U_ff electron-electron interactions with respect of the V hybridization of f1 and f2 configurations with the conduction states (i.e. f0 configuration) : we only keep the leading terms in a development in successive powers of 1/U_ff and V. Our numerical results on the magnetic susceptibility start from a simple analytic expression and are discussed in terms of the f level position, the hybridization V, the shape and filling of the conduction band and also the finite U_ff effects. Finally we present calculated curves for the susceptibility versus V in connection with the αγ transition of cerium and utilizing the same parameters as those used previously to obtain core level LIII absorption spectra : also in the case of the susceptibility, the hybridization appears to be an important parameter to describe the phase change from γ to α cerium. Nous utilisons le modèle d'Anderson à une impureté dans l'approximation des grands N_f où N_f est la dégénérescence d'orbitale et de spin du niveau f et nous calculons alors la susceptibilité paramagnétique statique (à température nulle) dans les systèmes métalliques de terres rares légères. Nous effectuons notre calcul pour des valeurs de l'interaction de Coulomb U_ff grandes par rapport à l'hybridation V des configurations f1 et f2 avec les états de conduction (c.-à-d. la configuration f0): nous ne retenons que les termes les plus imporatnts dans un développement en puissances successives de 1/U_ff et V. Ensuite nous discutons nos résultats numériques à partir d'une forme analytique simple obtenue pour la susceptibilité magnétique en fonction de la position du niveau f, de l'hybridation V, de la forme et du

  17. Calculation of crystal-field parameters for rare-earth noble metal alloys

    Steinbeck, L. [MPG Research Group `Electron Systems`, Department of Physics, University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Richter, M. [MPG Research Group `Electron Systems`, Department of Physics, University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Eschrig, H. [MPG Research Group `Electron Systems`, Department of Physics, University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Nitzsche, U. [MPG Research Group `Electron Systems`, Department of Physics, University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)


    The crystal-field (CF) parameters for 4f electrons of a series of rare-earth impurities in Ag and Au have been evaluated from first-principles density functional calculations of the charge distribution which are based on an optimized LCAO scheme. The localized 4f states are treated as `open core shell`. By including the self-interaction correction for the 4f states, artificial constraints on the 4f charge density employed in earlier density functional CF calculations are avoided. The calculated parameters are compared with recent neutron scattering data. ((orig.)).

  18. Calculation of crystal-field parameters for rare-earth noble metal alloys

    Steinbeck, L.; Richter, M.; Eschrig, H.; Nitzsche, U.


    The crystal-field (CF) parameters for 4f electrons of a series of rare earth impurities in Ag and Au have been evaluated from first-principles density functional calculations of the charge distribution which are based on an optimized LCAO scheme. The localized 4f states are treated as 'open core shell'. By including the self-interaction correction for the 4f states, artificial constraints on the 4f charge density employed in earlier density functional CF calculations are avoided. The calculated parameters are compared with recent neutron scattering data.

  19. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ February, 2010 Rare earth separation plants and downstream producers like NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphor materials successively ceased production due to Spring Festival, Chinese New Year. Transactions in rare earth market were few affected by public holidays.

  20. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Active demands from downstream industry drove the price rise of rare earth products in Chinese domestic marketrecently, particularly didymium and dysprosium products. Prices of other rare earth products remained stable.

  1. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market fluctuated slightly recently and the transactions remained sluggish. Environment control was strengthened in southern China and many rare earth plants had gone out of production. Some traders were considering selling commodities at low p

  2. Effect of Rare Earths-Treated Glass Fiber on Impact Wear-Resistance of Metal-Plastic Multilayer Composites

    程先华; 薛玉君; 谢超英


    The friction and wear properties under impact load and dry friction conditions of metal-plastic multilayer composites filled with glass fiber, treated with rare earth elements, were investigated. The worn surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It shows that applying rare earth elements surface modifier to treat the glass fiber surface can enhance the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), as well as promote the interface properties of the composites. This helps to form a uniformly distributed and high adhesive transfer film on the counterface and abate the friction between the composite and the counterface. As a result, the wear of composite is greatly reduced. The composite exhibits excellent friction properties and impact wear-resistance.

  3. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved


    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  4. China Rare Earth Market Review


    September 20-30, 2011 Rare earth market remained steady recently. Quoted prices of didymium products by separation and smelting plants kept stable. Some rare earth industrial zones in Baotou, Sichuan and Ganzhou had suspended production with the intensified environmental protection control and consolidation of rare earth industry. Persons in the industry hold a positive attitude toward the rare earth market after the National Day' s holiday in China. The market will develop healthily and orderly in the future.

  5. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Supply of rare earth concentrate remained tight recently. Rare earth market exhibited rising tendency holistically Affected by tight supply of rare earth concentrate, many plants were operated under the capacity. Supply of didymium oxide got tighter and the price was on rising.

  6. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Law, Jiayan; Chang, Chuntao; Du, Juan; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei


    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (TC) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune TC in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔSM and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd5Ge1.9Si2Fe0.1. The tunable TC and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  7. Synchrotron Diffraction Studies of Spontaneous Magnetostriction in Rare Earth Transition Metal Compounds

    Yang, Ning [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Thermal expansion anomalies of R2Fe14B and R2Fe17Cx (x = 0,2) (R = Y, Nd, Gd, Tb, Er) stoichiometric compounds are studied with high-energy synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using Debye-Schemer geometry in temperature range 10K to 1000K. Large spontaneous magnetostriction up to their Curie temperatures (Tc) is observed. The a-axes show relatively larger invar effects than c-axes in the R2Fe14B compounds whereas the R2Fe17Cx show the contrary anisotropies. The iron sub-lattice is shown to dominate the spontaneous magnetostriction of the compounds. The contribution of the rare earth sublattice is roughly proportional to the spin magnetic moment of the rare earth in the R2Fe14B compounds but in R2Fe17Cx, the rare earth sub-lattice contribution appears more likely to be dominated by the local bonding. The calculation of spontaneous magnetostrain of bonds shows that the bonds associated with Fe(j2) sites in R2Fe14B and the dumbbell sites in R2Fe17Cx have larger values, which is strongly related to their largest magnetic moment and Wigner-Seitz atomic cell volume. The roles of the carbon atoms in increasing the Curie temperatures of the R2Fe17 compounds are attributed to the increased separation of Fe hexagons. The R2Fe17 and R2Fe14B phases with magnetic rare earth ions also show anisotropies of thermal expansion above c. For R2Fe17 and R2Fe14B the a a/a c > 1 whereas the anisotropy is reversed with the interstitial carbon in R2Fe17. The average bond magnetostrain is shown to be a possible predictor of the magnetic moment of Fe sites in the compounds. Both of the theoretical and

  8. Calculated crystal-field parameters for rare-earth impurities in noble metals

    Steinbeck, Lutz; Richter, Manuel; Eschrig, Helmut; Nitzsche, Ulrike


    From first-principles density-functional calculations of the charge distribution the crystal-field (CF) parameters for 4f states of Er and Dy impurities in Ag and Au have been evaluated. The calculations are based on an optimized linear combination of atomic orbitals scheme, where the local-density approximation (LDA) is used for the conduction-electron states, while the localized rare-earth 4f states are treated as ``open core shell.'' As the 4f localization cannot be properly described within LDA, a self-interaction correction for the 4f states is included. In this way, any artificial constraints on the 4f charge density employed in earlier first-principles CF calculations are avoided. The calculated CF parameters agree well with recent neutron scattering data.

  9. Cationic methyl complexes of the rare-earth metals: an experimental and computational study on synthesis, structure, and reactivity.

    Kramer, Mathias U; Robert, Dominique; Arndt, Stefan; Zeimentz, Peter M; Spaniol, Thomas P; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Okuda, Jun


    Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of two families of rare-earth metal complexes containing discrete methyl cations [LnMe(2-x)(thf)n]((1+x)+) (x = 0, 1; thf = tetrahydrofuran) have been studied. As a synthetic equivalent for the elusive trimethyl complex [LnMe3], lithium methylates of the approximate composition [Li3LnMe6(thf)n] were prepared by treating rare-earth metal trichlorides [LnCl3(thf)n] with 6 equiv of methyllithium in diethyl ether. Heteronuclear complexes of the formula [Li3Ln2Me9L(n)] (Ln = Sc, Y, Tb; L = Et2O, thf) were isolated by crystallization from diethyl ether. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed a heterometallic aggregate of composition [Li3Ln2Me9(thf)n(Et2O)m] with a [LiLn2Me9](2-) core (Ln = Sc, Y, Tb). When tris(tetramethylaluminate) [Ln(AlMe4)3] (Ln = Y, Lu) was reacted with less than 1 equiv of [NR3H][BPh4], the dimethyl cations [LnMe2(thf)n][BPh4] were obtained. The coordination number as well as cis/trans isomer preference was studied by crystallographic and computational methods. Dicationic methyl complexes of the rare-earth metals of the formula [LnMe(thf)n][BAr4]2 (Ln = Sc, Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu; Ar = Ph, C6H4F-4) were synthesized, by protonolysis of either the ate complex [Li3LnMe6(thf)n] (Ln = Sc, Y, Gd-Lu) or the tris(tetramethylaluminate) [Ln(AlMe4)3] (Ln = La-Nd, Sm, Dy, Gd) with ammonium borates [NR3H][BAr4] in thf. The number of coordinated thf ligands varied from n = 5 (Ln = Sc, Tm) to n = 6 (Ln = La, Y, Sm, Dy, Ho). The configuration of representative examples was determined by X-ray diffraction studies and confirmed by density-functional theory calculations. The highly polarized bonding between the methyl group and the rare-earth metal center results in the reactivity pattern dominated by the carbanionic character and the pronounced Lewis acidity: The dicationic methyl complex [YMe(thf)6](2+) inserted benzophenone as an electrophile to give the alkoxy complex [Y(OCMePh2)(thf)5](2+). Nucleophilic addition of

  10. Syntheses and Structures of Alkali Metal Rare Earth Polyphosphates CsLn(PO3)4 (Ln = La, Ce)

    ZHU Jing; CHENG Wen-Dan; ZHANG Hao; WU Dong-Sheng; ZHAO Dan


    Alkali metal-rare earth polyphosphates, CsLn(PO3)4 (Ln = La, Ce), were synthesized by the high temperature solution reaction and studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. They crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21 (Z = 2) and feature infinite PO4 spiral chains linked with neighboring CsO10 and LnO8 polyhedra. In addition, theoretically calculated energy band structure and density of states (DOS) by the density functional theory(DFT) predict that the solid-state compound CsLa(PO3)4 possesses insulative character.

  11. Review of magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the intermetallic compounds of rare earth with low boiling point metals

    Ling-Wei, Li


    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in many rare earth (RE) based intermetallic compounds has been extensively investigated during the last two decades, not only due to their potential applications for magnetic refrigeration but also for better understanding of the fundamental problems of the materials. This paper reviews our recent progress on studying the magnetic properties and MCE in some binary or ternary intermetallic compounds of RE with low boiling point metal(s) (Zn, Mg, and Cd). Some of them exhibit promising MCE properties, which make them attractive for low temperature magnetic refrigeration. Characteristics of the magnetic transition, origin of large MCE, as well as the potential application of these compounds are thoroughly discussed. Additionally, a brief review of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in the quaternary rare earth nickel boroncarbides RENi2B2C superconductors is also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374081 and 11004044), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. N150905001, L1509006, and N140901001), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Postdoctoral Fellowships for Foreign Researchers (Grant No. P10060), and the Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) Foundation (Research stipend to L. Li).

  12. Effect of Rare Earth Metals, Sr, and Ti Addition on the Microstructural Characterization of A413.1 Alloy

    M. G. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available The present work was performed on A413.1 alloy containing 0.2–1.5 wt% rare earth metals (lanthanum or cerium, 0.05–0.15% Ti, and 0–0.02 wt% Sr. These elements were either added individually or combined. Thermal analysis, image analysis, and electron probe microanalysis were the main techniques employed in the present study. The results show that the use of the depression in the eutectic temperature as a function of alloy modification cannot be applied in the case when the alloy is treated with rare earth metals. Increasing the concentration of RE increases the solidification zone especially in Sr-modified alloys leading to poor feeding ability. This observation is more prominent in the case of Ce addition. Depending upon the amount of added Ti, two RE based intermetallics can be formed: (i a white phase, mainly platelet-like (approximately 2.5 μm thick, that is rich in RE, Si, Cu, and Al and (ii a second phase made up of mainly grey sludge particles (star-like branching in different directions. The grey phase is rich in Ti with some RE (almost 20% of that in the white phase with traces of Si and Cu. There is a strong interaction between RE and Sr leading to a reduction in the efficiency of Sr as a eutectic Si modifier causing particle demodification.

  13. Thermodynamics of Modifying Effect of Rare Earth Oxide on Inclusions in Hardfacing Metal of Medium—High Carbon Steel

    杨庆祥; 赵研辉; 等


    The modifying effect of rare earth(RE)oxide on inclusions in hardfacing metals of medium-high carbon steel was investigated by means of thermodynamics,The thermodynamic analsys for inclusion formation shows that RE oxide can be reduced to RE element by carbon,then the RE element can react with oxygen and sulfur to form the RE oxide,RE sulfide and RE oxide-sulfide in hardfacing molten pool.The deoxidization and the desulphurization can be carried otu and the liquid metal can be purified.In addition,RE oxide can also react with sulfur to form RE oxide-sulfide dirdctly.Therefore,the harmful effect of sulfur can be decreased.

  14. Synthesis and structure of some nano-sized rare-earth metal ions doped potassium hexacyanoferrates

    Narayan, Himanshu; Alemu, Hailemichael; Nketsa, Pusetso F.; Manatha, Toka J.; Madhavi Thakurdesai, And


    Rare-earth ions doped potassium hexacyanoferrates (KR-HCF); with the general formula KRFe(CN)6 · 3H2 O [with, R≡Y, Gd and Yb] nanoparticles were synthesized through precipitation. Characterization was done through particle-size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform infra-red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data was analyzed on FullProf Software Suite program and the unit-cell structure and lattice parameters of KR-HCF samples were determined from scratch and refined further. All the three KR-HCF nanoparticles seem to crystallize in the orthorhombic primitive PMMM space-group. Reasonably good agreement was found with the previously reported lattice constants of KGd-HCF and KYb-HCF orthorhombic single-crystals, except that they assume different space-groups. The observed dissimilarity of space-groups may be attributed to the different time scales involved in the synthesis process. Moreover, the crystal structure of KYFe(CN)6 · 3H2 O nanoparticles is being reported for the very first time.

  15. A geological reconnaissance of electrical and electronic waste as a source for rare earth metals.

    Mueller, Sandra R; Wäger, Patrick A; Widmer, Rolf; Williams, Ian D


    The mining of material resources requires knowledge about geogenic and anthropogenic deposits, in particular on the location of the deposits with the comparatively highest concentration of raw materials. In this study, we develop a framework that allows the establishment of analogies between geological and anthropogenic processes. These analogies were applied to three selected products containing rare earth elements (REE) in order to identify the most concentrated deposits in the anthropogenic cycle. The three identified anthropogenic deposits were characterised according to criteria such as "host rock", "REE mineralisation" and "age of mineralisation", i.e. regarding their "geological" setting. The results of this characterisation demonstrated that anthropogenic deposits have both a higher concentration of REE and a longer mine life than the evaluated geogenic deposit (Mount Weld, Australia). The results were further evaluated by comparison with the geological knowledge category of the United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009 (UNFC-2009) to determine the confidence level in the deposit quantities. The application of our approach to the three selected cases shows a potential for recovery of REE in anthropogenic deposits; however, further exploration of both potential and limitations is required.

  16. Visible-Light Excitated Photocatalytic Activity of Rare Earth Metal-Ion-Doped Titania

    谢一兵; 李萍; 袁春伟


    The rare earth ion Ce4+ doped TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method. The average particle sizes are about 10 nm for sol phase and 55 nm for polycrystalline phase. The photocatalytic activities to degrade Reactive Brilliant Red Dye X-3B were investigated. The result reveals that the spectrum response of Ce4+-TiO2 has extended to visible region from the UV region(λ<387 nm) of pure TiO2. Amorphous phase Ce4+-TiO2 sol with an electron scavenger (1.0% atom fraction Ce4+ ion doping amount) shows the capability of the photocatalytic degradation of the dye X-3B as well as the nanocrystallite Ce4+-TiO2 with an interband trap site. Despite of the difference in the morphology of Ce4+-TiO2 photocatalyst, there is no apparent difference in respect of the decoloring effects. Whereas, polycrystalline phase Ce4+-TiO2 exhibits strong photomineralization power in comparison with the amorphous phase. The photocatalytic oxidation mechanisms of the dye molecule mainly involved in the self-photo-sensitization photolysis process by the first excited singlet oxygen (1O2) and photocatalysis process by hydroxyl radicals(*OH) under visible light irradiation.

  17. China rare earth market review


    June 20-30 2012 Affected by a sustained slump in the demand from downstream industries, rare earth market remained flat recently. There were not many inquiries for rare earth products in the spot market. Consumers lacked of confidence in the future market. As for the downstream industries, the market of NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors were in the doldrums. Ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder industries maintained weak. Affected by the global economy, export market of rare earth was weak.

  18. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market remained weak recently. Dealings of light and heavy rare earth products were sluggish. Demand for didymium and dysprosium related products was soft and purchasers were not interested in replenishing their stocks. The market of NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors remained inactive. Meanwhile, ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder industries were weak. Affected by global economical recession, export market of rare earth remained weak.

  19. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market was weak recently. There was still no sign of recovery in NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors market. The market of ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder were in the doldrums. Rare earth deep processing enterprisers hesitated to purchase rare earth products and considered that there was room for further price reduction. Global economy slowed down and there was no sign of improvement yet. The export market was sluggish and transactions were inactive.

  20. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market was relatively stable recently. There was not much change to the quotations by suppliers. Inquiries for most products increased in spot market and so did to the transactions. Recently, rare earth special invoices attracted the attention in the industry again. It is likely to result in price rise of many rare earth products if the special invoice system can put into effect in the near term.

  1. China rare earth market review


    November 1-10, 2012 Some key rare earth producers had paused production since the last ten day period of October in order to retain normal production and market order and stabilize rare earth prices. The production suspension measure by the plants together with severe cracking down on illegal mining by the government had some influence on sluggish market recently. Data showed rapid price increase of major rare earth products after sharp decline previously.

  2. China rare earth market review


    October 21-31,2012 Recently, dealings of rare earth remained stagnant. Consumers hesitated to increase their stocks for the fear of further decline in rare earth prices. It was difficult for suppliers to sell products and they had reduced quotations to attract buyers. It did not show demand from end users could rebound in short terms. Dealings of rare earth products in spot market were few. The market of NdFeB magnetic materials, phosphors, catalysts, polishing powders and ceramics remained sluggish. There was no sign of picking up in world economy. Export market of rare earths maintained inactive.

  3. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market remained sluggish and quiet holistically recently. Didymium-related market was quiet and the consumers were hesitating in replenishing their inventories. Inquiries for dysprosium-related products were few and the transactions were inactive, Demand for europium oxide (99.99%) was weak and the trade was far from brisk. Baogang Rare Earth suspended production, which has a positive effect in stabilizing the whole rare earth market. But prices of rare earth products did not go up rapidly. This means there were still large inventories in the market.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of high-fluorescent rare-earth metal nanoparticles for bioimaging applications.

    Hernandez-Adame, Luis; Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Portales-Pérez, Diana P; Castillo, Claudia; Zhao, Wayne; Juarez, Zaida N; Hernandez, Luis R; Bach, Horacio; Palestino, Gabriela


    Research on nanometer-sized luminescent semiconductors and their biological applications in detectors and contrasting agents is an emergent field in nanotechnology. When new nanosize technologies are developed for human health applications, their interaction with biological systems should be studied in depth. Rare-earth elements are used in medical and industrial applications, but their toxic effects are not known. In this work, the biological interaction between terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles (GOSNPs) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), human-derived macrophages (THP-1), and human cervical carcinoma cell (HeLa) were evaluated. The GOSNPs were synthetized using a hydrothermal method to obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with an average size of 91 ± 9 nm. Characterization techniques showed the hexagonal phase of the Gd2 O2 S:Tb(3+) free of impurities, and a strong green emission at λemi  = 544 nm produced by Tb(3+) was observed. Toxic effects of GOSNPs were evaluated using cell viability, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and immunological response techniques. In addition, an Artemia model was used to assess the toxicity in vivo. Results indicated cell apoptosis in both types of cells with less sensitivity for PBMC cells compared to HeLa cells. In addition, no toxic effects were observed in the in vivo model of Artemia. Moreover, GOSNPs significantly reduced the activation and cell-cycle progression of PBMC and HeLa cells, respectively. Interestingly, an increase in proinflammatory cytokines was not observed. Our data suggest that fluorescence applications of GOSNPs for biolabeling are not toxic in primary immune cells and they may have an immunomodulatory effect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 605-615, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. China's rare-earth industry

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  6. 12 Ministries Control Rare Earth Exports


    <正>"It is very natural to reserve rare earth as a strategic resource.Many countries do this,including China."On April 8,Sun Lihui,Vice Director of Metal Section of Chemicals Import & Export Commerce Chamber of China Minmetals Corporation told a reporter that as early as 2006,China has launched a strategic plan for rare earth,"but it was interrupted by the subsequent financial crisis."

  7. Hyporheic Microbial Biofilms as Indicators of Heavy and Rare Earth Metals in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Barnhart, E. P.; Hornberger, M.; Hwang, C.; Dror, I.; Bouskill, N.; Short, T.; Cain, D.; Fields, M. W.


    The ability to effectively monitor the impact of hard rock mining activities on rivers and streams is a growing concern given the large number of active and abandoned mines in the western United States. One such example, the Clark Fork Basin (CFB), western Montana, was extensively mined for copper in the early 20th century: it is now one of largest U.S. EPA superfund sites. Microbial biofilms are at the base of the lotic food chain and may provide a useful biomonitoring tool for the assessment of metal toxicity due to their environmental ubiquity, rapidity of response to environmental perturbation, and importance in determining metal mobility. Hyporheic microbial biofilms from the CFB were sampled in 2014, concurrent with the USGS National Research Programs (NRP) long-term site monitoring of metals in bed sediment and aquatic benthic insects. Integration of the DNA sequencing results from the hyporheic biofilms with the sediment and insect metal concentrations correlated several bacterial phyla with metal contamination. For example, the genus Lysobacter was strongly associated with copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche. These results support previous studies identifying Lysobacter as a bacterial genus that is resistant to Cu ions. Our analysis is the first to indicate that specific microorganisms can act as biomarkers of Cu contamination in rivers. Moreover, our work demonstrates that changes at the microbial community level in the hyporheic zone can be coupled to observed perturbations across higher trophic levels. In 2015, extensive remediation occurred at several of the sites sampled in 2014, providing an excellent opportunity to revisit the sites and examine the temporal variability of identified biomarkers and the short-term effectiveness of remediation. In addition, samples were analyzed for rare earth metals, of which little is known, and could provide additional insight into other metals that change the microbial community structure.

  8. Non-rare earth magnetic nanoparticles

    Carpenter, Everett E.; Huba, Zachary J.; Carroll, Kyler J.; Farghaly, Ahmed; Khanna, Shiv N.; Qian, Meichun; Bertino, Massimo


    Continuous flow synthetic methods are used to make single phase magnetic metal alloy nanoparticles that do not contain rare earth metals. Soft and hard magnets made from the magnetic nanoparticles are used for a variety of purposes, e.g. in electric motors, communication devices, etc.

  9. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.


    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Economical Sequestration of Rare Earth Metals from Geothermal Waters

    Stull, Dean P. [Tusaar Corp., Lafayette, CO (United States)


    The purpose of this work was to complete a proof of concept study to apply and validate a novel method developed by Tusaar for the capture and recovery of rare earth elements (known as REEs) and other critical and valuable elements from geothermal waters produced from deep within the earth. Geothermal water provides heat for power production at many geothermal power plants in the western United States. The target elements, the REEs, are vital to modern day electronics, batteries, motors, automobiles and many other consumer favorites and necessities. Currently there are no domestic sources of REEs while domestic and international demand for the products they are used in continues to rise. Many of the REEs are considered “strategically” important. A secure supply of REEs in the USA would benefit consumers and the country at large. A new method to recover these REEs from geothermal waters used at existing geothermal power plants around the country is a high priority and would benefit consumers and the USA. The result of this project was the successful development and demonstration of an integrated process for removal and recovery of the REEs from synthetic geothermal brines on a small laboratory scale. The work included preparation of model geothermal brines to test, selection of the most effective proprietary sorbent media to capture the REEs and testing of the media under a variety of potential operating conditions. Geothermal brines are generally very high in salt content and contain a wide range of elements and anions associated with the rock layers from which they are produced. Processing the geothermal water is difficult because it is corrosive and the dissolved minerals in the water precipitate easily once the temperature and pressure change. No commercial technologies have been shown to be effective or robust enough under these geothermal brine conditions to be commercially viable for removal of REEs. Technologies including ion exchange, traditional

  11. Applying ellipsometry to studying the effect of two kinds of rare earth metal salts on anodizing aluminum alloy

    H00G Quan; QIAN Ying; LI Lingjie; ZHANG Shengtao


    The effects of rare earth metal salts (REMs), cerium(Ⅳ) salt and lanthanum (Ⅲ) salt, on the property of anodized coating of LD10 aluminum alloy are studied by corrosion tests including neutral salt spray test and copper accelerated acetic acid immersion test, polarization curves measurement, energy dispersion analyzer of X-Ray(EDAX) analysis, and in situ ellipsometry. The results show that the addition of either of the two REMs in anodizing solution hardly changes the composition of an anodized coating, while increases the thickness of barrier part and reduces the porosity of porous part, which contributed to the improvement of the corrosion resistance of the anodized coating. The results also demonstrate that the effect of cerium salt was better than that of lanthanum salt.

  12. Metal nitride cluster as a template to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes

    Zhang, Yang


    Rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes have attracted much attention due to the feasibility of encaging metal atom, atoms or cluster inside of carbon cages. By switching the metal atom or cluster entrapped inside of the carbon cage the physical and chemical properties of the fullerene compounds can be tuned. The understanding of magnetic and electrochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes plays an essential role in fundamental scientific researches and potential applications in materials science. In this thesis, synthesizing novel rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerene structures, studying the properties of these isolated endohedral fullerenes and the strategies of tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of endohedral fullerenes were introduced. The DC-arc discharging synthesis of different lanthanide metal-based (Ho, Ce and Pr) mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes was achieved. Those rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes were isolated by multi-step HPLC. The isolated samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques included UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman, LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR and electrochemistry. The Ho-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N rate at C{sub 80} (M= Sc, Lu, Y; x=1, 2) were synthesized by ''reactive gas atmosphere'' method or ''selective organic solid'' route. The isolated samples were characterized by LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic studies demonstrated exceptional NMR behaviors that resulted from switching the second metal inside of the mixed metal nitride cluster Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N from Sc to Lu and further to Y. The LnSc{sub 2}N rate at C{sub 80} (Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu) MMNCFs were characterized by {sup 13}C and {sup 45}Sc NMR study respectively. According to Bleaney's theory and Reilley method, the separation of δ{sup PC} and δ{sup con

  13. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao, E-mail:, E-mail:; Du, Juan, E-mail:, E-mail:; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Law, Jiayan [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)


    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{sub C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  14. Low-temperature activation of methane over rare earth metals promoted Zn/HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts in the presence of ethylene

    Hengqiang Zhang; Aiguo Kong; Yongjie Ding; Chengyong Dai; Yongkui Shan


    At low temperature of 723 K, methane can be easily activated in the presence of ethylene in the feed, and converted to higher hydrocarbons (C2-C4) and aromatics (C6-C10), through its reaction over rare metals modified Zn/HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts without undesirable carbon oxides formation.Methane can get 37.3% conversion over the above catalysts under Iow temperature, and the catalysts show a longer lifetime than usual metal supported HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts without adding any rare earth metals.The effects of methane activation over various rare earth metal promoted Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts on the products and influences of several reaction conditions such as temperature, catalyst lifetime and molar ratio of CH4/C2H4 have been discussed.

  15. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi


    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  16. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    Magee, E. W., E-mail:; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)


    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ≤10{sup −7} Torr at ≥1000 °C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  17. China Not the Only Rare Earth Exporter


    Since China announced it was reducing exports of rare earth,there have been continuous voices in the international community demanding China expand exports or seek alternative resources. The United States has also complained to the WTO that China is hoarding the commodity. Subjected to scathing censure,what difficulties are facing China’s rare earth industry? When other countries seek alternative resources,how is the Chinese rare earth market affected? Economy&Nation Weekly,Xinhua News Agency’s finance magazine,recently interviewed Lin Donglu,Secretary General of the Chinese Society of Rare Earths,and Wang Hongqian, General Manager of China Non-Ferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co.Ltd.Edited excerpts follow

  18. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market remained stagnant recently. The buyers did not show willingness to replenish raw materials affected by weak demand. Most persons in rare earth circle were not confident with the short-term rare earth market. Demand for didymium mischmetal was soft recently. The market of dysprosium related products was quiet and NdFeB magnet producers were inactive in the purchase. Phosphor market was stagnant as well. Buyers were cautious on replenishing the material. There were few inquiries for europium oxide (99.9%) in spot market and transactions were difficult.

  19. Impurities especially titanium in the rare earth metal gadolinium-before and after solid state electrotransport

    苗睿瑛; 张小伟; 朱琼; 张志琦; 王志强; 颜世宏; 陈德宏; 周林; 李宗安


    Gadolinium was prepared by conventional procedures of fluorination, reduction, distillation and solid state electrotransport (SSE). The electronegativities of the metals were found to have an important influence on the electrotransport process and result of the impurity element. Meanwhile, titanium particles in the distilled gadolinium as major metallic impurities were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before and after solid state electrotransport. The results showed that impurities especially titanium transported from anode to cathode during SSE. In the metal before SSE, there were impurities of titanium in strip shape or embedded round shape. After SSE processing, titanium particles in the metal smaller than 50 nm in the cathode, but existed 6 to 10 times bigger in the anode.

  20. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited


    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  1. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market remained depressed after the New Year affected by the weak demand. Purchaser preferred to consume inventories rather than increase the stockpile. There was a strong wait-and-see atmosphere in the market. Driven by the intense desire to sell out the commodities, traders further decreased their quoted price for rare earth products. Most persons in the market preferred to hold commodities and waited for a rise in the market after the Spring Festival.

  2. China rare earth market review


    March 21-31,2012 Rare earth market rebounded holistically recently. Price of didymium products rose slightly after being stable for one month. There were also increases in the prices of europium oxide and terbium oxide, which led to a rush by phosphor plants. The market of yttrium-medium and europium-rich minerals remained stagnant though the rare earth market recovered. Price of the mineral was around RMB ¥210,000-250,000/ton.

  3. China Rare Earth Market Review


    November 20-30.2011 Weak demand resulted in the slack rare market. Consumers did not intend to rep earth enish inventories yet and transactions of rare earth products were stagnant. The market of didymium-related products was in the doldrums. Demand for dysprosium-related products was sluggish. Inquiries for europium oxide (99.9%) were few and dealings of the product were difficult.

  4. Adsorption properties of ultradispersed powders of aluminum alloys with rare-earth metals, before and after water treatment

    Ryabina, A. V.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Eselevich, D. A.


    Adsorption of nitrogen on Al-3% La, Al-1.5% Sc, and Al-3% Ce powders before and after processing with water in the relative pressure range p/p s = 10˜3 to 0.999 is experimentally studied at a temperature of 78 K. It is shown that the interaction between ultradispersed powder and water depends on the properties of the original powder, including the original content and composition of the oxide-hydroxide phases in the surface layers of metal particles, and the length and conditions of storage. Results confirming that processing powders containing rare-earth metals with water at room temperature leads to the formation of new phases and affects their morphology are presented. It is shown that the nanopores formed between crystallites on the surface of the particles during oxidation with water and subsequent thermal dehydration play an important role in the properties of powders processed with water. The specific surface and the porosity of powders are calculated.

  5. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)


    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  6. Core and shallow-core d- to f-shell excitations in rare-earth metals

    Bradley, J. A.; Moore, K. T.; van der Laan, G.; Bradley, J. P.; Gordon, R. A.


    We report on the results of probing the light lanthanide metals Ce, Pr, and Nd with inelastic x-ray and electron scattering. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope-based electron spectroscopy and nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering are shown to be in a high degree of accord and here serve as complementary probes of electronic structure. The high resolution and high signal-to-noise electron technique allows for the measurement of the complex and subtle excitation spectra in the lanthanide metals, validating the applicability of the screened trivalent atomic model used for these materials. In addition, the momentum transfer dependence of the x-ray scattering is extracted and compared against atomic calculations for the most tightly bound excitonic resonances, which provides a direct test of the predicted atomic radial wave functions.

  7. Partial Oxidation of Butane to Syngas over Nickel SupportedCatalysts Modified by Alkali Metal Oxide and Rare-Earth Metal Oxide


    The partial oxidation of butane (POB) to syngas over nickel supported catalysts was first investigated with a flow-reactor, TG and UVRRS. The NiO/g-Al2O3 is the most suitable for the POB among NiO/g-Al2O3, NiO/MgO and NiO/SiO2. And the reaction performance of the NiO/g-Al2O3 shows little difference from those of the nickel supported catalysts modified by alkali metal oxide and rare-earth metal oxide. However, modification with Li2O and La2O3 can suppress carbon-deposition of the NiO/g-Al2O3, which contains graphite-like species during the POB reaction.

  8. Rare-earth metal hydrides supported by silicon-bridged boratabenzene fluorenyl ligands: synthesis, structure and reactivity.

    Wang, Chunhong; Xiang, Li; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng


    The reactions of rare-earth metal benzyl complexes supported by silicon-bridged boratabenzene fluorenyl ligands with PhSiH3 in toluene gave the corresponding dinuclear hydrides [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}Ln(μ-H)(THF)]2 (3-Ln; Ln = La, Nd, Gd), wherein the rare-earth metal ions are linked by both silicon-bridged boratabenzene fluorenyl ligands and hydrido ligands. The reactivity of these hydrides toward unsaturated substrates was studied. Among these, alkynides [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}Ln(μ-CCPh)]2 (4-Ln; Ln = La, Nd) were obtained via the σ-bond metathesis reaction, when 3-Ln (Ln = La, Nd) was treated with phenylacetylene. While reacting with 3-hexyne, the mono-addition product [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}Ln]2(μ-H)[μ-C(Et)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)Et] (5-Ln; Ln = La, Nd) was formed. Further investigations on the reactivity of 3-La displayed that benzonitrile and tert-butyl isonitrile readily inserted into the La-H bonds, affording an azomethine complex [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}La{μ-N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)Ph}]2 (6-La) and an N-tert-butylformimidoyl complex [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}La{μ,η(2)-C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(t)Bu}]2 (7-La), respectively. The reaction with N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide at room temperature or at 75 °C gave a dimeric complex [{μ-[Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]}La]2(μ-H)[μ-N((i)Pr)CHN((i)Pr)] (8-La) or a monomeric complex [Me2Si(C13H8)(C5H4BNEt2)]La[N((i)Pr)CHN((i)Pr)] (9-La), respectively.

  9. Oxides Catalysts of Rare Earth and Transient Metal for Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene

    Liang Kun; Li Rong; Chen Jianjun; Ma Jiantai


    The catalysts of CeO2 and the mixture of CeO2 and CuO were prepared, and the activities of these catalysts for completely oxidizing benzene were studied.The results show that the optimal proportion of CeO2/CuO is 6: 4.The highest temperature at which benzene was completely oxidized on these catalysts at different airspeed was measured.Compared these catalysts with the noble metal used, our catalysts had superiority in the resources and the industrial cost besides good activities.

  10. Up-conversion processes of rare earth ions in heavy metal glasses

    L. Grobelny; W A. Pisarski; J. Pisarska; R. Lisiecki; W. Ryba-Romanowski


    Heavy metal lead germanate glasses doubly doped with Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions (Ln=Er,Tm) were investigated.Up-conversion spectra of Er3+ and Tm3+ were registered under diode-laser excitation of Yb3+.Up-conversion luminescence bands corresponded to 4S3/2→4I15/2 (green)and 4F9/2→4I15/2 (red) transitions of Er3+ as well as 1G4→3H6 (blue) and 3H4→3H6 (NIR) transitions of Tm3+,respectively.

  11. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    Aldén, Magnus; Johansson, Börje; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green’s-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify the occ...... played by the initial and the different final states of the core-excitation process, permitted by the fact that the so-called initial-state effect is identical upon 4f removal and 4f addition. Surface energy and work function calculations are also reported....

  12. Preparation of rare-earth metal complex oxide catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation

    LI Ning; LI Guangming; YAO Zhenya; ZHAO Jianfu


    Catalytic wet air oxidation(CWAO)is one of the most promising technologies for pollution abatement.Developing catalysts with high activity and stability is crucial for the application of the CWAO process.The Mn/Ce complex oxide catalyrsts for CWAO of high concentration phenol containing wastewater were prepared by coprecipitation.The catalyst preparation conditions were optimized by using an orthogonal layout method and single-factor experimental analysis.The Mn/Ce serial catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET)analysis and the metal cation leaching was measured by inductively coupled plasma torch-atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES).The results show that the catalysts have high catalytic activities even at a low temperature(80℃)and low oxygen partial pressure(0.5 MPa)in a batch reactor.The metallic ion leaching is comparatively low(Mn<6.577 mg/L and Ce<0.6910 mg/L,respectively)in the CWAO process.The phenol,CODCD and TOC removal efficiencies in the solution exceed 98.5% using the optimal catalyst(named CSP).The new catalyst would have a promising application in CWAO treatment of high concentration organic wastewater.

  13. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Dent, Peter C.


    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  14. Alkali metal – yttrium borohydrides: The link between coordination of small and large rare-earth

    Sadikin, Yolanda [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Stare, Katarina [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerjeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schouwink, Pascal [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Brix Ley, Morten; Jensen, Torben R. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Meden, Anton [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerjeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Černý, Radovan, E-mail: [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)


    The system Li–A–Y–BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) is found to contain five new compounds and four further ones known from previous work on the homoleptic borohydrides. Crystal structures have been solved and refined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, thermal stability of new compounds have been investigated and ionic conductivity measured for selected samples. Significant coordination flexibility for Y{sup 3+} is revealed, which allows the formation of both octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions with the tetrahydroborate anion BH{sub 4} both as a linker and terminal ligand. Bi- and trimetallic cubic double-perovskites c-A{sub 3}Y(BH{sub 4}){sub 6} or c-A{sub 2}LiY(BH{sub 4}){sub 6} (A=Rb, Cs) form in all the investigated systems, with the exception of the Li–K–Y system. The compounds with the stoichiometry AY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} crystallize in all investigated systems with a great variety of structure types which find their analog amongst metal oxides. In-situ formation of a new borohydride – closo-borane is observed during decomposition of all double perovskites. - Graphical abstract: The system Li–A–Y–BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) is found to contain five novel compounds and four further ones previously reported. Significant coordination flexibility of Y{sup 3+} is revealed, which can be employed to form both octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions, very different structural topologies. Versatility is also manifested in three different simultaneously occurring coordination modes of borohydrides for one metal cation, as proposed by DFT optimization of the monoclinic KY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} structural model observed by powder diffraction. - Highlights: • The system Li-A-Y-BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) contains nine compounds in total. • Y{sup 3+} forms octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions. • Bi- and trimetallic double-perovskites crystallize in most systems. • Various AY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} crystallize with

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of thorium and rare earth metals with m-carboxychlorophosphonazo (CPAmK) and cetylpyridinium chloride

    Chunggin Hsu; Ximan Lian; Jiaomai Pan (East China Normal Univ., Shanghai, SH (China))


    Th and rare earth elements (REE) react with m-carboxychlorophosphonazo (CPAmK) in the absence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) to form colour complexes. In the presence of CPC, REE-complexes are not formed because of micellar masking, while Th gives a more sensitive reaction with CPAmK. Most of the foreign ions are tolerated in considerable amounts; 360-1000-fold amounts of rare earths do not interfere with the determination of Th. The optimum conditions of the complex-formation reactions and the compositions of Th-CPAmK complexes are described. A simple method is proposed for simultaneous determination of Th and rare earths without previous separation. (author).

  16. Highly Active Rare-Earth-Metal La-Doped Photocatalysts: Fabrication, Characterization, and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    S. Anandan


    Full Text Available Efficient La-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and extensively characterized by various sophisticated techniques. The photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 was evaluated for the degradation of monocrotophos (MCPs in aqueous solution. It showed higher rate of degradation than pure TiO2 for the light of wavelength of 254 nm and 365 nm. The rate constant of TiO2 increases with increasing La loading and exhibits maximum rate for 1% La loading. The photocatalytic activities of La-doped TiO2 are compared with La-doped ZnO; the reaction rate of the former is ~1.8 and 1.1 orders higher than the latter for the lights of wavelength 254 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The relative photonic efficiency of La-doped TiO2 is relatively higher than La-doped ZnO and commercial photocatalysts. Overall, La-doped TiO2 is the most active photocatalyst and shows high relative photonic efficiencies and high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MCP. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 is mainly due to the electron trapping by lanthanum metal ions, small particle size, large surface area, and high surface roughness of the photocatalysts.

  17. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2.

    Shi, H; Hussain, T; Ahuja, R; Kang, T W; Luo, W


    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties.

  18. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.


    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  19. Influence of compound deoxidation of steel with Al, Zr, rare earth metals, and Ti on properties of heavy castings

    J. Senberger


    Full Text Available Heavy steel castings deoxidized with aluminium are sometimes brittle intercrystalline failed during their service along primary grain boundaries what is initiated by aluminium nitrides and so called conchoidal fractures are formed. The tendency to forming the conchoidal fractures depends in particular on cooling rate (the casting modulus, aluminium and nitrogen contents in steel. During deoxidation, when manufacturing heavy castings, the elements with high affinity to nitrogen, zirconium or titanium, are added to steel that would decrease nitrogen activity by the bond on stable nitrides. The formation of stable nitrides should reduce the tendency of steel to the formation of conchoidal fractures. Deoxidation was thermodynamically analyzed at presence of the mentioned elements. For particular conditions a probable course of deoxidation was estimated at test castings. The deoxidation course was checked by microanalysis of deoxidation products (inclusions. For service and experimental castings the anticipated composition of inclusions was compared. It has been proved that in heavy castings with high aluminium contents in steel under studied conditions neither the addition of zirconium nor of titanium nor of rare earth metals will prevent the formation of conchoidal fractures.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Distortion and Targeting Errors from Strong Rare Earth Metal Magnetic Dental Implant Requiring Revision.

    Seong-Cheol, Park; Chong Sik, Lee; Seok Min, Kim; Eu Jene, Choi; Do Hee, Lee; Jung Kyo, Lee


    Recently, the use of magnetic dental implants has been re-popularized with the introduction of strong rare earth metal, for example, neodymium, magnets. Unrecognized magnetic dental implants can cause critical magnetic resonance image distortions. We report a case involving surgical failure caused by a magnetic dental implant. A 62-year-old man underwent deep brain stimulation for medically insufficiently controlled Parkinson's disease. Stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging performed for the first deep brain stimulation showed that the overdenture was removed. However, a dental implant remained and contained a neodymium magnet, which was unrecognized at the time of imaging; the magnet caused localized non-linear distortions that were the largest around the dental magnets. In the magnetic field, the subthalamic area was distorted by a 4.6 mm right shift and counter clockwise rotation. However, distortions were visually subtle in the operation field and small for distant stereotactic markers, with approximately 1-2 mm distortions. The surgeon considered the distortion to be normal asymmetry or variation. Stereotactic marker distortion was calculated to be in the acceptable range in the surgical planning software. Targeting errors, approximately 5 mm on the right side and 2 mm on the left side, occurred postoperatively. Both leads were revised after the removal of dental magnets. Dental magnets may cause surgical failures and should be checked and removed before stereotactic surgery. Our findings should be considered when reviewing surgical precautions and making distortion-detection algorithm improvements.

  1. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni.

    Higgs, T D C; Bonetti, S; Ohldag, H; Banerjee, N; Wang, X L; Rosenberg, A J; Cai, Z; Zhao, J H; Moler, K A; Robinson, J W A


    Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition between different equilibrium states as a function of external magnetic field and temperature. A rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) ferromagnetic multilayer is a classic example where the magnetic state is determined by a competition between the Zeeman energy and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling energy. Technologically, such structures offer the possibility to engineer the macroscopic magnetic response by tuning the microscopic interactions between the layers. We have performed an exhaustive study of nickel/gadolinium as a model system for understanding RE/TM multilayers using the element-specific measurement technique x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and determined the full magnetic state diagrams as a function of temperature and magnetic layer thickness. We compare our results to a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth-based model and provide evidence of a thickness-dependent transition to a magnetic fan state which is critical in understanding magnetoresistance effects in RE/TM systems. The results provide important insight for spintronics and superconducting spintronics where engineering tunable magnetic inhomogeneity is key for certain applications.

  2. First-principles prediction of the magnetism of 4f rare-earth-metal-doped wurtzite zinc oxide

    AG El Hachimi; H Zaari; A Benyoussef; M El Yadari; A El Kenz


    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of wurtzite ZnO semiconductor doped with rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Pm, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) atoms were studied using spin-polarized density functional theory based on the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the Wien2k code. In this approach the generalized gradient ap-proximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. Our results showed that the substitution of RE ions in ZnO induced spins polarized localized states in the band gap. Moreover, the studied DMSs compounds retained half metallicity at dopant concentration x=0.625%for most of the studied elements, with 100%spin polarization at the Fermi level (EF). The total magnetic moments of these compounds existed due to RE 4f states present at EF, while small induced magnetic moments existed on other non-magnetic atoms as well. Finally, the energy difference between far and near configurations was investigated. It was found that the room temperature ferromagnetism was possible for RE-doped ZnO at near configuration. Since the RE-RE separation was long enough (far configuration) for magnetic coupling, the system became paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic ground state.

  3. Rapid enrichment of rare-earth metals by carboxymethyl cellulose-based open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent from HIPEs template.

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wenbo; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin


    A series of monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbents based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were prepared through high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) and used to enrich the rare-earth metals La(3+) and Ce(3+). The changes of pore structure, and the effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration on the adsorption performance were systematically studied. The results show that the as-prepared monolithic hydrogel adsorbents possess good open-cellular framework structure and have fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity for La(3+) and Ce(3+). The involved adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 30min and the maximal adsorption capacity is determined to be 384.62mg/g for La(3+) and 333.33mg/g for Ce(3+). Moreover, these porous hydrogel adsorbents show an excellent adsorptive reusability for La(3+) and Ce(3+) through five adsorption-desorption cycles. Such a pore hierarchy structure makes this monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent be an effective adsorbent for effective enrichment of La(3+) and Ce(3+) from aqueous solution.

  4. Novel synergism by complex ligands in solvent extraction of rare earth metals(III) with {beta}-diketones

    Imura, H. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Ebisawa, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Kato, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ohashi, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)


    The extraction of rare earth metals(III) (RE) with hexafluoroacetylacetone (Hhfa) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied in the presence of some cobalt(III) chelates such as tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt(III), tris(4-isopropyltropolonato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinethiolato)cobalt(III), and tris(diethyldithiocarbamato)cobalt(III) in benzene or toluene. The synergistic enhancement of the extraction of RE, especially of lanthanum(III) was found in all the systems. Therefore, those cobalt(III) chelates act as synergists or complex ligands. The equilibrium analysis and IR spectroscopic study were performed to evaluate the present synergistic mechanism. It was found that the RE-{beta}-diketone chelates form 1:1 adducts, i.e., binuclear complexes, with the cobalt(III) chelates in the organic phase. The formation constants ({beta} {sub s,1}) were determined and compared with those reported previously. The spectroscopic studies demonstrated that adducts have two different structures with inner- and outer-sphere coordination. In the former the cobalt(III) chelate directly coordinated to the RE ion and displaced the coordinated water molecules. In the latter the hydrogen-bonding was formed between the coordinating oxygen or sulfur atoms of cobalt(III) chelate and hydrogen atoms of the coordinated water molecules in the RE-{beta}-diketone chelate. The types of the adducts are mainly due to the steric factors of the RE-{beta}-diketone chelates and the cobalt(III) chelates.

  5. Graphene oxide-rare earth metal-organic framework composites for the selective isolation of hemoglobin.

    Liu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua


    Graphene oxide-La(BTC)(H2O)6 (H3BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) metal organic framework composites (LaMOF-GOn, n = 1-6, corresponding to the percentage of GO at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10%) are prepared through a simple and large-scale method at room temperature. The obtained composites are characterized by ATR-FTIR spectra, SEM, XRD, TGA, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The presence of GO significantly changes the morphologies of the composites from spindly rectangular rods to irregular thick blocks and increases their surface area from 14.8 cm(2) g(-1) (LaMOFs) to 26.6 cm(2) g(-1) (LaMOF-GO3), whereas at the same time, the crystalline structure of La(BTC)(H2O)6 is maintained. As a novel solid-phase adsorbent the LaMOF-GO composite exhibits outstanding adsorption properties for proteins. The strong hydrophobic interaction, especially π-π interaction between protein and the composite, is the main driving force for protein adsorption. In particular, highly selective isolation of hemoglobin (Hb) is achieved by using LaMOF-GO3 composite as sorbent in 4 mM B-R buffer containing 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl at pH 8. The retained Hb could be effectively recovered with a 1 mM B-R buffer at pH 10, giving rise to a recovery of 63%. The practical applicability of the LaMOF-GO3 composite is demonstrated by the selective adsorption of Hb from human whole blood, and SDS-PAGE assays indicate that Hb could be selectively isolated with high purity from biological samples of complex matrixes.

  6. Rare Earth Separation in China


    During the last decade, China rare earth (RE) industry has made significant progress and become one of the most important producers in the world. In this paper, the recent developments in both fundamental research and industrial application are briefly reviewed: (1) the development and application of Theory of Countercurrent Extraction, (2) the novel solvent extraction process and its application in industry for separating heavy rare earth elements (Tm, Yb, Lu), yttrium (Y), and scandium (Sc), (3) the on-line analysis and automatic control of countercurrent extraction, (4) the eco-friendly process for RE/Th separation of bastnasite in Sichuan Province and electrochemical process for Eu/RE separation, and (5) the optimized flowcharts for typical rare earth minerals in China.

  7. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.


    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  8. Mechanism of interaction relation between the rare-earth element Ce and impurity elements Pb and Bi in Ag-based filler metal


    The mechanism of interaction relation between the rare-earth element Ce and elements Pb and Bi in Ag-based filler metal has been studied. The results show that the compounds CePb and CeBi with high melting point can be easily produced between these three elements in the filler metal, which greatly limited the formation of the isolated phase Pb or Bi and also eliminated the bad effect of impurity elements Pb and Bi on the spreading property of Ag-based filler metal. The metallurgical and quantum-mechanical bond formation analysis show that a strong chemical affinity was existed between the rare-earth element Ce and impurity elements Pb and Bi, which was proved by the XRD analysis results.

  9. China Rare Earth Market Review


    August 20-31, 2011 Rare earth market did not show the sign of picking-up and remained stagnant recently. Most suppliers continued to decrease their quoted price, but leading producers in northern and southern China did not adjust their quoted price. Most rare earth plants in southern China had not yet resumed production. Quoted price of didymium products swung and the quoted prices of dysprosium-related products were slipping affected by weak demand. Inquiries for europium oxide were decreasing affected by the slow phosphor market.

  10. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin


    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  11. Development Trend of Rare Earth Standardion Work

    Ma Jie; Lin Jirong; Zhao Fei; Zhang Xiuyan


    Rare earth standardization was developed along with rare earth industry.In recent decades, great advances have been made in China rare earth industry.This paper describes the status of rare earth standardization, problems existed and ways to perfect.Now the number of Chinese Rare Earth Standards has increased to 232 with expanding of the categories and covering scope of rare earth products.But the present standard system cannot be completely suited with rare earth production and trade, and not keep pace with the advance of technology.Standards are important rules in world trade and must be acted on.

  12. China Rare Earth Market Review


    June 20-30, 2011 Prices of heavy rare earth products remained soaring. The same happened to dysprosium and its related products due to tight supply. Separation plants held tightly of europium oxide. Refining plants took a positive attitude toward the ma

  13. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth and transition metal doped BaMgF{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Janssens, S. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute, SCPS, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Williams, G.V.M., E-mail: [MacDiarmid Institute, SCPS, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Clarke, D. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)


    BaMgF{sub 4} nanoparticles doped with Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Nd{sup 3+} have been successfully synthesized using a reverse microemulsion method. They form nanorods that aggregate into 'moustache' shaped clusters. All doped samples show photoluminescence where the Ce{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} photoluminescence spectra are consistent with substitution onto different crystal sites, while only a single site was found for the Mn{sup 2+} doped sample. Mn{sup 2+} was successfully sensitized by Ce{sup 3+} in BaMgF{sub 4}:Mn{sup 2+}:Ce{sup 3+} nanoparticles. The Ce{sup 3+} PL lifetimes are strongly wavelength dependent, which could be due to different Ce{sup 3+} sites with different PL lifetimes as well as energy transfer between Ce{sup 3+} sites. Transparent thick polymer films containing nanoparticles have been made. The appearance of photoluminescence in rare earth and transition metal doped BaMgF{sub 4} nanoparticles and the ability to make transparent thick films means that the BaMgF{sub 4} nanoparticles have a range of potential applications that include optical amplification. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BaMgF{sub 4} nanorods synthesized using a reverse microemulsion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BaMgF{sub 4} nanorods successfully doped with luminescent ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions occupy two distinct crystal sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transparent nanoparticle/PMMA polymer films were made.

  14. Dihydrogen addition in a dinuclear rare-earth metal hydride complex supported by a metalated TREN ligand.

    Venugopal, Ajay; Fegler, Waldemar; Spaniol, Thomas P; Maron, Laurent; Okuda, Jun


    The dinuclear lutetium dihydride dication supported by metalated tripodal ligands undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H(2) to form a trihydride dication. Molecular orbital analysis shows that the LUMO is a bonding Lu···Lu orbital that is poised to activate dihydrogen.

  15. I. New Techniques for the Synthesis of Metals and Alloys. II. The Properties of Rare Earth Metals and Alloys


    Evaporation Apparatus Gas Scattering Evaporation High Rate Physical Vapor Deposition Process Hafnium Carbide *** 20. ABSTRACT (Conttnu» on r...2,500 Aluminium oxide 2 100 Tungsten carbide 1,700 Quartz 820 Metals < 800 34 ^^M ■ ’ ■ The microstructure of the deposit shows a fine

  16. Theory of Rare-Earth Alloys

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A mean-field random alloy theory combined with a simple calculation of the exchange interaction J(c,Q) is shown to quantitatively account for the phase diagrams for alloys of rare-earth metals with Y, Lu, Sc, and other rare-earth metals. A concentration-dependent J(c,Q) explains the empirical 2...... to account for all alloys except the Sc based. The exceptional behavior of the Sc alloys is due to a low density of states for Sc. A brief discussion is given of the effect on the mean-field results of changes in volume or c/a ratio and of critical fluctuations. Since the physical mechanisms of these ideal...

  17. Rare Earth Additions in Continuously Cast Steel

    Wilson, William G.; Heaslip, L. J.; Sommerville, I. D.


    Rare earth (lanthanide metals) addiiions to continuously cast steel are particularly advantageous because of their ability to refine as-cast structures, reduce segregation and increase hot ductility at temperatures just below that of solidification. The complete shape control of sulfides in steels containing Rare Earth Metals (REM), whether continuously cast or ingot cast, is primarily responsible for improvements in ductility related mechanical properties, weldability, fatigue resistance and resistance to hydrogen damage. Complete sulfide shape control can be obtained with REM additions at sulfur levels as high as.020%. The greatest improvements, however, are obtained with REM additions to low sulfur steels. However, to achieve full operational advantages afforded by REM, nozzle blockage problems must be circumvented. Water model studies indicate a possible solution.

  18. GRNM Likely to Spearhead Reshuffle of Guangdong Rare Earth Industry


    <正>"Guangdong intends to build a rare earth platform named Guangdong Rare Earth Group, and the plan has been probably approved recently." An insider of local government said, "although there is no final conclusion, but the Guangdong’s intention to build a general platform of rare earth is clear." Since Guangdong Rising Nonferrous Metals Group Co., Ltd. (GRNM) is the only local state-owned enterprise leading

  19. Rare earth metals influence on morphology of non-metallic inclusions and mechanism of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5cast steel cracking

    M. Gajewski


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research carried out in order to specify the influence of the rare earth metals on the morphology of the occuring non-metallic inclusions as well as on the cracking mechanism of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 (0.18%C, 1.2%Cr, 0.53%Mo high temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts adding rare earth metals to the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. It was found that ball-shaped non-metalic inclusions occuring as a result of the rare earth metals influence are heterogenic and they significantly influence the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength. The morphology of the specimens fracture surface has been substantially changed as a result of the rare earth metals modification. The impact strength of the tested cast carbon steel increased from 100 J/cm2 to ca 155 J/cm2, and the high-temperature cast steel from 30 J/cm2 to ca 100 J/cm2.

  20. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  1. Rare Earths and Magnetic Refrigeration


    Magnetic refrigeration is a revolutionary, efficient, environmentally friendly cooling technology, which is on the threshold of commercialization. The magnetic rare earth materials are utilized as the magnetic refrigerants in most cooling devices, and for many cooling application the Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets are employed as the source of the magnetic field. The status of the near room temperature magnetic cooling was reviewed.

  2. Ultrafast electron, lattice and spin dynamics on rare earth metal surfaces. Investigated with linear and nonlinear optical techniques

    Radu, I.E.


    This thesis presents the femtosecond laser-induced electron, lattice and spin dynamics on two representative rare-earth systems: The ferromagnetic gadolinium Gd(0001) and the paramagnetic yttrium Y(0001) metals. The employed investigation tools are the time-resolved linear reflectivity and second-harmonic generation, which provide complementary information about the bulk and surface/interface dynamics, respectively. The femtosecond laser excitation of the exchange-split surface state of Gd(0001) triggers simultaneously the coherent vibrational dynamics of the lattice and spin subsystems in the surface region at a frequency of 3 THz. The coherent optical phonon corresponds to the vibration of the topmost atomic layer against the underlying bulk along the normal direction to the surface. The coupling mechanism between phonons and magnons is attributed to the modulation of the exchange interaction J between neighbour atoms due to the coherent lattice vibration. This leads to an oscillatory motion of the magnetic moments having the same frequency as the lattice vibration. Thus these results reveal a new type of phonon-magnon coupling mediated by the modulation of the exchange interaction and not by the conventional spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show that coherent spin dynamics in the THz frequency domain is achievable, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than previously reported. The laser-induced (de)magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic Gd(0001) thin films have been studied. Upon photo-excitation, the nonlinear magneto-optics measurements performed in this work show a sudden drop in the spin polarization of the surface state by more than 50% in a <100 fs time interval. Under comparable experimental conditions, the time-resolved photoemission studies reveal a constant exchange splitting of the surface state. The ultrafast decrease of spin polarization can be explained by the quasi-elastic spin-flip scattering of the hot electrons among spin

  3. Potency of (doped) rare earth oxide particles and their constituent metals to inhibit algal growth and induce direct toxic effects.

    Joonas, Elise; Aruoja, Villem; Olli, Kalle; Syvertsen-Wiig, Guttorm; Vija, Heiki; Kahru, Anne


    Use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased rapidly in recent decades due to technological advances. It has been accompanied by recurring rare earth element anomalies in water bodies. In this work we (i) studied the effects of eight novel doped and one non-doped rare earth oxide (REO) particles (aimed to be used in solid oxide fuel cells and gas separation membranes) on algae, (ii) quantified the individual adverse effects of the elements that constitute the (doped) REO particles and (iii) attempted to find a discernible pattern to relate REO particle physicochemical characteristics to algal growth inhibitory properties. Green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were used as a test species in two different formats: a standard OECD201 algal growth inhibition assay and the algal viability assay (a 'spot test') that avoids nutrient removal effects. In the 24h 'spot' test that demonstrated direct toxicity, algae were not viable at REE concentrations above 1mgmetal/L. 72-hour algal growth inhibition EC50 values for four REE salts (Ce, Gd, La, Pr) were between 1.2 and 1.4mg/L, whereas the EC50 for REO particles ranged from 1 to 98mg/L. The growth inhibition of REEs was presumably the result of nutrient sequestration from the algal growth medium. The adverse effects of REO particles were at least in part due to the entrapment of algae within particle agglomerates. Adverse effects due to the dissolution of constituent elements from (doped) REO particles and the size or specific surface area of particles were excluded, except for La2NiO4. However, the structure of the particles and/or the varying effects of oxide composition might have played a role in the observed effects. As the production rates of these REO particles are negligible compared to other forms of REEs, there is presumably no acute risk for aquatic unicellular algae.

  4. Investigation of Surfactant-Stain-Metal Interaction: Naphthochrome Green/Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide/Rare Earths Ternary Complexation

    郑立新; 沈荣; 郜洪文


    The ternary interaction of naphthochrome green (NCG) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and rare earths (Res: Yb, Dy, Er and Eu) has been investigated with the microsurface adsorption-spectral correction technique (MSASC). The aggregation of NCG on CTAB obeys the Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The enrichment of NCG on CTAB and the presence of NaCl sensitize the complexation between Res and NCG. Both the binary aggregate and the ternary complex were characterized in the presence and absence of NaCl at pH 8.30 at 20 and 40℃.

  5. The influence of organic structure and rare earth metal cation on the corrosion efficiency observed on AS1020 steel compared with La(4OHCin3

    Marianne Seter


    Full Text Available Whilst the corrosion protection of steel in aqueous chloride environments by the rare earth inhibitor lanthanum 4-hydroxycinnamate is well known, the influence of the structural variation of the organic component as well as the nature of the metal centre has not previously been addressed. Herein we show that praseodymium 4-hydroxy cinnamate is comparable to its lanthanum counterpart in aqueous solution. On the other hand, cerium 4-hydroxycinnamate and lanthanum 2-hydroxycinnamate show poor corrosion protection performance while lanthanum 3-hydroxycinnamate provides a level of inhibition between these. These differences are shown to be related to the speciation in solution and are postulated to be linked to steric influences which are likely to affect the bonding environment within the rare earth compound itself, as well as its bonding with the steel substrate.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Enhanced Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Glass Containing Nanometer-Sized Metallic Particles

    Jia, You-Hua; Zhong, Biao; Yin, Jian-Ping


    The enhanced laser cooling performance of rare-earth-ions-doped glasses containing small particles is predicted. This is achieved by the enhancement of local field around rare earth ions, owing to the surface plasmon resonance of small metallic particles. The role of energy transfer between ions and the particle is theoretical discussed. Depending on the particle size and the ion emission quantum efficiency, the enhancement of the absorption and the fluorescence is predicted. Moreover, taking Yb3+ -doped ZBLAN as example, the cooling power and heat-light converting efficiency are calculated. It is finally concluded that the absorption and the fluorescence are greatly enhanced in these composite materials, the cooling power is increased compared to the bulk material.

  7. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.


    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  8. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota


    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  9. Thermal Stability and Proton Conductivity of Rare Earth Orthophosphate Hydrates

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    Hydrated orthophosphate powders of three rare earth metals, lanthanum, neodymium and gadolinium, were prepared and studied as potential proton conducting materials for intermediate temperature electrochemical applications. The phosphates undergo a transformation from the rhabdophane structure...

  10. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl


    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  11. Research on Rare Earth Encapsulated Luminescent Material

    Yu Zhiwei; Liu Chengdong; Qi Xiaopeng


    A new method of preparation of irradiative material by using rare earth as luminophor and inorganic powder as base nucleus was presented.Rare earth was used to make colloid, which was mixed with base nucleus solution,where deposition/attachment reaction took place and rare earth was adhered onto the surface of base nucleus, hence yielding a new rare earth encapsulated irradiative material.Fluorescent spectrum analysis shows that this material possesses two emission peaks, one within 400 ~ 500 nm and the other within 580 ~ 700 nm, reflecting the luminous characteristics of original rare earth material.

  12. Molecular catalysis of rare-earth elements

    Roesky, Peter W. (ed.) [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry


    This volume reviews the recent developments in the use of molecular rare-earth metal compounds in catalysis. Most of the applications deal with homogenous catalysis but in some cases, heterogeneous systems are also mentioned. The rare-earth elements, which are the lanthanides and their close relatives - scandium and yttrium - have not been in the focus of molecular chemistry for a long time and therefore have also not been considered as homogenous catalysts. Although the first organometallic compounds of the lanthanides, which are tris(cyclopentadienyl) lanthanide complexes, were already prepared in the 1950s, it was only in the late 1970s and early 1980s when a number of research groups began to focus on this class of compounds. One reason for the development was the availability of single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, which made it possible to characterize these compounds.Moreover, new laboratory techniques to handle highly air and moisture sensitive compounds were developed at the same time. Concomitant with the accessibility of this new class of compounds, the application in homogenous catalysis was investigated. One of the first applications in this field was the use of lanthanide metallocenes for the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in the early 1980s. In the last two or three decades, a huge number of inorganic and organometallic compounds of the rare-earth elements were synthesized and some of them were also used as catalysts. Although early work in homogenous catalysis basically focused only on the hydrogenation and polymerization of olefins, the scope for catalytic application today is much broader. Thus, a large number of catalytic {sigma}-bond metathesis reactions, e.g. hydroamination, have been reported in the recent years. This book contains four chapters in which part of the recent development of the use of molecular rare-earth metal compounds in catalysis is covered. To keep the book within the given page limit, not all aspects could be

  13. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures


    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  14. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Goonan, Thomas G.


    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  15. Rare earth metals influence on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5 cast steels

    M. Gajewski


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on modification influence of REM on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 high-temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metals were modified. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. There were tested mechanical properties (Re,Rm, plastic properties (A5,Z and impact strength (KV, and on the basis of the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated. It was noticed that the REM modification brings essential increase of impact strength as well as fracture toughness determined by KJC factor.

  16. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun


    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  17. Hydrogen adsorption in a highly stable porous rare-earth metal-organic framework: sorption properties and neutron diffraction studies.

    Luo, Junhua; Xu, Hongwu; Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luke L; Brown, Craig; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    A highly stable porous lanthanide metal-organic framework, Y(BTC)(H2O).4.3H2O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), with pore size of 5.8 A has been constructed and investigated for hydrogen storage. Gas sorption measurements show that this porous MOF exhibits highly selective sorption behaviors of hydrogen over nitrogen gas molecules and can take up hydrogen of about 2.1 wt % at 77 K and 10 bar. Difference Fourier analysis of neutron powder diffraction data revealed four distinct D2 sites that are progressively filled within the nanoporous framework. Interestingly, the strongest adsorption sites identified are associated with the aromatic organic linkers rather than the open metal sites, as occurred in previously reported MOFs. Our results provide for the first time direct structural evidence demonstrating that optimal pore size (around 6 A, twice the kinetic diameter of hydrogen) strengthens the interactions between H2 molecules and pore walls and increases the heat of adsorption, which thus allows for enhancing hydrogen adsorption from the interaction between hydrogen molecules with the pore walls rather than with the normally stronger adsorption sites (the open metal sites) within the framework. At high concentration H2 loadings (5.5 H2 molecules (3.7 wt %) per Y(BTC) formula), H2 molecules form highly symmetric novel nanoclusters with relatively short H2-H2 distances compared to solid H2. These observations are important and hold the key to optimizing this new class of rare metal-organic framework (RMOF) materials for practical hydrogen storage applications.

  18. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Maynooth University, National University of Ireland—Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland)


    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  19. Developments in the use of rare earth metal complexes as efficient catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters used in biomedical applications

    Cota, Iuliana


    Biodegradable polymers represent a class of particularly useful materials for many biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Among these types of polyesters, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polylactides are considered very promising for controlled drug delivery devices. These polymers are mainly produced by ring-opening polymerization of their respective cyclic esters, since this method allows a strict control of the molecular parameters (molecular weight and distribution) of the obtained polymers. The most widely used catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters are tin- and aluminium-based organometallic complexes; however since the contamination of the aliphatic polyesters by potentially toxic metallic residues is particularly of concern for biomedical applications, the possibility of replacing organometallic initiators by novel less toxic or more efficient organometallic complexes has been intensively studied. Thus, in the recent years, the use of highly reactive rare earth initiators/catalysts leading to lower polymer contamination has been developed. The use of rare earth complexes is considered a valuable strategy to decrease the polyester contamination by metallic residues and represents an attractive alternative to traditional organometallic complexes.

  20. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten


    The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.

  1. Analysis of trace rare earth elements in misch metal by means of ITP-PIXE (isotachophoresis - Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method

    Hu, Jian-Ying; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Kimura, Goji; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Kazuaki; Shoto, Eiji [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A misch metal, an alloy of light rare earth elements, was analyzed by a new coupled analytical method, ITP-PIXE (isotachophoresis - Particle Induced X-ray Emission): The sample solution containing ca.1 mg misch metal was separated and fractionated by the use of a preparative isotachophoretic analyzer. The dropwise fractions containing nanomole rare earth elements were analyzed off-line by PIXE. The matrix effect in X-ray measurement was reduced by the isotachophoretic removing of the dominant lanthanoids and preconcentration of the trace elements of interest. Consequently the minor elements, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y could be determined accurately. The most trace element found was Yb (4ppm, 4ng in 1mg sample). The good accuracy of ITP-PIXE method was also demonstrated for several model samples of lanthanoids, where La was the dominant element and the thirteen lanthanoids were the minor elements. The ratio was varied from 500:1 to 50000:1. Even in the case of 50000:1, ca.10% accuracy was achieved for each minor element except for Sm(23%), Gd(17%) and Yb(18%). The analytical results by ITP-PIXE were compared with those by means of ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry). (author).

  2. Influence of rare-earth metal doping on the catalytic performance of CuO-CeO2 for the preferential oxidation of CO in excess hydrogen

    Zhigang Liu; Renxian Zhou; Xiaoming Zheng


    Doping of different rare-earth metals(Pr,Nd,Y and La)had an evident influence on the catalytic performance of CuO-CeO2 for the preferential oxidation(PROX)Of CO in excess hydrogen.As for Pr,the doping enhanced the catalytic activity of CuO-CeO2 for PROX.For example,the CO conversion over the above catalyst for PROX was higher than 99%at 120℃.Especially.the doping of Pr widened the temperature window by 20℃ over CuO-CeO2 with 99%CO conversion.For Nd,Y and La,the doping depressed the catalytic activity of CuO-CeO2 for PROX.However,the doping of transition metals markedly improved the selectivity of CuO-CeO2 for PROX.

  3. Funing Rare Earths Industrial Co. Ltd


    The company covers separation with whole lines of light, medium and heavy rare earths, with annual separation volume of rare earth oxides of 4,500 tons. It also produces rare earth oxides, fluorides and salts. Products with high-purity and super-high-purity are produced according to customer's request. Under the technological guidance of domestic experts and application of modern high-pressure

  4. Metals and Rare Earth Elements in polar aerosol as specific markers of natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources areas and atmospheric transport processes

    Giardi, Fabio; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Grotti, Marco; Malandrino, Mery; Salzano, Roberto; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto


    Metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in the aerosol have conservative properties from the formation to the deposition and can be useful to identify and quantify their natural and anthropic sources and to study the atmospheric transport processes. In spite of their importance relatively little is known about metals and especially REEs in the Artic atmosphere due to their low concentration in such environment. The present work reports the first attempt to determine and interpret the behaviour of metals and REEs in polar aerosol at high temporal resolution. Daily PM10 samples of arctic atmospheric particulate were collected on Teflon filters, during six spring-summer campaigns, since 2010, in the laboratory of Gruvebadet in Ny Ålesund (78°56' N, 11°56' E, Svalbard Islands, Norway). Chemical analyses were carried out through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer provided with a desolvation nebulizer inlet system, allowing to reduce isobaric interferences and thus to quantify trace and ultra-trace metals in very low concentration in the Arctic aerosol samples. The results are useful in order to study sources areas, transport processes and depositional effects of natural and anthropic atmospheric particulate reaching the Arctic from southern industrialized areas; moreover, the observed seasonal trends give information about the different impact of natural and anthropic emissions driven by phenomena such as the Arctic Haze and the melting of the snow. In particular Rare Earth Elements (often in the ppt range) can be considered as soil's fingerprints of the particulate source areas and their determination, together with air-mass backtrajectory analysis, allow to identify dust source areas for the arctic mineral aerosol.

  5. Adsorption and growth morphology of rare-earth metals on graphene studied by ab initio calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, C. Z.; Hupalo, M.; Yao, Y. X.; Tringides, M. C.; Lu, W. C.; Ho, K. M.


    Adsorption of rare-earth (RE) adatoms (Nd, Gd, Eu, and Yb) on graphene was studied by first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory. The calculations show that the hollow site of graphene is the energetically favorable adsorption site for all the RE adatoms studied. The adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of Nd and Gd on graphene are found to be larger than those of Eu and Yb. Comparison with scanning tunneling microscopy experiments for Gd and Eu epitaxially grown on graphene confirms these calculated adsorption and barrier differences, since fractal-like islands are observed for Gd and flat-topped crystalline islands for Eu. The formation of flat Eu islands on graphene can be attributed to its low diffusion barrier and relatively larger ratio of adsorption energy to its bulk cohesive energy. The interactions between the Nd and Gd adatoms and graphene cause noticeable in-plane lattice distortions in the graphene layer. Adsorption of the RE adatoms on graphene also induces significant electric dipole and magnetic moments.

  6. Research into processes of production of hydrides of materials containing rare-earth metals and their corrosion

    Sofronov, V. L.; Kartashov, E. Y.; Molokov, P. B.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Kalaev, M. E.


    Production of permanent magnets on basis of rare earth elements (REE) is implemented by means of powder metallurgy, therefore a technologically important operation is the multistage mechanical crushing of materials to the extent of domains. The promising technique of crushing of magnetic materials is their consistent hydrogenation-dehydrogenation that allows obtaining nano-dispersed powders which are stable enough in air. Hydrogenation apparatuses, as opposed to conventional grinding machines, do not comprise motion works and their producing capacity is much higher. Hydrogenation process does not require any additional preparation of materials and it excludes undermilling and overmilling as well as material oxidation. The paper presents the results of investigation on the temperature effect on the hydrogenation process of Nd-Fe alloys. The study results on the corrosion stability of ligature hydrides under various conditions are also given. Kinetic parameters of the hydrogenation process of ligatures are determined. The phase composition of corrosion products is detected. Guidelines on hydride powder storage are given.

  7. Review on Rare Earth/Polymer Composite

    刘力; 张立群; 赵素合; 金日光; 刘美琳


    The special properties of rare earth/polymer composite were described. More emph asis was put on the radiation shielding and magnetic properties. In the applicat ion to X-ray shielding, rare earth/polymer composite can make up the feeble abs o rbing area. If the rare earth content is high enough, it can demonstrate strong ability for thermal neutron absorption; The composite has strong paramagnetism. The feasibility of preparing magnetic rare earth/polymer composite was discussed . In addition, three preparation methods were introduced: simple polymerization, mixing and reaction processing. The effect of the rare earth/polymer composites pre -sturcture and the coordinate number of rare earth ions on the light property w as a nalyzed. Rare earth/polymer composite may have the structure and property simlar to those of the ionomer. The feasibility of the in-situ preparation of the rare earth/polymer nano structure is indicated. Besides, the relationship betwe en structure and properties of the rare earth/polymer composite was discussed. T he problems associated with such composite materials were also presented.

  8. Advances on Rare Earth Application in Pollution Ecology

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing; Zhang Guangsheng


    The use of rare earth for inducing plant resistance was reviewed. The important developments in recent years were described, and rare earth can alleviate the pollution of acid rain, ozone, pesticide, heavy metals etc. in environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism of rare earth to inducing plant resistance and reducing plant injury is to control biochemical metabolism web in plant cell, to adjust its protection system of free radical, to maintain its photosynthesis, to protect cell membrane system and to carry through its function on mineral metabolism. Meanwhile some problems in the field were discussed as well.

  9. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DGRN/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica


    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km{sup 2}. The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg{sup -1}), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg{sup -1}), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg{sup -1}). (author)

  10. Synthesis by coprecipitation technique and spectroscopic properties of some phosphates. [Yttrium or rare earth and potassium and alkaline earth metal phosphate

    Arbus, A.; Duranceau, C.; Zambon, D.; Cousseins, J.C. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (FR))


    The coprecipitation process has been used for the synthesis of some KBLn(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds where B is an alkaline earth metal and Ln a lanthanide or yttrium. After the gel stage, an amorphous powder is obtained by drying, the thermal evolution of which is studied by X-ray diffraction. The temperature of calcination for the different powders is included in the 500-700{sup 0}C range, lower than that of the classical solid state synthesis, 800-1000{sup 0}C. The final phosphates crystallize with monoclinic or tetragonal symmetry. The spectroscopic properties of some Eu{sup 3+}-doped compounds prepared by coprecipitation technique are reported.

  11. Global rare earth resources and scenarios of future rare earth industry

    CHEN Zhanheng


    It is known to all that China is abundant in rare earth resources. But rare earth deposits are really not that rare in the earth crust. In the five continents, i.e. Asia, Europe, Australia, North and South America, and Africa, there are about thirty four countries found to have rare earth deposits; Brazil might surpass China and rank the first in rare earth deposits. At present, investment in rare earth production was surged,there have been about 200 projects, and the total production for 25 of them would be more than 170 thousand tons after 2015, a multi-supply system on rare earths is being established worldwide. Cautions on the investment of rare earth production are involved.

  12. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de


    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of no

  13. Alkaline earth metal thioindates

    Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Ivlieva, V.I.; Filatenko, L.A.; Zajtsev, B.E.; Kaziev, G.Z.; Sarabiya, M.G.


    Alkaline earth metal thioindates of MIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ composition were synthesized by interaction of alkaline earth metal oxoindates with hydrogen sulfide during heating. Investigation into the compounds by X-ray analysis showed that calcium compound crystallizes in cubic crystal system and strontium and barium compounds in rhombic crystal system. Lattice parameters and the number of formula units were determined. Thioindates of M/sub 3/In/sub 2/S/sub 6/ composition were synthesized, their individuality was shown.

  14. Syntheses, Characterization and Antitumour Activities of Rare Earth Metal Complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-Pyrimidinyl)thio)-Acetic Acid


    Eight rare earth metal (Ⅲ) complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid, LnL3*nH2O [HL=2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid; Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm Eu, Gd, Tb; n=4 or 5], were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration, thermal analysis, conductivity, IR and 1H-NMR. The results reveal that carboxyl group of the ligand coordinates with rare earth ions in bidentate mode after deprotonated. The water molecules exist as crystal water in the complexes. The anti-tumour activities of HL and some complexes were tested by both the MTT and SRB methods. The results show that the suppression ratios of some complexes against the tested tumour cells (HL-60 human leukemia cell lines, BGC-823 human gastric carcinoma cell lines, hela human cervix adenocarcinoma cell lines and Bel-7402 human hepatic carcinoma cell lines) are superior to HL.

  15. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    Lyon, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herbst, R. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Soderstrom, M. D. [Cytec Solvay Group, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jakovljevic, B. [Cytec Solvay Group, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)


    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earth element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.

  16. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    Ding Kaihong


    Full Text Available In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  17. Chinalco Rare Earth has Surpassed Ganzhou to Become the Biggest Giant in South China Rare Earth


    As the pillar enterprise in Chinalco rare earth unit,Chinalco Guangxi Rare Earth Company firmly grasped the historical opportunity of the state government supporting six big groups including Chinalco to integrate and develop domestic rare earth enterprises,riding the east wind to stand out,recently,it made significant

  18. Rare earth metal doped CeO2-based catalytic materials for diesel soot oxidation at lower temperatures

    A Rangaswamy; Putla Sudarsanam; Benjaram M Reddy


    In this work, the influence of trivalent rare-earth dopants (Sm and La) on the structure-activity properties of CeO2 was thor-oughly studied for diesel soot oxidation. For this, an optimized 40%of Sm and La was incorporated into the CeO2 using a facile co-precipitation method from ultra-high dilute aqueous solutions. A systematic physicochemical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brumauer-Emmett-teller method (BET) surface area, X-ray pho-toelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. The soot oxidation efficiency of the catalysts was investigated using a thermogravimetric method. The XRD results suggested the formation of nanocrystalline sin-gle phase CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 solid solutions. The Sm-and La-doped CeO2 materials exhibited smaller crystallite size and higher BET surface area compared with the pure CeO2. Owing to the difference in the oxidation states of the dopants (Sm3+and La3+) and the Ce4+, a number of oxygen vacancies were generated in CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 samples. The H2-TPR studies evidenced the improved reducible nature of the CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 samples compared with the CeO2. It was found that the addition of Sm and La to the CeO2 outstandingly enhanced its catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of diesel soot. The observed 50%soot con-version temperatures for the CeO2-Sm2O3, CeO2-La2O3 and CeO2 were~790, 843 and 864 K (loose contact), respectively, and similar activity order was also found under the tight contact condition. The high soot oxidation efficacy of the CeO2-Sm2O3 sample was at-tributed to numerous catalytically favourable properties, like smaller crystallite size, larger surface area, abundant oxygen vacancies, and superior reducible nature.

  19. Universal behavior of chalcogenides of rare-earth metals in the transition to a state with intermediate valence at high pressures

    Tsiok, O. B.; Khvostantsev, L. G.; Brazhkin, V. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics (Russian Federation)


    Precision measurements of resistivity, thermopower, and volume are performed for TmS, TmSe, and TmTe under a hydrostatic pressure up to 8 GPa. Comparison of the transport properties and volume of TmTe and SmTe in the valence transition region demonstrates a complete analogy up to quantitative coincidence. It is shown that the thermopower of all thulium and samarium chalcogenides in the lattice collapse region and in subsequent rearrangement of the electron spectrum in a wide range of pressures follow a universal dependence corresponding the passage of the Fermi level through the peak of the density of states (DOS). The results are considered in the context of ideas about the exciton nature of the intermediate valence in chalcogenides of rare-earth metals.

  20. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica


    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  1. Hydrophobicity of rare-earth oxide ceramics

    Azimi, Gisele; Dhiman, Rajeev; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.


    Hydrophobic materials that are robust to harsh environments are needed in a broad range of applications. Although durable materials such as metals and ceramics, which are generally hydrophilic, can be rendered hydrophobic by polymeric modifiers, these deteriorate in harsh environments. Here we show that a class of ceramics comprising the entire lanthanide oxide series, ranging from ceria to lutecia, is intrinsically hydrophobic. We attribute their hydrophobicity to their unique electronic structure, which inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules. We also show with surface-energy measurements that polar interactions are minimized at these surfaces and with Fourier transform infrared/grazing-angle attenuated total reflection that interfacial water molecules are oriented in the hydrophobic hydration structure. Moreover, we demonstrate that these ceramic materials promote dropwise condensation, repel impinging water droplets, and sustain hydrophobicity even after exposure to harsh environments. Rare-earth oxide ceramics should find widespread applicability as robust hydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Solar Energy Cell with Rare Earth Film

    Li Baojun; Yang Tao; Zhou Yao; Zhou Meng; Fu Xiliang; Fu Li


    The characteristic of the solar energy cell with the rare earth film according to theory of molecular structure was introduced.When sunlight shines, the molecules of the rare earth film can absorb energy of the photon and jump to the excited state from the basic state, and play a role in storing solar energy.When sunlight do not shine, the electron of the excited state returns to the basic state, the rare earth film can automatically give out light and shine to surface of the solar cell, which can make solar cell continuously generate electric current.The rare earth film can absorb direct,scattering sunlight, and increase density of solar energy to reach surface of the solar cell, and play focusing function.The rare earth film can bear 350 ~ 500 ℃, which make the solar cell be able to utilize the focusing function system.Because after luminescence of the rare earth film, it can release again the absorbed solar energy through 1 ~ 8 h, and play a role in storing solar energy; The solar cell with the rare-earth film can generate electricity during night and cloudy days, and remarkably increase efficiency of the solar cell.

  3. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Goebel, Dan M.


    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  4. Prospects for trivalent rare earth molecular vapor lasers for fusion

    Krupke, W.F.


    The dynamical properties of three types of RE/sup 3 +/ molecular vapors were considered: (1) rare earth trihalogens, (2) rare earth trihalogens complexed with transition metal trihalogens, and (3) rare earth chelates. Radiative and nonradiative (unimolecular and bimolecular) transition probabilities have been calculated using phenomenological models predicted on the unique electronic structure of the triply ionized RE ion (well shielded ground electronic configuration of equivalent of electrons). Although all the lanthanide ions have been treated in some detail, specific results are presented for the Nd/sup 3 +/ and Tb/sup 3 +/ ions to illustrate the systematics of these vapors as a class of new laser media. Once verified, these phenomenological models will provide a powerful tool for the directed experimental exploration of these systems. Because of the structural similarity to the triply ionized actinides, comments offered here for the lanthanide rare earth series generally apply to gaseous actinide lasers which are also under consideration.

  5. Tuning bad metal and non-Fermi liquid behavior in a Mott material: Rare-earth nickelate thin films.

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J; Himmetoglu, Burak; Moreno, Nelson E; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G; Stemmer, Susanne


    Resistances that exceed the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit (known as bad metal behavior) and non-Fermi liquid behavior are ubiquitous features of the normal state of many strongly correlated materials. We establish the conditions that lead to bad metal and non-Fermi liquid phases in NdNiO3, which exhibits a prototype bandwidth-controlled metal-insulator transition. We show that resistance saturation is determined by the magnitude of Ni eg orbital splitting, which can be tuned by strain in epitaxial films, causing the appearance of bad metal behavior under certain conditions. The results shed light on the nature of a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid metal phase and provide a predictive criterion for Anderson localization. They elucidate a seemingly complex phase behavior as a function of film strain and confinement and provide guidelines for orbital engineering and novel devices.

  6. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli


    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal studies of some transition and rare earth metal complexes of N-benzylidene-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide

    T.K. Chondhekar


    Full Text Available The solid complexes of Cu(II, Co(II, Mn(II, La(III and Ce(III were prepared from bidentate Schiff base, N-benzylidene-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide. The Schiff base ligand was synthesized from 2-hyhdroxybenzohydrazide and benzaldehyde. These metal complexes were characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis and mass spectroscopy. The analytical data of these metal complexes showed metal:ligand ratio of 1:2. The physico-chemical study supports the presence of square planar geometry around Cu(II and octahedral geometry around Mn(II, Co(II, La(III and Ce(III ions. The IR spectral data reveal that the ligand behaves as bidentate with ON donor atom sequence towards central metal ion. The molar conductance values of metal complexes suggest their non-electrolyte nature. The X-ray diffraction data suggest monoclinic crystal system for these complexes. Thermal behavior (TG/DTA and kinetic parameters calculated by Coats-Redfern method are suggestive of more ordered activated state in complex formation. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma.

  8. High mobilization of arsenic, metals and rare earth elements in seepage waters driven by respiration of old allochthonous organic carbon.

    Weiske, Arndt; Schaller, Jörg; Hegewald, Tilo; Machill, Susanne; Werner, Ingo; Dudel, E Gert


    Metal and metalloid mobilization processes within seepage water are of major concern in a range of water reservoir systems. The mobilization process of arsenic and heavy metals within a dam and sediments of a drinking water reservoir was investigated. Principle component analysis (PCA) on time series data of seepage water showed a clear positive correlation of arsenic with iron and DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and a negative correlation with nitrate due to respiratory processes. A relationship of reductive metal and metalloid mobilization with respiration of old carbon was shown. The system is influenced by sediment layers as well as a recent DOC input from degraded ombrotrophic peatbogs in the catchment area. The isotopic composition ((12)C, (13)C and (14)C) of DOC is altered along the path from basin to seepage water, but no significant changes in structural parameters (LC-OCD-OND, FT-IR) could be seen. DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in seepage water partly originates from respiratory processes, and a higher relationship of it with sediment carbon than with the DOC inventory of infiltrating water was found. This study revealed the interaction of respiratory processes with metal and metalloid mobilization in sediment water flows. In contrast to the presumption that emerging DOC via respiratory processes mainly controls arsenic and metal mobilization it could be shown that the presence of aged carbon compounds is essential. The findings emphasize the importance of aged organic carbon for DOC, DIC, arsenic and metal turnover.

  9. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    McGrail, Bernard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.

  10. Rare earth elements in nuclear medicine

    Kodina G.E.; Kulakov V.N.; Sheino I.N.


    The review focuses on the key applications of stable and radioactive isotopes of rare earth elements in the technology of nuclear medicine, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and binary radiotherapy technologies.

  11. Rare earth elements in nuclear medicine

    Kodina G.E.


    Full Text Available The review focuses on the key applications of stable and radioactive isotopes of rare earth elements in the technology of nuclear medicine, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and binary radiotherapy technologies.

  12. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  13. Rare Earth: Production, Trade and Demand

    HONG Feng


    @@ Editor's note: The paper was quoted from the papers collection of the "19th International Workshop on Rare Earth Permanent Magnets & Their Applications", held in Beijing on August 30-Spetember 2 of 2006.

  14. 2004 Top 10 Chinese Rare Earth Events


    1. Management to the Investment in Rare Earth IndustryConfirmedIn July 2004, "Decision on the Reform in Investment System" was formally publicized by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The fifth item in the Decision stipulates that ore exploitation, smelting & separation and rare earth deep-processed projects with total investment over RMB¥100 million should be approved by the investment governing department of the State Council, and that other

  15. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.


    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to C.

  16. Rare Earth Elements - A New Challenge for the World Economy

    Cristina Bumbac


    Full Text Available Rare Earth Elements or Rare Earth Metals (REM are a collection of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium and fifteen lanthanides. The term "rare earth" arises from the rare earth minerals from which they were first isolated. They are uncommon oxide-type minerals (earths found in Gandolinite extracted from one mine in Sweden. The first discovery was made in 1794, but it was only in 1940 that the scientist Frank Spedding developed an ion exchange procedure for separating and purifying the REM. For the next decades, they were hardly used in some "minor" industrial fields. Only after 2000 their importance grew, once the multitude of possibilities to use them was discovered due to technological progress. Now REM are incorporated into almost all modern technological devices: superconductors, magnets, electronic polishers, refining catalysts hybrid car components and military techniques. They are used in small quantities, but due to their extraordinary properties the prices are very high. The main problem is that China dominates this market, with 97% of total global supply. The highest concentration of rare earth metals are in Inner Mongolia in China, Mountain Pass in California U.S.A. and in Mount Weld in Australia. The developed countries are far behind China regarding production and are indeed depending on Chinese exports. Hence, there is a difficult situation on this particular market, with an uncertain future.

  17. Removal of ammonia from aqueous solutions by catalytic oxidation with copper-based rare earth composite metal materials: catalytic performance, characterization, and cytotoxicity evaluation

    Chang-Mao Hung


    Ammonia (NH3) has an important use in the chemical industry and is widely found in industrial wastewater.For this investigation of copper-based rare earth composite metal materials,aqueous solutions containing 400 mg/L of ammonia were oxidized in a batch-bed reactor with a catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation of copper nitrate,lanthanum nitrate and cerium nitrate.Barely any of the dissolved ammonia was removed by wet oxidation without a catalyst,but about 88% of the ammonia was reduced during wet oxidation over the catalysts at 423 K with an oxygen partial pressure of 4.0 MPa.The catalytic redox behavior was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV).Furthermore,the catalysts were characterized using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX),which showed that the catalytic behavior was related to the metal oxide properties of the catalyst.In addition,the copper-lanthanum-cerium composite-induced cytotoxicity in the human lung MRC-5 cell line was tested,and the percentage cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium (MTS) analysis in vitro.No apparent cytotoxicity was observed when the human lung cells were exposed to the copper-lanthanum-cerium composite.

  18. Partitioning properties of rare earth ores in China

    CHI Ru'an; LI Zhongjun; PENG Cui; ZHU Guocai; XU Shengming


    The properties of rare earth partitioning in Chinese industrial rare earth ores were analyzed. Rare earth ores can be divided into the single-mineral type ore with bastnaesite, the multi-mineral type ore with bastnaesite and monazite, and the weathering crust type. Both the Bayan Obo rare earth ore and the Zhushan rare earth ore are a kind of mixed ore, consisting of bastnaesite and monazite. Their rare earth partitionings are strongly enriched in light rare earths, where CeO2 is 50% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 95%. The Mianning rare earth ore as well as the Weishan rare earth is a kind of rare earth ore only having bastnaesite. Their rare earth partitionings are also strongly enriched in light rare earths,in which CeO2 is 47% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 94%. For the weathering crust type rare earth ore,there are the Longnan rare earth ore, the Xunwu rare earth ore, and the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. In the Longnan rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in heavy rare earths, Y2O3 is 64.83%, and the heavy and light rare earth partitionings are 89.40% and 10.53%, respectively. In the Xunwu rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in light rare earths, CeO2 is 47.16%, and the light rare earth partitioning is totally 93.25%. Y and Eu are enriched in the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. Its middle rare earth partitioning is totally over 10%, and Eu2O3 and Y2O3 are over 0.5% and 20%,respectively, which are mainly industrial resources of the middle and the heavy rare earths.

  19. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.


    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  20. Rare-earth metal methylidene complexes with Ln3(μ3-CH2)(μ3-Me)(μ2-Me)3 core structure.

    Schädle, Dorothea; Meermann-Zimmermann, Melanie; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Schädle, Christoph; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner


    Trinuclear rare-earth metal methylidene complexes with a Ln3(μ3-CH2)(μ3-Me)(μ2-Me)3 structural motif were synthesized by applying three protocols. Polymeric [LuMe3]n (1-Lu) reacts with the sterically demanding amine H[NSiMe3(Ar)] (Ar = C6H3iPr2-2,6) in tetrahydrofuran via methane elimination to afford isolable monomeric [NSiMe3(Ar)]LuMe2(thf)2 (4-Lu). The formation of trinuclear rare-earth metal tetramethyl methylidene complexes [NSiMe3(Ar)]3Ln3(μ3-CH2)(μ3-Me)(μ2-Me)3(thf)3 (7-Ln; Ln = Y, Ho, Lu) via reaction of [LnMe3]n (1-Ln; Ln = Y, Ho, Lu) with H[NSiMe3(Ar)] is proposed to occur via an "intermediate" species of the type [NSiMe3(Ar)]LnMe2(thf)x and subsequent C-H bond activation. Applying Lappert's concept of Lewis base-induced methylaluminate cleavage, compounds [NSiMe3(Ar)]Ln(AlMe4)2 (5-Ln; Ln = Y, La, Nd, Ho) were converted into methylidene complexes 7-Ln (Ln = Y, Nd, Ho) in the presence of tetrahydrofuran. Similarly, tetramethylgallate complex [NSiMe3(Ar)]Y(GaMe4)2 (6-Y) could be employed as a synthesis precursor for 7-Y. The molecular composition of complexes 4-Ln, 5-Ln, 6-Y and 7-Ln was confirmed by elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy (except for holmium derivatives) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Tebbe-like reactivity of methylidene complex 7-Nd with 9-fluorenone was assessed affording oxo complex [NSiMe3(Ar)]3Nd3(μ3-O)(μ2-Me)4(thf)3 (8-Nd). The synthesis of 5-Ln yielded [NSiMe3(Ar)]2Ln(AlMe4) (9-Ln; Ln = La, Nd) as minor side-products, which could be obtained in moderate yields when homoleptic Ln(AlMe4)3 were treated with two equivalents of K[NSiMe3(Ar)].

  1. XU Guangxian: Father of Chinese rare earths chemistry

    XIN Ling


    @@ Decades ago, he invented a cascade extraction theory and technique that have greatly facilitated the production of the so-called "industrial vitamins," shifting China's role from a low-profit exporter of raw ores to the world's dominant supplier of separated individual rare earth compounds and metals in high purity.

  2. Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.


    The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... are presented. In the Gd‐Y system, an antiphase domain structure develops for certain Y layer spacings, whereas modified helical moment configurations are found to occur in the other systems, some of which are commensurate with the chemical superlattice wavelength. References are made to theoretical interaction...

  3. Role of Mononuclear Rare Earth Metal Complexes in Promoting the Hydrolysis of 2-Hydroxypropyl p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate

    WANG Rui; LIN Hai; LIN Hua-Kuan


    Two long-chain multidentate ligands: 2,9-di-(n-2',5',8'-triazanonyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L1) and 2,9-di-(n-4',7',10'-triazaundecyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L2) were synthesized. The hydrolytic kinetics of 2-hydroxypropyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP) catalyzed by the complexes of L1 or L2 with La(Ⅲ) or Gd(Ⅲ) have been studied lytic effect of GdL1 was the best among the four complexes for hydrolysis of HPNP. Its kLnLH-1, kLnL and pKa are structure of the ligands and the properties of the metal ions, and deduced the catalysis mechanism.

  4. Anisotropy of rare-earth magnets

    R.Skomski; D.J.Sellmyer


    Rare-earth intermetallics such as Nd2FeI4B and Sm-Co are widely used as high-performance permanent magnets,because they combine high magnetocrystalline anisotropy with reasonable magnetization and Curie temperature.The anisotropy is a combined effect of spin-orbit coupling and electrostatic crystal-field interactions.The main contribution comes from the rare-earth 4f electrons,which are well-screened from the crystalline environment but exhibit a strong spin-orbit coupling.In this limit,the magnetocrystalline anisotropy has a very transparent physical interpretation,the anisotropy energy essentially being equal to the energy of Hund's-rules 4f ion in the crystal field.The corresponding expression for the lowest-order uniaxial anisotropy constant K1 is used to discuss rare-earth substitutions,which have recently attracted renewed interest due to shifts in the rare-earth production and demand.Specific phenomena reviewed in this article are the enhancement of the anisotropy of Sm2Fe17 due to interstitial nitrogen,the use of Sm-Co magnets for high-temperature applications,and the comparison of rare-earth single-ion anisotropy with other single-ion and two-ion mechanisms.

  5. Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

    Wilburn, David R.


    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is expanding because of environmental issues and the efficiency and cost savings achieved compared with use of traditional incandescent lighting. The longer life and reduced power consumption of some LEDs have led to annual energy savings, reduced maintenance costs, and lower emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from powerplants because of the resulting decrease in energy consumption required for lighting applications when LEDs are used to replace less-energy-efficient sources. Metals such as arsenic, gallium, indium, and the rare-earth elements (REEs) cerium, europium, gadolinium, lanthanum, terbium, and yttrium are important mineral materials used in LED semiconductor technology. Most of the world's supply of these materials is produced as byproducts from the production of aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc. Most of the rare earths required for LED production in 2011 came from China, and most LED production facilities were located in Asia. The LED manufacturing process is complex and is undergoing much change with the growth of the industry and the changes in demand patterns of associated commodities. In many respects, the continued growth of the LED industry, particularly in the general lighting sector, is tied to its ability to increase LED efficiency and color uniformity while decreasing the costs of producing, purchasing, and operating LEDs. Research is supported by governments of China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Because of the volume of ongoing research in this sector, it is likely that the material requirements of future LEDs may be quite different than LEDs currently (2011) in use as industry attempts to cut costs by reducing material requirements of expensive heavy rare-earth phosphors and increasing the sizes of wafers for economies of scale. Improved LED performance will allow customers to reduce the number of LEDs in automotive, electronic

  6. Dimethyl ether synthesis via methanol and syngas over rare earth metals modified zeolite Y and dual Cu-Mn-Zn catalysts

    Dingfeng Jin; Bing Zhu; Zhaoyin Hou; Jinhua Fei; Hui Lou; Xiaoming Zheng [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Institute of Catalysis, Department of Chemistry


    A series of zeolite Y modified with La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu were prepared via ion-exchange, and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and NH{sub 3}-TPD. It was found that these rare earth metals were encapsulated in the supercage of zeolite Y and resulted in its enhanced acidity. Among them, La-, Ce-, Pr- and Nd-modified zeolite Y exhibited higher activity and stability (than pure HY) for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME). For DME synthesis directly from CO hydrogenation using the dual Cu-Mn-Zn/modified-Y catalysts, it was found that Cu-Mn-Zn/La-Y and Cu-Mn-Zn/Ce-Y were more active than Cu-Mn-Zn/pure-HY. The conversion of CO on Cu-Mn-Zn/Ce-HY achieved 77.1% in an isothermal fixed bed reactor at 245{sup o}C, 2.0 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO = 3/2 and 1500 h{sup -1}. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Co-based alloys design based on first-principles calculations: Influence of transition metal and rare-earth alloying element on stacking fault energy

    Achmad, Tria Laksana; Fu, Wenxiang; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhi-Gang


    The main idea of alloy design is to reduce costs and time required by the traditional (trial and error) method, then finding a new way to develop the efficiency of the alloy design is necessary. In this study, we proposed a new approach to the design of Co-based alloys. It is based on the concept that lowering the ratio of stable and unstable stacking fault energy (SFE) could bring a significant increase in the tendency of partial dislocation accumulation and FCC to HCP phase transformation then enhance mechanical properties. Through the advance development of the computing techniques, first-principles density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations are capable of providing highly accurate structural modeling at the atomic scale without any experimental data. The first-principles calculated results show that the addition of some transition metal (Cr, Mo, W, Re, Os, Ir) and rare-earth (Sc, Y, La, Sm) alloying elements would decrease both stable and unstable SFE of pure Co. The dominant deformation mechanism of binary Co-4.5 at.% X (X = alloying element) is extended partial dislocation. Our study reveals Re, W, Mo and La as the most promising alloying additions for the Co-based alloys design with superior performances. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms for the SFE reduction can be explained regarding the electronic structure.

  8. Rare earth oxide reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics for inert coating of metallic parts for petroleum extraction

    Yadava, Yoggendra Prasad; Rego, Sheila Alves Bezerra da Costa; Ferreira, Ricardo Artur Sanguinetti [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil)


    Recent findings of largest known pre-salt petroleum reservoir in Brazil have created an intense demand for new materials capable of withstanding direct contact with the crude petroleum as it is a highly corrosive and chemically reactive fluid. Petroleum drilling equipment, storage tanks and transportation systems suffer from constant physical stress caused by chemical attack of crude petroleum on its structure. Ceramics are materials with high chemical stability in hostile environment and therefore can be used as an inert coating material to resolve such problems. To date, ceramics based on alumina are most widely used in practice where there is demand for high mechanical strength and high fracture toughness. However intrinsic fragility of ceramics is still a fatal factor for their use in mechanical structures. To improve these characteristics, usually ceramics are reinforced with one or more ceramic additives. Mechanical properties of alumina based ceramics improve considerably with the addition of TiO{sub 2}, TiN, ZrO{sub 2} etc. ceramic additives. Nucleation and propagation of cracks is a major problem for ceramic coating applications. Initial studies show that addition of small percentages of rare earth oxides can increase the toughness of the alumina based ceramics. In the present work, we have produced rare-earth oxide (CeO{sub 2}) reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics in proportions of 5-20 wt% TiO{sub 2} and 2%wt% CeO{sub 2} through thermomechanical processing and sintering techniques and studied there microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties. To evaluate the potential of these ceramics as inert coatings for crude petroleum extraction, storage and transportation systems, we have studied the physic-chemical and mechanical stability of these ceramics in crude petroleum environment. Our studies presented satisfactory results in terms of physic-chemical and mechanical stability of these materials for the use of 2wt% of CeO{sub 2

  9. Chinalco Guangxi Rare Earth Signed Strategic Cooperation Agreement with Yulin City


    <正>On June 18,Chinalco Guangxi Nonferrous&Rare Earth Development Co.,Ltd("Chinalco Guangxi Rare Earth")signed"Strategic Cooperation Agreement"with Yulin People’s Government,signifying that Guangxi rare earth resource and industry integration development led by Chinalco had made a key step forward.Sun zhaoxue,General Manager of Chinalco,Ding Haiyan,Assistant to General Manager of Chinalco and President of China Rare Metals

  10. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    Yan, Ka King [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    >F5)3 give the expected dicationic M{HB(C6F5)3}2L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF2 or TMEDA) and dicationic mono(silylalkyl) LnC(SiHMe2)3{HB(C6F5)3}2 (Ln = Y, Lu, La), respectively. Salt metathesis reactions of Cp2(NR2)ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe2) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp2(NR2)ZrH that suggest unusual β-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp2Zr[N(SiHMe2)t-Bu][N(SiHMe2)2], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, γ-abstraction of a CH, and β-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classic

  11. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    Yan, Ka King [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    >F5)3 give the expected dicationic M{HB(C6F5)3}2L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF2 or TMEDA) and dicationic mono(silylalkyl) LnC(SiHMe2)3{HB(C6F5)3}2 (Ln = Y, Lu, La), respectively. Salt metathesis reactions of Cp2(NR2)ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe2) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp2(NR2)ZrH that suggest unusual β-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp2Zr[N(SiHMe2)t-Bu][N(SiHMe2)2], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, γ-abstraction of a CH, and β-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classic

  12. 2011 Review and outlook of China rare earth market

    Zhang Lihua; Bai Jinlong


    In 2011, the start year of the "Twelfth-Five Year Plan" program, a series of policies were issued targeting on rare earth industry. Price of rare earths fluctuated sharply during 2011 and consumers were concerned about the supply of rare earth. There was a big change in rare earth industry.

  13. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions (continued)

    Yin Jianhua; Zuo Xichao


    @@ 4. Increasing import of rare earth resources products As a big producer and an important export country of rare earth products for years, rare earths import is in an auxiliary position in China. import volume is rather small. However, since the strengthened macro control measures and restriction of mining scale in 2007, domestic rare earth supply was tight in China.

  14. Prices of Rare Earth Products Tend to Rise(Continued)


    8. Ji Daiyu, General Manager of Baotou Xinyuan RareEarth Hi-Tech Materials Co. LtdControl gross to stabilize prices. Chinese rare earth is precious strategic resource. The more it is exploit, the less it will be. The State has put forward rare earth policy of "strengthen management, protect resource, develop scientifically and face international". Chinese rare earth

  15. Application of Rare Earths in Thermal Barrier Coating Materials

    Xueqiang CAO


    Rare earths are a series of minerals with special properties that make them essential for applications including miniaturized electronics, computer hard disks, display panels, missile guidance, pollution controlling catalysts,H2-storage and other advanced materials. The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has the potential to extend the working temperature and the life of a gas turbine by providing a layer of thermal insulation between the metallic substrate and the hot gas. Yttria (Y2O3), as one of the most important rare earth oxides, has already been used in the typical TBC material YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia). In the development of the TBC materials, especially in the latest ten years, rare earths have been found to be more and more important. All the new candidates of TBC materials contain a large quantity of rare earths, such as R2Zr2O7 (R=La, Ce, Nd,Gd), CeO2-YSZ, RMeAI11O19 (R=La, Nd; Me=Mg, Ca, Sr) and LaPO4. The concept of double-ceramiclayer coatings based on the rare earth materials and YSZ is effective for the improvement of the thermal shock life of TBCs at high temperature.

  16. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平


    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  17. Tensions on rare metals; Tensions sur les metaux rares

    Rigaud, Ch.


    Rare earths that are used in the high or green technologies are facing short term shortages due to the steadily increasing demand and to the fact that some countries are reluctant to export them. For instance neodymium is used to make permanent magnets for the new generation of wind turbines. A year ago the price of neodymium was 14 dollar a kg while today it is priced at 40 dollar a kg, its production stagnates at 24000 tonnes a year which is just enough to meet the demand. The fear of shortage is high for thin layers in which tellurium, indium and germanium are involved. It is possible to act at any level of the production chain: to optimize the industrial production processes, to reduce the thickness of the thin layers, to recycle discarded equipment, to propose alternative solution: for instance the kesterite ore is studied in view of replacing indium in photovoltaic applications. The issue of rare earths or other rare metals begins to appear on government agenda. (A.C.)

  18. China Not the Only Rare Earth Exporter


    @@ Since China announced it was reducing exports of rare earth,there have been continuous voices in the international community demanding China expand exports or seek alternative resources.The United States has also complained to the WTO that China is hoarding the commodity.

  19. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  20. Magnesium substitutions in rare-earth metal germanides with the Gd5Si4 type. Synthesis, structure determination and magnetic properties of RE5-xMgxGe4 (RE=Gd-Tm, Lu and Y)

    Sarrao, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobash, P H [UNIV. OF DE; Bobev, S [UNIV. OF DE


    A series of magnesium-substituted rare-earth metal germanides with a general formula RE{sub 5-x}Mg{sub x}Ge{sub 4} (x {approx} 1.0-2.3; RE =Gd-Tm, Lu, Y) have been synthesized by high-temperature reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These compounds crystallize with the common Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} type in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62; Z =4; Pearson's code oP36) and do not appear to undergo temperature-induced crystallographic phase transitions down to 120 K. Replacing rare-earth metal atoms with Mg, up to nearly 45 % at., reduces the valence electron count and is clearly expressed in the subtle changes of the Ge-Ge and metal-metal bonding. Magnetization measurements as a function of the temperature and the applied field reveal complex magnetic structures at cryogenic temperatures, and Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior at higher temperatures. The observed local moment magnetism is consistent with RE+ ground states in all cases. In the magnetically ordered phases, the magnetization cannot reach saturation in fields up to 50 kOe. The structural trends across the series and the variations of hte magnetic properties as a function of the Mg content are also discussed. KEYWORDS: Rare-earth intermetallics, germanides, crystal structure,Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} type.

  1. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao


    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  2. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Wanke, Martina


    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  3. Effect of Rare Earths on Composition and Activities of Rare Earth Elements Binding Glycoprotein in Tea

    汪东风; 李俊; 赵贵文; 王常红; 魏正贵; 尹明


    The effects of spraying rare earths(RE) on composition and activities of tea polysaccharide were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), gas chromatography(GC), amino acid analyzer and animal models. The results show that there are rare earth elements binding glycoprotein in tea (REE-TGP). The effects of RE on composition and content of saccharides in REE-TGP are not obvious. The contents of Hypro and Ser in REE-TGP are evidently enhanced in comparison with that in control (not treated with rare earth), but the content of Glu is smaller than that from control. The content of La in REE-TGP from the tea garden sprayed rare earth is 193% higher than that in control. REE-TGP declines content of blood sugar in mice and enhances immunization of rat, which are very evident when the animals are treated by REE-TGP from the tea garden sprayed RE.

  4. Structure of Rare-earth/Alkali Halide Complexes

    Akdeniz, Z.; Önem, Z. Çiçek; Tosia, M. P.


    Vapour complex formation of rare-earth halides with alkali halides strongly increases the volatility of these compounds. We evaluate the structure taken by such complexes having the chemical formulas MRX4, M2RX5 and M3RX6, where X = F or Cl and typically M = Li or Na and R = La. The roles played by the two types of metal atom is investigated in MRX4 complexes by also taking M = K, Rb or Cs and R = Gd or Lu. The main predictions that emerge from our calculations are as follows: (i) in MRX4 a fourfold coordination of the rare-earth atom is accompanied by twofold or threefold coordination of the alkali atom, the energy difference in favour of the twofold-coordination state being about 0.3 eV in the case of the LiF complexing agent but even changing sign as the ionic radius of either the alkali or the halogen is increased; (ii) in M2RX5 a fivefold coordination of the rare-earth atom is energetically more stable than a fourfold one, by again not more than about 0.3 eV; (iii) in M3RX6 the fivefold and sixfold coordinations of the rare-earth atom are energetically competitive; and (iv) in both M2RX5 and M3RX6 each coordination state can be realized in various forms that differ in detail but are close in energy. Bond fluctuations and disorder around the rare-earth atom can be expected to be a general feature at elevated temperatures, both in the vapour and in liquid rare-earth/alkali halide mixtures.

  5. Rare-earth oxide nanostructures: rules of rare-earth nitrate thermolysis in octadecylamine.

    Wang, Dingsheng; Wang, Zhongying; Zhao, Peng; Zheng, Wen; Peng, Qing; Liu, Liqin; Chen, Xueyuan; Li, Yadong


    The decomposed regularity of rare-earth nitrates in octadecylamine (ODA) is discussed. The experimental results show that these nitrates can be divided into four types. For rare-earth nitrates with larger RE(3+) ions (RE=rare earth, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), the decomposed products exhibited platelike nanostructures. For those with smaller RE(3+) ions (RE=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb), the decomposed products exhibited beltlike nanostructures. For terbium nitrate with a middle RE(3+) ion, the decomposed product exhibited a rodlike nanostructure. The corresponding rare-earth oxides, with the same morphologies as their precursors, could be obtained when these decomposed products were calcined. For cerium nitrate, which showed the greatest differences, flowerlike cerium oxide could be obtained directly from decomposition of the nitrate without further calcination. This regularity is explained on the basis of the lanthanide contraction. Owing to their differences in electron configuration, ionic radius, and crystal structure, such a nitrate family therefore shows different thermolysis properties. In addition, the potential application of these as-obtained rare-earth oxides as catalysts and luminescent materials was investigated. The advantages of this method for rare-earth oxides includes simplicity, high yield, low cost, and ease of scale-up, which are of great importance for their industrial applications.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    Timothy A. DeVol; Basak Yazgan-Kukouz; Baris Kokuoz; DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Kevin B. Sprinkle; Tiffany L. James; Courtney J. Kucera; JACOBSOHN, Luiz G.; John Ballato


    This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE) doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP) that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminesc...

  7. Rare earth optogalvanic spectroscopy: preliminary results

    Destro, Marcelo G.; Neri, Jose W.; Rodrigues, Nicolau A.S.; Silveira, Carlos A.B.; Riva, Rudimar [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/EFO), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fotonica]. E-mail:; Victor, Alessandro R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    The IEAv has special interest in the studies of rare earth isotope applications in laser medium and integrated optics as well as aerospace research. We are starting to work with Ytterbium, Erbium, Dysprosium and Neodymium laser selective photoionization research. This paper describes the preliminary results of emission and optogalvanic spectroscopy obtained from a Neodymium hollow cathode lamps. Furthermore these results were used to setup our laser systems to work to leads a Nd isotopes selective laser photoionization. (author)

  8. Systematic variation of rare earths in monazite

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J.; Carron, M.K.


    Ten monazites from widely scattered localities have been analyzed for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Y and Th by means of a combined chemical and emission spectrographic method. The analytical results, calculated to atomic percent of total rare earths (thorium excluded), show a considerable variation in the proportions of every element except praseodymium, which is relatively constant. The general variation trends of the elements may be calculated by assuming that the monazites represent different stages in a fractional precipitation process, and by assuming that there is a gradational increase in the precipitability of rare earth elements with decreasing ionic radius. Fractional precipitation brings about an increase in lanthanum and cerium, little change in praseodymium, and a decrease in neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, and yttrium. Deviations from the calculated lines of variation consist of a simultaneous, abnormal increase or decrease in the proportions of cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium with antipathetic decrease or increase in the proportions of the other elements. These deviations are ascribed to abnormally high or low temperatures that affect the precipitability of the central trio of elements (Ce, Pr, Nd) relatively more than that of the other elements. The following semiquantitative rules have been found useful in describing the composition of rare earths from monazite: 1. 1. The sum of lanthanum and neodymium is very nearly a constant at 42 ?? 2 atomic percent. 2. 2. Praseodymium is very nearly constant at 5 ?? 1 atomic percent. 3. 3. The sum of Ce, Sm, Gd, and Y is very nearly a constant at 53 ?? 3 atomic percent. No correlation could be established between the content of Th and that of any of the rare earth elements. ?? 1953.

  9. Phase Behavior of Rare Earth Manganites

    Naoki Kamegashira; Hiromi Nakano; Gang Chen; Jian Meng


    Among complex oxides containing rare earth and manganese BaLn2Mn2O7 (Ln=rare earth) with the layered perovskite type and Ln2(Mn, M)O7 with pyrochlore-related structure were studied since these compounds show many kinds of phases and unique phase transitions. In BaLn2Mn2O7 there appear many phases, depending on the synthetic conditions for each rare earth. The tetragonal phase of so-called Ruddlesden-Popper type is the fundamental structure and many kinds of deformed modification of this structure are obtained. For BaEu2Mn2O7 at least five phases have been identified from the results of X-ray diffraction analysis with the space group P42/mnm, Fmmm, Immm and A2/m in addition to the fundamental tetragonal I4/mmm phase. In the pyrochlore-related type compounds, Ln2Mn2-xMxO7 (M=Ta, Nb, W etc), there also appear several phases with different crystal structures. With regard to every rare earth, Ln2MnTaO7 phase is stable only for excess Ta and can be obtained under high oxygen partial pressure process. This group has trigonal structure with zirkelite type (P3121 space group). On the other hand Ln2Mn2/3Nb4/3O7 phase has monoclinic (C2/c space group) and zirconolite type structure. All of these structural models have the fundamental structure based on HTB (hexagonal tungsten bronze) layers formed by the arrangement of oxygen octahedra.

  10. Determination of metals and rare earths in leach solution of phosphogypsum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); Determinacao de metais e terras raras em solucao lixiviada de fosfogesso por AANI

    Costa, Gabriela J.L., E-mail: [Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The phosphogypsum is a sub-product of the fertilizer industries and is composed of the gypsum matrix (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) which naturally contains high tenors of impurities such as 2P{sub O}5 and metals coming from the original phosphat rock. The Brazilian phosphogypsum and the various uses has been researched through his elementary and radiochemistry characterization. This work determine the metals (As, Ba, Co and Se) and rare earths (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb and Lu) presents in samples of phosphogypsum leach solutions

  11. The United States’ Vulnerability to Coercion by China in the Rare Earths Market


    Palo Alto, California to develop a hybrid vehicle that uses no rare earth metals in the motor.95 A company called Baldor Electric is currently...96U.S. Department of Energy, “ Baldor Electric Company: Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor,”

  12. An Integrated Rare Earth Elements Supply Chain Strategy


    FL: CRC Press, 2005) 1, 61, 59. 7 Gupta and Krishnamurthy, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, 21, 22, 32; Cindy A. Hurst, ―China‘s Ace in the...Supply Chain, Briefing for Congressional Committees, 27. 17 Ibid, 24. 18 Gupta and Krishnamurthy, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, 57. 19 Ibid...Oct 12, 2010): 3. 38 Gupta and Krishnamurthy, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, 94. 39 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Rare Earth

  13. Reduction property of rare earth oxide doped molybdenum oxide


    Rare earth oxide doped molybdenum powders were prepared by the reduction of rare earth nitrites doped MoO3. The effect of rare earth oxide on the reduction behavior of molybdenum oxide had been studied by means of Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction. Doping rare earth oxide in the powder could lower the reduction temperature of molybdenum oxide and decrease the particle size of molybdenum. The mechanism for the effects had been discussed in this paper.

  14. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions


    @@ Ⅰ. Chinese rare earth import & export status in 2007 China further strengthened regulations on import & export of rare earth products in 2007. Firstly, NDRC changed the guidance for rare earth production from guiding plan into mandatory plan at the year beginning.

  15. CISRI Competes for Light Rare Earth in North China


    <正>In the light rare earth market of north China,REHT,the largest rare earth enterprise in the world,has to face a bitter rival in competition.As 3 SOEs(CHINALCO,Minmetals and CNMC)are vying for the medium and heavy rare earth market of South China,a smaller SOE,i.e.,China Iron & Steel Research

  16. China is Planning to Raise rare Earth Resource Tax Again


    <正>In the face of the current situation of the lost WTO dispute on rare earth,and cancellation of export tariff for partial rare earth products,efforts of regulation and integration on rare earth by the state government will again be tightened.Reporters of the Economic Information Daily recently learned from authoritative sources that relevant ministries are

  17. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  18. Magnetomigration of rare-earth ions in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

    Franczak, Agnieszka; Binnemans, Koen; Jan Fransaer


    The effects of external inhomogenous (gradient) magnetic fields on the movement of the rare-earth ions: Dy(3+), Gd(3+) and Y(3+), in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions have been investigated. Differences in the migration of rare-earth ions in gradient magnetic fields were observed, depending on the magnetic character of the ions: paramagnetic ions of Dy(3+) and Gd(3+) move towards regions of the sample where the magnetic field gradient is the strongest, while diamagnetic ions of Y(3+) move in the opposite direction. It has been showed that the low magnetic field gradients, such the ones generated by permanent magnets, are sufficient to observe the magnetomigration effects of the ions in solution. The present work clearly establishes the behavior of magnetically different ions in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions exposed to magnetic field gradients. To this avail, a methodology for measuring the local concentration differences of metal ions in liquid samples was developed.

  19. Magnetic and transport properties of R(Mn, In)2 (R—rare-earth metals) with AlB2-structure type

    Dzevenko, M.; Havela, L.; Prokleška, J.; Svoboda, P.; Miliyanchuk, K.; Kalychak, Y.


    We studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of ternary rare-earth R(Mn,In) 2 compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Tb-Tm, Lu), which crystallize in the AlB 2-structure type with approximate stoichiometry RMn 0.67In 1.33, but adopting a variable Mn deficiency. YMn 0.92In 1.08 orders antiferromagnetically below TN ≈ 247 K, CeMn 0.65In 1.35 is ferromagnetic with TC=134 K. The compounds with magnetic rare earths tend to a glassy magnetic state, presumably due to the disorder in the Mn/In sublattice together with competing exchange interactions. The disorder has also a dramatic impact on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, which is rather flat due to a strong scattering. The absence of long-range order was proved also by specific-heat measurements. Hydrogen absorption, tested for several compounds, led to the synthesis of LaMn 0.49In 1.51H 0.75(5).

  20. Binary phase diagrams of the rare earth metals with zinc: the Tb-Zn, Ho-Zn and Er-Zn systems

    Saccone, A.; Cardinale, A.M.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R. [Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Sezione di Chimica Inorganica e Metallurgia, Univ. di Genova, (Italy)


    The phase diagram of the Er-Zn system has been experimentally investigated over its whole composition range by using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Seven intermetallic phases have been found and their crystal structure confirmed, namely ErZn, ErZn{sub 2}, ErZn{sub 3}, Er{sub 13}Zn{sub 58}, ErZn{sub 5}, Er{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}, and ErZn{sub 12}. Four eutectic reactions occur. A degenerate invariant effect has been found in the Zn-rich region. The results obtained in this investigation have been used, together with those of other previously studied rare earth-Zn systems, to predict the constitutional properties of the Tb-Zn and Ho-Zn systems, taking into account that the alloying behaviour of the different rare earths with the same element varies according to systematic patterns. The predicted phase diagrams of the Tb-Zn and Ho-Zn systems are compared with selected equilibria experimentally determined by analysing a few key compositions. (orig.)

  1. CHALCO and Guangxi Government Joined Forces to Drive Forward Optimization and Upgrading of Rare Earth Industry


    <正>In early June, Ding Haiyan, Assistant to General Manager of CHALCO and President of China Rare Metals And Rare Earth Corporation, met with Yang Daoxi, Vice Chairman of the People’s Congress of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Nanning, and exchanged views on further development of Guangxi rare

  2. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications



    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  3. China Aluminum Guangxi Nonferrous Rare Earth Mining Company Limited was Founded


    <正>The China Aluminum Guangxi Non-ferrous Rare Earth Mining Company Limited co-built by Aluminium Corporation of China,Guangxi Non-ferrous Metal Group Company Limited,and Grirem Advanced Materials Co.,Ltd.was

  4. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail:; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  5. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    Koehler, Ulrike


    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  6. Rare Earth Doped Silica Nanoparticles via Thermolysis of a Single Source Metallasilsesquioxane Precursor

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; O'Brien, John; Gun'Ko, Yurii K.


    Rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles have significant advantages over traditional organic dyes and quantum dots. Silsesquioxanes are promising precursors in the production of silica nanoparticles by thermolysis, due to their structural similarities with silica materials. This manuscript describes the production of a new Eu3+-based metallasilsesquioxane species and its use as a single source precursor in the thermolytic production of luminescent rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles with characteristic emission in the visible region of the spectrum.

  7. Effects of Rare Earths on Properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni Base Brazing Filler Alloys

    Ma Tianjun; Kang Hui; Wu Yongqin; Qu Ping


    The effects of the addition of rare earths on the properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni base brazing filler alloys and the mechanical microstructure and properties were studied for the brazed-joints in the vacuum brazing of TC4 by comparing synthetical properties of two kinds of filler metals.The results indicate that the filler metals added with rare earths have lower melting point, better wettability and higher mechanical properties in the brazing joints.

  8. Biological effects of soaking rapeseeds in light rare earth metals under Cd and Cr stress%轻稀土浸种对油菜镉铬胁迫的生物学效应

    任学军; 任艳军; 杜彬; 马建军


    [目的]研究轻稀土抗油菜镉(Cd)铬(Cr)重金属胁迫下的生物学效应,为重金属污染土壤中稀土农用提供理论参考.[方法]采用单一轻稀土(La、Ce、Nd、Pr)浸种处理,通过盆栽试验,研究重金属Cd和Cr胁迫条件下油菜生长发育对Cd、Cr元素吸收累积的影响.[结果]土壤Cd、Cr胁迫未对油菜生长发育产生明显影响,但增加了Cd、Cr含量和累积量,以重金属Cd累积幅度最明显;La、Ce、Nd、Pr浸种处理均抑制土壤中重金属Cd和Cr向油菜茎叶转移与吸收,抑制效果因油菜发育状况、土壤污染程度及稀土元素种类不同而存在差异,随重金属污染程度的加重,其抑制重金属毒害能力增强,以Ce浸种处理效果最佳,同时促进了油菜茎叶中干物质积累.[结论]稀土浸种处理是一种抑制和减少蔬菜重金属吸收和积累的有效途径.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to find out the biological effects of soaking rapeseeds in light rare-earth metals (La, Ce, Nd, Pr) on resistance of rapeseed plants to Cd and Cr stress in order to provide a theo-retical reference for agricultural application of rare earth metals in soils polluted with heavy metals. [Method]The growth and development of rapeseed plants and Cd and Cr uptake and accumulation in rape plant was investigated under Cd and Cr stress by soaking rapeseeds in single light rare earth metals, viz., La, Ce, Nd, Pr in pot culture. [Result]The results showed that the Cd and Cr stress in soil had no significant effects on the growth and development of rapeseed plants, rather it increased Cd and Cr content and their accumulation. La, Ce, Nd and Pr seed-soaking treatments inhibited the uptake and translocation of Cd and Cr from soil to stem and leaf of rapeseed plant, and the inhibitory effects differed with respect to growth and development stage, soil pollution extent and rare earth element type. At higher heavy metal pollu-tion , the ability of rape to

  9. Molten salt phase diagram evaluation by pattern recognition:Part Ⅰ Divalent rare earth halide and alkali metal halide binary systems


    At present CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) technique is not capable of predicting whether there exists intermediate compound, much less predicting the formulae, the number, and the melting congruence of intermediate compounds. To solve this problem, a new approach called the phase diagram evaluation by pattern recognition (PDEPR) was improved. The micro-parameters, such as the radius and the electronegativity of the element, were used as original features and then they were transformed and spanned to the different features in multi-dimensional space.Then a set of classifying functions were obtained to predict the information of intermediate compounds in REX2-AX systems (RE-rare earth element; A-Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; X F, Cl, Br, and 1). It is comparatively important for the design of materials.

  10. A review of the literature on the toxicity of rare-earth metals as it pertains to the Engineering Demonstration System surrogate testing

    Wald, P.H.


    A review of data on animal and damaging human exposure to the rare-earth elements has been made. Incidental oral ingestion is considered to be harmless and accidental nonrespiratory uptake does not represent a health risk. Equipment design and operating procedures mitigate against dermatologic or ophthalmologic risk to workers and the public. Animal and human inhalation studies confirm the use of the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) for yttrium as a conservative measure for evaluation of the Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) emission of the lanthanons. This value (1 mg/m{sup 3}) is also consistent with the OSHA-established permissible exposure limit (PEL). Environmental exposures that are maintained at a level below the TLV/PEL value should result in no health impact to workers, visitors, or the public. 38 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. On the structural and magnetic properties of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}(A,T){sub x} (R=rare earth; A=Al, Si, Ga; T=transition metal) compounds

    Rama Rao, K.V.S. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Tech. Madras, Chennai (India); Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; Markandeyulu, G.; Murthy, V.S. [Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Tech. Madras, Chennai (India); Varadaraju, U.V.; Venkatesan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Materials Science Research Centre; Suresh, K.G. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India). Dept. of Physics; Schmidt, P.C. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie


    R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (R = rare earth) intermetallic compounds constitute one of the most important classes of materials identified as high-energy permanent magnet materials. They crystallize either in the rhombohedral Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17} structure (for light R) or in the hexagonal Th{sub 2}Ni{sub 17} structure (for heavy R). In this article, we discuss the variations in the lattice parameters (unit cell volume), site occupancies and Curie temperature when non-transition and transition metals are substituted for Fe in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compounds. (orig.)

  12. Review, Intelligence and Development of Rare Earths during Biological Evolution

    Qiu Guanming; Li Wei; Zhang Ming; Li Zhe; Yan Changhao; Li Yourong; Ding Guohui


    The relationship between organism and rare earth elements (REE) viewed from evolution was discussed.Some metal ions play key roles in biological functions, however, as the illustration in this article shows, with powerful affinities for oxygen and similar radius, REE can display equally or even more important functions in terms of its biological functions. These attractive characteristics have called more public attention and lead to many applications in agriculture, medicine fields, etc. Furthermore, the article employed the concept of entropy to discuss the dosage effect of REE on organism and the possibility whether REE can become a portion of organism during the evolution.

  13. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Quantity Growth of Ctrps

    张自立; 常江; 等


    The effects of rare earth on the growth of rice,rape and soybean in three kinds of soils were studied with the method supposed by Economic Co-operation and Development organization(OECD),and the EC50(median growth concenrtation)values were obtained,The inhibition of RE on the growth of rice and rape in red soil and on the growth of soybeanin yellow fouvo-aquic soil is higher with stronger poison effects.Compared with other heavy metals such as Hg,Cd,Pb,As,the poison of RE on crops in weaker.

  14. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Quantity Growth of Crops

    张自立; 常江; 汪成胜; 柴绍明; 韩修明; 李瑞


    The effects of rare earth on the growth of rice, rape and soybean in three kinds of soils were studied with the method supposed by Economic Co-operation and De velopment organization (OECD), and the EC50(median growth concentration)value s were obtained . The inhibition of RE on the growth of rice and rape in red soil and on the gro wth of soybean in yellow fluvo-aquic soil is higher with stronger poison effect s. Compared with other heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb, As, the poison of RE on crops is weaker.

  15. Parity Violation Experiments with Rare Earth Atoms

    Budker, Dmitry


    Since the first suggestions (V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and I. B. Khriplovich, Z. Phys. D1, 243 (1986).), (A. Gongora and P. G. H. Sandars, J. Phys. B 19, L291 (1986).) to search for parity violation in the rare earth atoms, experiments have been carried out by groups in Novosibirsk, Oxford, Hiroshima and Berkeley with Sm, Yb and Dy. The status of these experiments will be reviewed, with some details given on recent Berkeley Dy results ( A.-T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.). Progress of the Berkeley Yb experiment ( D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165 (1995).), ( C.J. Bowers, D. Budker, E.D. Commins, D. DeMille, S.J. Freedman, A.-T. Nguyen, S.-Q. Shang, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3103-9(1996). ) will be described elsewhere at this meeting by C. J. Bowers et al.

  16. Magnetic anisotropies of rare-earth compounds

    Loewenhaupt, M.; Rotter, M.; Kramp, S.


    There are two kinds of magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth compounds: the single-ion anisotropy caused by the crystal field (CF) and the anisotropy of the two-ion interactions. Both types of anisotropy have to be considered to arrive at a consistent description of the magnetic properties of the orthorhombic intermetallic compound NdCu 2. From the analysis of NdCu 2 we can derive predictions for the type of ordering in other isostructural RCu 2 compounds, that agree well with experimental results: If the magnetic moments point into the crystallographic b-direction, an ordering wave vector of (2/3 0 0) is expected. If the moments are oriented perpendicular to b then the ordering wave vector is (2/3 1 0) .

  17. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition; Desenvolvimento de processo de eletrolise em meio de sais fundidos para a producao de metais de terras-raras leves. A obtencao do cerio metalico

    Restivo, T.A.G.


    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800{sup C} was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs.

  18. Transition metal (Cr{sup 3+}) and rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}) ions used as a spectroscopic probe in compositional-dependent lead borate glasses

    Pisarski, W.A., E-mail: [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Pisarska, J. [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Dominiak-Dzik, G.; Ryba-Romanowski, W. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland)


    Compositional-dependent lead borate glasses doped with transition metal and rare earth ions were studied using absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The trivalent Cr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions were used as a spectroscopic probe in glass samples with various PbO/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios. Spectral analysis indicates that Cr{sup 3+} ions occupy intermediate field sites; the both sites coexist and emit from the {sup 4}T{sub 2} (low-field) and the {sup 2}E (high-field) states, respectively. The R and Y/B values due to {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2}/{sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}/{sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} luminescence intensity ratios of Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively, increase with increasing heavy metal (PbO) content, suggesting higher asymmetry and more covalent bonding character between rare earth and oxygen ions.

  19. Opinions on hot discussions in connection with rare earths recently

    SONG Hongfang; HONG Mei


    @@ Rare earth industry, with production value less than 30 trillion yuan, has become the hot topic both inside China and in the rest of the world since 2009. Even in stock market, rare earth was one of the most active sectors. Media in various countries, specialists in different fields and many political figures worldwide as well as some netizens showed extraordinary concerns on rare earths. Many heated arguments were made on the hot and even some sensitive topics about rare earth industry. Rare earth issues seem to be beyond the industrial production today, but the subject focused on economy, politics and strategic importance. The word "rare earth" was a yearly hot point or a key word in 2010.

  20. Study on Mechanism of Rare Earth PVC Stabilizer

    彭振博; 胡斌; 苏庆德; 曲锦忠


    Rare earth compounds can be used as PVC thermal stabilizers. According to the infrared spectra of the mixture of PVC and some stearates, the mechanism of stabilization of different stearates was studied. The specialty of rare earth stabilizers was found. They can change the conformation of PVC and restrain the elimination of HCl. From this aspect, the unique synergetic effect with other stabilizers of rare earth compounds can be explained.

  1. Analysis and Outlook of Global Rare Earth Market

    XIONG Jiaqi


    @@ When enterd into 21st century,global rare earth market exhibits pleasing situation in recent years,profitig from fast development of global economy.China represented nearly 60% of global rare earth consumption in 2007.Rare earth consumtion in five advanced materisls including permanent magnets,polishing powder,hydrogen storage materisls,fluorescent materials and auto catalysts accounted for 60% of the tutal consumption.

  2. China Limits the Mining Quantity of Tungsten and Rare Earth


    <正>Based on a notice issued by the Ministry of Land Resources, China’s tungsten mining quantity in 2006 will be controlled to 59,060 tons in concentrates form, which include 4,250 tons of recycled tungsten. And the rare earth mining quantity in 2006 will also be controlled to 86,620 tons (REO) including 8,320 tons of heavy rare earth and 78,200 tons of light rare earth.

  3. Formation cause,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of rare earth solid wastes

    许涛; 彭会清


    Based on practical situation of rare earth industrial chain,production process and rare earth materials that could produce solid wastes on batch were discussed.Formation cause,formation volume,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of the solid wastes of rare earth hydrometallurgy slag,electrolysis slag,Fe-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,Co-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,rare earth hydrogen storage materials,rare earth polishing powders and rare earth catalysts were ...

  4. Study on Copolymerization of Rare Earth-Carboxylic Acid Complex

    Qiu Guanmin(邱关明); Zhang Ming(张明); Yan Chang hao(严长浩); Zhou Lanxiang(周兰香); Dai Shaojun(戴少俊); Okamo to Hiroshi


    Complex of rare earth with carboxylic acid was prepared by precipita tion and direct method. It was copolymerized with such monomers as acrylic acid and other ones to synthesize ionomer of rare earth and organic polymer with different rare earth contents. Its glass-transition temperature and heat stability were analyzed by TG and DTA. Infra-red detector was used to show its structure. The effect of rare earth complex prepared by different methods on copolymerization and properties of copolymers was also discussed.

  5. Storing Solar Energy Performance on Rare Earth Windowpane

    Li Baojun; Zhou Yao; Fu Li; Yang Tao; Li Tiansi; Li Ying


    The windowpane as the enclosure and decorative component of buildings is main part of energy consumption and the heat loss through window is almost 4% of the heating consumption in buildings. Using rare earth element,the glass can possess the performance of absorbing sunlight, storing heat, increasing the temperate of itself, and decreasing the inner heat load so as to play the double functions of saving energy and environmental protection. The experiment method of the rare earth windowpane, and analyses sunlight absorbing process of the rare earth element on photoelectric principle, and gives the changing curve with environment temperate -time of the rare earth windowpane surface were introduced.

  6. Characterization and recovery of rare earth elements from electronic scrap

    Bristøl, Lene Marie Lysgaard


    The rare earth elements are a group of 17 elements consisting of the lantahnide series, scandium and yttrium. The application with the largest rare earth consumption is the permanent rare earth magnets. The neodymium-iron-boron magnets are the strongest permanent magnetic material known and are widely used. There is a concern that there will be a shortage in Nd-Fe-B magnets in short time. This has lead to an increased interest in the recycling of the rare earth magnets in the world.This proje...

  7. Multicomponent, Rare-Earth-Doped Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming


    Multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type thermal-barrier coating materials have been developed in an effort to obtain lower thermal conductivity, greater phase stability, and greater high-temperature capability, relative to those of the prior thermal-barrier coating material of choice, which is yttria-partially stabilized zirconia. As used here, "thermal-barrier coatings" (TBCs) denotes thin ceramic layers used to insulate air-cooled metallic components of heat engines (e.g., gas turbines) from hot gases. These layers are generally fabricated by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition of the TBC materials onto the metal components. A TBC as deposited has some porosity, which is desirable in that it reduces the thermal conductivity below the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the fully dense form of the material. Undesirably, the thermal conductivity gradually increases because the porosity gradually decreases as a consequence of sintering during high-temperature service. Because of these and other considerations such as phase transformations, the maximum allowable service temperature for yttria-partially stabilized zirconia TBCs lies in the range of about 1,200 to 1,300 C. In contrast, the present multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type TBCs can withstand higher temperatures.

  8. Rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium intermetallics

    Stein, Sebastian; Kersting, Marcel; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie


    Eight new intermetallic rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium compounds have been synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules using different annealing sequences in muffle furnaces. The compounds have been characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sm{sub 9.2}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.8} (a=939.6(2), c=1779(1) pm), Gd{sub 11}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16} (a=951.9(2), c=1756.8(8) pm), and Tb{sub 10.5}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16.5} (a=942.5(1), c=1758.3(4) pm) crystallize with the tetragonal Nd{sub 9.34}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.66} type structure, space group I4/mmm. This structure exhibits a complex condensation pattern of square-prisms and square-antiprisms around the magnesium and ruthenium atoms, respectively. Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=344.0(1), c=2019(1) pm) and Tb{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=341.43(6), c=2054.2(7) pm) adopt the Er{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} structure and Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg (a=337.72(9), c=1129.8(4) pm) is isotypic with Sc{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg. Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=337.35(9), c=2671(1) pm) and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=335.83(5), c=2652.2(5) pm) are the first ternary ordered variants of the Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} type, space group I4/mmm. These five compounds belong to a large family of intermetallics which are completely ordered superstructures of the bcc subcell. The group-subgroup scheme for Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} is presented. The common structural motif of all three structure types are ruthenium-centered rare earth cubes reminicent of the CsCl type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} samples revealed Pauli paramagnetism of the conduction electrons.

  9. Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary

    Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton


    This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (<0.45 μm) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    Timothy A. DeVol


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  11. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides



    The present paper deals with the theoretical calculation of mechanical and thermophysical properties of rare-earth monoarsenides, XAs (X: Np, Pu, Th and U) using elastic constants as the input parameters. These second- and third-order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) are determinedin the temperature range 100–500K using Coulomb and Born–Mayer potential upto second nearest neighbours. In order to provide the link between mechanical and dynamical behaviour of crystals, parameters such as Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio etc. are also calculated.In addition, the Cauchy relationship is obeyed by the chosen monoarsenides and are fairly anisotropic, which results in the measurement of longitudinal and shear wave velocities along $\\langle100 \\rangle$, $\\langle110\\rangle$ and $\\langle 111\\rangle$ directions. The toughness/fracture $(G/BT)$ ratio is greater than 0.60, which implies that XAs compounds are brittle at room temperature. Further, the Debye temperature is computed using Debye average velocity as the input parameter. It helps in the characterization of lattice vibrations of a solid. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon–phonon interaction$\\alpha/f^2_{\\rm p−p}$ and thermoelastic loss $\\alpha/f ^{2}$th are computed for XAs from 100 to 500K using Mason’s theory. It further helps in evaluating the microstructural properties of the chosen materials. The obtained results indicate that XAs is mechanically stable and are compared with data availablein the literature.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of binary amorphous aluminum alloys with transition metals and rare earth metals; Strukturelle und elektronische Eigenschaften binaerer amorpher Aluminiumlegierungen mit Uebergangsmetallen und Metallen der Seltenen Erden

    Stiehler, Martin


    The influence of the d-states of the transition metals on the structure formation in amorphous alloys has so far only been inadequately understood. The present work aims to elaborate additional contributions to the understanding of binary amorphous aluminum alloys with transition metals. Special emphasis was placed on alloys with a subgroup of the transition metals, the rare earth metals. Within the scope of the present work, layers of Al-Ce in the region of 15at% Ce-80at% Ce were produced by sequential flash evaporation at 4.2K in the high vacuum, and characterized electronically by electrical resistance and Hall effect measurements as well as structurally by transmission electron diffraction. In addition, studies of plasma resonance were carried out by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy. In the range of 25at% Ce-60at% Ce, homogeneous amorphous samples were obtained. Especially the structural investigations were made difficult by oxidation of the material. The influence of the Ce-4f electrons manifests itself mainly in the low-temperature and magnetoresistance, both of which are dominated by the Kondo effect. The Hall effect in Al-Ce is dominated by anomalous components over the entire temperature range (2K-320K), which are attributed to skew-scattering effects, also due to Ce-4f electrons. Down to 2K there was no macroscopic magnetic order. In the region 2K-20K, the existence of clusters of ordered magnetic moments is concluded. For T> 20K, paramagnetic behavior occurs. With regard to the structural and electronic properties, a-Al-Ce can be classified as a group with a-Al- (Sc, Y, La). In the sense of plasma resonance, a-Al-Ce is excellently arranged in a system known from other Al transition metal alloys. Furthermore, by increasing the results of binary amorphous Al transition metal alloys from the literature, it has been found that the structure formation in these systems is closely linked to a known but still unexplained structure-forming effect that

  13. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India

    E S Challaraj Emmanuel; T Ananthi; B Anandkumar; S Maruthamuthu


    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  14. Some thoughts on development of China rare earth industry and scientific technology

    Dr.Chen Zhanheng


    @@ Ⅰ.Media background "Rare earth"has become a hot topic globally since 2009.The Times of UK published an article entitled "China takes charge of keys to technologies'future "on 9th March 2009,in which China was considered to have become the largest monopoly country on rare earth metals' supply and the leading position would make China control the future of consumer electronic products and green technology.Triggered by the article,more and more attentions were paid to "China rare earth"by media inside and outside China.

  15. 稀土-过渡金属薄膜磁各向异性的理论研究%Theoretic studies on the magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth transition-metal thin films

    何一鸣; 钱显毅; 黄致新


    The magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth transition-metal thin films is investigated in this paper. Based on the reference review and the analysis of thin film forming process by sputtering, the single ion model has been put foreword. With concrete computation, we found that when the composition of the film is R31Co69 and the rare-earth element is Tb, the magnetic anisotropy value can be as high as 3. 1×106 erg/cm3. And the Coulomb interactions between the non-S state rare-earth ion in non-spherical electric charge distribution with the deformed local crystalline field accounts for the major source of high perpendicular anisotropy of TbCo amorphous films.%对稀土-过渡金属薄膜的磁各向异性进行了理论分析研究.通过分析其它模型以及薄膜成膜过程的特点,建立了单离子模型,并进行了理论分析和计算.结果发现:组分为R31Co69薄膜中稀土元素R为Tb时的Ku值最大,接近3.1×106 erg/cm3.对于TbCo非晶垂直磁化膜而言,具有非球对称电荷分布的非S态离子Tb与局部电场的相互作用构成了其垂直磁各向异性的主要部分.

  16. Trace Metals, Rare Earths, Carbon and Pb Isotopes as Proxies of Environmental Catastrophe at the Permian - Triassic Boundary in Spiti Himalayas, India

    Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Garzione, C. N.; Ghatak, A.; Bhargava, O. N.; Shukla, U. K.; Ahluwalia, A. D.


    Himalayan sediments from Spiti Valley, India preserve geochemical signatures of the Permian - Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in the Neo-Tethys Ocean. We integrate new sedimentological and fossil record with high-resolution geochemical-isotopic data from Spiti that reveals an ecological catastrophe of global proportions. Trace elements of U, Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, the rare earths (REE) and carbon, oxygen and lead isotopes measured across the P-Tr boundary in Spiti are used as proxies for evaluating abrupt changes in this continental shelf environment. δ13Corg excursions of 2.4‰ and 3.1‰ in Atargu and Guling P-Tr sections in Spiti Valley are associated with an abrupt fall of biological productivity while δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb record of these sediments shows effects of diagenesis. Here, the P-Tr boundary is compositionally distinct from the underlying Late Permian gray shales, as a partly gypsiferous ferruginous layer that allows additional geochemical-isotopic investigation of sedimentary sources. Conspicuous Ce - Eu anomalies in the light REE-enriched Late Permian shales reflect the source composition of the adjacent Panjal Trap basalts of Kashmir. An abrupt change of this source to continental crust is revealed by Nb - Ta and Zr - Hf anomalies at the P-Tr ferruginous layer and continuing through the overlying Early Triassic carbonate rocks. Pb concentration and isotope ratios of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb identify changes in the sedimentary element flux, distinguishing the Late Permian shales from the distinct siliciclastic continental crustal signature in the Early Triassic carbonates. These geochemical-isotopic constraints on the sedimentary geochemistry of one of the most critical transitions in geological record establish the utility of multi-proxy datasets for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  17. Announcement of Resolutions at the 15th Meeting of the 3rd Session of the Board of Directors of Baogang Rare Earth(continued)


    @@ 4. Proposal on Production Expansion of Baotou Rewin Rare Earth Metallic Materials Co., Lid To further enlarge production capacity of neodymium (didymium) metal of Baotou Rewin Rare Earth Metallic Materials Co., Ltd, which is a holding company of Baogang Rare Earth (Baogang Rare Earth holds 58.42% of the shares of Rewin), enhance local utilization rate of neodymium (didymium) oxide inside Baogang Rare Earth and ensure raw materials supply for future development of NdFeB magnetic materials of Baogang Rare Earth, Baogang Rare Earth approves the project of "Investment of Rewin in production expansion of 3,000 tons of neodymium (didymium) metal per annum". Production capacity of neodymium (didymium) metal of Rewin will approach 8,000 tons/year.

  18. Research trends in rare earths: A preliminary analysis



    The research trend in rare earths has been studied using the Chemical Abstracts (CA) data.The number of papers published from China has been increasing very rapidly since 2001 and today China is the top country in terms of paper contribution on rare earths.This article presents a comparative study of R & D trends among China,Japan and USA.

  19. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.


    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  20. Shanghai Rare Earth Industry Scale is Expected to Double


    <正>A new organization in the rare earth industry circle in Shanghai initiated and set up by 14 enterprises and public institutions called "Shanghai Rare Earth Association", formally declared its establishment recently. This marked China’s only specialized and non-profit

  1. Imports εt Exports Review of Chinese Rare Earths


    @@ China developed herself from being predominant at RE resources into a country with the largest production, the highest export volume and the largest application of rare earth products in the world. Today, China plays a leading role in the global rare earth market.

  2. Review and outlook of 2008 China rare earth market

    ZHANG Lihua


    @@ I.Environment and trend of RE market 1.Operation environment in 2008 Chinese government further strengthened its macro-control on rare earth industry in 2008.Mandatory planning policy was implemented in the production of rare earth minerals and smelted products.

  3. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals

    Alibert, Chantal


    Minerals from the Hamersley banded iron formation, Western Australia, were analyzed for Y and rare earth elements (YREEs) by laser ablation ICP-MS to investigate diagenetic pathways, from precursor phases to BIF minerals. One group of apatites carries the seawater REE signature, giving evidence that P and REEs, thoroughly scavenged from the water column by Si-ferrihydrite particles, were released upon microbial Fe3+ reductive dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite in pore-water and finally sequestered mainly in authigenic apatite. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.e. as outer-sphere complexes. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd(REE) between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. It is deduced that hematite formed at an incipient stage of Fe2+-catalyzed dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite, via a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite. Magnetite carries very low YREEs (ppb-level), has an homogeneous pattern distinctly enriched in the mid-REEs compared to hematite, and includes a late population depleted in light-REEs, Ba and As. Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures.

  4. Forms of Rare Earth Elements in Soils:II.Differentiation of Rare Earth Elements



    The present paper deals mainly with the relationships between the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in different forms in soils and the atomic number and with the odd-even phenomenon in the distribution of ionic lanthanides in soils.The enrichment tendency of light REE relative to heavy REE in soils was pointed out on the experimental results about the proportions of Ce-group and Y-group elements in different REE forms in soils.Meanwhile,the differentiation of Tm in different soil REE forms was compared and the reasons why Tm is enriched in soils were preliminarily discussed.

  5. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.


    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  6. Bioavailability of heavy metals, germanium and rare earth elements at Davidschacht dump-field in mine affected area of Freiberg (Saxony)

    Midula, Pavol; Wiche, Oliver


    with the other elements from this group. High amounts of As, Cd, Pb in mould horizons were proved. The surprisingly highest concentrations were determined for As (in average 3328 mg kg-1). The results of the pH measurement indicates acid conditions (in average 4.86, min. 3.89) for whole mine heap. Due to the mobility of Cd and Pb in acid environment, a high mobility of Cd in mobile soil fractions (in average 0.58 mg kg-1) was found, that seems to be responsible for the Cd pollution of Freiberger Mulde river, situated near the dump-field in the East direction from the studied area. The Pb content was in the average 1513 mg kg-1. SE analyses shows, that only the minor amounts of these metals were accounted in fractions I - IV (As: 7.75 %, Pb: 5.48 %, Cd: 26.77 %). The total Ge content in soil samples was 2.7 average. The concentrations of Nd and Ce were 17.7 mg kg-1and 38.5 mg kg-1, which is even lower than the average Nd and Ce contents in the Earth crust. However, the concentration of Ge was roughly a factor of two higher, than this average showing a large pool of Ge that could be accessed by phytoextraction. The SE analyses shows, that the average in fractions I - IV is even much lower, than in the case of the above mentioned heavy metals in comparison with Ge (1.75 %), Nd (3.28 %) and Ce (3.12 %). The BCF calculated for plants shows, that the only element, which could be possibly used as the object of phytoaccumulation is Cd (the BCF > 1) in species Populus tremula (3.0, 1.7), Spirea douglasii (1.4, 2.2) and Tanacetum vulgare (3.2, 1.3) at the most sampling places. Since these species represent the natural occurring vegetation of the dump, the use of these species together with soil amendments enhancing the plant availability of elements in soil fractions hold promise for phytoextraction of economically valuable metalloids and consequently an in situ bioremediation of the dump field. This work was realised with the support of Christin Jahns on behalf of the

  7. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.


    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in

  8. A review of fractionations of rare earth elements in plants

    LIANG Tao; DING Shiming; SONG Wenchong; CHONG Zhongyi; ZHANG Chaosheng; LI Haitao


    Studies were carried out on several aspects of rare earth elements (REEs), such as the theory and practice of their applications in agriculture, their geochemical behaviors in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the mechanisms for the increase of crop yield using REE fertilizer, and their toxicology. However, limited knowledge was available for the transfer processes and the features and mechanisms of distribution and fractionatious of REEs inside plants. The characteristics of REE fractionations in plants can be used to "trace" the pathway of REE transportation from soils (solution) to plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms of REE fractionations was helpful to investigate the controlling factors, including both the internal and the external ones. The characteristics and mechanisms of REE fractionatious in plants and their significance were reviewed. Furthermore, the prospect for these fields was discussed, in hope of providing a new way in studying the bioavailability of REEs and heavy metals.

  9. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.


    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  10. Effect of Annealing on Rare Earth Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Li Jinhua


    Rare earth-based hydrogen storage alloy used as negative electrode materials for nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries are used commercially.The effect of annealing treatment with different annealing temperature and time on the MLNi3.68 Co0.78 Mn0.35 Al0.27 and MMNi3.55 Co0.75 Mn0.40 Al0.30 alloys were investigated.The crystal microstructure,pressure-composition-isotherms (p-C-T) and electrochemical properties of alloys were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), automatic PCI monitoring system and electrical performance testing instruments.The optimum annealing treatment conditions of two kinds of alloys were determined.


    F.S. Chen; Y.X. Liu; D.K. Liang; L.M. Xiao


    The microstructure of plasma nitrided layer catalyzed by rare-earth elements has beenstudied with TEM. The results show that the grains of γ'-Fe4N phase are refinedby rare-earth elements and the plane defects in boundary are increased by rare-earthelements. The addition of rare-earth element increases the bombardment effect andthe number of crystal defects such as vacancies, dislocation loops, twins and stackingfaults in γ'-Fe4N phase and can produce the high-density dislocations in the ferrite ofdiffusion layer at a distance 0. 08mm from the surface. The production of a numberof crystal defects is one of important reasons why rare-earth element accelerates thediffusion of nitrogen atoms during plasma-nitridiug.

  12. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa


    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

  13. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan


    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  14. Study on Competitive Power of Rare Earth Industry in China

    Qian Jiuhong; Li Guoping


    China is abundant of rare earth resources, it has been the biggest producer, consumer and supplier. The superiority and the scale within the last 40 years make it possible to develop China's rare earth industry in a higher degree.But the superiority of rare earth resources has not turned into the economic superiority, and the development of rare earth industry in China with high speed does not lead to high benefits. Therefore, it has become the hot point and vital task now how to resolve the main problems of rare earth industry in China and how to make its rare earth industry grow healthily and steadily through transforming resources, adjusting structure, escalating industry, bringing forth new ideas in technology. This article aims at analyzing the competitive power of China's rare earth industry in the application of "Diamond framework, Determinants of National Advantage" written by Michael Porter, the well-known economist,based on the analysis, the author puts forward a strategic proposal to raise the competitive power.

  15. Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides

    Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi


    Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R  =  Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.

  16. Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides.

    Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi


    Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R  =  Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.

  17. Rare earth based nanostructured materials: synthesis, functionalization, properties and bioimaging and biosensing applications

    Escudero, Alberto; Becerro, Ana I.; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Núñez, Nuria O.; Zyuzin, Mikhail V.; Laguna, Mariano; González-Mancebo, Daniel; Ocaña, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J.


    Rare earth based nanostructures constitute a type of functional materials widely used and studied in the recent literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a general and comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, with special focus on the commonly employed synthesis methods and functionalization strategies of rare earth based nanoparticles and on their different bioimaging and biosensing applications. The luminescent (including downconversion, upconversion and permanent luminescence) and magnetic properties of rare earth based nanoparticles, as well as their ability to absorb X-rays, will also be explained and connected with their luminescent, magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging applications, respectively. This review is not only restricted to nanoparticles, and recent advances reported for in other nanostructures containing rare earths, such as metal organic frameworks and lanthanide complexes conjugated with biological structures, will also be commented on.

  18. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi


    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  19. Review and forecast of China rare earth industry (continued)


    @@ 3. Current rare earth export situation a. RE export enterprises To further strengthen administration on export of rare earths and standardize export system, the Ministry of Commerce instituted the "Qualification Standards and Application Procedures for Rare Earth Export Enterprises" in 2006, which regulated the export from production capacity, technologies, safety & environmental protection and credit of enterprises, hence to standardize the export system. There were 47 RE export enterprises announced in common trade in 2006, while it dropped to 41 ones in 2007 and 25 in 2008. There were merely 23 export enterprises in 2009.

  20. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Aktishikan Gold Deposit, Xinjiang

    袁峰; 周涛发; 岳书仓


    The characteristics and the models of rare earth elements in the geolo gical bodies and the hydrothermal water balanced with the adamellite were compre h ensively studied in Aktishikan gold deposit,Nurt area of Altay,Xinjiang.And th e behavior of rare earth elements during metasomatic alteration was discussed by using the isocon method of Grant.The results show that the rare earth elements a re inert during metasomatic alteration,the hydrothermal water has no relation t o the magmatic water,and the gold material sources mainly stem from the wall rock.

  1. Thermal Oxidation Resistance of Rare Earth-Containing Composite Elastomer

    邱关明; 张明; 周兰香; 中北里志; 井上真一; 冈本弘


    The rare earth-containing composite elastomer was obtained by the reaction of vinyl pyridine-SBR (PSBR) latex with rare earth alkoxides, and its thermal oxidation resistance was studied. After aging test, it is found that its retention rate of mechanical properties is far higher than that of the control sample. The results of thermogravimetric analysis show that its thermal-decomposing temperature rises largely. The analysis of oxidation mechanisms indicates that the main reasons for thermal oxidation resistance are that rare earth elements are of the utility to discontinue autoxidation chain reaction and that the formed complex structure has steric hindrance effect on oxidation.

  2. Separation of rare earth elements by tertiary pyridine type resin

    Suzuki, Tatsuya [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Itoh, Keisuke [Graduate School of Material Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8584 (Japan); Ikeda, Atsushi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Aida, Masao [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ozawa, Masaki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Oarai Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Narita-machi, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Fujii, Yasuhiko [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)


    The novel separation method of rare earth elements by using the tertiary pyridine type resin with methanol and nitric acid mixed solution was developed. The separating operation in this method is very simple and easy, and the waste generation in this method is expected to be low. The adsorption and separation behaviors of rare earth elements were investigated with changing the nitric acid concentration, the methanol concentration, and the alcoholic species. It was confirmed that the rare earth elements can be well separated mutually.

  3. Achievements in the Project-"The Adsorption of Rare Earth Metal Ions and Ligands on Steel, Aluminum and its Synergistic Mechanism"

    Li Xianghong; Qu Qing; Jiang Shu'an; Zhou Jun


    @@ 1. Background Corrosion is a fundamental process that plays an important role in economics and safety, particularly for metals and alloys. Nowadays, corrosion problems have received a considerable amount of attentions. The annual direct cost of metallic corrosion ranges from 2% to 4% of national GDP in industrialized countries, and this cost sounds escalating in the future.

  4. Structural and crystal chemical properties of rare-earth double phosphates and rare-earth titanate pyrochlores

    Farmer, J. Matt

    Alkali rare-earth double phosphates have been studied for use as long-wavelength scintillators for gamma-ray detection using Si photodiodes. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures, built from roughly hexagonal atomic layers in the sequence lanthanide, phosphate-alkali, alkali, alkali-phosphate. Details of the crystal symmetry depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) has been used to study these structures at room temperature for K3RE(PO4) 2 (where RE = Lu-Ce, Y, and Sc). The compound K3Lu(PO 4)2 crystallizes with a hexagonal unit cell, space group P-3. The Lu ion is six-coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the phosphate groups. Two lower-temperature phases of K3Lu(PO4) 2 were observed and characterized. The lower-temperature transition results in an increase in coordination of the Lu ion to seven fold. This new structure is isostructural with the room-temperature form of K3Yb(PO 4)2. High-temperature powder neutron diffraction and high-temperature powder XRD have revealed a large thermal expansion anisotropy for K3Lu(PO4)2. The K3RE(PO 4)2 formation enthalpies were determined using high-temperature oxide-melt solution calorimetry. The formation enthalpy from oxides becomes more exothermic with increasing rare-earth radius. Rare-earth titanates, RE2Ti2O7 (where RE = a rare-earth), with the pyrochlore structure are currently being studied for use as potential nuclear, actinide-rich waste forms. Single-crystals were synthesized using a high-temperature flux technique and characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cubic lattice parameters display an approximately linear correlation with the RE-site cation radius. The Sm and Eu titanates exhibit a covalency increase between the REO8 and TiO6 polyhedra resulting in a deviation from the increasing linear lattice parameter through the series. Gd2Ti2O7 exhibits the lowest 48f oxygen positional parameter, an effect that can be

  5. Report on the stakes of strategic metals: the case of rare earth metals. Report of the 8 March 2011 public audition and of the presentation of conclusion on the 21 June 2011; Rapport sur les enjeux des metaux strategiques: le cas des terres rares. Compte rendu de l'audition publique du 8 mars 2011 et de la presentation des conclusions, le 21 juin 2011

    Biraux, C.; Kert, Ch.


    The first part of this report proposes the content of a round table which gathered several experts in the field of rare earth metals (researchers, representatives of specialized branches companies like Saint-Gobain, Rhodia). The second part proposes the content of another round table which gathered experts who discussed the future of strategic metals like lithium, titanium or rhenium. Several issues are discussed: fundamental physics, physical and chemical properties, quantum physics, areas of interests (magnets, catalysis, ceramics, and photovoltaic arrays), availability, supplies and suppliers, processes, technological challenges and opportunities, and so on

  6. Prospective analysis of the flows of certain rare earths in Europe at the 2020 horizon.

    Rollat, Alain; Guyonnet, Dominique; Planchon, Mariane; Tuduri, Johann


    This paper proposes a forecast of certain rare earth flows in Europe at the 2020 horizon, based on an analysis of trends influencing various actors of the rare earth industry along the value chain. While 2020 is indicated as the forecast horizon, the analysis should be considered as more representative of the next decade. The rare earths considered here are used in applications that are important for a low-carbon energy transition and/or have a significant recycling potential: NdFeB magnets (Pr, Nd, Dy), NiMH batteries (Pr, Nd) and fluorescent lamp phosphors (Eu, Tb, Y). An analysis of major trends affecting the rare earth industry in Europe along the value chain (including extraction, separation, fabrication, manufacture, use and recycling), helps to build a scenario for a material flow analysis of these rare earths in Europe. The scenario assumes in particular that during the next decade, there exists a rare earth mine in production in Europe (with Norra Kärr in Sweden as a most likely candidate) and also that recycling is in line with targets proposed in recent European legislation. Results are presented in the form of Sankey diagrams which help visualize the various flows for the three applications. For example, calculations forecast flows from extraction to separation of Pr, Nd and Dy for magnet applications in Europe, on the order of 310 tons, 980 tons and 80 tons rare earth metal resp., while recycled flows are 35 tons, 110 tons and 30 tons resp. Calculations illustrate how the relative contribution of recycling to supply strongly depends on the situation with respect to demand. Considering the balance between supply and demand, it is not anticipated any significant shortage of rare earth supply in Europe at the 2020 horizon, barring any new geopolitical crisis involving China. For some heavy rare earths, supply will in fact largely outweigh demand, as for example Europium due to the phasing out of fluorescent lights by LEDs.

  7. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard


    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  8. Monolithic Rare Earth Doped PTR Glass Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a monolithic solid state laser on the basis of PTR glass co-doped with luminescent rare earth ions....

  9. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick


    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  10. Synthesis of Polyketone STCO Promoted by Rare Earth Catalyst

    GUO Jintang; ZHENG Yonghui; WANG Bo; TIAN Jing


    To lower the cost of polyketone synthesis, rare earth coordinate catalyst was introduced to the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO) and styrene (ST) to synthesize aliphatic polyketone STCO.The catalytic system was composed of rare earth neodymium acetate, yttrium acetate,2,2'-bipyridine, p-toluensulfonic acid, cupric p-toluensulfonate, and 1,4-benzoquinone.The catalyst and the copolymer were characterized by infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy respectively.The effects of each component of catalytic system and the kinds of rare earth acetates on catalytic activity of copolymerization were investigated.The results show that the proposed rare earth has distinct catalytic activity in the copolymerization of CO and ST and the maximum activity can reach 303.3 gSTCO/(mol·h).

  11. Rare Earth Market Review August 20-31


    @@ Rare earth market still went downward affected by continuous price fall of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal. However, the market of europium oxide (99.99%) remained stable, with price rose slightly.

  12. Rare Earth Doped Optical Fibre From Oxide Nanoparticles

    Minati Chatterjee; Aharon Gedanken; Renata Reisfeld; Ranjan Sen; Mrinmay Pal; Milan Naskar; Mukul Paul; Shyamal Bhadra; Kamal Dasgupta; Dibyendu Ganguli; Tarun Bandyopadhyay


    Rare earth (RE) doped optical fibres were fabricated by using RE oxides coated silica nanoparticles. The fibre properties are comparable to those prepared by conventional techniques. The process offers better control over RE incorporation and homogeneity in the preform.

  13. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.


    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  14. China vows equal treatment in rare earth regulation


    BEIJING, July 15 (Xinhua)-- China pledged it will abide by World Trade Organization rules and apply "same policies" to both domestic and overseas companies in rare earth production, processing and export.

  15. Rare-earth loaded liquid scintillator (for LENS experiment)

    Barabanov, I R; Kornoukhov, V N; Yanovich, E A; Zatsepin, G T; Danilov, N A; Korpusov, G V; Kostukova, G V; Krylov, Y S; Yakshin, V V


    Rare-earth (Yb/Gd) complexes with neutral organophosphorus ligands are briefly discussed for their application in liquid scintillation technique. To evaluate the principal feasibility of rare-earth loaded scintillator, the ytterbium chloride complexes with tri-isoamylphosphine oxides were synthesized. Relative scintillation efficiency (RSE) for two Yb concentrations (78 and 88 g/L) was measured by means of the internal conversion exitation from Cs-137. The results obtained were 50 and 40% respectively.

  16. Rare Earth-Activated Silica-Based Nanocomposites

    C. Armellini


    Full Text Available Two different kinds of rare earth-activated glass-based nanocomposite photonic materials, which allow to tailor the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions: (i Er3+-activated SiO2-HfO2 waveguide glass ceramic, and (ii core-shell-like structures of Er3+-activated silica spheres obtained by a seed growth method, are presented.



    Remarkable improvements have been made on the crystal growth of rare earth pnictides and chalchogenides by the development of new growth technique and the construction of several new equipments for the crystal growth such as electron beam welding system of tungsten crucible provided with large glove box and vacuum HF furnace. This system has really worked on obtaining excellent quality of single crystals and made easier to explore unknown materials of rare earth compounds. Interesting and att...

  18. Rare-earth-ion-doped double-tungstate waveguides

    Pollnau, M.


    It has been recognized that the monoclinic double tungstates KY(WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2, and KLu(WO4)2 possess a high potential as rare-earth-ion-doped solid-state laser materials, partly due to the high absorption and emission cross-sections of rare-earth ions when doped into these materials. Besides, the

  19. Hydrogen solubility in rare earth based hydrogen storage alloys

    Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Engineering; Kuji, Toshiro [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)


    This paper reviews significant results of recent studies on the hydrogen storage properties of rare earth based AB{sub 5} (A: rare earth element, B: transition element) alloys The hydrogen solubility and the hydride formation, typically appeared in pressure-composition isotherms (PCT), are strongly dependent upon alloy composition, structure, morphology and even alloy particle size. Typical experimental results are shown to describe how these factors affect the hydrogen solubility and storage properties.

  20. Application progress of rare earth nano-materials

    Xiao Zhe


    @@ Total rare earth consumption exceeded 72,600 tREO domestically in China in 2007, among which over 38,500 tREO were consumed in functional materials like permanent magnetic materials, fluorescent materials, hydrogen storage materials, catalytic materials and polishing powders,representing 53% of total RE consumption. Production and application of RE performance materials have been the main force promoting the development of China rare earth industry.

  1. Determination of rare earth elements in plant protoplasts by MAA


    A preliminary study on the speciation of rare earth elements in plant cells has been carried out by molecular activation analysis (MAA). Mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica napus were isolated by enzymatic digestion. After being washed with isosmotic solution containing EDTA for several times, the protoplasts were purified by gradient centrifugation. Then the concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in the protoplasts was determined by neutron activation analysis. The result shows that REEs can enter the cells of the plant.

  2. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films.

    Popov, A I; Zvezdin, K A; Gareeva, Z V; Mazhitova, F A; Vakhitov, R M; Yumaguzin, A R; Zvezdin, A K


    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  3. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films

    Popov, A. I.; Zvezdin, K. A.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Mazhitova, F. A.; Vakhitov, R. M.; Yumaguzin, A. R.; Zvezdin, A. K.


    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  4. High-Tc Superconductivity and Raman Scattering Study of the phonon properties of electron doped (transition metal, rare-earth) - Oxygen-Free CaFeAsF and compared with RFeAsO system

    Sasmal, Kalyan; Hadjiev, Viktor; Chu, C. W.(Paul)

    Quaternary CaFeAsF has ZrCuSiAs-type structure,(RO)δ+ layer in RFeAsO replaced by (CaF)δ+ layer,with tetragonal (P4/nmm)-orthorhombic (Cmma) phase transition at 134K,while magnetic order,SDW sets in at 114K. Partial replacement of Fe with Co/Ni is direct electron doping to (FeAs)δ+ layer.Tc ~15K in CaFe0.9Ni0.1AsF.Substitution of rare earth metal for alkaline earth metal suppresses anomaly in resistivity & induces superconductivity.Tc ~52K in Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Characterized by resistivity, susceptibility,XRD & EDX-SEM.Upper critical field estimated from magneto resistance.Bulk superconductivity proved by DC magnetization. Hall coefficient RH revealed hole-like charge carriers in parent compound CaFeAsF, while electron-type (RH in normal state is -Ve) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Evolution of Raman active phonons of Ca1-xPrxFeAsF measured with polarized Raman spectroscopy at room temperature from absurfaces of impurity-free microcrystals.Spectra exhibit sharp phonon lines on very weak electronic scattering background.Frequency and symmetry of Raman phonons involving out-of-plane atomic vibrations are found at 162.5 cm-1 (A1 g, Pr), 201 cm-1 (A1 g, As), 215.5 cm-1 (B1 g, Fe), 265 cm-1 (Eg, Fe) and 334 cm-1 (B1 g, F) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Observations are compared with RFeAsO unconventional superconductors also possibly related to magnetic fluctuations

  5. Effect of Rare Earth Element Ce on Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Rod for Electrical Purpose

    Li Pengfei; Wang Yunli; Gao Xizhu; Wang Zaiyun


    The effect of rare earth element Ce on microstructure, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties was studied.Using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, the microstructure and phase composition of aluminum rod for electrical purpose were measured and analyzed.The results indicate that rare earth element Ce can considerably refine grain size of aluminum rod for electrical purpose,improve the regular distribution pattern of the impurity, such as silicon and iron which present in the aluminum matrix,form stable metal compound with pernicious impurity.This metal compound precipitates on the crystal boundary.As a result, the solid solubility of impurity in aluminum reduce, and the electrical conductivity of aluminum rod for electrical purpose is improved.It is found that the mechanical properties of aluminum rod for electrical purpose are improved by rare earth element in certain range of RE addition.

  6. An introduction to the economics of rare earths

    Bartekova, E.


    The aim of this paper is to examine the supply risk of rare earths and its impact on low carbon technologies deployment. Bringing together seemingly disconnected strands of scientific literature, this multidisciplinary approach allows to provide an overarching overview of the economics of rare

  7. Commercial Reserve will Help Rare Earth Industry to Leave Behind Cold Winter


    As key component in the construction of rare earth strategy reserve system,the rare earth commercial reserve,an initiative advocated by the state government,spontaneously carried out by several major rare earth enterprise groups to target at reform of the supply front for the rare earth industry,formally kicked off.The encouraging news is that,within a matter of one month,affected by news of rare earth commercial reserve,rare earth market prices

  8. Instability of some divalent rare earth ions and photochromic effect

    Egranov, A. V.; Sizova, T. Yu.; Shendrik, R. Yu.; Smirnova, N. A.


    It was shown that the divalent rare earth ions (La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Lu, and Y) in cubic sites in alkaline earth fluorides are unstable with respect to electron autodetachment since its d1(eg) ground state is located in the conduction band which is consistent with the general tendency of these ions in various compounds. The localization of doubly degenerate d1(eg) level in the conduction band creates a configuration instability around the divalent rare earth ion that leading to the formation of an...

  9. Regulation for Rare Metal Management May Be Unveiled Soon


    Despite the ongoing rare earth crime crackdown campaign by the MIIT,the"black rare earth"problem which has long plagued the industry is still not eradicated.This is also one of the reasons leading to long-term low level of rare earth prices.The current total exploitation control index for rare earth ore is issued by the Ministry of Land and Resources and the MIIT

  10. Ganzhou Plans to Build China’s Southern Rare Earth Group


    <正>According to this year’s Ganzhou government work report for this year, last year Ganzhou’s strategic emerging industries including rare earth and tungsten sectors were expected to fulfill main business income of 68 billion yuan, up by 20%. This year, Ganzhou highlighted the construction of national precious metal industry base, and advanced manufacture industry base, amended industrial development

  11. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Yu Kefu [South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xin-Gang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China) and Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail:; Kamber, Balz S. [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Department of Earth Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ONP3E2C6 (Canada); Lawrence, Michael G. [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Greig, Alan [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Zhao Jianxin [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)


    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change.

  12. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Yu, Ke-Fu; Kamber, Balz S.; Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Zhao, Jian-Xin


    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ( 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change.

  13. Element Substitution Effect in Transition M et al Oxypnictide Re(O1-xFx)TAs (Re=rare earth, T=transition metal)

    CHEN Gen-Fu; LI Zheng; WU Dan; DONG Jing; LI Gang; HU Wan-Zheng; ZHENG Ping; LUO Jian-Lin; WANG Nan-Lin


    Different element substitution effects in transition metal oxypnictide Re(O1-xFx)TAs, with Re=La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tin, T=Fe, Ni, Ru, are studied. Similar to the La- or Ce-based systems, we find that the pure NdOFeAs shows a strong resistivity anomaly near 145 K, which is ascribed to the spin-density-wave instability. Electron doping by F increases Tc to about 50K. While in the case of Gd, Tc is reduced below 10K. The tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure couM not be formed for Eu or Tm substitution in our preparing process. For the Ni-based case, although both pure and F-doped LaONiAs are superconducting, no superconductivity is found when La is replaced by Ce in both the cases, instead a ferromagnetic ordering transition is likely to form at low temperature in the undoped sample. We also synthesize LaO1-xFxRuAs and CeO1-xFx RuAs compounds. The metallic behaviour is observed down to 4 K.

  14. HPTLC and magnetochromatography of new complexes of carboxylates with transition metals or rare earth elements and their ligands - study of lipophilicity.

    Malinowska, Irena; Wronka, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Wiesława


    Nineteen new complexes of carboxylates with transition and rare elements as central ions and their ligands were characterized by chromatographic analyses. The parameter of relative lipophilicity (RM0 ) of the tested compounds was determined experimentally by the reversed-phase high-performance thin layer chromatography method with mixtures of various organic modifiers (acetonitrile, acetone, dioxane) and water as a mobile phase. The extrapolated RM0 values were compared with the logP values calculated from the molecular structures of tested solutes. Similarities between the lipophilicity indices were analysed by principal component analysis and linear regression. Thin-layer chromatography combined with a magnetic field has been proposed as a complementary method for determination of lipophilicity of the investigated compounds. The chromatograms in the field and outside it were developed simultaneously in two identical chromatographic chambers. One of them was placed in the external magnetic field of 0.4 T inductivity. We proved that chelation causes a drastic change in compound lipophilicity, but all complexes did not exhibit enhanced activity as compared with the parent ligand. Also in the magnetic field the retention of some complexes changed, which means that the presence of the field influences the physicochemical properties of the compounds and their interactions with the stationary phase.

  15. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Various Microorganisms


    The removal of rare earth elements (REEs) from solution in various microorganisms was examined. Seventy-six strains from 69 species (22 bacteria, 20 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 16 yeasts) were tested. Initially, Sm was used to test the removal capabilities of the various organisms. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium helovolum, and Rhodococcus elythropolis, exhibited a particularly high capacity for accumulating Sm. In particular, the B. lichemiformis cells accumulated approximately 316 μmol Sm per gram dry wt. of microbial cells. A full suite of screenings was then conducted to compare the abilities of the organisms to remove Sc, Y, La, Er, and, Lu from solution. Tests were done with solutions containing one REE at a time. Accumulation was nearly identical for the various metals and organisms. However, when solutions with equimolar amounts of two REEs were used, preferential removal from solution was observed. When an Eu/Gd solution was used, gram-positive bacteria removed more Eu and Gd as compared to actinomycetes. When Eu/Sm combination was used, gram-positive bacteria removed equal mounts of both metals and some actinomycetes removed more Eu. The selective removal was quantified by calculating separation factors (S. F.), which indicated that Streptomyces levoris cells accumulated the greatest proportion of Eu. The removal of REEs from a solution containing five metals (Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu) was then examined. Mucor javanicus preferentially accumulated Sm and S. flavoviridis preferentially accumulated Lu. The effects of pH and Sm concentration on the accumulation of Sm by B. licheniformis were also examined. Accumulation increased at higher pH and at greater solution concentrations.

  16. Formation of intermetallic compound at interface between rare earth elements and ferritic-martensitic steel by fuel cladding chemical interaction

    Jun Hwan Kim; Byoung Oon Lee; Chan Bock Lee; Seung Hyun Jee; Young Soo Yoon


    The intermetallic compounds formation at interface between rare earth elements and clad material were investigated to demonstrate the effects of rare earth elements on fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) behavior.Mischmetal (70Ce-30La) and Nd were prepared as rare earth elements.Diffusion couple testing was performed on the rare earth elements and cladding (9Cr2W steel) near the operation temperature of(sodium-cooled fast reactor) SFR fuel.The performance of a diffusion barrier consisting of Zr and V metallic foil against the rare earth elements was also evaluated.Our results showed that Ce and Nd in the rare earth elements and Fe in the clad material interdiffused and reacted to form intermetallic species according to the parabolic rate law,describing the migration of the rare earth element.The diffusion of Fe limited the reaction progress such that the entire process was governed by the cubic rate law.Rare earth materials could be used as a surrogate for high burnup metallic fuels,and the performance of the barrier material was demonstrated to be effective.

  17. Instability of some divalent rare earth ions and photochromic effect

    Egranov, A. V.; Sizova, T. Yu.; Shendrik, R. Yu.; Smirnova, N. A.


    It was shown that the divalent rare earth ions (La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Lu, and Y) in cubic sites in alkaline earth fluorides are unstable with respect to electron autodetachment since its d1(eg) ground state is located in the conduction band which is consistent with the general tendency of these ions in various compounds. The localization of doubly degenerate d1(eg) level in the conduction band creates a configuration instability around the divalent rare earth ion that leading to the formation of anion vacancy in the nearest neighborhood, as was reported in the previous paper [A. Egranov, T. Sizova, Configurational instability at the excited impurity ions in alkaline earth fluorites, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74 (2013) 530-534]. Thus, the formation of the stable divalent ions as La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Lu, and Y (PC+ centers) in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals during x-ray irradiation occurs via the formation of charged anion vacancies near divalent ions (Re2+va), which lower the ground state of the divalent ion relative to the conductivity band. Photochromic effect occurs under thermally or optically stimulated electron transition from the divalent rare earth ion to the neighboring anion vacancy and reverse under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is shown that the optical absorption of the PC+ centers due to d → d and d → f transitions of the divalent rare-earth ion.

  18. Economic and environmental consequences of the global rare earths market development

    Nienhaus, Karl; Mavroudis, Fiona [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IMR-Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie; Pankert, Matthias [Eickhoff Bergbautechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)


    The topic of rare earths has been very present in both scientific and mass media over the past months. It is quite uncommon for a commodity with annual production rates as low as a few thousand tons to be in the focus to such a degree as it has been true for the rare earths recently. This interest is due to the wide-spread use of rare earth products in several high-tech products of today's daily life. The attention drawn to the topic is fuelled by concerns about restrictions to the global trade with these products, such as export limitations and export taxes, by Chinese authorities. The term ''rare earths'' defines a group of 17 metallic chemical elements being very similar in terms of their chemical and physical properties due to their mineralogical structure. The group is subdivided into elements with a lower atomic mass and those elements with a higher atomic mass. The ''heavier'' elements show a significantly lower abundance in the upper earth's crust than their ''lighter'' counterparts [1]. While the market for light rare earth elements is expected to slightly cool down due to the opening of new mines, the market for heavy rare earth elements will remain critical. The continuously increasing demand for those elements in areas like ''green technologies'' and their comparably low concentration in the main rare earth ores will cause the market to tighten even more for the years to come [2]. (orig.)

  19. Enhanced Laser Cooling of Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Composite Material

    JIA You-Hua; ZHONG Biao; JI Xian-Ming; YIN Jian-Ping


    We predict enhanced laser cooling performance of rare-earth-ions-doped glasses containing nanometre-sized ultrafine particles, which can be achieved by the enhancement of local field around rare earth ions, owing to the surface plasma resonance of small metallic particles. The influence of energy transfer between ions and the particle is theoretically discussed. Depending on the particle size and the ion emission quantum efficiency, the enhancement of the absorption is predicted. It is concluded that the absorption are greatly enhanced in these composite materials, the cooling power is increased as compared to the bulk material.

  20. Interactions of microorganisms with rare earth ions and their utilization for separation and environmental technology.

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroki


    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have been widely used in various modern technological devices and the global demand for REE has been increasing. The increased demand for REEs has led to environmental exposure or water pollution from rare earth metal mines and various commercial products. Therefore, the development of a safe technology for the separation and adsorption of REEs is very important from the perspective of green chemistry and environmental pollution. In this review, the application and mechanisms of microorganisms for the removal and extraction of REEs from aqueous solutions are described. In addition, the advantages in using microorganisms for REE adsorption and future studies on this topic are discussed.

  1. Energetic Ionic Liquids Based on Anionic Rare Earth Nitrate Complexes (Preprint)


    hydrolytically unstable [ bmim ]Ln(SCN)7. [5b] However, the former exist as hydrates and are not stable in the absence of water of hydration and are not typical...ionic liquids. The instability of [ bmim ]Ln(SCN)7 to moisture and air also limits their applications. Since our new rare-earth ionic liquids do not...component in energetic ionic liquids.[7] Rare earth metals coordinate with O-donor ligands more strongly than N-donor ligands,[8] e. g., in [ bmim ]Ln

  2. Combinatorial investigation of rare-earth free permanent magnets

    Fackler, Sean Wu

    The combinatorial high throughput method allows one to rapidly study a large number of samples with systematically changing parameters. We apply this method to study Fe-Co-V alloys as alternatives to rare-earth permanent magnets. Rare-earth permanent magnets derive their unmatched magnetic properties from the hybridization of Fe and Co with the f-orbitals of rare-earth elements, which have strong spin-orbit coupling. It is predicted that Fe and Co may also have strong hybridization with 4d and 5d refractory transition metals with strong spin-orbit coupling. Refractory transition metals like V also have the desirable property of high temperature stability, which is important for permanent magnet applications in traction motors. In this work, we focus on the role of crystal structure, composition, and secondary phases in the origin of competitive permanent magnetic properties of a particular Fe-Co-V alloy. Fe38Co52V10, compositions are known as Vicalloys. Fe-CoV composition spreads were sputtered onto three-inch silicon wafers and patterned into discrete sample pads forming a combinatorial library. We employed highthroughput screening methods using synchrotron X-rays, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to rapidly screen crystal structure, composition, and magnetic properties, respectively. We found that in-plane magnetic coercive fields of our Vicalloy thin films agree with known bulk values (300 G), but found a remarkable eight times increase of the out-of-plane coercive fields (˜2,500 G). To explain this, we measured the switching fields between in-plane and out-of-plane thin film directions which revealed that the Kondorsky model of 180° domain wall reversal was responsible for Vicalloy's enhanced out-of-plane coercive field and possibly its permanent magnetic properties. The Kondorsky model suggests that domain-wall pinning is the origin of Vicalloy's permanent magnetic properties, in contrast to strain, shape, or

  3. Examination of Plasma Nitriding Microstructure with Addition of Rare Earths



    Medium-carbon alloy steel was plasma nitrided with rare earths La,Ce and Nd into the nitriding chamber respectively.The nitriding layer microstructures with and without rare earths were compared using optical microscope,normal SEM and high resolution SEM,as well as TEM.It was found that the extent of the influence on plasma nitriding varies with different contents of rare earth.The effect of plasma nitriding is benefit from adding of Ce or Nd.The formation of hard and brittle phase Fe2-3N can be prevented and the butterfly-like structure can be improved by adding Ce or Nd.However,pure La may prevent the diffusion of nitrogen and the formation of iron nitride,and reduce the depth of diffusion layer.

  4. Thermal shock behavior of rare earth modified alumina ceramic composites

    Sun, Junlong; Liu, Changxia [Ludong Univ., Yantai (China). School of Transportation


    Alumina matrix ceramic composites toughened by AlTiC master alloys, diopside and rare earths were fabricated by hot-pressing and their thermal shock behavior was investigated and compared with that of monolithic alumina. Results showed that the critical thermal shock temperature (ΔT) of monolithic alumina was 400 C. However, it decreased to 300 C for alumina incorporating only AlTiC master alloys, and increased with further addition of diopside and rare earths. Improvement of thermal shock resistance was obtained for alumina ceramic composites containing 9.5 wt.% AlTiC master alloys and 0.5 wt.% rare earth additions, which was mainly attributed to the formation of elongated grains in the composites.

  5. Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in optical materials

    Parisi, Jürgen; Osgood, R; Warlimont, Hans; Liu, Guokui; Jacquier, Bernard


    Aimed at researchers and graduate students, this book provides up-to-date information for understanding electronic interactions that impact the optical properties of rare earth ions in solids. Its goal is to establish a connection between fundamental principles and the materials properties of rare-earth activated luminescent and laser optical materials. The theoretical survey and introduction to spectroscopic properties include electronic energy level structure, intensities of optical transitions, ion-phonon interactions, line broadening, and energy transfer and up-conversion. An important aspect of the book lies in its deep and detailed discussions on materials properties and the potential of new applications such as optical storage, information processing, nanophotonics, and molecular probes that have been identified in recent experimental studies. This volume will be a valuable reference book on advanced topics of rare earth spectroscopy and materials science.

  6. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq


    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  7. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek


    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  8. Study on Microstructure of Alumina Based Rare Earth Ceramic Composite


    Analysis techniques such as SEM, TEM and EDAX were used to investigate the microstructure of rare earth reinforced Al2O3/(W, Ti)C ceramic composite. Chemical and physical compatibility of the composite was analyzed and interfacial microstructure was studied in detail. It is found that both Al2O3 and (W, Ti)C phases are interlaced with each other to form the skeleton structure in the composite. A small amount of pores and glass phases are observed inside the material which will inevitably influence the physical and mechanical property of the composite. Thermal residual stresses resulted from thermal expansion mismatch can then lead to the emergence of dislocations and microcracks. Interfaces and boundaries of different types are found to exist inside the Al2O3/(W, Ti)C rare earth ceramic composite, which is concerned with the addition of rare earth element and the extent of solid solution of ceramic phases.

  9. Physical and electrical characteristics of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors with rare earth Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric

    Lin, Ray-Ming, E-mail:; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Liao, Sheng-Yu; Chou, Shu-Tsun; Chang, Liann-Be


    In this study, the rare earth erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was deposited using an electron beam onto an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure to fabricate metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS–HEMTs) that exhibited device performance superior to that of a conventional HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of these MOS–HEMT devices were four orders of magnitude lower than those of conventional Schottky gate HEMTs. The measured sub-threshold swing (SS) and the effective trap state density (N{sub t}) of the MOS–HEMT were 125 mV/decade and 4.3 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The dielectric constant of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer in this study was 14, as determined through capacitance–voltage measurements. In addition, the gate–source reverse breakdown voltage increased from –166 V for the conventional HEMT to –196 V for the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} MOS–HEMT. - Highlights: ► GaN/AlGaN/Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal-oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor ► Physical and electrical characteristics are presented. ► Electron beam evaporated Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} with excellent surface roughness ► Device exhibits reduced gate leakage current and improved I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio.

  10. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W


    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  11. Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Rare Earth Silicates

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Bansal, Narottam P.


    Rare earth silicates are considered promising candidate materials for environmental barrier coatings applications at elevated temperature for ceramic matrix composites. High temperature thermophysical properties are of great importance for coating system design and development. In this study, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of hot-pressed rare earth silicate materials were characterized at temperatures up to 1400 C. The effects of specimen porosity, composition and microstructure on the properties were also investigated. The materials processing and testing issues affecting the measurements will also be discussed.

  12. Integrated Automation System for Rare Earth Countercurrent Extraction Process

    柴天佑; 杨辉


    Lower automation level in industrial rare-earth extraction processes results in high production cost, inconsistent product quality and great consumption of resources in China. An integrated automation system for extraction process of rare earth is proposed to realize optimal product indices, such as product purity,recycle rate and output. The optimal control strategy for output component, structure and function of the two-gradcd integrated automation system composed of the process management grade and the process control grade were discussed. This system is successfully applied to a HAB yttrium extraction production process and was found to provide optimal control, optimal operation, optimal management and remarkable benefits.

  13. Imports (&) Exports Review of Chinese Rare Earths (continued)


    @@ Since 2001, China kept its position of the largest producing country of rare earth magnets in the world and worked on further in the global market. China exported 7,709 tons of rare earth magnets and earned foreign currency of US $ 214 million in 2004, increasing 37.2% and 33.0% over the same period of 2003 respectively. In 2005, China exported 8,756 tons of RE magnets and earned foreign currency of US $ 239 million, up 13.9% and 11.4% over 2004 respectively. The first six export destinations are listed in Table 3.

  14. Microwave studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals

    Elizabeth, Anit [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Joseph, Cyriac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Paul, Issac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Ittyachen, M.A. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Mathew, K.T. [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)]. E-mail:; Lonappan, Anil [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India); Jacob, Joe [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)


    Rare earth compounds are recognized for outstanding physical, magnetic and optical properties. The oxalates and molybdates have gained importance for their various properties, which find applications in electro and accusto optical devices. This paper reports the microwave dielectric studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals. Using the cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters such as complex permittivity and conductivity at microwave frequencies is determined. Using X-ray diffraction study the crystalline nature of the samples was established. The molecular and crystal structures were identified by IR analysis.

  15. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  16. Spin Hall torques generated by rare-earth thin films

    Reynolds, Neal; Jadaun, Priyamvada; Heron, John T.; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Collette, Robyn; Buhrman, R. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ralph, D. C.


    We report an initial experimental survey of spin Hall torques generated by the rare-earth metals Gd, Dy, Ho, and Lu, along with comparisons to first-principles calculations of their spin Hall conductivities. Using spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements and dc-biased ST-FMR, we estimate lower bounds for the spin Hall torque ratio, ξSH, of ≈0.04 for Gd, ≈0.05 for Dy, ≈0.14 for Ho, and ≈0.014 for Lu. The variations among these elements are qualitatively consistent with results from first principles [density-functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation with a Hubbard-U correction]. The DFT calculations indicate that the spin Hall conductivity is enhanced by the presence of the partially filled f orbitals in Dy and Ho, which suggests a strategy to further strengthen the contribution of the f orbitals to the spin Hall effect by shifting the electron chemical potential.

  17. Visible light induced oxidation of water by rare earth manganites, cobaltites and related oxides

    Naidu, B. S.; Gupta, Uttam; Maitra, Urmimala; Rao, C. N. R.


    A study of the visible light induced oxidation of water by perovskite oxides of the formula LaMO3 (M = transition metal) has revealed the best activity with LaCoO3 which contains Co3+ in the intermediate-spin (IS) with one eg electron. Among the rare earth manganites, only orthorhombic manganites with octahedral Mn3+ ions exhibit good catalytic activity, but hexagonal manganites are poor catalysts. Interestingly, not only the perovskite rare earth cobaltites but also solid solutions of Co3+ in cubic rare earth sesquioxides exhibit catalytic activity comparable to LaCoO3, the Co3+ ion in all these oxides also being in the IS t2g5eg1 state.

  18. Effect of Rare Earth on Superplasticity of Zn-5Al Eutectic Alloy

    石志强; 叶以富; 李世春; 王焕荣; 滕新营


    The superplastic deformation curves of Zn-5Al eutectic alloy containing small amount of rare earth were measured, and the influence of rare earth on structure and superplasticity characteristics of the alloy was examined with optical microscope, XDF and TEM. The results show that the elongation of Zn-5Al eutectic alloy can be increased if less than 0.2 %(mass fraction) misch-metal was added. Rare earth which exists in the form of compounds Al2CeZn2 and CeZn3 can refrain the dissolution and diffusion of Zn to Al and postpone the saturation of the diffusion-dissolution zone(DDZ) above 350 ℃, and in such a way boost up α/β interface sliding which benefits the superplasticity.

  19. Rare earths & climate change,new energy,energy conservation and pollution reduction(continued)


    @@ Ⅲ.Contribution of rare earths to energy conservation Rechargeable batteries and rare earth permanent magnetic motor matching with batteries in every Prius car consume approximately 10 kg of rare-earth hydro-gen storage materials and 2 kg of rare earth permanent magnetic materials respectively.

  20. Trace Level Rare Earth Elements Separation From Gram Scale Uranium by Calcium Fluoride Coprecipitation

    WANG; Xiu-feng


    In the fission yield measurement of rare earth elements of uranium induced by neutron,and the analysis of rare earth elements in spent fuel,the separation of trace rare earth elements from a large number of uranium has very important significance.We separated trace level rare earth elements from gram scale uranium by calcium fluoride coprecipitation in this paper.

  1. Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals

    Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.


    The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral

  2. Magneto-structural correlations in rare-earth cobalt pnictides

    Thompson, Corey Mitchell

    Magnetic materials are used in many applications such as credit cards, hard drives, electric motors, sensors, etc. Although a vast range of magnetic solids is available for these purposes, our ability to improve their efficiency and discover new materials remains paramount to the sustainable progress and economic profitability in many technological areas. The search for magnetic solids with improved performance requires fundamental understanding of correlations between the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of existing materials, as well as active exploratory synthesis that targets the development of new magnets. Some of the strongest permanent magnets, Nd 2Fe14B, SmCo5, and Sm2Co17, combine transition and rare-earth metals, benefiting from the strong exchange between the 4f and 3d magnetic sublattices. Although these materials have been studied in great detail, the development of novel magnets requires thorough investigation of other 3d-4 f intermetallics, in order to gain further insights into correlations between their crystal structures and magnetic properties. Among many types of intermetallic materials, ternary pnictides RCo 2Pn2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd; Pn = P, As) are of interest because, despite their simple crystal structures, they contain two magnetic sublattices, exchange interactions between which may lead to rich and unprecedented magnetic behavior. Nevertheless, magnetism of these materials was studied only to a limited extent, especially as compared to the extensive studies of their silicide and germanide analogues. The ThCr2Si2 structure type, to which these ternary pnictides belong, is one of the most ubiquitous atomic arrangements encountered among intermetallic compounds. It accounts for over 1000 known intermetallics and has received increased attention due to the recently discovered FeAs-based superconductors. This dissertation is devoted to the investigation of magnetostructural relationships and anomalous magnetic behaviors in rare

  3. Structure and properties of intermetallic ternary rare earth compounds

    Casper, Frederick


    The so called material science is an always growing field in modern research. For the development of new materials not only the experimental characterization but also theoretical calculation of the electronic structure plays an important role. A class of compounds that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years is known as REME compounds. These compounds are often referred to with RE designating rare earth, actinide or an element from group 1-4, M representing a late transition metal from groups 8-12, and E belonging to groups 13-15. There are more than 2000 compounds with 1:1:1 stoichiometry belonging to this class of compounds and they offer a broad variety of different structure types. Although many REME compounds are know to exist, mainly only structure and magnetism has been determined for these compounds. In particular, in the field of electronic and transport properties relatively few efforts have been made. The main focus in this study is on compounds crystallizing in MgAgAs and LiGaGe structure. Both structures can only be found among 18 valence electron compounds. The f electrons are localized and therefor not count as valence electrons. A special focus here was also on the magnetoresistance effects and spintronic properties found among the REME compounds. An examination of the following compounds was made: GdAuE (E=In,Cd,Mg), GdPdSb, GdNiSb, REAuSn (RE=Gd,Er,Tm) and RENiBi (RE=Pr,Sm,Gd-Tm,Lu). The experimental results were compared with theoretic band structure calculations. The first half metallic ferromagnet with LiGaGe structure (GdPdSb) was found. All semiconducting REME compounds with MgAgAs structure show giant magnetoresistance (GMR) at low temperatures. The GMR is related to a metal-insulator transition, and the value of the GMR depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling. Inhomogeneous DyNiBi samples show a small positive MR at low temperature that depends on the amount of metallic impurities. At higher fields the samples show a

  4. Effect of Rare Earth on Microstructure of γ-TiAl Intermetallics

    孔凡涛; 陈子勇; 田竞; 陈玉勇; 贾均


    The rare earth (RE) elements (Ce, La) were added to binary Ti-47% Al alloys (atomic fraction) by Induction Skull Melting. The element Ce of 1.0 atomic percent was added individually, and La of 0.2 atomic percent was added individually. This article studied the influences of rare earth metal (Ce, La) on microstructure of as-cast TiAl based alloy by XRD, SEM, EMPA and TEM measurement methodology. The results show that most of rare earth-rich phases (AlCe, AlLa) are uniformly distributed in grain boundary in the shape of discontinuous network, and some particles of rare earth-rich phases within the grains are mainly ellipsoids. In addition, rare earth element can obviously refine the grain size and the lamellar thickness of as-cast TiAl based alloy samples. The grain size of Ti-47Al-1.0Ce-0.2La alloy reaches about 30~80 μm, and the lamellar thickness of its γ phase and α2 phase are less than 200 and 20 nm, respectively.

  5. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte


    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  6. Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker;


    The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost...

  7. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores

    Carron, M.K.; Skinner, D.L.; Stevens, R.E.


    The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements. The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate. The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate. Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes. Calcium is removed by precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and rare earths at room temperature by adding ammonium hydroxide to pH > 10. Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2.5, and the rare earths are precipitated with ammonium sebacate at pH 9. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are ??0.6 mg. Maximum error for separated thoria is ??0.5 mg.

  8. Automation System in Rare Earths Countercurrent Extraction Processes

    贾江涛; 严纯华; 廖春生; 吴声; 王明文; 李标国


    Based on the countercurrent extraction theory for optimized designing and simulating, the rare earth separation processes, the selection of the detecting points (stages) and on-line analysis for elements, the simulation of open loop response and its response speed, the diagnosis and the regulative prescription for running the solvent extraction cascades were studied.

  9. Direct Reuse of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets—Coating Integrity

    Høgberg, Stig; Holbøll, Joachim; Mijatovic, Nenad


    Rare earth permanent magnets can be reused directly as an alternative to traditional recycling methods, in which scrapped magnets are reprocessed into new magnets by undergoing many of the original energy-intensive and expensive production processes. Direct reuse entails using segmented magnet...

  10. Systematic hardness measurements on some rare earth garnet crystals

    D B Sirdeshmukh; L Sirdeshmukh; K G Subhadra; K Kishan Rao; S Bal Laxman


    Microhardness measurements were undertaken on twelve rare earth garnet crystals. In yttrium aluminium garnet and gadolinium gallium garnet, there was no measurable difference in the hardness values of pure and nominally Nd-doped crystals. The hardness values were correlated with the lattice and elastic constants. An analysis of hardness data in terms of the interatomic binding indicated a high degree of covalency.

  11. Primary Results of New Rare Earth Materials for Hongti Grape

    He Qiong; Gu Jiangyuan; Wang Jiachen


    New rare earth (RE) materials including RE phosphate as base fertilizer, bioactive RE micro-fertilizer and RE entire plant nutrition agent as topdressing fertilizer are treated on Hongti grope.The result showes that the plant leaves become thicker, the color is dark green, the plant disease index is lower, and the sugar content significantly increases.

  12. Strategy of Development of Rare Earth Industry in China

    Su Wenqing


    This work introduced the current situation of the development of domestic and foreign rare earths (RE) industry, discussed the strategic position of RE industry in China, analyzed the problems existing in the course of RE industry development, made strategic thought about the transference from resource advantage to economic advantage, and put forward strategic suggestions about the development of RE industry in our country.

  13. Rare earth point defects in GaN

    Sanna, S.


    In this work we investigate rare earth doped GaN, by means of theoretical simulations. The huge unit cells necessary to model the experimental system, where dilute amount of rare earth ions are used, are handled with the charge self consistent density-functional based-tight binding (SCC-DFTB) calculational scheme. The method has been extended to include LDA+U and simplified self interaction corrected (SIC)-like potentials for the simulation of systems with localised and strongly correlated electrons. A set of tight-binding parameters has been created to model the interaction of GaN with some dopants, including a selection of lanthanide ions interesting due to their optical or magnetic properties (Pr, Eu, Gd, Er and Tm). The f-electrons were treated as valence electrons. A qualitatively correct description of the band gap is crucial for the simulation of rare earth doped GaN, because the luminescence intensity of the implanted samples depends on the size of the host band gap and because the rare earths could introduce charge transition levels near the conduction band. In this work these levels are calculated with the Slater-Janak (SJ) transition state model, which allows an approximate calculation of the charge transition levels by analysing the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the DFT. (orig.)

  14. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements

    Du, Xiaoyue, E-mail: [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States); Graedel, T.E. [Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States)


    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. - Highlights: • We have derived the first quantitative end use information of the rare earths (REE). • The results are for individual REE from 1995 to 2007. • The end uses of REE in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. • This information can provide solid foundation for decision and strategy making.

  15. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.


    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  16. Complex Electronic Structure of Rare Earth Activators in Scintillators

    Aberg, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    To aid and further the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind the scintillator nonproportionality that leads to degradation of the attainable energy resolution, we have developed theoretical and experimental algorithms and procedures to determine the position of the 4f energy levels of rare earth dopants relative to the host band edge states.

  17. Trends in Syntheses, Structures, and Properties for Three Series of Ammine Rare-Earth Metal Borohydrides, M(BH4)3·nNH3 (M = Y, Gd, and Dy).

    Jepsen, Lars H; Ley, Morten B; Černý, Radovan; Lee, Young-Su; Cho, Young Whan; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe; Besenbacher, Flemming; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Torben R


    Fourteen solvent- and halide-free ammine rare-earth metal borohydrides M(BH4)3·nNH3, M = Y, Gd, Dy, n = 7, 6, 5, 4, 2, and 1, have been synthesized by a new approach, and their structures as well as chemical and physical properties are characterized. Extensive series of coordination complexes with systematic variation in the number of ligands are presented, as prepared by combined mechanochemistry, solvent-based methods, solid-gas reactions, and thermal treatment. This new synthesis approach may have a significant impact within inorganic coordination chemistry. Halide-free metal borohydrides have been synthesized by solvent-based metathesis reactions of LiBH4 and MCl3 (3:1), followed by reactions of M(BH4)3 with an excess of NH3 gas, yielding M(BH4)3·7NH3 (M = Y, Gd, and Dy). Crystal structure models for M(BH4)3·nNH3 are derived from a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXD), (11)B magic-angle spinning NMR, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The structures vary from two-dimensional layers (n = 1), one-dimensional chains (n = 2), molecular compounds (n = 4 and 5), to contain complex ions (n = 6 and 7). NH3 coordinates to the metal in all compounds, while BH4(-) has a flexible coordination, i.e., either as a terminal or bridging ligand or as a counterion. M(BH4)3·7NH3 releases ammonia stepwise by thermal treatment producing M(BH4)3·nNH3 (6, 5, and 4), whereas hydrogen is released for n ≤ 4. Detailed analysis of the dihydrogen bonds reveals new insight about the hydrogen elimination mechanism, which contradicts current hypotheses. Overall, the present work provides new general knowledge toward rational materials design and preparation along with limitations of PXD and DFT for analysis of structures with a significant degree of dynamics in the structures.

  18. Opinions on hot discussions in connection with rare earths recently (continued)


    @@ IV.Rare earths are mostly for civil uses Rare earth elements have excellent physical properties including optical, electric, magnetic, superconductive and catalytic performances and outstanding .chemical properties.The value of rare earths is mostly embodied in their applications.Rare earths are prepared into various advanced materials with different performances.Therefore, rare earths enjoy the reputation of "industrial monosodium glutamate" and "treasury of advanced materials".

  19. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; rare-earth oxides

    Jackson, W.D.; Christiansen, Grey


    Bastnaesite, monazite, and xenotime are currently the most important rare-earth minerals. Bastnaesite occurs as a primary mineral in carbonatites. Monazite and xenotime also can be found in primary deposits but are recovered principally from heavy-mineral placers that are mined for titanium or tin. Each of these minerals has a different composition of the 15 rare-earth elements. World resources of economically exploitable rare-earth oxides (REO) are estimated at 93.4 million metric tons in place, composed of 93 percent in primary deposits and 7 percent in placers. The average mineral composition is 83 percent bastnaesite, 13 percent monazite, and 4 percent of 10 other minerals. Annual global production is about 67,000 metric tons of which 41 percent is from placers and 59 percent is from primary deposits; mining methods consist of open pits (94 percent) and dredging (6 percent). This output could be doubled if the operations that do not currently recover rare earths would do so. Resources are more than sufficient to meet the demand for the predictable future. About 52 percent of the world's REO resources are located in China. Ranking of other countries is as follows: Namibia (22 percent), the United States (15 percent), Australia (6 percent), and India (3 percent); the remainder is in several other countries. Conversely, 38 percent of the production is in China, 33 percent in the United States, 12 percent in Australia, and 5 percent each in Malaysia and India. Several other countries, including Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, make up the remainder. Markets for rare earths are mainly in the metallurgical, magnet, ceramic, electronic, chemical, and optical industries. Rare earths improve the physical and rolling properties of iron and steel and add corrosion resistance and strength to structural members at high temperatures. Samarium and neodymium are used in lightweight, powerful magnets for electric motors. Cerium and yttrium increase the

  20. Value analysis of neodymium content in shredder feed: toward enabling the feasibility of rare earth magnet recycling.

    Bandara, H M Dhammika; Darcy, Julia W; Apelian, Diran; Emmert, Marion H


    In order to facilitate the development of recycling technologies for rare earth magnets from postconsumer products, we present herein an analysis of the neodymium (Nd) content in shredder scrap. This waste stream has been chosen on the basis of current business practices for the recycling of steel, aluminum, and copper from cars and household appliances, which contain significant amounts of rare earth magnets. Using approximations based on literature data, we have calculated the average Nd content in the ferrous shredder product stream to be between 0.13 and 0.29 kg per ton of ferrous scrap. A value analysis considering rare earth metal prices between 2002 and 2013 provides values between $1.32 and $145 per ton of ferrous scrap for this material, if recoverable as pure Nd metal. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the content and value of other rare earths (Pr, Dy, Tb).

  1. Separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons from spent nuclear fuel

    Christian, Jerry D.; Sterbentz, James W.


    A method for the separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons comprising providing a spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel comprises UO.sub.2 and rare-earth oxides, preferably Sm, Gd, Nd, Eu oxides, with other elements depending on the fuel composition. Preferably, the provided nuclear fuel is a powder, preferably formed by crushing the nuclear fuel or using one or more oxidation-reduction cycles. A compound comprising Th or Zr, preferably metal, is provided. The provided nuclear fuel is mixed with the Th or Zr, thereby creating a mixture. The mixture is then heated to a temperature sufficient to reduce the UO.sub.2 in the nuclear fuel, preferably to at least to C. for Th and up to C. for Zr. Rare-earth metals are then extracted to form the heated mixture thereby producing a treated nuclear fuel. The treated nuclear fuel comprises the provided nuclear fuel having a significant reduction in rare-earths.

  2. Structural, electronic, mechanical and magnetic properties of rare earth nitrides REN (RE= Pm, Eu and Yb)

    Murugan, A. [Department of physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625019 (India); Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail: [Department of physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625019 (India); Santhosh, M. [Department of physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625019 (India); Iyakutti, K. [Department of physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu 603203. India. (India)


    The structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitrides REN (RE=Pm, Eu and Yb) are investigated in NaCl and CsCl, and zinc blende structures using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. Among the considered structures, these nitrides are most stable in NaCl structure. A pressure induced structural phase transition from NaCl to CsCl phase is observed in all these nitrides. The electronic structure reveals that these rare earth nitrides are half metallic at normal pressure. These nitrides are found to be covalent and ionic in the stable phase. The computed elastic constants indicate that these nitrides are mechanically stable and elastically anisotropic. Our results confirm that these nitrides are ferromagnetic in nature. A ferromagnetic to non-magnetic phase transition is observed at the pressures of 21.5 GPa and 46.1 GPa in PmN and YbN respectively. - Highlights: • Rare earth nitrides PmN, EuN and YbN are found to be ferromagnetic in nature. • Electronic, structural, elastic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitrides are investigated. • A pressure induced structural phase transition is predicted under high pressure. • Electronic structure reveals that these materials exhibit half-metallic behavior. • Computed elastic moduli obey the mechanical stability condition.

  3. Separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons from spent nuclear fuel

    Christian, Jerry D.; Sterbentz, James W.


    A method for the separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons comprising providing a spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel comprises UO.sub.2 and rare-earth oxides, preferably Sm, Gd, Nd, Eu oxides, with other elements depending on the fuel composition. Preferably, the provided nuclear fuel is a powder, preferably formed by crushing the nuclear fuel or using one or more oxidation-reduction cycles. A compound comprising Th or Zr, preferably metal, is provided. The provided nuclear fuel is mixed with the Th or Zr, thereby creating a mixture. The mixture is then heated to a temperature sufficient to reduce the UO.sub.2 in the nuclear fuel, preferably to at least to C. for Th and up to C. for Zr. Rare-earth metals are then extracted to form the heated mixture thereby producing a treated nuclear fuel. The treated nuclear fuel comprises the provided nuclear fuel having a significant reduction in rare-earths.

  4. Recovery of rare earth elements from the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria using aqueous acid.

    Minoda, Ayumi; Sawada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Sonoe; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Takaiku; Tsuzuki, Mikio


    The demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically in recent years because of their numerous industrial applications, and considerable research efforts have consequently been directed toward recycling these materials. The accumulation of metals in microorganisms is a low-cost and environmentally friendly method for the recovery of metals present in the environment at low levels. Numerous metals, including rare earth elements, can be readily dissolved in aqueous acid, but the efficiency of metal biosorption is usually decreased under the acidic conditions. In this report, we have investigated the use of the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria for the recovery of metals, with particular emphasis on the recovery of rare earth metals. Of the five different growth conditions investigated where G. sulphuraria could undergo an adaptation process, Nd(III), Dy(III), and Cu(II) were efficiently recovered from a solution containing a mixture of different metals under semi-anaerobic heterotrophic condition at a pH of 2.5. G. sulphuraria also recovered Nd(III), Dy(III), La(III), and Cu(II) with greater than 90% efficiency at a concentration of 0.5 ppm. The efficiency remained unchanged at pH values in the range of 1.5-2.5. Furthermore, at pH values in the range of 1.0-1.5, the lanthanoid ions were collected much more efficiently into the cell fractions than Cu(II) and therefore successfully separated from the Cu(II) dissolved in the aqueous acid. Microscope observation of the cells using alizarin red suggested that the metals were accumulating inside of the cells. Experiments using dead cells suggested that this phenomenon was a biological process involving specific activities within the cells.

  5. Oxygen Evolution at Nickel Hydroxide Films Co-deposited Light Rare Earth Elements


    Composite nickel hydroxide films were prepared by cathodic co-electrodeposition from metal nitrate solution and characterized by cyclic voltammetry in 1.0 mol/L KOH solution. The codeposited light rare earth elements were lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and neodymium. The films were analyzed by spectrophotometry and optical transmission. The results of the cyclic voltammetry in 1.0 mol/L KOH solution showed that the current density for oxygen evolution at the film electrode was affected by the co-deposited rare earth metal ions in the film. About 20 mA/cm2 increase of current density for oxygen evolution was found when the film was obtained from the solution with cerium (7% v/v) and nickel (93% v/v) nitrate. The effects of galvanostatic cathodic current density for the film formation on the oxygen evolution at the film electrodes from the alkaline were discussed.

  6. New data on mineral forms of rare metals in phosphogypsum wastes

    Samonov, A. E.


    Phosphogypsum is an industrial waste of the processing of Khibiny apatite concentrate into chemical fertilizers by sulfurous technology. This is a valuable and promising technogenous rare-metal feedstock. The samples of fresh and old phosphogypsum were studied using precision physical techniques of analytical electron microscopy and X-ray spectral microanalysis. These studies allowed the discovery of new and unusual mineral compositions including strontium and rare earth metals in mineral fractions of phosphogypsum. The appearance of a new generation of technogenous rare-metal raw material permits us to characterize the prospects of its industrial use and to develop nonwaste technologies of its complex treatment.

  7. Chinalco and China National Administration of Coal Geology Jointly Built Guangxi Rare Earth Industrial Base


    <正>On June 3,Chinalco and China National Administration of Coal Geology signed cooperation agreement for strategic cooperation&cooperation agreement between Chinalco Guangxi Nonferrous Rare Earth Development Company and Xuzhou Jin Shi Pengyuan Rare Earth Material Factory.According to the agreement,both sides would jointly support Chinalco Guangxi Nonferrous Rare Earth Development Company and Xuzhou Jin Shi Pengyuan Rare Earth Material Factory to carry out comprehensive cooperation covering rare

  8. Recycling of the rare earth oxides from spent rechargeable batteries using waste metallurgical slags

    Tang K.


    Full Text Available A high temperature process for recycling spent nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries has been recently developed at SINTEF/NTNU. The spent battery modules were first frozen with liquid nitrogen for the de-activation and brittle fracture treatment. The broken steel scraps and plastics were then separated by the mechanical classification and magnetic separation. The remaining positive and negative electrodes, together with the polymer separator, were heated to 600-800oC in order to remove the organic components and further separate the Ni-based negative electrode. XRF analyses indicate that the heat-treated materials consist mainly of nickel, rare earth and cobalt oxides. The valuable rare earth oxides were further recovered by the high-temperature slagging treatment. The waste metallurgical slags, consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, were used as the rare earth oxide absorbent. After the high temperature slagging treatment, over 98% of nickel and cobalt oxides were reduced to the metal phase; meanwhile almost all rare earth oxides remain in the molten slags. Furthermore, EPMA and XRF analyses of the slag samples indicate that the rare earth oxides selectively precipitate in the forms of solid xSiO2•yCaO•zRe2O3. The matrix of slag phase is Re2O3 deficient, typically being less than 5 wt%. This provides a sound basis to further develop the high-temperature process of concentrating the Re2O3 oxides in slags.

  9. The occurrence of rare earth elements in some Finnish mires

    Yliruokanen, I.


    Full Text Available The content of the more abundant rare earths (RE (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the ash of 399 peat samples from 26 Finnish mires was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The content of all rare earths (La-Lu, Y in 29 samples was also determined by spark source mass spectrometry. The median RE contents in peat ashes from areas where the bedrock consists of rapakivi granite, granite or archean gneiss are reported. Detailed data concerning the individual mires are also presented. The highest RE contents were found in samples from rapakivi granite areas where a strong negative Eu anomaly was also observed. The RE contents were in general highest at the basal peat layers.

  10. Electronic and vibrational spectra of some rare earth trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals

    Paul, P.; Ghosh, M.; Neogy, D.; Mallick, P. K.


    The Raman and infrared spectra of some rare earth (dysprosium and terbium) trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals have been analyzed. Different vibrational frequencies of trifluoromethanesulfonate ions (CF 3SO 3-) are identified and assigned to different vibrations of the SO 3 and CF 3 groups. Electronic transitions of R 3+ ions (R = Dy, Tb) in these salts have been assigned to transitions from the ground to different energy levels of the ground multiplet. The electronic energy levels of the rare earth ions are also determined theoretically with the help of single electron crystal field theory. They are found to yield results not only in good agreement with the observed spectral data but also in good conformity with those obtained previously from magnetic measurements.

  11. Ionoluminescence of trivalent rare-earth-doped strontium barium niobate

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Automoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bettinelli, M.; Speghini, A. [Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Ca Vignal, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Barboza Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-VI, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Jaque, D.; Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)


    Ionoluminescence spectra for different rare-earth ion (Pr{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+})-activated Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} strontium barium niobate crystals (x=0.33 and 0.60) have been induced with a 3 MeV proton beam for a variety of beam current intensities (45, 40 and 20 nA). The proton-beam induced luminescent spectra have shown features associated with the presence of the rare-earth ion and some spectral features mostly related to the host crystal, which appear only for high beam current intensities. We have compared the ionoluminescence results to those obtained under UV light excitation (photoluminescence technique) where a direct excitation of the band gap would occur.

  12. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan


    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  13. Research of Optical Performance On Rare-Earth Optical Fiber

    Li Baojun; Zhou Meng; Yang Tao; Zhou Yao; Fu Li; Li Tiansi; YangShilong


    The rare-earth optical fiber is made of organic material and inorganic rare earth material.It can be used to absorb and transfer solar energy.When sunlight irradiates, it may absorb and transfer solar energy automatically; while at night or without sunlight it may give out light and play role of decoration.By utilizing high transmissivity of organic material and heat-resisting performance of inorganic material, we know the reorganization of material performance under the melting condition, and make empty core bear the high temperature of 150 ~200 ℃.When the light spreads in light guide, some light energy travels along the direction of light guide, and is introduced in the room directly.Another part of light energy is absorbed and stored by light guide, and can release light again after 8 ~ 12 h.

  14. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin


    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  15. Review of Studies on Rare Earth against Plant Disease

    慕康国; 张文吉; 崔建宇; 张福锁; 胡林


    Agricultural application of rare earth (RE) has been generalized for several decades, and it is involved in crops, vegetables and stock raising in China. However, all the researches on RE mainly focus on the fields such as plant physiological activity, physiological and biochemical mechanism, sanitation toxicology and environmental security. Plant protection by using RE and the induced resistance of plant against diseases were summarized. The mechanism of rare earth against plant disease is highlighted, which includes following two aspects. First, RE elements can control some phytopathogen directly and reduce its virulence to host plant. Another possibility is that RE elements can affect host plant and induce the plant to produce some resistance to disease.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2

    Xing, Zhen; Huffman, T. J.; Xu, Peng; Qazilbash, M. M.; Saha, S. R.; Drye, Tyler; Paglione, J.


    Recently, rare-earth doping in CaFe2As2 has been used to tune its electronic, magnetic, and structural properties. The substitution of rare-earth ions at the alkaline-earth sites leads to the suppression of the spin-density wave (SDW) phase transition in CaFe2As2. For example, Pr substitution results in a paramagnetic metal in the tetragonal phase that is susceptible to a low temperature structural transition to a collapsed tetragonal phase. However, La-doped CaFe2As2 remains in the uncollapsed tetragonal structure down to the lowest measured temperatures. Both the uncollapsed and collapsed tetragonal structures exhibit superconductivity with maximum Tc reaching 47 K, the highest observed in inter-metallics albeit with a small superconducting volume fraction. In this work, we perform ab-plane infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2 at different cryogenic temperatures. Our aim is to ascertain the contributions of electron doping and chemical pressure to the charge and lattice dynamics of this iron-arsenide system.

  17. Observation of anomalous phonons in orthorhombic rare-earth manganites

    Gao, P.; Chen, H. Y.; Tyson, T. A.; Liu, Z. X.; Bai, J. M.; Wang, L. P.; Choi, Y. J.; Cheong, S.-W.


    We observe the appearance of a phonon near the lock-in temperature in orthorhombic REMnO3 (RE denotes rare earth) (RE: Lu and Ho) and anomalous phonon hardening in orthorhombic LuMnO3. The anomalous phonon occurs at the onset of spontaneous polarization. No such changes were found in incommensurate orthorhombic DyMnO3. These observations directly reveal different electric polarization mechanisms in the E-type and incommensurate-type orthorhombic REMnO3.


    JIN Yingtai; ZHANG Xitian; PEI Fengkui; WU Yue


    The reaction mechanisms ofdiene polymerization with homogeneous rare earth catalyst are studied by means of the spectra of 1H- NM R, one- and two- dimensions 13C-NMR. Based on the data of above NMR spectra, it is proposed that the polymerization reaction proceeds according to the following mechanism: η4-diene (cis- (→)trans- )and η3-allyl (syn- (→)anti- ).

  19. Advances in Rare Earth Application to Semiconductor Materials and Devices



    The development of rare earths (RE) applications to semiconductor materials and devices is reviewed. The recent advances in RE doped silicon light emitting diodes (LED) and display materials are described. The various technologies of incorporating RE into semiconductor materials and devices are presented. The RE high dielectric materials, RE silicides and the phase transition of RE materials are also discussed. Finally, the paper describes the prospects of the RE application to semiconductor industry.

  20. Coherent optical ultrasound detection with rare-earth ion dopants

    Tay, Jian Wei; Longdell, Jevon


    We describe theoretical and experimental demonstration for optical detection of ultrasound using a spectral hole engraved in cryogenically cooled rare-earth ion doped solids. Our method utilizes the dispersion effects due to the spectral hole to perform phase to amplitude modulation conversion. Like previous approaches using spectral holes it has the advantage of detection with large \\'etendue. The method also has the benefit that high sensitivity can be obtained with moderate absorption contrast for the spectral holes.

  1. High photoluminescence efficiency in polymer containing rare earth

    Zhefu Wu; Qidan Ling; Xugang Shi; Jiangxin Zhang; Guangxin Zhu


    @@ Three novel kinds of polymers containing rare earth europium have been synthesized and the integrating sphere technique was employed to measure the absolute photoluminescence (PL) efficiency. The PL efficiencies were found to be up to about 40%, which indicates the potential usage in organic light emitting devices (OLED). The energy transfer from ligand to Eu ions and the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ were analyzed under the PL process.

  2. Rare-earth ions doped transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics


    In recent years, rare-earth ions doped transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics have attracted great attentions for their low phonon energy environments of fluoride nanocrystals and high chemical and mechanical stabilities of oxide glassy matrix. In this chapter, firstly, the crystallization behaviors of the transparent glassceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals are presented to demonstrate the controllable microstructure evolution of nano-composites. Secondly, the optical properties of the new...

  3. Experimental Temperature and Heat Capacity in Rare Earth Nuclei

    Melby, E.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Ødegård, S. W.

    Temperature and heat capacity for the rare earth nuclei 162Dy, 166Er and 172Yb have been extracted from experimental data at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL). The starting point to determine thermodynamical quantities is the density of levels as a function of excitation energy. The density of accessible levels in the (3He,α γ)-reaction has been extracted from measured γ-spectra.

  4. A Physicochemical Method for Separating Rare Earths: Addressing an Impending Shortfall

    Schelter, Eric [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    There are currently zero operating suppliers of critical rare earth elements La–Lu, Sc, Y (REs), in the western hemisphere. REs are critical materials due to their importance in clean energy and defense applications, including permanent magnets in wind turbines and phosphors in energy efficient lighting. It is not economically viable to produce pure REs in the U.S. given current separations technology. REs production is dominated by suppliers in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) because of their capacity in liquid­liquid solvent extraction (SX) used to purify mixtures. Weak environmental regulations in the PRC also contribute to a competitive advantage. SX is a cost, time, solvent and waste intensive process but is highly optimized and scalable. The low efficiency of SX derives from the small thermodynamic differences in solvation enthalpy between the RE3+ cations. To foster stable domestic RE production there is a critical need for fundamentally new REs chemistry that contributes to disruptive technologies in RE separations. The overall goal of this project was to develop new thermodynamic bases, and apply them, for the solution separation of rare earth metals. We have developed the chemistry of rare earth metals: La–Lu, Sc and Y, with redox active ligands. Our hypothesis for the project was that electron­hole coupling in complexes of certain lanthanide metals with redox active ligands can be used to manifest chemical distinctiveness and affect separations. We also developed separations based on unique solution equilibria from tailored ligands.

  5. Existing State and Partitioning of Rare Earth on Weathered Ores


    The existing state and partitioning of rare earth (RE) on weathered ores in Longnan County (LN), Xingfeng County(XF) and Ninghua County(NH) were characterized systematically by standard geological analytical methods. It is found that RE in the weathered rare earth ores exist as four phases: (a) water soluble, (b) ion-exchangeable, (c) colloidal sediment (oxides), (d) minerals, in which mainly as ion exchangeable phase, accounting for nearly 80% of total RE,with about 20% in the form of colloid sediment phase and mineral phase, but very little as aqueous soluble phase. These rare earth partitioning were mainly chosen mid-heavy RE elements, occupying above 60%, but not equal in the four phases. The mid-heavy RE elements were primarily enriched in the ion exchangeable phase up to 40%, while the containment of cerium dioxide is below 2%. The cerium deficiency occurs in the ion exchangeable phase in weathered ore. It results from that the Ce3+ is oxidized into Ce4+ and changes into CeO2. For LN ore, the containment of Y is high in weathered ore because Y-minerals are abundant in original rock.

  6. Preparation of mixed rare earths modified chitosan for fluoride adsorption

    梁鹏; 张艺; 汪东风; 徐莹; 罗斓


    This paper described the fluoride removal from water using a new adsorbent namely mixed rare earths modified chitosan (CR). Mixed rare earths mainly contained La followed by Ce which was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). La(III)-modified chitosan (CL) was also prepared as control. For the batch technique, the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and co-ions on fluoride adsorption were studied. Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize adsorbents. It was observed that the fluo-ride adsorption capacity of CR (3.72 mgF-/g) was higher than CL (3.16 mgF-/g) at 2 h. The presence of co-ions such as bicarbonate and carbonate greatly affected the fluoride adsorption from water. Characterization experiments indicated the successful chelation between mixed rare earths and chitosan. The possible fluoride adsorption mechanism of CR was explained by a chemical reaction.

  7. The valence and spectral properties of rare-earth clusters

    Peters, L; Litsarev, M S; Katsnelson, A Delin M I; Kirilyuk, A; Johansson, B; Sanyal, B; Eriksson, O


    The rare-earths are known to have intriguing changes of the valence, depending on chemical surrounding or geometry. Here we make predictions from theory that combines density functional theory with atomic multiplet-theory, on the transition of valence when transferring from the atomic divalent limit to the trivalent bulk, passing through different sized clusters, of selected rare-earths. We predict that Tm clusters show an abrupt change from pure divalent to pure trivalent at a size of 6 atoms, while Sm and Tb clusters are respectively pure divalent and trivalent up to 8 atoms. Larger Sm clusters are argued to likely make a transition to a mixed valent, or trivalent, configuration. The valence of all rare-earth clusters, as a function of size, is predicted from interpolation of our calculated results. We argue that the here predicted behavior is best analyzed by spectroscopic measurements, and provide theoretical spectra, based on dynamical mean field theory, in the Hubbard-I approximation, to ease experiment...

  8. Social and Environmental Impact of the Rare Earth Industries

    Saleem H. Ali


    Full Text Available The use of rare earth elements in various technologies continues to grow despite some alternatives being found for particular uses. Given a history of ecological concerns about pollution from rare earth mines, particularly in China, there are growing social and environmental concerns about the growth of the mining and mineral processing in this sector. This is best exemplified by the recent social and environmental conflict surrounding the development of the Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP in Kuantan, Malaysia which led to international activism and claims of environmental and social injustice. This paper analyses the structure of environmental and social conflicts surrounding rare earth minerals and opportunities for improving the social and environmental performance of the sector. Many of these elements are used for green technologies. Opportunities exist that offer a more circular supply chain following industrial ecological principles through which reuse and recycling of the materials can provide a means of mitigating social and environmental conflicts in this sector. In addition, public engagement processes that recognize community concerns about radiation, and transparent scientifically predicated decision-making through an appropriate governance structure within regulatory organizations are also presented.

  9. Rare Earths of Two Types Granites in Sawuer Region, Xinjiang

    Yuan Feng; Zhou Taofa; Tan Lugui; Fan Yu; Yue Shucang


    The geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements of A type and I type granites were studied in the Sawuer region, Xinjiang. The characteristics of two types granites are different obviously,because the A type and I type granites formed at different stage of the post-collisional period. The Sentasi intrusion and Wokensala intrusion are the I type granites formed at the late of post-collisional period, and there is extrusion translating to extension stress. The characteristics of rare earth elements show that the fractional crystallization of the I type granites is indistinct, and the sources of the I type granites come from the mantle. The Kuoyitasi intrusion and Qiaqihai intrusion are the A type granites formed at the end of post-collisional period, and there is extension stress. The characteristics of rare earth elements show that the fractional crystallization of the A type granites is distinct. The sources of the A type granites come from the mantle but interfused by the crust.

  10. Properties of rare-earth iron garnets from first principles

    Nakamoto, Ryan; Xu, Bin; Xu, Changsong; Xu, Hu; Bellaiche, L.


    Structural and magnetic properties of rare-earth iron garnets (RIG), which contain 160 atoms per unit cell, are systematically investigated for rare-earth elements varying from La to Lu (and including Y), by performing spin polarized density-functional calculations. The effects of 4 f electrons (as core or as valence electrons) on the lattice constant, internal coordinates, and bond lengths are found to be rather small, with these predicted structural properties agreeing rather well with available experiments. On the other hand, treating such electrons as valence electrons is essential to interpret the total magnetization measured in some RIG at low temperature, the different orientation and magnitude of the magnetizations that Fe and rare-earth ions can adopt and to also explain why some RIG have a compensation temperature while others do not. The magnetic exchange couplings and orbital-projected density of states are also reported for two representative materials, namely Gd3Fe5O12 and Nd3Fe5O12 , when accounting for their 4 f electrons.

  11. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong


    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  12. Magnetization dynamics in rare earth doped NiFe films

    Kiessling, Matthias; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D- 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Schabes, Manfred [Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, 3403 Yerba Buena Road, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)


    The influence of rare earth dopants on the damping parameter and the resulting possibility to control this parameter were investigated. In our experiments NiFe films were doped with Dysprosium, Holmium, Terbium, and Gadolinium. The magnetization dynamics of these rare earth doped films was mainly studied by means of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. It is demonstrated that the doping of a NiFe film by a small amount of rare earth elements (Holmium, Terbium and Dysprosium) greatly effects its magnetic relaxation rate. This additional damping is proportional to the doping level. Compared to the pure NiFe film it is possible to increase the damping parameter of the magnetic film by two orders of magnitude. On the other hand Gadolinium as a dopant has no influence on the damping parameter. For small dopant concentrations the in and out-of-plane FMR measurements at various frequencies can be well described by the same damping parameter. This is expected for the Gilbert damping term in the equation of motion. Therefore the increased damping can be attributed to an increased rate of transfer of angular momentum from the spin system to the lattice.

  13. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Rare Earth (RE=La, Y, Gd) Salicylates

    LI, Liang-Chao(李良超); ZHOU, Xiang-Chun(周享春); ZHENG, Ren-Wei(郑人卫)


    The rare earth (RE=La, Y, Gd) salicylates were synthesized by the rheological phase reaction method. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravity analysis (TG). They can be represented by general formula RE(HSal)3 (RE=La, Y, Gd; HSal=C6H4(OH)COO). The crystals of them are monoclinic and have layered structure. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of rare earth salicylates was studied by using TG, DTA, IR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The thermal decomposition of the rare earth salicylates in nitrogen gas proceeded in three stages: firstly, they were decomposed to form RE2(Sal)3 (Sal=C6H4OCOO) and salicylic acid; then, RE2(Sal)3 were decomposed further to form RE2O(CO3)2 and some organic compounds; finally, RE2O(CO3)2 were decomposed to form rare earth metal oxides (RE2O3) and carbon dioxide. The organic compounds obtained from the second step of the reaction are mainly dibenzofuran, xanthenone, 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, 6-phenyl-6H-benzo[c]chromene, and 1,3-diphenyl-1, 3-dihydro-2-benzofuran.

  14. Rare Earth Elements: Overview of Mining, Mineralogy, Uses, Sustainability and Environmental Impact

    Nawshad Haque


    Full Text Available Rare earths are used in the renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines, batteries, catalysts and electric cars. Current mining, processing and sustainability aspects have been described in this paper. Rare earth availability is undergoing a temporary decline due mainly to quotas being imposed by the Chinese government on export and action taken against illegal mining operations. The reduction in availability coupled with increasing demand has led to increased prices for rare earths. Although the prices have come down recently, this situation is likely to be volatile until material becomes available from new sources or formerly closed mines are reopened. Although the number of identified deposits in the world is close to a thousand, there are only a handful of actual operating mines. Prominent currently operating mines are Bayan Obo in China, Mountain Pass in the US and recently opened Mount Weld in Australia. The major contributor to the total greenhouse gas (GHG footprint of rare earth processing is hydrochloric acid (ca. 38%, followed by steam use (32% and electricity (12%. Life cycle based water and energy consumption is significantly higher compared with other metals.

  15. Homoleptic rare earth dipyridylamides [Ln2(N(NC5H4)2)6], Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Sc: metal oxidation by the amine melt and in 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline with the focus of different metal activation by amalgams, liquid ammonia, and microwaves.

    Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus; Quitmann, Catharina C


    Homoleptic dimeric dipyridylamide complexes of the rare earth elements are obtained by solvent-free oxidation reactions of the metals with melts of 2,2'-dipyridylamine. As the thermal stabilities of the ligand as well as the amide complexes are limiting factors in these high-temperature syntheses, several different metal activation procedures have been investigated: the formation of Ln amalgams and dissolution of the metals in liquid ammonia as well as coupling to microwaves. For comparison with a solvent that shows low solubility of the metals and products, reactions in 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were also carried out. For all lanthanides and group 3 metals used homoleptic dimers of the formula [Ln(2)(Dpa)(6)], Ln = Ce (1), Nd (2), Sm (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Tm (6), Yb (7), and Sc (8) and Dpa- = (C5H4N)2N-, were obtained, all containing trivalent rare earth ions with a distorted square antiprismatic nitrogen coordination. Due to the large differences in the ionic radii of the metal ions, two different structure types are found that crystallize in the space groups P2(1)/c and P2(1)/n with the border of the two types being between Tm and Yb. The orientations of two 1,3/1,3-double chelating and linking dipyridylamide ligands (Dpa(-) = (C(5)H(4)N)(2)N(-)) result in different overall orientations of the dimers and thus two structure types. All compounds were identified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Mid-IR, far IR, and Raman spectroscopy, microanalyses, and simultaneous DTA/TG as well as mass spectrometry regarding their thermal behavior were also carried out to characterize the products. Crystal data for the two types follow. Ce (1): P2(1)/n; T = 170(2) K; a = 1063.0(1), b = 1536.0(1), c = 1652.0(2) pm; beta = 101.60(1) degrees ; V = 2642.2(3) x 10(6) pm(3); R(1) for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.046, wR(2) = 0.120. Sc (8): P2(1)/c; T = 170(2) K; a = 1073.0(1), b = 1506.2(2), c = 1619.8(2) pm; beta = 103.16(9) degrees ; V = 2548.9(5) x 10(6) pm(3); R(1) for F(o) > 4sigma

  16. Recent advances in rare-earth elements modification of inorganic semiconductorbased photocatalysts for efficient solar energy conversion:A review

    于耀光; 陈刚; 周彦松; 韩钟慧


    This review focused on rare-earth elements containing inorganic semiconductor photocatalysts for efficient solar energy conversion. We also summarized the recent progress in the modification of the transition metal oxides and mixed oxides with rare earth ions. In the first section, we surveyed a variety of rare-earth elements modified TiO2 photocatalysts. Attributed to the modifica-tion with rare-earth elements, phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile was inhibited. Furthermore, the light-absorbing property of the TiO2 modified with rare-earth elements was also enhanced. In the second section, we summarized the effects of rare-earth elements on the modification of transition metal mixed oxides. It was believed that the corner-shared octahedral units in the form of networks, chains and slabs within the mixed oxide lattice were essential for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. In the last section, the strategy for the design of NIR or IR response upconversion composite photocatalysts was also discussed.

  17. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  18. Investigations into Rare Earth Oxide Use and Behaviour

    Pryce, Owen


    The use of tracers which are applied to soils (distinguishable from tracers naturally present in soils) is increasing. Rare earth oxides (REOs) are the most prevalent of the sediment tracers used to tag soils in this manner. REOs have been applied in a host of different countries, at a range of scales e.g. over watersheds in the USA (Polyakov and Nearing, 2004; Kimoto et al., 2006); to examine rill erosion in China (Li et al., 2006); and to investigate the importance of topographical features in arable fields in the EU (Stevens and Quinton, 2008). Many successful experiments have been conducted using the suit of REO tracers, yielding important information on the behaviour of eroding sediments. However, the majority of publications have focused upon application of REO tracers, applying the tagging and extraction methods developed by Zhang et al., (2001, 2003). Furthermore, the techniques presently being used are known to generate methodological inaccuracies, such as tracer enrichment and non-uniform REO distributions on experimental plots, and analytical interferences when ICP-MS is used for tracer quantification. Unanswered questions regarding the use of REO tracers include: i) what is the effect upon soil of REO tagging?; ii) how is a uniform distribution of REOs in tagged soil achieved? iii) which is the most suitable way of applying REOs, to experimental plots of different scale, and to meet different objectives?; iv) which REOs are unsuitable for sediment tracing?; v) what is the most precise and efficient method of extracting REO tracers from sediments? vi) is the transport behaviour of REO tracers comparable to untagged soils? In an attempt to answer some of these questions, investigations have been conducted into the effect upon soil particle size of different methods of REO tagging. The ability of these methods to provide uniform distributions of REOs in the tagged soil was calculated. The accuracy and precision of published (Zhang et al., 2003; Stevens and

  19. Study on rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 solid electrolyte

    YAN Kai; ZHEN Qiang; Song Xiwen


    Five types of rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 superfine-powders were synthesized by a low-temperature combustion technique. The relevant solid electrolyte materials were also sintered by pressureless sintering at different temperatures. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size of the powders was approximately 20-30 nm, and rare earth/alkaline earth oxides were completely dissolved into ceria-based solid solution with fluorite structure. The electrical conductivities of the Sm2O3-CeO2 system were measured by the ac impedance technique in air at temperatures ranging from 513-900℃. The results indicated that the ionic conductivities of Sm0.20Ce0.8O1.875 solid electrolyte increase with increasing sintering temperature, and the relationship between the conductivities and measuring temperature obeys the Arrhenius equation. Then the Sm2O3-CeO2 material was further doped with other rare earth/alkaline earth oxide, and the conductivities improve with the effective index.

  20. Study on Physical and Chemical Behaviors of Rare Earths in Preparing Ceramic Tube Supported Palladium Film by Electroless Plating


    The rare earths of ytterbium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and their binary mixtures were respectively added into the traditional electroless plating solution to prepare thin palladium film on the inner surface of porous ceramic tube. The experimental results shows that the addition of rare earths increases palladium deposition rates and the binary mixtures are superior to the single rare earths and the mixture of ytterbium-lanthanum is the most efficient. Adding the mixture of ytterbium-lanthanum can also reduce the plating temperature by 10~20 ℃, shrink the metal crystal size and improve the film densification compared to those by traditional electroless plating. A thin palladium film with 5 μm was prepared and the film made a highly pure hydrogen with a molar fraction of more than 99.97% from a H2-N2 gas mixture. More attentions were paid to analyze the physical and chemical behaviors of the rare earths in palladium film preparation.