WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly solidified technology

  1. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  2. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  3. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.

    1987-01-01

    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  4. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  5. Undercooling and demixing in rapidly solidified Cu-Co alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battezzati, L.; Curiotto, S.; Johnson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    competition of transformation phenomena, the mechanisms have not been fully disclosed. This contribution reviews such findings with the help of a computer calculation of the phase diagram and extends the present knowledge by presenting new results obtained by rapidly solidifying various Cu–Co compositions...

  6. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at. percent Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at. percent. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  7. Microstructural Quantification of Rapidly Solidified Undercooled D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valloton, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Henein, H.; Sediako, D.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of D2 tool steel is investigated experimentally using electromagnetic levitation (EML) under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions and impulse atomization (IA), a drop tube type of apparatus. IA produces powders 300 to 1400 μm in size. This allows the investigation of a large range of cooling rates ( 100 to 10,000 K/s) with a single experiment. On the other hand, EML allows direct measurements of the thermal history, including primary and eutectic nucleation undercoolings, for samples 6 to 7 mm in diameter. The final microstructures at room temperature consist of retained supersaturated austenite surrounded by eutectic of austenite and M7C3 carbides. Rapid solidification effectively suppresses the formation of ferrite in IA, while a small amount of ferrite is detected in EML samples. High primary phase undercoolings and high cooling rates tend to refine the microstructure, which results in a better dispersion of the eutectic carbides. Evaluation of the cell spacing in EML and IA samples shows that the scale of the final microstructure is mainly governed by coarsening. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of IA samples reveals that IA powders are polycrystalline, regardless of the solidification conditions. EBSD on EML samples reveals strong differences between the microstructure of droplets solidified on the ground and in microgravity conditions. While the former ones are polycrystalline with many different grains, the EML sample solidified in microgravity shows a strong texture with few much larger grains having twinning relationships. This indicates that fluid flow has a strong influence on grain refinement in this system.

  8. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A K PANDA, I CHATTORAJ, S BASU* and A MITRA. National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007, India. *Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques.

  9. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  10. Microstructure evolution and thermal stability of rapidly solidified Al-Ni-Co-RE alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Karpe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of this work, Al-5Ni-1Co-3RE (RE-Rare Earth (Mischmetal rapidly solidified ribbons were manufactured and analyzed. The morphology of the as-cast structure, as well as the microstructural features were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal stability has been investigated by combination of four point scanning electrical resistivity measurement (ER, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and microhardness measurement. From the results we can conclude, that Al-5Ni-1Co-3RE rapidly solidified alloys have good thermal stability due to very slow coarsening kinetics of precipitated particles.

  11. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques. The crystallization, magnetic, mechanical and corrosion behaviour were studied for the prepared materials as a function of quenching rate from liquid to the solid state. Higher quench rates produced a more amorphous ...

  12. Phosphorus Segregation in Meta-Rapidly Solidified Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Qiao, Jun; Zhang, Junwei; Sha, Minghong; Li, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    Twin-roll strip casters for near-net-shape manufacture of steels have received increased attention in the steel industry. Although negative segregation of phosphorus occurred in twin-roll strip casting (TRSC) steels in our prior work, its mechanism is still unclear. In this work, V-shaped molds were designed and used to simulate a meta-rapid solidification process without roll separating force during twin roll casting of carbon steels. Experimental results show that no obvious phosphorus segregation exist in the V-shaped mold casting (VMC) steels. By comparing TRSC and the VMC, it is proposed that the negative phosphorus segregation during TRSC results from phosphorus redistribution driven by recirculating and vortex flow in the molten pool. Meanwhile, solute atoms near the advancing interface are overtaken and incorporated into the solid because of the high solidification speed. The high rolling force could promote the negative segregation of alloying elements in TRSC.

  13. The Development of Rapidly Solidified Magnesium – Copper Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to plan and carry out an experiment consisting of amorphization of industrial magnesium alloy WE 43 (Mg - 4 Y - 3 RE - 0.5 Zr modified by the copper addition. Investigated alloy modified with 20% of copper was rapidly quenched with the use of melt spinning technique. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and properties of the obtained material were extensively analyzed. The structure and phase analysis of samples were examined using X-ray diffraction method (XRD while the thermal stability of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Microstructure observations were also conducted. The microhardness tests (HV0.02 and corrosion resistance tests were carried out to investigate the properties of the material. Corrosion resistance measurements were held using a typical three-electrode system. As the result of the research, the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of investigated alloy was determined.

  14. Properties of rapidly solidified Al-12.5 Si-1Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawtik, N.L.; Abdel Hady, E.M.; Bastawros, A.M. [Nat. Res. Centre, Giza (Egypt). Solid State Phys. Dept.

    1998-11-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-12.5 Si-1 Ni ribbons were prepared by melt spinning. The Si solid solubility was extended to high values as deduced from X-ray diffraction and TEM. This high solubility of Si was found to have significant effects on the various properties of this alloy. High values of electric resistivity was observed which was about four times the fully annealed values. Furthermore rapid solidification improved the tensile strength and the toughness of this alloy as compared with its classically solidified counter part. The relaxation kinetics was followed by isothermal resistivity measurements. The relaxation follows an equation which has the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) form. No metastable phase was observed. (orig.)

  15. Corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified Al-Cu and Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgis, N.N. (Corrosion Dept., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Helwan (Egypt)); Bastawros, A.M. (Physics Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt))

    1992-12-01

    This work has shown that rapidly solidified AlSi alloy is more resistant than AlCu when exposed in either neutral or acidic chloride solutions. This can be related to Si, metalloid element, which accelerates active dissolution of the alloy surface and causes rapid formation of a passive film and subsequent enrichment of Al in the film. This is in agreement with the views of Naka et al. on the role of metalloid elements, like phosphorus, in promoting the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys. (orig.)

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified FeAlCr intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Rodríguez‐Díaz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work results regarding microstructural characterization of a melt‐spun intermetallic compound Fe40Al5Cr (% at.produced by rapid solidification employing the melt spinning technique at three different tangential wheel speeds (12, 16 and20 ms‐1 are presented. Melt spun ribbons were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM in order toobserve morphology, grain size, ribbon thickness and also fracture surfaces after tensile tests. EDS coupled to SEM wasemployed to perform punctual and scan line chemical analyses on samples, x‐ray diffraction (XRD was utilized to identify crystalstructure and phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was employed to confirm crystal structure and also tocharacterize nanopores formed in the specimens by vacancy clustering. With regard to mechanical properties, micro hardnessVickers measurements as well as tensile tests at room temperature were applied to the rapidly solidified ribbons.The grain size of rapidly solidified Fe40Al5Cr ribbons suffered a drastic reduction as compared with alloys of the samecomposition produced by conventional melting and casting methods, and in melt‐spun ribbons it decreases as the wheel speedincreases. Punctual and line‐scanning chemical analyses revealed that Cr enters in solid solution in FeAl matrix. Hardnessmeasurements revealed a softening in rapidly solidified FeAlCr ribbons as compared with FeAl alloys and tensile test exhibited a(transgranular + intergranular mode of fracture, reaching up to 3 % of elongation in FeAlCr alloys. The presence of porous(meso and nano were also characterized.

  17. Undercooling of Rapidly Solidified Droplets and Spray Formed Strips of Al-Cu (Sc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogno, A.; Natzke, P.; Yin, S.; Henein, H.

    Impulse Atomization (IA) (a single fluid atomization technique) was used to rapidly solidify Al-4.5wt%Cu and Al-4.5wt%Cu-0.4wt%Sc under argon atmosphere. In addition to the IA-generated droplets, the same technique was used to produce strips by Spray Deposition (SD) of the same alloys on a copper substrate with and without oil coating. The rapid solidification microstructures were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the SEM images, the amount of eutectic and the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) were measured. These SDAS results lead to the estimation of cooling rate. The eutectic fraction coupled with the metastable extension of the solidus and liquidus lines of Al-Cu (Sc) phase diagram lead to the estimation of primary and eutectic undercoolings. A comparison of the solidification path of the droplets and the strips was done as well as the analysis of the effects of scandium.

  18. A new technology for concentrating and solidifying liquid LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, N. [TMC, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Osborn, M.W.; Carey, C.C. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    One of the unsolved problem areas of low level radioactive waste management is the radiolabeled material generated by life sciences research and clinical diagnostics. In hundreds of academic, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical institutions, there exists large amounts of both aqueous and organic solutions containing radioactively labeled nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, and their monomeric components. We have invented a generic slurry capable of binding all these compounds, thus making it possible to concentrate and solidify the radioactive molecules into a very small and lightweight material. The slurry can be contained in both large and small disposal plastic devices designed for the size of any particular operation. The savings in disposal costs and convenience of this procedure is a very attractive alternative to the present methods of long and short term storage. Additionally, the slurry can remove radiolabeled biological compounds from organic solvents, thus solving the major problem of {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} waste. We are now proceeding with the field application stage for the testing of these devices and anticipate widespread use of the process. We also are exploring the use of the slurry on other types of liquid low level radioactive waste.

  19. Microstructure Properties of Rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rietveld X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to analyze the weight fraction of precipitation phases and microstructure characterizations of rapidly solidified Al-8Zn-4Mg-xCu, x = 1, 4, 8, and 10 alloys (in wt.%, prepared by melt spun technique. A good agreement between observed and calculated diffraction pattern was obtained and the conventional Rietveld factors (Rp, Rwp, and GOF converged to satisfactory values. Solid solubilities of Zn, Mg, and Cu in α-Al were extended to high values. Besides, metastable Al0.71Zn0.29, intermetallic Al2CuMg, Al2Cu, and CuMgZn phases have been observed for x = 4, 8, and 10 Cu alloys. The crystal structure and microstructure characterizations exhibit strong Cu content dependence.

  20. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  1. Dendrite growth morphologies in rapidly solidified Al-4.5wt.%Cu droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Reinhart, G.; Bogno, A.-A.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Boller, E.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Henein, H.

    2016-03-01

    The impulse atomization process developed at the University of Alberta (Canada) enables metallic powders to be solidified with controlled process parameters and improved properties. In order to investigate the microstructure morphologies in droplets of Al- 4.5wt.%Cu alloys, three-dimensional reconstructions of several droplets are obtained by using synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography, allowing a visualization of the inner microstructure in three dimensions. The analysis of the reconstructed volumes reveals that a wide range of morphology, from highly branched to “finger-bundle”, can be obtained for different droplets of similar diameter and produced in the same batch. Unexpectedly for this alloy, microstructural features also indicate that the development of the dendrite arms (primary and of higher orders) occurs in most droplets along crystallographic axes, instead of the usual directions observed in conventional casting technologies.

  2. Microstructural observations and thermal stability of a rapidly solidified aluminum-gadolinium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, S.J.; Eliezer, D.; Froes, F.H. (Rapid Solidification Group, Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Drottning Kristinas vag 48, S-114 28 Stockholm (SE))

    1987-08-01

    Rapid solidification processing has significant potential to extend the use of aluminum alloys to higher temperatures (200/sup 0/C to 350/sup 0/C). In particular, alloys based on Al-Fe-X compositions, where X = Ce or Mo, have been studied in detail. Cerium is representative of the family of rare earth, or lanthanide elements, and forms a number of intermetallic compounds with aluminum. Alloys containing rare earths other than cerium have received little attention, although for several reasons they are considered worthy of study. Rapidly solidified ribbons were prepared from this alloy by the chill block melt spinning technique at a peripheral wheel velocity of 20.4 m/s. A melt temperature of --1300/sup 0/C was used to ensure complete dissolution of all intermetallic particles. The ribbons produced were typically about 100 ..mu..m thick and 2 to 3 mm wide. Standard polishing techniques were used to prepare sections for optical microscopy and microhardness measurements. Room temperature Keller's reagent (diluted to 50 vol pct, in water) was used to etch the samples. Thin foils were prepared for TEM by electropolishing from both sides of the ribbon using the window technique.

  3. Surface precipitation of chromium in rapidly solidified Cu-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Milan; Karpe, Blaž; Jakša, Gregor; Kovač, Janez

    2013-07-01

    Rapidly solidified ribbons of Cu-Cr alloys with 2.27 and 4.20 at.% of chromium were produced using the melt-spinning method. Alloys were analyzed by electron microscopy for complete solubility of Cr in copper matrix. To avoid disturbing effects of Cr phase particles, the kinetics and the sequence of microstructural transformations during heating were analyzed only the sample with 2.27 at.% of chromium with complete Cr solubility in the copper matrix. We then investigated the precipitation process for this alloy that was subsequently heated at a constant rate. The increased solid solubility obtained allowed the extensive precipitation of a Cr-rich phase. The kinetics and the sequence of microstructural changes that occurred during the heating were analyzed using an in situ measurement of the electrical resistance. The quenched microstructure was analyzed at transition points using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as a very surface-sensitive method, was applied to study the changes in the chemical composition of the surface for the Cu-Cr alloy ribbons in the temperature range 400-700 °C during an in situ heat treatment in an ultra-high vacuum. The results show a relatively rapid precipitation of chromium to the surface, which starts at 400 °C and is correlated with a change in the microstructure and the electrical resistance. The Cr-precipitation is faster at higher temperatures and follows the parabolic law. The resistivity results for the supersaturated binary alloy were analyzed using the Ozawa method to give an activation energy for the precipitation of 196 ± 10 kJ mol-1.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Novel Rapidly Solidified, High-Temperature Al-Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2016-02-12

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe11.4Si1.8V1.6Mn0.9 (wt. %), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1-0.25µm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5-1.0µm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300°C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2MPa at room temperature and 298.0MPa at 300°C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.

  5. Magnetism-Structure Correlations during the ε→τ Transformation in Rapidly-Solidified MnAl Nanostructured Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jiménez-Villacorta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and structural aspects of the annealing-induced transformation of rapidly-solidified Mn55Al45 ribbons from the as-quenched metastable antiferromagnetic (AF ε-phase to the target ferromagnetic (FM L10 τ-phase are investigated. The as-solidified material exhibits a majority hexagonal ε-MnAl phase revealing a large exchange bias shift below a magnetic blocking temperature TB~95 K (Hex~13 kOe at 10 K, ascribed to the presence of compositional fluctuations in this antiferromagnetic phase. Heat treatment at a relatively low annealing temperature Tanneal ≈ 568 K (295 °C promotes the nucleation of the metastable L10 τ-MnAl phase at the expense of the parent ε-phase, donating an increasingly hard ferromagnetic character. The onset of the ε→τ transformation occurs at a temperature that is ~100 K lower than that reported in the literature, highlighting the benefits of applying rapid solidification for synthesis of the rapidly-solidified parent alloy.

  6. Magnetism-Structure Correlations during the epsilon ->tau Transformation in Rapidly-Solidified MnAl Nanostructured Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Villacorta, F; Marion, JL; Oldham, JT; Daniil, M; Willard, MA; Lewis, LH

    2014-01-21

    Magnetic and structural aspects of the annealing-induced transformation of rapidly-solidified Mn55Al45 ribbons from the as-quenched metastable antiferromagnetic (AF) epsilon-phase to the target ferromagnetic (FM) L1(0) tau-phase are investigated. The as-solidified material exhibits a majority hexagonal epsilon-MnAl phase revealing a large exchange bias shift below a magnetic blocking temperature T-B similar to 95 K (H-ex similar to 13 kOe at 10 K), ascribed to the presence of compositional fluctuations in this antiferromagnetic phase. Heat treatment at a relatively low annealing temperature T-anneal approximate to 568 K (295 degrees C) promotes the nucleation of the metastable L1(0) tau-MnAl phase at the expense of the parent epsilon-phase, donating an increasingly hard ferromagnetic character. The onset of the epsilon ->tau transformation occurs at a temperature that is similar to 100 K lower than that reported in the literature, highlighting the benefits of applying rapid solidification for synthesis of the rapidly-solidified parent alloy.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N.R., E-mail: Nicole.Overman@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Mathaudhu, S.N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); University of California, Riverside, 3401 Watkins Dr., Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Choi, J.P.; Roosendaal, T.J.; Pitman, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} (wt.%), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1–0.25 μm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5–1.0 μm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300 °C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2 MPa at room temperature and 298.0 MPa at 300 °C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • A novel alloy, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} was fabricated by rapid solidification. • Room temperature yield strength exceeded 500 MPa. • Elevated temperature (300 °C) yield strength exceeded 275 MPa. • Forging, after extrusion of the alloy resulted in microstructural coarsening. • Decreased strength and ductility was

  8. Evaluation of Ti(3)Si Phase Stability from Heat-Treated, Rapidly Solidified Ti-Si Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, Alex Matos da Silva; de Lima, Gisele Ferreira; Rodrigues,Geovani; NUNES, Carlos Angelo; Coelho,Gilberto Carvalho; Suzuki, Paulo Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Ti-base alloys containing significant amounts of silicon have been considered for high temperature structural applications. Thus, information concerning phase stability on the Ti-Si system is fundamental and there are not many investigations covering the phase stability of the Ti(3)Si phase, specially its dependence on oxygen/nitrogen contamination. In this work the stability of this phase has been evaluated through heat-treatment of rapidly solidified Ti-rich Ti-Si alloys at 700 A degrees C ...

  9. A Study on the Physical Properties and Interfacial Reactions with Cu Substrate of Rapidly Solidified Sn-3.5Ag Lead-Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jie; Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Kunwar, A.

    2013-08-01

    A rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy produced by the melt-spinning technique was used as a sample in this research to investigate the microstructure, thermal properties, solder wettability, and inhibitory effect of Ag3Sn on Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC). In addition, an as-cast Sn-3.5Ag solder was prepared as a reference. Rapidly solidified and as-cast Sn-3.5Ag alloys of the same size were soldered at 250°C for 1 s to observe their instant melting characteristics and for 3 s with different cooling methods to study the inhibitory effect of Ag3Sn on Cu6Sn5 IMC. Experimental techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and energy-dispersive spectrometry were used to observe and analyze the results of the study. It was found that rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder has more uniform microstructure, better wettability, and higher melting rate as compared with the as-cast material; Ag3Sn nanoparticles that formed in the rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder inhibited the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC during aging significantly much strongly than in the as-cast material because their number in the rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder was greater than in the as-cast material with the same soldering process before aging. Among the various alternative lead-free solders, this study focused on comparison between rapidly solidified and as-cast solder alloys, with the former being observed to have better properties.

  10. Amorphous Phase Formation Analysis of Rapidly Solidified CoCr Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogno, Abdoul-Aziz; Riveros, Carlos; Henein, Hani; Li, Delin

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates amorphous phase formation and rapid solidification characteristics of a CoCr alloy. High cooling rate and high undercooling-induced rapid solidification of the alloy was achieved by impulse atomization in helium atmosphere. Two atomization experiments were carried out to generate powders of a wide size range from liquid CoCr at two different temperatures. Amorphous fraction and kinetic crystallization properties of impulse atomized powders were systematically quantified by means of differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, different but complementary characterization tools were used to analyze the powders microstructures. The fraction of amorphous phase within the investigated powders is found to be promoted by high cooling rate or smaller powder size. The critical cooling rate for amorphous phase formation, which is influenced by the oxygen content in the melt, is found to be 3 × 104 K s-1 and corresponds to a 160- µm-diameter powder atomized in helium. Hardness of the powders is found to follow a trend that is described by the Hall-Petch relation when a relatively high fraction of crystalline structures is present and decreases with the fraction of amorphous phase.

  11. Microstructure Evolution and Biodegradation Behavior of Laser Rapid Solidified Mg–Al–Zn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxian He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The too fast degradation of magnesium (Mg alloys is a major impediment hindering their orthopedic application, despite their superior mechanical properties and favorable biocompatibility. In this study, the degradation resistance of AZ61 (Al 6 wt. %, Zn 1 wt. %, remaining Mg was enhanced by rapid solidification via selective laser melting (SLM. The results indicated that an increase of the laser power was beneficial for enhancing degradation resistance and microhardness due to the increase of relative density and formation of uniformed equiaxed grains. However, too high a laser power led to the increase of mass loss and decrease of microhardness due to coarsened equiaxed grains and a reduced solid solution of Al in the Mg matrix. In addition, immersion tests showed that the apatite increased with the increase of immersion time, which indicated that SLMed AZ61 possessed good bioactivity.

  12. Biocompatibility of rapidly solidified magnesium alloy RS66 as a temporary biodegradable metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, Elmar; Kalla, Katharina; Bartsch, Ivonne; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Remennik, Sergei; Shechtman, Dan; Nellesen, Jens; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogt, Carla; Witte, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys are very promising materials for temporary implants. However, the clinical use of magnesium-based alloys is often limited by rapid corrosion and by insufficient mechanical stability. Here we investigated RS66, a magnesium-based alloy with extraordinary physicochemical properties of high tensile strength combined with a high ductility and a homogeneous grain size of ~1 μm which was obtained by rapid solidification processing and reciprocal extrusion. Using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we analyzed the biodegradation behavior and the biocompatibility of this alloy. In vitro, RS66 had no cytotoxic effects in physiological concentrations on the viability and the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In vivo, RS66 cylinders were implanted into femur condyles, under the skin and in the muscle of adult rabbits and were monitored for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks. After explantation, the RS66 cylinders were first analyzed by microtomography to determine the remaining RS66 alloy and calculate the corrosion rates. Then, the implantation sites were examined histologically for healing processes and foreign body reactions. We found that RS66 was corroded fastest subcutaneously followed by intramuscular and bony implantation of the samples. No clinical harm with transient gas cavities during the first 6 weeks in subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation sites was observed. No gas cavities were formed around the implantation site in bone. The corrosion rates in the different anatomical locations correlated well with the local blood flow prior to implantation. A normal foreign body reaction occurred in all tissues. Interestingly, no enhanced bone formation could be observed around the corroding samples in the condyles. These data show that RS66 is biocompatible, and due to its interesting physicochemical properties, this magnesium alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc

  13. Investigation of the effect of rapidly solidified braze ribbons on the microstructure of brazed joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Wiesner, S.; Rochala, P.; Mayer, J.; Aretz, A.; Iskandar, R.; Schwedt, A.

    2017-03-01

    Shrinkage and warpage due to melting and solidification are crucial for the geometric precision of related components. In order to assure a high geometric precision, the formation of the microstructure in the joint during brazing must be taken into consideration. An extensive interaction can occur between liquid melt and base material, resulting in the formation of distinctive phases. This interaction depends on the parameters of the brazing process. However, the consequences of the interaction between phase formation and process parameters in terms of geometric precision cannot be estimated yet. Insufficient quality of the joint can be a result. In this study, investigations focus on the process of solidification in terms of time dependent diffusion behavior of elements. Therefore, microcrystalline and amorphous braze ribbons based on Ti are produced by rapid solidification and are used for joining. The microstructure of the braze ribbons as well as the melting behavior and phase formation during brazing are considered to be of particular importance for the mechanical properties of the brazed components.

  14. Improving permanent magnetic properties of rapidly solidified nanophase RE-TM-B alloys by compositional modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn; Liu, Yan; Deheri, P.K.; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Davies, H.A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Rapid solidification is one of the most important techniques to produce nanocrystalline rare-earth-transition metal-boron (RE-TM-B) hard magnetic materials. To achieve high performance on these NdFeB-based alloys, compositional modification and microstructure optimization have been frequently employed. In this short review, various substitutions and doping elements have been discussed regarding to their behaviors in adjusting the individual or combined hard magnetic properties as well as the microstructure based on our recent results. It has been demonstrated that Pr and Dy enhance coercivity {sub j}H{sub C}, whereas Sm reduces {sub j}H{sub C} due to their effects on intrinsic properties. Co improves the thermal stability as well as the microstructure. Introducing Fe{sub 65}Co{sub 35} is a possible approach to enhance the magnetization and maximum energy product (BH){sub max}. As a doping element, Ta was found to play an important role to obtain an appropriate combination of magnetic properties for this type of alloys.

  15. Microstructures and properties of rapidly solidified Cu90Zr10-xAlx alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-wen Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available u90Zr10-xAlx (x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9; at.% alloy rods were synthesized based on rapid solidification method. The structure, distribution of elements, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the Cu-based alloy samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, electro-probe micro-analyzer (EPMA, uniaxial compression test and four-probe technique. The as-cast Cu90Zr10-xAlx (x=1, 3, 5; at.% alloy rods with a diameter of 2 mm exhibit good mechanical properties and electrical conductivity, i.e., high compressive yield strength of 812-1513 MPa, Young’s modulus of 52-85 GPa, Vickers hardness of 250-420 and electrical conductivity of 11.1%-12.6% IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard. The composite microstructure composed of high density fibrous duplex structure (Cu5Zr and α-Cu phases is thought to be the origin of the high strength.

  16. Recovery Phenomenon During Annealing of an As-Rapidly Solidified Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhigang; Mao, Shuaiying; Lin, Yaojun; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Limin

    2017-06-01

    It has been well documented that recovery occurring in metals/alloys produced via solid-state quenching involves only annihilation of supersaturated vacancies. Interestingly, in the present study, we observed completely different mechanisms underlying recovery during annealing of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7075 Al) alloy processed via liquid-state quenching, i.e., rapid solidification (specifically melt spinning herein). The as-melt-spun alloy consists of refined grains containing tangled dislocations inside the grains. Following annealing at 393 K (120 °C) for 24 hours, refined grain structure was still retained and grain sizes essentially remained unchanged, but subgrains separated by dense dislocation walls were generated at grain interiors, with a much lower density of dislocations at subgrain interiors than that in the as-melt-spun 7075 Al alloy and dislocation arrays inside some subgrains. The microstructural evolution suggests the absence of recrystallization and the occurrence of recovery primarily via the annihilation and rearrangement of dislocations and the formation of subgrains. Based on the stored energy in dislocations in, and the annealing temperature of, the as-melt-spun 7075 Al alloy, the recovery phenomenon was analyzed and discussed in detail.

  17. Evolution of rapidly solidified NiAlCu(B) alloy microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeppe, Tomasz; Ochin, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    This study concerned phase transformations observed after rapid solidification and annealing at 500, 700 and 800 degrees C in 56.3 Ni-39.9 Al-3.8 Cu-0.06 B (E1) and 59.8 Ni-36.0 Al-4.3 Cu-0.06 B (E2) alloys (composition in at.%). Injection casting led to a homogeneous structure of very small, one-phase grains (2-4 microm in size). In both alloys, the phase observed at room temperature was martensite of L1(0) structure. The process of the formation of the Ni(5)Al(3) phase by atomic reordering proceeded at 285-394 degrees C in the case of E1 alloy and 450-550 degrees C in the case of E2 alloy. Further decomposition into NiAl (beta) and Ni(3)Al (gamma') phases, the microstructure and crystallography of the phases depended on the path of transformations, proceeding in the investigated case through the transformation of martensite crystallographic variants. This preserved precise crystallographic orientation between the subsequent phases, very stable plate-like morphology and very small beta + gamma' grains after annealing at 800 degrees C.

  18. Precipitate Evolution and Strengthening in Supersaturated Rapidly Solidified Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kyle; Kampe, S. L.; Swenson, Douglas; Sanders, P. G.

    2017-04-01

    Because of the low diffusivities of scandium and zirconium in aluminum, trialuminide precipitates containing these elements have been reported to possess excellent thermal stability at temperatures of 573 K (300 °C) and higher. However, the relatively low equilibrium solubilities of these elements in aluminum limit the achievable phase fraction and, in turn, strengthening contributions from these precipitates. One method of circumventing this limitation involves the use of rapid solidification techniques to suppress the initial formation of precipitates in alloys containing higher solute compositions. This work specifically discusses the fabrication of supersaturated Al-Sc, Al-Zr, and Al-Sc-Zr alloys via melt spinning, in which supersaturations of at least 0.55 at. pct Zr and 0.8 at. pct Sc are shown to be attainable through XRD analysis. The resulting ribbons were subjected to a multistep aging heat treatment in order to encourage a core-shell precipitate morphology, the precipitate evolution behavior was monitored with XRD and TEM, and the aging behavior was observed. While aging in these alloys is shown to follow similar trends to conventionally processed materials reported in literature, with phase fraction increasing until higher aging temperatures causing a competing dissolution effect, the onset of precipitation begins at lower temperatures than previously observed and the peak hardnesses occurred at higher temperature steps due to an increased aging time associated with increased solute concentration. Peaking in strength at a higher temperature doesn't necessarily mean an increase in thermal stability, but rather emphasizes the need for intelligently designed heat treatments to take full advantage of the potential strengthening of supersaturated Al-Sc-Zr alloys.

  19. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  20. Electrochemical properties of rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni(-Cu) base anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Sohn, Keun Yong; Park, Won-Wook

    2013-11-01

    In this study, rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been investigated as high capacity anodes for Li-ion secondary batteries. To obtain nano-sized Si particles dispersed in the inactive matrix, the alloy ribbons were fabricated using the melt spinning process. The thin ribbons were pulverized using ball-milling to make a fine powder of ˜ 4 µm average size. Coin-cell assembly was carried out under an argon gas in a glove box, in which pure lithium was used as a counter-electrode. The cells were cycled using the galvanostatic method in the potential range of 0.01 V and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. The microstructure and morphology were examined using an x-ray diffractometer, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among the anode alloys, the Si70Ti15Ni15 electrodes had the highest discharge capacity (974.1 mAh/g) after the 50th cycle, and the Si60Ti16Ni16Cu8 electrode showed the best coulombic efficiency of ˜95.9% in cyclic behavior. It was revealed that the Si7Ni4Ti4 crystal phase coexisting with an amorphous phase, could more efficiently act as a buffer layer than the fully crystallized Si7Ni4Ti4 phase. Consequently, the electrochemical properties of the anode materials pronouncedly improved when the nano-sized primary Si particle was dispersed in the inactive Si7Ni4Ti4-based matrix mixed with an amorphous structure.

  1. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Li, X L; Zhou, W R; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s(-1), 30 m s(-1) and 45 m s(-1) with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200–500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50–100 μm)of the original as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds(1.43 mm yr(-1) for RS15, 0.94 mm yr(-1) for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr(-1) for RS45). The RS Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells,whereas the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot.

  2. Incorporating an extended dendritic growth model into the CAFE model for rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: zjy6162@staff.shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-05-25

    We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.

  3. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part I. Microstructural Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Particles of Cu x Al y in Sn-Cu-Al solders have previously been shown to nucleate the Cu6Sn5 phase during solidification. In this study, the number and size of Cu6Sn5 nucleation sites were controlled through the particle size refinement of Cu x Al y via rapid solidification processing and controlled cooling in a differential scanning calorimeter. Cooling rates spanning eight orders of magnitude were used to refine the average Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 particle sizes down to submicron ranges. The average particle sizes, particle size distributions, and morphologies in the microstructures were analyzed as a function of alloy composition and cooling rate. Deep etching of the samples revealed the three-dimensional microstructures and illuminated the epitaxial and morphological relationships between the Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 phases. Transitions in the Cu6Sn5 particle morphologies from faceted rods to nonfaceted, equiaxed particles were observed as a function of both cooling rate and composition. Initial solidification cooling rates within the range of 103 to 104 °C/s were found to be optimal for realizing particle size refinement and maintaining the Cu x Al y /Cu6Sn5 nucleant relationship. In addition, little evidence of the formation or decomposition of the ternary- β phase in the solidified alloys was noted. Solidification pathways omitting the formation of the ternary- β phase agreed well with observed room temperature microstructures.

  4. Effects of intermetallic phases on the electrochemical properties of rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys for rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong Ae; Jo, In Joo; Park, Won-Wook; Sohn, Keun Yong

    2016-09-01

    The microstructures and the electrochemical properties of rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys of various compositions were investigated in order to elucidate the effects of intermetallic phases on the cyclic energy capacity of the materials. Rapidly-solidified ribbons of the alloys were prepared by using a melt-spinning process, which is one of the most efficient rapid-solidification processes. The ribbons were fragmented by using a ball-milling process to produce powders of the alloys. To examine the electrochemical characteristics of the alloys, we mixed each of the alloy powders with Ketjenblack®, a conductive material, and a binder dissolved in deionized water and used it to form electrodes. The electrolyte used was 1.5-M LiPF6 dissolved in ethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/fluoroethylene carbonate. The microstructures and the phases of the alloys were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The obtained results showed that the microstructures of the rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys were composed of Si and CrSi2 phases. Fine Si particles with diameters of 50 - 100 nm were observed in an eutectic constituent while the sizes of the primary Si and CrSi2 phases were relatively larger at 500 - 900 nm. The specific energy capacities ( C) of the Si-Cr alloys decreased linearly with increasing volume fraction ( f) of the CrSi2 phase as follows: C = -1,667 f + 1,978 after the 50th cycle. The Columbic efficiency after the 3rd cycle increased slightly with increasing volume fraction of the CrSi2 phase; this was effective in improving the cycling capacity of the Si particles.

  5. Selective aluminum dissolution as a means to observe the microstructure of nanocrystalline intermetallic phases from Al-Fe-Cr-Ti-Ce rapidly solidified alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcová, Alena; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Novák, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Rapidly solidified aluminum alloys are promising materials with very fine microstructure. The microscopy observation of these materials is complicated due to overlay of fcc-Al matrix and different intermetallic phases. A possible way to solve this problem is to dissolve the Al matrix. By this process powder formed by single intermetallic phase particles is obtained. In this paper a new aqueous based dissolving agent for Al-based alloy is presented. The influence of oxidation agent (FeCl(3)) concentration on quality of extraction process was studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapidly solidified Ag-Cu eutectics: A comparative study using drop-tube and melt fluxing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Mullis, A. M.; Cochrane, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of rapid solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy processed via melt fluxing and drop-tube techniques is presented. A computational model is used to estimate the cooling rate and undercooling of the free fall droplets as this cannot be determined directly. SEM micrographs show that both materials consist of lamellar and anomalous eutectic structures. However, below the critical undercooling the morphologies of each are different in respect of the distribution and volume of anomalous eutectic. The anomalous eutectic in flux- undercooled samples preferentially forms at cell boundaries around the lamellar eutectic in the cell body. In drop-tube processed samples it tends to distribute randomly inside the droplets and at much smaller volume fractions. That the formation of the anomalous eutectic can, at least in part, be suppressed in the drop-tube is strongly suggestive that the formation of anomalous eutectic occurs via remelting process, which is suppressed by rapid cooling during solidification.

  7. Room-Temperature Indentation Creep and the Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Solidified Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mustafa; El-Bediwi, A.; Lashin, A. R.; El-Zarka, A. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the room-temperature indentation creep and the mechanical properties of Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys. Rapid solidification from melt using the melt-spinning technique is applied to prepare all the alloys. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the creep displacement increases with the increase in both time and applied load, and the stress exponent increases with the increase in the copper content in the alloys which happens primarily due to the existence of the intermetallic compounds SbSn and Cu6Sn5. The calculated values of the stress exponent are in the range of 2.82 to 5.16, which are in good agreement with the values reported for the Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys. We have also studied and analyzed the structure, elastic modulus, and internal friction of the Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys.

  8. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  9. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiangwei [Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Xing, Zhuokan [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Fengmao, E-mail: liufengmao@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Zhang, Xu [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  10. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  11. Hydrogen-induced changes in the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of a Zn-Al eutectoid alloy rapidly solidified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Jimenez, Alberto; Iturbe Garcia, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: alberto.sandoval@inin.gob.mx; asandovalj@correo.unam.mx; Negrete Sanchez, Jesus [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Torres Villasenor, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Ribbon fractions of a zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn40.8Al%at.) alloy, obtained by rapid solidification using melt spinning technique, were submitted to a thermo-hydrogenation process by periods of 1, 6, 18, 24, 30, and 48 hours, to 200 degrees Celsius and 20 atmospheres. Thermo-hydrogenated samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen-induced changes were produced, such as microstructure refining, development of crystalline defects, microhardness changes and modification of stable crystalline structures to {alpha}R meta-stable phase at room temperature. [Spanish] Fracciones de tiras de una aleacion eutectoide de zinc-aluminio (Zn40.8Al%at.), obtenidas mediante solidificacion rapida usando la tecnica de melt spinning, se sometieron a un proceso de termohidrogenacion por periodos de 1, 6, 18, 24, 30 y 48 horas, a 200 grados centigrados y 20 atmosferas. Las muestras termohidrogenadas se analizaron por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET). Se produjeron cambios inducidos por hidrogeno, tales como la refinacion de la microestructura, el desarrollo de defectos cristalinos, cambios de microdureza y modificacion de las estructuras cristalinas estables a fase metaestable {alpha}R a temperatura ambiente.

  12. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  13. Application of Rapidly Solidified Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    from high speed cinematography , the liquid metal dwell time was cut from a period on the order of 80 milliseconds to one less than 10 milliseconds...formation theory, in which a liquid film is disintegrated directly into droplets, anticipates an exponent on_ on the order of 1, still below the values

  14. Polyjet technology applications for rapid tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Jetting (PolyJet has proved to be one of the most accurate additive manufacturing technologies, in order to manufacture rapid tools. Rapid Tooling (RT is different from conventional tooling as follow: manufacturing time is shorter, the cost is much less, but the tool life is shorter and tolerances are wider. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study between the soft tools (silicon moulds and hard tools (acrylic thermoplastic moulds based on the Polymer Jetting technology. Thus, two types of moulds have been made in order to manufacture a test part. Reaction injection moulding (RIM and casting techniques were used to fill these moulds with resins that simulate the plastic injection materials. Rapid tooling applications, such as indirect tooling and direct tooling, based on PolyJet technology were experimentally investigated.

  15. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ordering systems to facilitate streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and...PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and timeliness. This thesis

  16. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  17. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B

    1993-01-01

    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  18. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  19. Liquid Phase Separation and the Aging Effect on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Laser Rapidly Solidified Cu100−xCrx Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hua Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duplex structure Cu-Cr alloys are widely used as contact materials. They are generally designed by increasing the Cr content for the hardness improvement, which, however, leads to the unfavorable rapid increase of the electrical resistivity. The solidification behavior of Cu100−xCrx (x = 4.2, 25 and 50 in wt.% alloys prepared by laser rapid solidification is studied here, and their hardness and electrical conductivity after aging are measured. The results show that the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy has the most desirable combination of hardness and conductive properties after aging in comparison with Cu-25%Cr and Cu-50%Cr alloys. Very importantly, a 50% improvement in hardness is achieved with a simultaneous 70% reduction in electrical resistivity. The reason is mainly attributed to the liquid phase separation occurring in the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy, which introduces a large a

  20. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (alloy with low Fe content (alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  1. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (alloy with low Fe content (alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  2. Inducing magnetic anisotropy and optimized microstructure in rapidly solidified Nd-Fe-B based magnets by thermal gradient, magnetic field and hot deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Li, W.; Wu, X. H.; Hussain, M.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, G. Q.; Greneche, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Direct preparation of Nd-Fe-B alloys by rapid solidification of copper mold casting is a very simple and low cost process for mini-magnets, but these magnets are generally magnetically isotropic. In this work, high coercivity Nd24Co20Fe41B11Al4 rods were produced by injection casting. To induce magnetic anisotropy, temperature gradient, assisted magnetic field, and hot deformation (HD) procedures were employed. As-cast samples showed non-uniform microstructure due to the melt convection. The thermal gradient during solidification led to the formation of radially distributed acicular hard magnetic grains, which gives the magnetic anisotropy. The growth of the oriented grains was confirmed by phase field simulation. A magnetic field up to 1 T applied along the casting direction could not induce significant magnetic anisotropy, but it improved the magnetic properties by reducing the non-uniformity and forming a uniform microstructure. The annealed alloys exhibited high intrinsic coercivity but disappeared anisotropy. HD was demonstrated to be a good approach for inducing magnetic anisotropy and enhanced coercivity by deforming and refining the grains. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich anisotropic bulk Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  3. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  4. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong

    1998-08-01

    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  5. ETV Tech Brief: Rapid Fungi and Bacteria Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical brief that summarizes the results for Mycometer, Inc. Mycometer®-test and Bactiquant®-test, which are rapid detection technologies for fungi and bacteria. The brief summarizes the results of the verification report and statement.

  6. Medical Information & Technology: Rapidly Expanding Vast Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Anil K.

    2012-12-01

    During ÑMedical Council Of India?, Platinum Jubilee Year (1933-2008) Celebrations, In Year 2008, Several Scientific Meeting/Seminar/Symposium, On Various Topics Of Contemporary Importance And Relevance In The Field Of ÑMedical Education And Ethics?, Were Organized, By Different Medical Colleges At Various Local, State, National Levels. The Present Discussion, Is An Comprehensive Summary Of Various Different Aspects of ìMedical Information Communication Technologyî, Especially UseFul For The Audience Stratum Group Of Those Amateur Medical & Paramedical Staff, With No Previous Work Experience Knowledge Of Computronics Applications. Outlining The, i.Administration Applications: Medical Records Etc, ii. Clinical Applications: Pros pective Scope Of TeleMedicine Applicabilities Etc iii. Other Applications: Efforts To Augment Improvement Of Medical Education, Medical Presentations, Medical Education And Research Etc. ÑMedical Trancription? & Related Recent Study Fields e.g ÑModern Pharmaceuticals?,ÑBio-Engineering?, ÑBio-Mechanics?, ÑBio-Technology? Etc., Along With Important Aspects Of Computers-General Considerations, Computer Ergonomics Assembled To Summarize, The AwareNess Regarding Basic Fundamentals Of Medical Computronics & Its Practically SuccessFul Utilities.

  7. Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery: Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -2 9 Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery: Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu re s...Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation Haley P. Bell and Jay Rowland Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development...evaluation of selected saw technologies , tools, and methodologies for improving the efficiency of sawing around damaged pavement associated with crater

  8. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, Vladimir; Dmitrak, Yury

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator' driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  9. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golik Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator’ driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  10. Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS): A novel approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    lipids based drug delivery systems. Salome Amarachi Chime* and Ikechukwu V. Onyishi. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria. Accepted 24 December, 2013. Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) are reverse micelles containing lecithin ...

  11. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  12. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  13. Rapid prototyping technology and its application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zhou, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Xiong-Sheng

    Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies. This review focuses on the basic principles and characteristics of various fabrication technologies, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and fused deposition modeling, and reviews the application of rapid prototyping techniques to scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In the near future, the use of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prepared by rapid prototyping technology might be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone defects.

  14. RAPID CHANGES IN SOCIETY, TECHNOLOGY ,ECONOMY AND PUBLIC SERVICE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthendu Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current paper has the purpose to analyze the statement by Drucker (1985 that rapid changes in today’s society, technology, and economy in general are simultaneously a great threat to public-service institutions and even greater opportunity. The statement by Drucker will be analyzed  particularly with context of post offices that what are they going through these days or have gone through. Finally, some recommendations will be made for USPS based on the findings of the analysis..

  15. PAHs leaching test for solidified waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, R.; Grathwohl, P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience

    2003-07-01

    The treatment of waste materials to allow recycling or safe disposal is a rapidly expanding business, but also subject to increasing public awareness of enviromental issues and tightening of the regularise governing in many countries. One of the most widely used treatment for wastes is stabilisation /solidification using a cement matrix to obtain a monolithic residue. The most common test procedure to assess the risks of contaminant release into water (seepage, surface and groundwater) is the so-called ''tank leaching test'' or ''diffusion test'' (NEN 7345, Mulder et al 2001, Hohberg et al 2000), in which a solidified specimen is leached with water during different periods of time. The tests are usually done at room temperatures between 20 C and 25 C. However, the temperature under natural conditions are lower resulting in lower contaminant release rates. (subsurface temperature: 5 C - 10 C). If the thermodynamics of the contaminant release, especially the activation energy of desorption and diffusion, is known, it is possible to estimate the contaminant release for lower temperatures, e.g. down to groundwater temperatures. In addition the test can be accelerated if performed at high temperatures.

  16. New technologies for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Harris, Mary C

    2012-04-01

    To present recent literature on novel diagnostic tests in neonatal sepsis. Our review of technologies for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis includes new adaptations of time-honored tests as well as advances on the forefront of medicine. A recent study demonstrates that age-specific likelihood values for the complete blood count may determine risk of infection. Systematic reviews of procalcitonin, mannose-binding lectin and molecular amplification techniques provide summary data from accumulated literature on these tests. Proteomics-based and genomics-based exploratory researches suggest new combinations of markers as important signals of sepsis, whereas damage-associated molecular patterns, a class of inflammatory mediators now viewed as key players in the inflammatory cascade, may be useful predictors of disease progression and severity. Heart rate variability monitoring has also been suggested as a way to reduce mortality in very low birth weight neonates. Finally, molecular techniques are rapidly advancing in sophistication and may soon be useful as adjunctive bacterial identification tests. Several novel tests show promise in the early detection of sepsis. Highlights include new combinations of biomarkers unearthed by proteomics-based research and identification of sepsis based on gene expression profiling. Future research should focus on validation of these findings and further refinement of molecular techniques.

  17. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  18. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  19. Emerging technologies for rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Atul; Morgan, Margie; Haake, David A

    2014-07-15

    Technologies for rapid microbial identification are poised to revolutionize clinical microbiology and enable informed decision making for patients with life-threatening bloodstream infections. Species identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures can be performed in minutes using commercial fluorescence in situ hybridization tests or mass spectroscopy. Microorganisms in positive blood cultures can also be identified within 1-2.5 hours using automated polymerase chain reaction-based systems that can also detect selected antibiotic resistance markers, such as methicillin resistance. When combined with antibiotic stewardship programs, these approaches improve clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare expenditures. Tests for direct detection in whole blood samples are highly desirable because of their potential to identify bloodstream pathogens without waiting 1-2 days for blood cultures to become positive. However, results for pathogen detection in whole blood do not overlap with those of conventional blood culture techniques and we are still learning how best to use these approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Characterization of Solidifiers used for Oil Spill Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical characteristics and chemical composition of oil spill solidifiers were studied, and correlation of these properties with product effectiveness enabled determination of characteristics that are desirable in a good solidifier. The analyses revealed that the commercial...

  1. Additive manufacturing technologies: 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Ian; Rosen, David; Stucker, B

    2015-01-01

    .... This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also...

  2. Studying the Technology of Creating Cortical Electrode Instruments using the Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablyaz T. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of studying the technology of manufacturing cortical electrode-instruments (EI with the use of indirect methods of the Rapid Prototyping technology. Functional EI prototypes were made by layered synthesis of the photopolymer material with the use of the stereolithography technology (SLA - Stereo Lithography Apparatus. The article is focused on two methods of indirect EI manufacturing. One of the EI prototypes was used for making a molded wax model for hot investment casting, followed by applying copper coating. The second prototype was used for applying copper plating to a prepared current-conductive layer. As a result of EDMing a steel workpiece, both EIs reached the desired depth, which is 1 mm. The copper plating applied to the EI preserves its integrity. Through the use of the casting technology, there is a possibility to cut the economic costs by 35%. Using a prototype with preliminarily applied conductive coating makes it possible to make geometrically-complex EIs.

  3. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  4. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  5. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  6. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  7. Rapid Response to Decision Making for Complex Issues - How Technologies of Cooperation Can Help

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saveri, Andrea; Vian, Kathi; Rheingold, Howard

    2005-01-01

    .... A new capacity for rapid, ad hoc, and distributed decision making is emerging from the intersection of technologies of cooperation and new knowledge about the nature of cooperation and cooperative strategies...

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Rapidly Solidified Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    the overlapping melt spots used to refine the surface microstructure. Figure 11. A crystal of the same type as shown in Figure 12, but aligned with a...rows there is a spacing of spots which follows a Fibonacci sequence for some distance until a defect is encountered; normal to the rows we then have...Gaussian. The fit shown corresponds to two overlapping Gaussians (see Table III). Fig. 4. SEM photographs of the edge of a flake with x - 0.20. The

  9. Additive manufacturing technologies 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Ian; Stucker, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given,  beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered  

  10. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...... it has been suggested to perform a so called tracker trial. In such trials protocols are more flexible without prefixed sample size and will require repeated interim analyses. Often, it will be relevant to supplement the clinical trials with data from large clinical databases - in particular when long...

  11. [Effects and influential factors of rapid prototyping technology in dental restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiao-Ling; Yuan, Jia-Kan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effects and influential factors of rapid prototyping technology in dental restorations. From May 2013 to November 2014 in our hospital, 120 patients were divided into experimental group and conventional group. Patients in the experimental group were treated by rapid prototyping technology, while patients in the conventional group were treated by routine methods. The effects of the two groups were compared using SPSS 17.0 software package. The effective rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the conventional group (P<0.05). Complications in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the conventional group (P<0.05). Rapid prototyping technology can be used in the treatment of patients with dentition defects with satisfactory results and fewer adverse reactions.

  12. [Application status of rapid prototyping technology in artificial bone based on reverse engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ao; Zheng, Min; Fan, Ding

    2015-02-01

    Artificial bone replacement has made an important contribution to safeguard human health and improve the quality of life. The application requirements of rapid prototyping technology based on reverse engineering in individualized artificial bone with individual differences are particularly urgent. This paper reviewed the current research and applications of rapid prototyping and reverse engineering in artificial bone. The research developments and the outlook of bone kinematics and dynamics simulation are also introduced.

  13. Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Bruno; Baglio, Salvatore; Bulsara, Adi R.; Emery, Teresa; Marletta, Vincenzo; Pistorio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology. PMID:28368318

  14. Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Bruno; Baglio, Salvatore; Bulsara, Adi R; Emery, Teresa; Marletta, Vincenzo; Pistorio, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology.

  15. Application of solidifiers for oil spill containment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Fernanda L; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Soares, João B P

    2018-03-01

    The need for new and/or improvement of existing oil spill remediation measures has increased substantially amidst growing public concern with the increased transportation of unconventional crudes, such as diluted bitumen products. Solidifiers may be a very good spill response measure to contain and mitigate the effects of oil discharge incidents, as these interact with the oil to limit hydrocarbon release into air and water, prevent it from adhering onto sediment and debris, and could allow for oil recovery and reuse. Solidifiers change the physical state of the spilled oil from liquid to a coherent mass by chemical interactions between the spilled oil and the solidifier. Currently, the use of solidifiers is limited to small spills near shorelines. To extend their use to large-scale spill containment operations, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of solidifier action and to establish consistent criteria for evaluation of their effectiveness. The research effort to date has been focused mainly on gelators and cross-linking agents, with particularly impressive advancements in the areas of phase-selective polymeric and small-molecule gelators. Substantial research efforts are needed to improve solidifier performance and integrate solidifiers as part of spill response procedures, particularly for acute oil spills involving unconventional petroleum products. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid DNA technologies at the crime scene : ‘CSI’ fiction matching reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapes, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes how mobile Rapid DNA analysis may be implemented as a potential effective tool in modern day law enforcement. It is expected that this technology will affect the role of the forensic institutes and the tasks of professionals in the Criminal Justice System (CJS). The research in

  17. Rapid and real-time detection technologies for emerging viruses of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-17

    Oct 17, 2008 ... The development of technologies with rapid and sensitive detection capabilities and increased throughput have become crucial for responding to greater number threats posed by emerging and re-emerging viruses in the recent past. The conventional identification methods require time-consuming culturing ...

  18. The application of Rapid Manufacturing technologies in the spare parts industry

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hasan; Rennie, A. E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The advancement of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) has ushered the possibility of realising complex designs. This paper identifies the potential of possible applications of RM in the spare parts industry. It further underlines the need for a fully functional RM supply chain before proposing an e-business enabled business model for RM technologies.

  19. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  20. Application of Sorbents and Solidifiers for Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide assists product manufacturers and members of the response community in distinguishing a sorbent from a solidifier for purposes of listing such products on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule and applying them in the field.

  1. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  2. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  3. What Technology Startups Must Get Right to Globalize Early and Rapidly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon or shortly after inception, growth-oriented technology startups must operate in a market that is global. Management teams and investors of technology startups can benefit from approaches and models that can help them operate in a global market early and rapidly. How well a technology startup addresses the realities of globalization will determine its success. A better understanding of what management teams and investors of technology startups must get right to globalize their startups is needed. This article is an attempt to meet this need. In this article, lessons that have been extracted from six literature streams and from information on 21 startups founded in 12 countries are used to identify the six elements that a startup must get right to globalize early and rapidly. These six elements are: i Problem scope, ii Stakeholders’ commitments, iii Collaborative entrepreneurship, iv Relational capital, v Legitimacy, and vi Global capability. The main contribution of this article is that it throws the spotlight on the need to develop prescriptive rules and practitioner-oriented models that can help a technology startup operate globally from an early stage.

  4. The Information Technology Program Manager’s Dilemma: Rapidly Evolving Technology and Stagnant Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    information technology systems. The current DoDI 5000.02 leaves IT project and program managers wondering how the current process applies to them, as the guidance is fairly rigid and does not allow for the flexibility required to appropriately manage IT programs. Until very recently, in comparison to the development of a traditional weapons system, IT programs seemed to have been viewed as a utility or service instead of a critical component to national security. Perhaps that is because data passing through cables cannot be observed with the naked senses and therefore an

  5. Applications of the Rapid Prototyping Technology to Manufacture the Pelton Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Rapid Prototyping technology using Objet Desktop 3D Printer to manufacture two Pelton runners that are destined for experimental measurements on a Pelton microturbine. The runners are different by bucket’s number and the bucket’s geometry of the second runner is similar with those of the first runner, but scaled in all directions with the bucket’s numbers ratio.

  6. [Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction for hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quan-Wen; Song, Hui-Feng; Xu, Ming-Huo; Liu, Chun-Ming; Chai, Jia-Ke

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical application of mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction to correct hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology. The patient' s skull resin model was manufactured with rapid prototyping technology. The osteotomy was designed on skull resin model. According to the preoperative design, the patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular ramus osteotomy. The internal mandible distractor was embedded onto the osteotomy position. The occlusal titanium pin was implanted. Distraction were carried out by mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction 5 days after operation. The distraction in five patients was complete as designed. No infection and dysosteogenesis happened. The longest distance of distraction was 28 mm, and the shortest distance was 16 mm. The facial asymmetry deformity was significantly improved at the end of distraction. The ocelusal plane of patients obviously improved. Rapid prototyping technology is helpful to design precisely osteotomy before operation. Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction can correct hemifacial microsomia. It is worth to clinical application.

  7. Mobile Technology in the Perioperative Arena: Rapid Evolution and Future Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Brian S; Gupta, Rajnish K; McEvoy, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have relied upon disruptive innovations and technologies to improve the quality of care delivered, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. The implementation of mobile technology in health care is quickly becoming the next disruptive technology. We first review the history of mobile technology over the past 3 decades, discuss the impact of hardware and software, explore the rapid expansion of applications (apps), and evaluate the adoption of mobile technology in health care. Next, we discuss how technology serves as the vehicle that can transform traditional didactic learning into one that adapts to the learning behavior of the student by using concepts such as the flipped classroom, just-in-time learning, social media, and Web 2.0/3.0. The focus in this modern education paradigm is shifting from teacher-centric to learner-centric, including providers and patients, and is being delivered as context-sensitive, or semantic, learning. Finally, we present the methods by which connected health systems via mobile devices increase information collection and analysis from patients in both clinical care and research environments. This enhanced patient and provider connection has demonstrated benefits including reducing unnecessary hospital readmissions, improved perioperative health maintenance coordination, and improved care in remote and underserved areas. A significant portion of the future of health care, and specifically perioperative medicine, revolves around mobile technology, nimble learners, patient-specific information and decision-making, and continuous connectivity between patients and health care systems. As such, an understanding of developing or evaluating mobile technology likely will be important for anesthesiologists, particularly with an ever-expanding scope of practice in perioperative medicine.

  8. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  9. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  10. Design and manufacturing of ear prosthesis by means of rapid prototyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzio, F; Fantini, M; Ciocca, L; Persiani, F; Scotti, R

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the complete procedure to design and construct reusable moulds for implant-based ear prosthesis and manufacture substructures by means of a computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) procedure and rapid prototyping (RP) technology is presented. The scan of the healthy ear, the virtual superimposition of its mirrored image on to the defective side, and the rapid manufacturing of the substructure and of the mould eliminate several steps of traditional procedures (wax, stone, try-in). Moreover, the precise design and customization of the substructure is presented, with the original and engineered shape for the retention of the silicone. The time and cost saving results of this protocol are presented together with a discussion of the main design features that make the prosthesis a stable and reproducible system to improve rehabilitation of patients with auricular defects or absence.

  11. Mechanical Properties of a Partially Solidified Cu-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Naoki; Nakazawa, Tomoaki; Matsushita, Akira; Okane, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    For predicting solidification cracking by thermal stress analysis, the mechanical properties in the partially solidified state based on the experimental results are the best hope. However, the Young's modulus has never been investigated for copper alloys. In this study, stress-strain curves of a Cu-Zn alloy in the partially solidified state for various solid fractions were obtained using a specially developed horizontal tensile test device. Furthermore, by removing the load during the tensile test, the spring-back (elastic behavior) was observed and the Young's modulus was obtained.

  12. New technologies applied to surgical processes: Virtual Reality and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Mejías, Cristina; Gomez-Ciriza, Gorka; Valverde, Israel; Parra Calderón, Carlos; Gómez-Cía, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    AYRA is software of virtual reality for training, planning and optimizing surgical procedures. AYRA was developed under a research, development and innovation project financed by the Andalusian Ministry of Health, called VirSSPA. Nowadays AYRA has been successfully used in more than 1160 real cases and after proving its efficiency it has been introduced in the clinical practice at the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital . Furthermore, AYRA allows generating physical 3D biomodels using rapid prototyping technology. They are used for surgical planning support, intraoperative reference or defect reconstruction. In this paper, some of these tools and some real cases are presented.

  13. Understanding rapid internationalization of new low-technology ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-building study makes an attempt to advance the field of international entrepreneurship that is (i) fragmented and suffers from theoretical paucity, as well as from coverage bias by focusing mostly on high-technology international new ventures from developed economies and (ii) that needs...... to borrow more actively from other disciplines in order for the international entrepreneurship theory to emerge. In this endeavour, the study draws from the institutional theory in order to explore the process of rapid internationalization of new ventures from emerging economies....

  14. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Old knowledge and new technologies allow rapid development of model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles E; Chenevert, Janet; Larsson, Tomas A; Arendt, Detlev; Houliston, Evelyn; Lénárt, Péter

    2016-03-15

    Until recently the set of "model" species used commonly for cell biology was limited to a small number of well-understood organisms, and developing a new model was prohibitively expensive or time-consuming. With the current rapid advances in technology, in particular low-cost high-throughput sequencing, it is now possible to develop molecular resources fairly rapidly. Wider sampling of biological diversity can only accelerate progress in addressing cellular mechanisms and shed light on how they are adapted to varied physiological contexts. Here we illustrate how historical knowledge and new technologies can reveal the potential of nonconventional organisms, and we suggest guidelines for selecting new experimental models. We also present examples of nonstandard marine metazoan model species that have made important contributions to our understanding of biological processes. © 2016 Cook et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Study on rapid bio-drying technology of cow dung with CaO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotian; Qu, Guangfei; Liu, Shugen; Xie, Ruosong; He, Yanhua

    2017-05-01

    Effect of CaO2 on cow dung rapid bio-drying technology was researched. A static aerobic composting system was applied to this experiment which combining natural ventilation with Turing in the process of composting. The physical characteristics of cow dung was observed and the compost temperature, moisture content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium content was determined which in order to study the effect of CaO2 on rapid drying of cattle in the compost. In the initial stage of compost, adding CaO2 groups compared with the control group, the temperature rise faster, 4-6 days in advance to the thermophilic phase; at the end of composting, the CaO2 composition and moisture content decreased significantly to below 30%. The addition of CaO2 in fertilizer was shorten the composting time, extend the thermophilic phase, to provide sufficient oxygen meeting the growth needs of aerobic microorganisms. It convinced that the rapid bio-drying of dairy manure has a good effect and provided a new idea for the effective treatment of cow dung.

  17. Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS): A novel approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) are reverse micelles containing lecithin and a triglyceride, for example, SOFTISAN®142, which is hydrogenated coco glyceride. SRMS transform into a lamellar mesophase after melting on contact with water; this transformation enables controlled release of solubilized drugs.

  18. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  19. Value of databases other than medline for rapid health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Dennett, Liz; Clement, Fiona

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the degree to which databases other than MEDLINE contribute studies relevant for inclusion in rapid health technology assessments (HTA). We determined the extent to which the clinical, economic, and social studies included in twenty-one full and four rapid HTAs published by three Canadian HTA agencies from 2007 to 2012 were indexed in MEDLINE. Other electronic databases, including EMBASE, were then searched, in sequence, to assess whether or not they indexed studies not found in MEDLINE. Assessment topics ranged from purely clinical (e.g., drug-eluting stents) to those with broader social implications (e.g., spousal violence). MEDLINE contributed the majority of studies in all but two HTA reports, indexing a mean of 89.6 percent of clinical studies across all HTAs, and 88.3 percent of all clinical, economic, and social studies in twenty-four of twenty-five HTAs. While EMBASE contributed unique studies to twenty-two of twenty-five HTAs, three rapid HTAs did not include any EMBASE studies. In some instances, PsycINFO and CINAHL contributed as many, if not more, non-MEDLINE studies than EMBASE. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing the topic-specific relative value of including EMBASE, or more specialized databases, in HTA search protocols. Although MEDLINE continues to be a key resource for HTAs, the time and resource limitations inherent in the production of rapid HTAs require that researchers carefully consider the value and limitations of other information sources to identify relevant studies.

  20. Application of solidified sea bottom sediments into environmental bioremediation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H.A. Dabwan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since dredged sea bottom sediments normally give off a horrible smell, the limitation of disposal places has become a serious problem in Japan. Hence, development of an alternative system to readily treat dredged sea bottom sediments is therefore needed. The development of “value-added” reused products from these sediments offers particular benefits both in terms of resource recovery and protection of the environment. We developed an in situ solidification system for the treatment of sea bottom sediments, the “Hi-Biah-System (HBS”. Firstly, this review deals with solidified sea bottom sediments for the construction of an artificial tidal flat in Ago Bay, Japan. The environmental conditions (pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP, acid volatile sulphide (AVS, loss on ignition (LOI, water content (WC, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (T-N, chlorophyll a and particle size were then monitored in the constructed tidal flat. The number of benthos individuals and growth of short-necked clams (Ruditapes philippinarum in the artificial tidal flat were also evaluated. The environmental conditions, number of benthos individuals and growth of short-necked clams in the artificial tidal flat were shown to be similar to those observed in a natural tidal flat. Next, the potential use of solidified sea bottom sediments as soil parent material in the germination/growth of seagrass is presented. The soil parent material consisting of solidified sediments obtained using HBS plus soil conditioner and hardener seems to be effective for the germination of Zostera marina. The best growth after six months was observed in plants grown in soil parent material consisting of a mixture of solidified sediments and the sand by weight ration 70:30. The present study may suggest the possible application of solidified sea bottom sediments into growth of other plants.

  1. The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Cooper, Katy; Pandor, Abdullah; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Chatters, Robin; Wong, Ruth

    2016-08-26

    Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues to consider when selecting an appropriate method. Three recently completed systematic review short reports produced for the UK National Institute for Health Research were examined. Different approaches to rapid review methods were used in the three reports which were undertaken to inform the commissioning of services within the NHS and to inform future trial design. We describe the methods used, the reasoning behind the choice of methods and explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Rapid review methods were chosen to meet the needs of the review and each review had distinctly different challenges such as heterogeneity in terms of populations, interventions, comparators and outcome measures (PICO) and/or large numbers of relevant trials. All reviews included at least 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), each with numerous included outcomes. For the first case study (sexual health interventions), very diverse studies in terms of PICO were included. P-values and summary information only were presented due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and outcomes measured. For the second case study (premature ejaculation treatments), there were over 100 RCTs but also several existing systematic reviews. Data for meta-analyses were extracted directly from existing systematic reviews with new RCT data added where available. For the final case study (cannabis cessation therapies), studies included a wide range of interventions and considerable variation in study populations and outcomes. A brief summary of the key findings for each study was presented and narrative synthesis used to summarise results for each

  2. The method of parallel-hierarchical transformation for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPGPU technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Leonid; Yarovyi, Andrii; Kokriatskaya, Nataliya; Nakonechna, Svitlana; Abramenko, Ludmila; Ławicki, Tomasz; Popiel, Piotr; Yesmakhanova, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a method of parallel-hierarchical transformations for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPU technology. Direct parallel-hierarchical transformations based on cluster CPU-and GPU-oriented hardware platform. Mathematic models of training of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network for the transformation are developed, as well as a training method of the PH network for recognition of dynamic images. This research is most topical for problems on organizing high-performance computations of super large arrays of information designed to implement multi-stage sensing and processing as well as compaction and recognition of data in the informational structures and computer devices. This method has such advantages as high performance through the use of recent advances in parallelization, possibility to work with images of ultra dimension, ease of scaling in case of changing the number of nodes in the cluster, auto scan of local network to detect compute nodes.

  3. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  4. Microstructure evolution of directionally solidifi ed Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuangming

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The directionally solidifi ed microstructure of Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy has been investigated at various solidifi cation rates using a high-thermal gradient directional solidifi cation apparatus. The results indicate that the solidifi cation microstructure consists of hard primary intermetallic SnSb phase embedded in a matrix of soft peritectic β-Sn phase. The primary SnSb phase exhibits faceted growth with tetragonal or trigonal shapes. At the same time, the primary SnSb phase is refi ned with an increase in the solidifi cation rate and dispersed more uniformly in the matrix of β-Sn phase. The volume fraction of the SnSb phase fi rstly decreases and then increases when the solidifi cation rate increases in directional solidifi cation of Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy.

  5. Satellite Sensornet Gateway Technology Infusion Through Rapid Deployments for Environmental Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, T.; Silva, F.; Deschon, A.; Ye, W.; Cho, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Satellite Sensornet Gateway (SSG) is an ongoing ESTO Advanced Information Systems Technology project, at the University of Southern California. The major goal of SSG is to develop a turnkey solution for building environmental observation systems based on sensor networks. Our system has been developed through an iterative series of deployment-driven design, build, test, and revise which maximizes technology infusion to the earth scientist. We have designed a robust and flexible sensor network called Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN). Our SPAN architecture emphasizes a modular and extensible design, such that core building blocks can be reused to develop different scientific observation systems. To support rapid deployment at remote locations, we employ satellite communications as the backhaul to relay in-situ sensor data to a central database. To easily support various science applications, we have developed a unified sensor integration framework that allows streamlined integration of different sensors to the system. Our system supports heterogeneous sets of sensors, from industry-grade products to research- specific prototypes. To ensure robust operation in harsh environments, we have developed mechanisms to monitor system status and recover from potential failures along with additional remote configuration and QA/QC functions. Here we briefly describe the deployments, the key science missions of the deployments and the role that the SSG technology played in each mission. We first deployed our SSG technology at the James Reserve in February 2007. In a joint deployment with the NEON project, SDSC, and UC Riverside, we set up a meteorological station, using a diverse set of sensors, with the objective of validating our basic technology components in the field. This system is still operational and streaming live sensor data. At Stunt Ranch, a UC Reserve near Malibu, CA, we partnered with UCLA biologist Phillip Rundel in order to study the drought

  6. Crystal clear transparent lipstick formulation based on solidified oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clermont-Gallerande, H; Chavardes, V; Zastrow, L

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a lipstick, the stick of which looks totally transparent. The base, coloured or not, may contain high concentration of actives or fragrances. The present study examines the process of determination of oils and solidifying agents. The selecting criterion include visible spectroscopic measurements to quantify transparency of the formulated product. We have also validated the stick hardness through drop point and breakage measurements. After several investigations, we selected a mixture of oils and solidifying agents. The oil network obtained has been characterized through optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. We can show that the final product we obtained is amorphous and its solidity can be explained by chemical bonds formation.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Closed Porosity of Inorganic Solidified Foam Designed to Prevent Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the deficiency of the existing fire control technology and control coal spontaneous combustion by sealing air leakages in coal mines, inorganic solidified foam (ISF with high closed porosity was developed. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentration on the porosity of the foams was investigated. The results showed that the optimized closed porosity of the solidified foam was 38.65 wt.% for an SDS concentration of approximately 7.4×10-3 mol/L. Based on observations of the microstructure of the pore walls after solidification, it was inferred that an equilibrium between the hydration process and the drainage process existed. Therefore, the ISF was improved using three different systems. Gelatin can increase the viscosity of the continuous phase to form a viscoelastic film around the air cells, and the SDS + gelatin system can create a mixed surfactant layer at gas/liquid interfaces. The accelerator (AC accelerates the hydration process and coagulation of the pore walls before the end of drainage. The mixed SDS + gelatin + AC systems produced an ISF with a total porosity of 79.89% and a closed porosity of 66.89%, which verified the proposed stabilization mechanism.

  8. Rapid Detection of Pediatric Bacteriuria Using Narrow Angle Forward Laser Scattering Technology (NAFLST) with Bacterioscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Adriana; Jhaveri, Ravi; Levinson, Kara; Miller, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Pediatric urinary tract infections (UTI) are common, but culture-based diagnosis can take up to 48 hours. This time delay means patients are exposed to potentially unnecessary antibiotics. The sensitivity of screening urinalysis can vary, so rapid detection of UTI by another means would be beneficial. Narrow Angle Forward Laser Scattering Technology (NAFLST) with Bacterioscan can rapidly detect bacteriuria by shining a laser continuously through a liquid sample containing replicating bacteria, and graphing the degree of light refraction over time. Higher degrees of light refraction represent higher initial bacterial load and continued bacterial growth. After 3 hours, the optical scatter classifies a sample as either Likely Positive or Likely Negative. We compared Bacterioscan results to culture data in pediatric patients to assess the ability to diagnose UTI and avoid unnecessary urine culture. Methods This protocol was approved by the UNC Biomedical Institutional Review Board. Over one month, 169 pediatric (<18 yo) urine cultures were collected as part of routine patient care. An individual urine sample and 2.5mL of Sterile Tryptic Soy Broth were pipetted into a Bacterioscan micro-curette. Bacterioscan labeled the specimen as Likely Positive or Likely Negative after a 3 hour period. Results were then compared with urine culture results obtained by routine microbiologic methods. Results Of the 169 urine cultures, 96 were positive, but only 27 were positive for uropathogens. Bacterioscan was 100% sensitive and 58.4% specific in predicting clinically relevant/pathogenic bacterial growth in culture (PPV 31.3%, NPV 100%), and 70.8% sensitive and 75.3% specific in predicting any bacterial growth (PPV 79.0%, NPV 66.2%). If a “Likely Positive” Bacterioscan result had been used in our study population to screen urine samples for culture, then 58% (83/142) of negative urine cultures would have been eliminated with no UTIs missed. Conclusion By

  9. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  10. Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses and time of deboning on weight loss and technological quality of pork semimembranosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, Vladimir M; Petrović, Ljiljana S; Džinić, Natalija R

    2008-12-01

    The effect of rapid air chilling of carcasses in the first 3 h of chilling at -31°C (then at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) and the possibility of earlier deboning (8 h post-mortem) after rapid air chilling, compared to conventional air chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) on weight loss and technological quality (pH value, tenderness, drip loss, cooking loss and colour - L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values) of pork M. semimembranosus was investigated. Under the rapid chilling conditions, weight loss was 0.8% at 8 h post-mortem and increased to 1.4% at 24 h post-mortem when weight loss was 2.0% under conventional chilling. Carcasses that were rapid chilled had significantly lower (Pchill treatment (32.7, 24.2, 19.1 and 5.1°C, respectively). Rapid chilling reduced significantly (Pchill treatment (5.88). Compared to conventional chilling, in M. semimembranosus deboned in different time post-mortem, rapid chilling had a positive significant effect on drip loss (Pchilling i.e. rapid chilling and earlier deboning had neither positive nor negative significant effects (P>0.05) on other investigated technological quality parameters of M. semimembranosus (tenderness, a(∗) value and b(∗) value) compared to conventional chilling.

  11. Importance of microscopy in durability studies of solidified and stabilized contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, I.; Wilding, L.P.; Drees, L.R.; Landa, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is recognized by the U.S. EPA as a best demonstrated available technology for the containment of contaminated soils and other hazardous wastes that cannot be destroyed by chemical, thermal, or biological means. Despite the increased use of S/S technologies, little research has been conducted on the weathering and degradation of solidified and stabilized wastes once the treated materials have been buried. Published data to verify the performance and durability of landfilled treated wastes over time are rare. In this preliminary study, optical and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy [SEM], transmission electron microscopy [TEM] and electron probe microanalyses [EPMA]) were used to evaluate weathering features associated with metal-bearing contaminated soil that had been solidified and stabilized with Portland cement and subsequently buried on site, stored outdoors aboveground, or achieved in a laboratory warehouse for up to 6 yr. Physical and chemical alteration processes identified include: freeze-thaw cracking, cracking caused by the formation of expansive minerals such as ettringite, carbonation, and the movement of metals from waste aggregates into the cement micromass. Although the extent of degradation after 6 yr is considered slight to moderate, results of this study show that the same environmental concerns that affect the durability of concrete must be considered when evaluating the durability and permanence of the solidification and stabilization of contaminated soils with cement. In addition, such evaluations cannot be based on leaching and chemical analyses alone. The use of all levels of microscopic analyses must be incorporated into studies of the long-term performance of S/S technologies.Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is recognized by the U.S. EPA as a best demonstrated available technology for the containment of contaminated soils and other hazardous wastes that cannot be destroyed by chemical

  12. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  13. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  14. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  16. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  17. Nickel speciation in cement-stabilized/solidified metal treatment filtercakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: reroy@lsu.edu [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA (United States); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • XAS shows the same Ni speciation in untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Ni solubility is the same for untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Leaching is controlled by pH and physical encapsulation for all binders. - Abstract: Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is used to decrease environmental leaching of contaminants from industrial wastes. In this study, two industrial metal treatment filtercakes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR); speciation of nickel was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Although the degree of carbonation and crystallinity of the two untreated filtercakes differed, α-nickel hydroxide was identified as the primary nickel-containing phase by XRD and nickel K edge XAS. XAS showed that the speciation of nickel in the filtercake was unaltered by treatment with any of five different S/S binder systems. Nickel leaching from the untreated filtercakes and all their stabilized/solidified products, as a function of pH in the acid neutralization capacity test, was essentially complete below pH ∼5, but was 3–4 orders of magnitude lower at pH 8–12. S/S does not respeciate nickel from metal treatment filtercakes and any reduction of nickel leaching by S/S is attributable to pH control and physical mechanisms only. pH-dependent leaching of Cr, Cu and Ni is similar for the wastes and s/s products, except that availability of Cr, Cu and Zn at decreased pH is reduced in matrices containing ground granulated blast furnace slag.

  18. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  19. Low-temperature deposition manufacturing: A novel and promising rapid prototyping technology for the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Daming; Huang, Jianghong; Wei, You; Xiong, Jianyi; Zhu, Weimin; Duan, Li; Chen, Jielin; Sun, Rong; Wang, Daping

    2017-01-01

    Developed in recent years, low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) represents one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies. It is not only based on rapid deposition manufacturing process but also combined with phase separation process. Besides the controlled macropore size, tissue-engineered scaffold fabricated by LDM has inter-connected micropores in the deposited lines. More importantly, it is a green manufacturing process that involves non-heating liquefying of materials. It has been employed to fabricate tissue-engineered scaffolds for bone, cartilage, blood vessel and nerve tissue regenerations. It is a promising technology in the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold similar to ideal scaffold and the design of complex organs. In the current paper, this novel LDM technology is introduced, and its control parameters, biomedical applications and challenges are included and discussed as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapidly fabricated, modular and integrated small satellite subsystems will be developed from digital fabrication workflows. The following are planned modular...

  2. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  3. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  4. Effects of leachate concentration on the integrity of solidified clay liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of landfill leachate concentration on the degradation behaviour of solidified clay liners and to propose a viable mechanism for the observed degradation. The results indicated that the unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased significantly, while the hydraulic conductivity increased with the leachate concentration. The large pore proportion in the solidified clay increased and the sum of medium and micro pore proportions decreased, demonstrating that the effect on the solidified clay was evident after the degradation caused by exposure to landfill leachate. The unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased with increasing leachate concentration as the leachate changed the compact structure of the solidified clay, which are prone to deformation and fracture. The hydraulic conductivity and the large pore proportion of the solidified clay increased with the increase in leachate concentration. In contrast, the sum of medium and micro pore proportions showed an opposite trend in relation to leachate concentration, because the leachate gradually caused the medium and micro pores to form larger pores. Notably, higher leachate concentrations resulted in a much more distinctive variation in pore proportions. The hydraulic conductivity of the solidified clay was closely related to the size, distribution, and connection of pores. The proportion of the large pores showed a positive correlation with the increase of hydraulic conductivity, while the sum of the proportions of medium and micro pores showed a negative correlation.

  5. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  6. Evolving Technology, Shifting Expectations: Cultivating Pedagogy for a Rapidly Changing GIS Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…

  7. Building towers, domes, and arches by self-organized solidifying flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that a wide variety of delicate solid structures from slender towers to arches, and chiral pagodas can be created by simply pouring a mixture of grains and water on a liquid absorbing substrate [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 208304 (2011)]. The same suspension poured on a solid substrate would form a featureless puddle or a pile with an angle of repose. However, an absorbing substrate can quickly drain the liquid from the suspension, rapidly causing the solidification of the fluid into a mechanically stable structure. In a dripping regime, successive drops are observed to jam rapidly upon impact literally stacking on top of each other forming slender granular towers. In a jetting regime and using a moving substrate, the jet is found to bounce on and off the substrate forming regular arches. We will discuss the subtle interplay of the incoming flux of the granular suspension, the drainage efficiency of the substrate, and the mechanical properties of the solid structure. The drainage driven jamming of granular suspensions gives a new route to shape cohesive granular materials and, from a broader perspective, demonstrates the potential a solidifying fluid spreading on a substrate to create new morphologies harder to achieve by other techniques. Applications to surface patterning, rheology of dense suspension and mechanics of wet granular materials will be discussed.

  8. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  9. Structure fields in the solidifying cast iron roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S. Wołczyński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of the rolls depend on the ratio of columnar structure area to equiaxed structure area created during roll solidification. The transition is fundamental phenomenon that can be apply to characterize massive cast iron rolls produced by the casting house. As the first step of simulation, a temperature field for solidifying cast iron roll was created. The convection in the liquid is not comprised since in the first approximation, the convection does not influence the studied occurrence of the (columnar to equiaxed grains transition in the roll. The obtained temperature field allows to study the dynamics of its behavior observed in the middle of the mould thickness. This midpoint of the mould thickness was treated as an operating point for the transition. A full accumulation of the heat in the mould was postulated for the transition. Thus, a plateau at the curve was observed at the midpoint. The range of the plateau existence corresponded to the incubation period , that appeared before fully equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation, behavior of the thermal gradients field was studied. Three ranges within the filed were visible: EC→EC→EC→EC→(tTECtt↔RERCtt↔a/ for the formation of columnar structure (the C – zone: ( and 0>>T&0>>=−>−=REREttGttG.The columnar structure formation was significantly slowed down during incubation period. It resulted from a competition between columnar growth and equiaxed growth expected at that period of time. The 0≈=−=RERCttGttG relationship was postulated to correspond well with the critical thermal gradient, known in the Hunt’s theory. A simulation was performed for the cast iron rolls solidifying as if in industrial condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into two zones: C and E; (the first with columnar structure and the second with fully equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification were made on semi-industrial scale.

  10. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rapid Auto-Indexing Technology for Designing Readable E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pao-Ta; Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Su, Ming-Hsiang; Cheng, Po-Jen; Pai, Chun-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid scene indexing method is proposed to improve retrieval performance for students accessing instructional videos. This indexing method is applied to anchor suitable indices to the instructional video so that students can obtain several small lesson units to gain learning mastery. The method also regulates online course progress. These…

  12. Rapid inducible protein displacement in Plasmodium in vivo and in vitro using knocksideways technology [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie R. Hughes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium parasite is essential in order to identify targets for interventions, with the ultimate aim of eliminating malaria. Determining the function(s of essential proteins in Plasmodium has, until recently, been hampered by the lack of efficient conditional systems to abrogate proteins. We report the adaptation of a conditional technology, knocksideways (KS, for use in Plasmodium berghei, which can potentially rapidly inactivate proteins of interest through relocalisation. The system is induced using rapamycin, which allows for KS both in vitro and in vivo and is effective more rapidly than any other reported system. KS utilises pairs of fluorescent tags that facilitate live imaging and allows for rapid confirmation of efficient protein redistribution on live parasites, allowing for streamlined workflows. We demonstrate the characteristics of the system using transgenically expressed cytoplasmic GFP and provide proof of principle by inducibly redistributing a number of proteins with different native, subcellular locations.  We also demonstrate that KS can be applied to both mammalian and insect stages of Plasmodium. KS expands the range of (conditional technologies for genetic manipulation of malaria parasites and offers the potential to be further developed for medium throughput phenotype screens.

  13. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the...SORDAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) leader in rapid acquisitions, and its culture and practices should be benchmarked by the other services. This...should be benchmarked by all other services. This essay first examines SORDAC’s acquisition environment and assesses SORDAC’s unique culture. This

  14. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Farjood, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The early computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were relied exclusively on subtractive methods. In recent years, additive methods by employing rapid prototyping (RP) have progressed rapidly in various fields of dentistry as they have the potential to overcome known drawbacks of subtractive techniques such as fit problems. RP techniques have been exploited to build complex 3D models in medicine since the 1990s. RP has recently proposed successful applications in various dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, and maxillofacial prosthesis and finally, complete dentures. This paper aimed to offer a comprehensive literature review of various RP methods, particularly in dentistry, that are expected to bring many improvements to the field. A search was made through MEDLINE database and Google scholar search engine. The keywords; ‘rapid prototyping’ and ‘dentistry’ were searched in title/abstract of publications; limited to 2003 to 2013, concerning past decade. The inclusion criterion was the technical researches that predominately included laboratory procedures. The exclusion criterion was meticulous clinical and excessive technical procedures. A total of 106 articles were retrieved, recited by authors and only 50 met the specified inclusion criteria for this review. Selected articles had used rapid prototyping techniques in various fields in dentistry through different techniques. This review depicted the different laboratory procedures employed in this method and confirmed that RP technique have been substantially feasible in dentistry. With advancement in various RP systems, it is possible to benefit from this technique in different dental practices, particularly in implementing dental prostheses for different applications. PMID:25759851

  15. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  16. Immediate facial rehabilitation in cancer patients using CAD-CAM and rapid prototyping technology: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Fantini, Massimiliano; Marchetti, Claudio; Scotti, Roberto; Monaco, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    This study describes the workflow in a procedure to create a provisional facial prosthesis for cancer patients using digital and rapid prototyping technologies without the need for supporting craniofacial implants. An integrated workflow procedure aimed at the construction of provisional silicone prosthesis was used to rehabilitate a facial disfigurement in a patient who had undergone ablative surgery of the midface. A laser scan of the defect was obtained, and a digital model of the patient's face was constructed using virtual mirroring of the healthy side and referencing the "Nose Digital Library." The missing volume of the face was reconstructed, and a rapid-prototyped mold was devised to process the silicone prosthesis. A provisional eyeglasses-supported prosthesis designed with a CAD/CAM-projected titanium substructure was connected using the micro-components of implant prosthetic devices. The workflow described herein offers a viable procedure for quickly restoring facial defects by means of provisional prosthetic rehabilitation.

  17. Use of Tethered Enzymes as a Platform Technology for Rapid Analyte Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Cohen

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis for time-sensitive illnesses such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and septic shock is essential for successful treatment. Much attention has therefore focused on new strategies for rapid and objective diagnosis, such as Point-of-Care Tests (PoCT for blood biomarkers. Here we use a biomimicry-based approach to demonstrate a new diagnostic platform, based on enzymes tethered to nanoparticles (NPs. As proof of principle, we use oriented immobilization of pyruvate kinase (PK and luciferase (Luc on silica NPs to achieve rapid and sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE, a clinically relevant biomarker for multiple diseases ranging from acute brain injuries to lung cancer. We hypothesize that an approach capitalizing on the speed and catalytic nature of enzymatic reactions would enable fast and sensitive biomarker detection, suitable for PoCT devices.We performed in-vitro, animal model, and human subject studies. First, the efficiency of coupled enzyme activities when tethered to NPs versus when in solution was tested, demonstrating a highly sensitive and rapid detection of physiological and pathological concentrations of NSE. Next, in rat stroke models the enzyme-based assay was able in minutes to show a statistically significant increase in NSE levels in samples taken 1 hour before and 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours after occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery. Finally, using the tethered enzyme assay for detection of NSE in samples from 20 geriatric human patients, we show that our data match well (r = 0.815 with the current gold standard for biomarker detection, ELISA-with a major difference being that we achieve detection in 10 minutes as opposed to the several hours required for traditional ELISA.Oriented enzyme immobilization conferred more efficient coupled activity, and thus higher assay sensitivity, than non-tethered enzymes. Together, our findings provide proof of concept for using oriented immobilization of active

  18. Use of Tethered Enzymes as a Platform Technology for Rapid Analyte Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roy; Lata, James P.; Lee, Yurim; Hernández, Jean C. Cruz; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Mukai, Chinatsu; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Brangman, Sharon A.; Agrawal, Yash; Travis, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnosis for time-sensitive illnesses such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and septic shock is essential for successful treatment. Much attention has therefore focused on new strategies for rapid and objective diagnosis, such as Point-of-Care Tests (PoCT) for blood biomarkers. Here we use a biomimicry-based approach to demonstrate a new diagnostic platform, based on enzymes tethered to nanoparticles (NPs). As proof of principle, we use oriented immobilization of pyruvate kinase (PK) and luciferase (Luc) on silica NPs to achieve rapid and sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a clinically relevant biomarker for multiple diseases ranging from acute brain injuries to lung cancer. We hypothesize that an approach capitalizing on the speed and catalytic nature of enzymatic reactions would enable fast and sensitive biomarker detection, suitable for PoCT devices. Methods and findings We performed in-vitro, animal model, and human subject studies. First, the efficiency of coupled enzyme activities when tethered to NPs versus when in solution was tested, demonstrating a highly sensitive and rapid detection of physiological and pathological concentrations of NSE. Next, in rat stroke models the enzyme-based assay was able in minutes to show a statistically significant increase in NSE levels in samples taken 1 hour before and 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours after occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery. Finally, using the tethered enzyme assay for detection of NSE in samples from 20 geriatric human patients, we show that our data match well (r = 0.815) with the current gold standard for biomarker detection, ELISA—with a major difference being that we achieve detection in 10 minutes as opposed to the several hours required for traditional ELISA. Conclusions Oriented enzyme immobilization conferred more efficient coupled activity, and thus higher assay sensitivity, than non-tethered enzymes. Together, our findings provide proof of concept for using

  19. Printing low-melting-point alloy ink to directly make a solidified circuit or functional device with a heating pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-08

    A new method to directly print out a solidified electronic circuit through low-melting-point metal ink is proposed. A functional pen with heating capability was fabricated. Several typical thermal properties of the alloy ink Bi35In48.6Sn16Zn0.4 were measured and evaluated. Owing to the specifically selected melting point of the ink, which is slightly higher than room temperature, various electronic devices, graphics or circuits can be manufactured in a short period of time and then rapidly solidified by cooling in the surrounding air. The liquid-solid phase change mechanism of the written lines was experimentally characterized using a scanning electron microscope. In order to determine the matching substrate, wettability between the metal ink Bi35In48.6Sn16Zn0.4 and several materials, including mica plate and silicone rubber, was investigated. The resistance-temperature curve of a printed resistor indicated its potential as a temperature control switch. Furthermore, the measured reflection coefficient of a printed double-diamond antenna accords well with the simulated result. With unique merits such as no pollution, no requirement for encapsulation and easy recycling, the present printing approach is an important supplement to current printed electronics and has enormous practical value in the future.

  20. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  1. Rapid and quantitative detection of Brucella by up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral-flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qing; Zhu, Ziwen; Wang, Yufei; Zhong, Zhijun; Zhao, Jin; Qiao, Feng; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Yang, Ruifu; Huang, Liuyu; Yu, Yaqin; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Zeliang

    2009-10-01

    A rapid and quantitative up-converting phosphor technology-based later-flow assay (UPT-LF assay) was developed for on-site detection of Brucella. Different Brucella species both in pure cultures and in spiked samples could be quantitatively detected. The detection limit for pure culture was 5 x 10(6)CFU/ml and the sensitivity for different spiked samples ranged from 2.0 x 10(3) to 3.9 x 10(5)CFU/mg. The UPT-LF assay showed high specificity, reproducibility and stability, providing great potential for Brucella on-site detection.

  2. Haploid technology allows for the efficient and rapid generation of homozygous antibody-accumulating transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Doreen M; Kumlehn, Jochen; Conrad, Udo; Saalbach, Isolde

    2009-09-01

    The large-scale production of plant-derived recombinant proteins requires the breeding of lines homozygous for the transgene(s). These can be selected by progeny testing over multiple sexual generations, but a more efficient means is to fix homozygosity in a single generation using doubled haploid technology. In this study, transgenic tobacco plants, hemizygous for both of the independently inherited genes encoding the light and heavy chains of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus monoclonal antibody 2F5, were used to establish embryogenic pollen cultures. The improved protocol employed in this study guaranteed a very high regeneration efficiency, with more than 50% of the regenerants being spontaneously doubled haploids. Hence, there was no requirement to chemically induce chromosome doubling to recover sufficient entirely homozygous recombinants. As expected, approximately 25% of the regenerants were homozygous for both transgenes. Thus, the employment of haploid technology allowed for the efficient and rapid generation of true-breeding tobacco lines accumulating functional immunoglobulins.

  3. Rapid Detection Technology for Pesticides Residues Based on Microelectrodes Impedance Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ping Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional methods, electrochemical immunosensors have many advantages, such as low cost, high sensitivity, and rapid detection, and has certain prospects for realizing real-time-monitoring. In this paper, a design of portable pesticide residues detection instrument was presented based on an electrochemical impedance immunosensor. Firstly, we studied on an impedance immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM coupled with magnetic nanobeads-antibody conjugates (MNAC for the pesticide detection. Magnetic nanobeads (diameter 150 nm coated with anti-carbofuran antibodies were used for further amplification of the binding reaction between antibody and hapten (carbofuran. Secondly, in order to develop a portable pesticide residue apparatus, we designed the impedance detection electric circuit. Main work included designing and constructing of the system circuit, designing and debugging of the system software and so on. Thirdly, the apparatus was used for the standard pesticides solutions testing combined with immunosensor to test the reliability and stability. The pesticide added standard recovery was more than 70 % and the impedance test error was less than 5 %. The results showed that the proposed instrument had a good consistence compared with the traditional analytical methods. Thus, it would be a promising rapid detection instrument for pesticide residues in agricultural products.

  4. Particle Trapping and Banding in Rapid Colloidal Solidification

    KAUST Repository

    Elliott, J. A. W.

    2011-10-11

    We derive an expression for the nonequilibrium segregation coefficient of colloidal particles near a moving solid-liquid interface. The resulting kinetic phase diagram has applications for the rapid solidification of clay soils, gels, and related colloidal systems. We use it to explain the formation of bandlike defects in rapidly solidified alumina suspensions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Product management of making large pieces through Rapid Prototyping PolyJet® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiu, G.; Cărăuşu, C.; Şerban, D.; Turc, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid prototyping process has already become a classic manufacturing process for parts and assemblies, either polymeric or metal parts. Besides the well-known advantages and disadvantages of the process, the use of 3D printers has a great inconvenience: the overall dimensions of the parts are limited. Obviously, there is a possibility to purchase a larger (and more expensive) 3D printer, but there are always larger pieces to be manufactured. One solution to this problem is the splitting of parts into several components that can be manufactured. The component parts can then be assembled in a single piece by known methods such as welding, gluing, screwing, etc. This paper shows our experience in making large pieces on the Strarasys® Objet24 printer, pieces larger than the tray sizes. The results obtained are valid for any 3D printer using the PolyJet® process.

  6. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF or chorionic villus (CV samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.

  7. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Inés; Lara, Coral; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

  8. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  9. Prenatal BACs-on-Beads™ : a new technology for rapid detection of aneuploidies and microdeletions in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialard, F; Simoni, G; Aboura, A; De Toffol, S; Molina Gomes, D; Marcato, L; Serero, S; Clement, P; Bouhanna, P; Rouleau, E; Grimi, B; Selva, J; Gaetani, E; Maggi, F; Joseph, A; Benzacken, B; Grati, F R

    2011-05-01

    Molecular cytogenetic techniques on uncultured prenatal samples are the sole tests applied in some countries in cases with advanced maternal age (AMA) or increased risk after prenatal screening. Moreover, there is a trend to perform invasive prenatal diagnosis (PD) during the first trimester before ultrasound manifestations, so new rapid and reliable assays are necessary to investigate microdeletions not detectable with the conventional karyotype. We report the validation study of the prenatal bacterial artificial chromosomes-on-Beads™ (BoBs™ ; CE-IVD), a bead-based multiplex assay detecting chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X/Y aneuploidies and nine microdeletion regions having an overall detection rate of 1/1700. We retrospectively studied 408 selected samples and prospectively tested 212 consecutive samples ascertained for conventional karyotyping. We did not find false-positive results. Triploidies were not detected. Maternal cell contamination of male samples up to 90% was unmasked inspecting gonosome profiles. Mosaic conditions at 20 to 30% were revealed. Failures were due to low amount of DNA. Prenatal BoBs™ is a robust technology for the investigation of fetuses with normal karyotype with or without sonographic abnormalities. Running in parallel with the karyotype analysis, it can be proposed instead of rapid FISH or QF-PCR providing rapid results on common aneuploidies and additional information regarding the microdeletion syndromes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Can mobile phone technology support a rapid sharing of information on novel psychoactive substances among health and other professionals internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Pierluigi; Bersani, Francesco S; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    The diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs), combined with the ability of the Internet to act as an online marketplace, has led to unprecedented challenges for governments, health agencies, and substance misuse services. Despite increasing research, there is a paucity of reliable information available to professionals working in the field. The paper will present the pilot results of the first mobile application (SMAIL) for rapid information sharing on NPSs among health professionals. The development of SMAIL was divided into 2 parts: (a) the creation of the application for registered users, enabling them to send an SMS or email with the name or "street name" of an NPS and receive within seconds emails or SMS with the information, when available and (b) the development of a database to support the incoming requests. One hundred twenty-two professionals based in 22 countries used the service over the pilot period of 16 months (from May 2012 to September 2013). Five hundred fifty-seven enquires were made. Users received rapid information on NPSs, and 61% of them rated the service as excellent. This is the right time to use mobile phone technologies for rapid information sharing and prevention activities on NPSs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Macrostructure evolution in directionally solidified Mg-RE alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Ordorica, M. A.; Punessen, W.; Yi, S.; Bohlen, J.; Kainer, K. U.; Hort, N.

    The use of Rare-Earths (RE) to develop new cast- and wrought-magnesium alloys has acquired increased interest in recent years. The good mechanical properties of Mg-RE alloys at room temperature, and in particular their high strength at relatively high temperatures are at present well-known facts that make them very promising materials for transport applications. In this context, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the macro and microstructure evolution of cast Mg-metals directionally solidified. To this end, binary Mg-RE alloys (where RE = Gd, Nd and Y) were cast by permanent mould direct chill casting. This process was performed in a specially optimized laboratory-scale installation in order to ensure the obtention of "clean" ingots, with homogeneous composition and free of porosity and inclusions. A set of different processing conditions was evaluated in order to better control the final microstructure, mainly in terms of grain size, orientation and distribution. The grain selection mechanisms operating during the solidification of these specimens, namely texturization and Columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET), were characterized and put into relation with the initial composition of the alloy and the imposed cooling conditions.

  12. Experimental Study and Application of Inorganic Solidified Foam Filling Material for Coal Mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu Wen; Duo Zhang; Zhijin Yu; Xuezhao Zheng; Shixing Fan; Bin Laiwang

    2017-01-01

    .... Building an airtight wall is an effective measure for controlling air leakage. A new type of inorganic solidified foam-filled material was developed and its physical and chemical properties were analyzed experimentally...

  13. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect.

  14. Application of 3D rapid prototyping technology in posterior corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Li, Yanming; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Fan, Jianping; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-02-01

    A retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of 3-dimensional rapid prototyping (3DRP) technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. 3DRP technology has been widely used in medical field; however, no study has been performed on the effectiveness of 3DRP technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 AIS patients. Lenke 1 AIS patients who were preparing to undergo posterior corrective surgery from a single center between January 2010 and January 2012 were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In group A, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology was used to create subject-specific spine models in the preoperative planning process. Group B underwent posterior corrective surgery as usual (by free hand without image guidance). Perioperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between 2 groups, including operation time, perioperative blood loss, transfusion volume, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. Radiological outcomes were also compared, including the assessment of screw placement, postoperative Cobb angle, coronal balance, sagittal vertical axis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Subgroup was also performed according to the preoperative Cobb angle: mean Cobb angle Cobb angle >50°. Besides, economic evaluation was also compared between 2 groups. A total of 126 patients were included in this study (group A, 50 and group B, 76). Group A had significantly shorter operation time, significantly less blood loss and transfusion volume, and higher postoperative Hb (all, P 0.05). There was also no significant difference in misplacement of screws in total populations (16.90% vs 18.82%, P = 0.305), whereas a low misplacement rate of pedicle screws was observed in patients whose mean Cobb angle was >50° (9.15% vs 13.03%, P = 0.02). Besides, using 3DRP increased the economic burden of patients (157,000 ± 9948.85

  15. Rapid prototyping of multi-scale biomedical microdevices by combining additive manufacturing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of designing and manufacturing biomedical microdevices with multiple length-scale geometries can help to promote special interactions both with their environment and with surrounding biological systems. These interactions aim to enhance biocompatibility and overall performance by using biomimetic approaches. In this paper, we present a design and manufacturing procedure for obtaining multi-scale biomedical microsystems based on the combination of two additive manufacturing processes: a conventional laser writer to manufacture the overall device structure, and a direct-laser writer based on two-photon polymerization to yield finer details. The process excels for its versatility, accuracy and manufacturing speed and allows for the manufacture of microsystems and implants with overall sizes up to several millimeters and with details down to sub-micrometric structures. As an application example we have focused on manufacturing a biomedical microsystem to analyze the impact of microtextured surfaces on cell motility. This process yielded a relevant increase in precision and manufacturing speed when compared with more conventional rapid prototyping procedures.

  16. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than poi...... mapping technology as a comprehensive and cost-effective method for detecting structural variation and studying complex regions in the human genome, as well as deciphering viral integration into the host genome.......BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than point...... mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost...

  17. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  18. Dental occlusion ties: A rapid, safe, and non‐invasive maxillo‐mandibular fixation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives For decades, Erich arch bars have been a standard in establishing maxillo‐mandibular fixation (MMF). While reliable, the approach risks sharps injury, consumes operating room time, and inflicts gingival trauma. Newer technologies including screw‐based techniques and “hybrid” techniques have improved MMF by reducing sharps injuries and operating room time, but risk injury to tooth roots, nerves, and gingiva. This study aims to establish the application, strengths, and limitations of dental occlusion ties as a novel alternative in maxillo‐mandibular fixation. Study Design Prospective, non‐blinded, human feasibility clinical trial. Materials and Methods An iterative prototyping process was used to invent dental occlusion ties (brand name: Minne Ties). Development included 3D printing, cadaver prototype testing, human apical embrasure measurement, and ultimately non‐significant risk human clinical trial testing. In the IRB‐approved feasibility clinical trial, the devices were applied to mandible and maxilla fracture candidates with fractures amenable to intra‐operative MMF with open reduction with internal fixation. The ties were removed prior to extubation. Pre‐teens, comminuted fracture patients, and patients requiring post‐operative MMF were excluded. Results Manufactured, sterile prototypes secured MMF successfully in management of unilateral and bilateral mandible and maxilla fractures. All patients reported correction of pre‐operative malocclusion. Application times were typically 12–15 minutes for a single surgeon to achieve MMF. Patients incurred negligible gingival trauma from the technology as the ties require no tissue penetration for application. Conclusions Dental occlusion ties offer a non‐invasive solution featuring operating room efficiency, minimized sharps risk, and less bony and soft tissue trauma than current commercialized solutions. Level of Evidence Therapeutic, IV PMID:28894837

  19. Dental occlusion ties: A rapid, safe, and non-invasive maxillo-mandibular fixation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan W

    2017-08-01

    For decades, Erich arch bars have been a standard in establishing maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF). While reliable, the approach risks sharps injury, consumes operating room time, and inflicts gingival trauma. Newer technologies including screw-based techniques and "hybrid" techniques have improved MMF by reducing sharps injuries and operating room time, but risk injury to tooth roots, nerves, and gingiva. This study aims to establish the application, strengths, and limitations of dental occlusion ties as a novel alternative in maxillo-mandibular fixation. Prospective, non-blinded, human feasibility clinical trial. An iterative prototyping process was used to invent dental occlusion ties (brand name: Minne Ties). Development included 3D printing, cadaver prototype testing, human apical embrasure measurement, and ultimately non-significant risk human clinical trial testing. In the IRB-approved feasibility clinical trial, the devices were applied to mandible and maxilla fracture candidates with fractures amenable to intra-operative MMF with open reduction with internal fixation. The ties were removed prior to extubation. Pre-teens, comminuted fracture patients, and patients requiring post-operative MMF were excluded. Manufactured, sterile prototypes secured MMF successfully in management of unilateral and bilateral mandible and maxilla fractures. All patients reported correction of pre-operative malocclusion. Application times were typically 12-15 minutes for a single surgeon to achieve MMF. Patients incurred negligible gingival trauma from the technology as the ties require no tissue penetration for application. Dental occlusion ties offer a non-invasive solution featuring operating room efficiency, minimized sharps risk, and less bony and soft tissue trauma than current commercialized solutions. Therapeutic, IV.

  20. The structure and properties of rapidly solidified high alloy aluminum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    A series of 2024 type aluminum alloys modified by additions of 1 to 2% Li were studied to determine the role of the Cu:Li and the (Cu + Mg):Li ratios on resultant strength, ductility, notch-tensile behavior, and crack propagation rates. Ultrasonically gas atomized powders with quench rates of 10 to 100 thousand degrees/s were atomized in an argon atmosphere, producing yields of powder such that almost 100% was finer than 250 microns. The powders are free of gases and porosity, are quite spherical, have few satellites (adhering fine powder particles) and are of uniform microstructure. Strength properties are such that yield strength is 20% greater than for lithium-free 2024 ingot alloy, tensile strength is 10% greater than that of 2024 ingot material, and ductilities are comparable. In terms of specific strength and specific modulus, these RS 2024-Li alloys are significantly better than IM 2024.

  1. Sinterable Ceramic Powders from Laser Heated Gas Phase Reactions and Rapidly Solidified Ceramic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Gattuso, T. R., Meunier, M., Adler, D., and Haggerty, J. S., "IR Laser- Induced Deposition of Silicon Thin Films ", to be published in the Proceedings of...and Thin Films by Laser Induced Gas Phase Reactions", presented at the Nineteenth University Conference on Ceramic Science, Emergent Process Methods... Silicon Carbonitrides from Monomeric Organosilicon Precursors". To be presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society, April 1983

  2. Morphology and microstructure of rapidly solidified tin-lead alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qingchun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sn60Pb40 alloy powders were fabricated using the planar flow casting (PFC atomization process. By using OM, SEM and EPMA, the characteristics of the morphologies and microstructures of the powders have been investigated. It is observed that the environment of ambient gas in the atomization box has great effects on the morphology of the alloy powders. The microstructures of Sn60Pb40 alloy powders produced by the PFC atomization process are completely composed of eutectic, which is made up of both oversaturated α solid solution and β solid solution. The microstructures of small size powders are extraordinarily undeveloped dendritic eutectic, in which the large majority of the α phase appears nearly spherical, evidently since the cooling rate is higher and the under-cooling is larger. As for the large size powders, since the cooling rate and undercooling are relatively low, lamellar α phase apparently increases in the eutectic microstructures of these powders, and there is even typical lamellar eutectic structure clearly observed in some micro-areas. After remelting tests by DTA, the microstructures of small size powders are transformed, which become composed of large crumby α phase and eutectic (α+β, while those of large size powders change into classical tin-lead structures of primary α phase plus lamellar eutectic (α+β. By studying the microstructures of tin-lead alloy powders, a model has been proposed to predict the microstructure formation of Sn60Pb40 alloy powders.

  3. Magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified Dy{sub 3}Co alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Llamazares, J. L., E-mail: jose.sanchez@ipicyt.edu.mx; Flores-Zúñiga, H.; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4" a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Álvarez-Alonso, Pablo [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lara Rodríguez, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández-Gubieda, M. L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); BC Materials, Camino de Ibaizabal, Edificio 500, Planta 1, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Zamudio, 48160 Derio (Spain)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties of melt-spun ribbons of the Dy{sub 3}Co intermetallic compound were investigated. Samples were fabricated in an Ar environment using a homemade melt spinner system at a linear speed of the rotating copper wheel of 40 ms{sup −1}. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that ribbons crystallize into a single-phase with the Fe{sub 3}C-type orthorhombic crystal structure. The M(T) curve measured at 5 mT reveals the occurrence of a transition at 32 K from a first to a second antiferromagnetic (AFM) state and an AFM-to-paramagnetic transition at T{sub N} = 43 K. Furthermore, a metamagnetic transition is observed below T{sub N}, but the magnetization change ΔM is well below the one reported for bulk alloys. Below 12 K, large inverse MC effect and hysteresis losses are observed. This behavior is related to the metamagnetic transition. For a magnetic field change of 5 T (2 T) applied along the ribbon length, the produced ribbons show a peak value of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup peak} of −6.5 (− 2.1) Jkg{sup −1}K{sup −1} occurring close to T{sub N} with a full-width at half-maximum δT{sub FWHM} of 53 (37) K, and refrigerant capacity RC = 364 (83) Jkg{sup −1} (estimated from the product |ΔS{sub M}{sup peak}| × δT{sub FWHM})

  4. The relation between experiments and modeling of rapidly solidified 12Cr-Mo-V stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1998-01-01

    Solidification during melt spinning of a 12Cr-Mo-V stainless steel has been experimentally studied and numerically simulated. The resulting microstructures have been related to the unknown parameter h, i.e. the heat transfer coefficient between the substrate and the melt, by fitting the heat flow...... of metastable austenite as the primary phase near the chill side of the ribbon. Upon quenching to room temperature, this austenite transformed into martensite. At a distance of about 15 mu m from the chill surface, the growth velocity of the solid/liquid interface decreased (

  5. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr2Nb. The Cr2Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  6. Quatification of Primary Phase Undercooling of Rapidly Solidified Droplets with 3D Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbagi, A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch. A.; Herlach, D. M.

    Powders of different compositions of Al-Cu alloys were atomized in helium and nitrogen and the microstructure of the atomized droplets was examined using X-ray micro-tomography. A method was developed to remove X-ray artifacts and background noise from the particles images. The method developed involves creating a clean mask file using MATLAB image toolbox, followed by applying the mask file to the original image to achieve clean images for the particle of interest. Separate features of interest in the droplets, such as region of initial growth and primary dendrites, were investigated at the various stages of solidification. The data is used to estimate the primary phase undercooling of the droplets, which will be used in a solidification model as an input to estimate the phase fractions. The results will then be compared with the experimental results.

  7. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina, E-mail: jialina@buaa.edu.cn; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Sphere shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by PREP. • An oxide layer with a thickness of 9.39 nm was generated on the powder surface. • The main phases of the pre-alloyed powders were Nbss and Cr{sub 2}Nb. • SDAS increased and microhardness decreased with the increase of powder size. • Microstructure of powders evolved into large grains from dendrite structures after HT. - Abstract: For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr{sub 2}Nb. The Cr{sub 2}Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  8. Microstructural evolution in a rapidly solidified Al-4mass%Fe droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Gyoon (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 573-360 (Korea, Republic of)); Shin, Seong-Ho (Central Laboratory, Sammi Special Steel Company, Changwon 641-050 (Korea, Republic of)); Suzuki, Toshio (Engineering Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)); Umeda, Takateru (Department of Metallurgy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan))

    1994-05-15

    A two-dimensional non-newtonian numerical analysis on the solidification of Al-4mass%Fe droplet was represented which includes the transition between the partitionless and partitioned solidification modes. It was shown that, instead of the banded-structure formation, a strong instability on the macroscopic solid-liquid interface occurs in the transition range. The patterns predicted as functions of the initial undercooling and the droplet size were compared with the microstructures of the gas-atomized Al-4mass%Fe powders. ((orig.))

  9. A validation study of reconstructed rapid prototyping models produced by two technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christian Andreas; Ender, Andreas; Baumgartner, Stefan; Mehl, Albert

    2017-09-01

    To determine the accuracy (trueness and precision) of two different rapid prototyping (RP) techniques for the physical reproduction of three-dimensional (3D) digital orthodontic study casts, a comparative assessment using two 3D STL files of two different maxillary dentitions (two cases) as a reference was accomplished. Five RP replicas per case were fabricated using both stereolithography (SLA) and the PolyJet system. The 20 reproduced casts were digitized with a highly accurate reference scanner, and surface superimpositions were performed. Precision was measured by superimposing the digitized replicas within each case with themselves. Superimposing the digitized replicas with the corresponding STL reference files assessed trueness. Statistical significance between the two tested RP procedures was evaluated with independent-sample t-tests (P < .05). The SLA and PolyJet replicas showed statistically significant differences for trueness and precision. The precision of both tested RP systems was high, with mean deviations in stereolithographic models of 23 (±6) μm and in PolyJet replicas of 46 (±13) μm. The mean deviation for trueness in stereolithographic replicas was 109 (±4) μm, while in PolyJet replicas, it was 66 (±14) μm. Comparing the STL reference files, the PolyJet replicas showed higher trueness than the SLA models. But the precision measurements favored the SLA technique. The dimensional errors observed in this study were a maximum of 127 μm. In the present study, both types of reproduced digital orthodontic models are suitable for diagnostics and treatment planning.

  10. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  11. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  12. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Breast Cancer Cells in Patient Blood with Nuclease-Activated Probe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kruspe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for circulating tumor cell (CTC-based diagnostics is the development of simple and inexpensive methods that reliably detect the diverse cells that make up CTCs. CTC-derived nucleases are one category of proteins that could be exploited to meet this challenge. Advantages of nucleases as CTC biomarkers include: (1 their elevated expression in many cancer cells, including cells implicated in metastasis that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; and (2 their enzymatic activity, which can be exploited for signal amplification in detection methods. Here, we describe a diagnostic assay based on quenched fluorescent nucleic acid probes that detect breast cancer CTCs via their nuclease activity. This assay exhibited robust performance in distinguishing breast cancer patients from healthy controls, and it is rapid, inexpensive, and easy to implement in most clinical labs. Given its broad applicability, this technology has the potential to have a substantive impact on the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers.

  13. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  14. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  15. APPLICATION OF GIS-TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RAPID ASSESSMENT OF AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Petin

    2017-01-01

    .The application of GIS-technologies allows one in the operative mode to provide the necessary cartographic materials for the authorities and agricultural producers with various time and spatial generalization for making managerial decisions on optimization of regional agricultural complex. 

  16. Application of Computer-Aided Designing and Rapid Prototyping Technologies in Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures of the Orbital Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, Saša Z; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Radosavljević, Radivoje; Movrin, Dejan; Hadžistević, Miodrag; Hatab, Nur

    2015-07-01

    Traumatology of the maxillofacial region represents a wide range of different types of facial skeletal injuries and encompasses numerous treatment methods. Application of computer-aided design (CAD) in combination with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies and three-dimensional computed tomography techniques facilitates surgical therapy planning for efficient treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of individually designed implants of poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) in the reconstruction of blowout fractures of the orbital floor. In the course of a surgical treatment, individually designed implants manufactured by CAD/RP technologies were used. Preoperative analysis and postoperative monitoring were conducted to evaluate the successfulness of orbital floor reconstruction using customized PDLLA implants, based on: presence of diplopia, paresthesia of infraorbital nerve, and presence of enophthalmos. In 6 of the 10 patients, diplopia completely disappeared immediately after surgical procedure. Diplopia gradually disappeared after 1 month in 3 patients, whereas in 1, it remained even after 6 months. In 7 patients, paresthesia disappeared within a month after surgery and in 3 patients within 2 months. Postoperative average Orbital volume (OV) of the injured side (13.333 ± 3.177) was significantly reduced in comparison with preoperative OV (15.847 ± 3.361) after reconstruction of the orbital floor with customized PDLLA implant (P virtual preoperative modeling allows easier preoperative preparation and yields satisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes.

  17. Affinity purification of Car9-tagged proteins on silica matrices: Optimization of a rapid and inexpensive protein purification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Coyle, Brandon L; Samuelson, Ariana; Aravagiri, Kannan; Baneyx, François

    2017-07-01

    Car9, a dodecapeptide identified by cell surface display for its ability to bind to the edge of carbonaceous materials, also binds to silica with high affinity. The interaction can be disrupted with l-lysine or l-arginine, enabling a broad range of technological applications. Previously, we reported that C-terminal Car9 extensions support efficient protein purification on underivatized silica. Here, we show that the Car9 tag is functional and TEV protease-excisable when fused to the N-termini of target proteins, and that it supports affinity purification under denaturing conditions, albeit with reduced yields. We further demonstrate that capture of Car9-tagged proteins is enhanced on small particle size silica gels with large pores, that the concomitant problem of nonspecific protein adsorption can be solved by lysing cells in the presence of 0.3% Tween 20, and that efficient elution is achieved at reduced l-lysine concentrations under alkaline conditions. An optimized small-scale purification kit incorporating the above features allows Car9-tagged proteins to be inexpensively recovered in minutes with better than 90% purity. The Car9 affinity purification technology should prove valuable for laboratory-scale applications requiring rapid access to milligram-quantities of proteins, and for preparative scale purification schemes where cost and productivity are important factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Externally Solidified Product on Wave Celerity and Quality of Die Cast Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll Mobley; Yogeshwar Sahai; Jerry Brevick

    2003-10-10

    The cold chamber die casting process is used to produce essentially all the die cast aluminum products and about 50% of the die cast magnesium products made today. Modeling of the cold chamber die casting process and metallographic observations of cold chamber die cast products indicate that typically 5 to 20% of the shot weight is solidified in the shot sleeve before or during cavity filling. The protion of the resulting die casting which is solidified in the shot sleeve is referred to as externally solidified product, or, when identified as a casting defect, as cold flakes. This project was directed to extending the understanding of the effects of externally solidified product on the cold chamber die casting process and products to enable the production of defect-free die castings and reduce the energy associated with these products. The projected energy savings from controlling the fraction of externally solidified product in die cast components is 40 x 10 Btu through the year 2025.

  19. An Experimental Study on Solidifying Municipal Sewage Sludge through Skeleton Building Using Cement and Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal sewage sludge typically has very high water content and low shear strength. Conventional methods of lime and cement solidification of municipal sewage sludge often suffer high cost, significant drying shrinkage, frequent cracking, high hydraulic conductivity, and low strength. To overcome these shortcomings, in this paper a skeleton-building method was used to solidify municipal sewage sludge in which coal gangue, cement and clay, and fiber were used as skeleton materials, cementation materials, and filling materials, respectively. Comprehensive laboratory tests including cracking, nitrogen adsorption, triaxial shearing, and permeability tests were performed to determine cracking, pore structure, shear strength, and hydraulic conductivity of municipal sewage sludge solidified with different proportions of coal gangue, cement, fiber, and clay. Based upon the experimental results, the mechanisms of the skeleton building using cement and coal gangue were discussed and factors controlling the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the solidified soils were analyzed at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Based upon the test results and analyses, recommendations were made for solidifying municipal sewage sludge through skeleton building using cement and coal gangue. The solidified soils have high soil strength, high resistance to cracking, and low hydraulic conductivity which are sufficient for being used as landfill liner.

  20. Rapid solidification of an Al-5Ni alloy processed by spray forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Ramos Moreira Afonso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, intermetallic compounds have attracted much attention due to their potential technological applications as high-temperature materials. In particular the intermetallic compounds, associated with the Al-Ni binary system stand out as promising candidates for high-temperature materials for the use in harsh environments. It is expected that a bulk Al-Ni alloy may exceed the strength of many commercial materials. The great challenge in developing these alloys is to manipulate the solidification thermal parameters in order to obtain the desired microstructural features. One of the indicated routes to obtain very refined intermetallic phases dispersed in the microstructure is the spray forming process. The dendritic and eutectic growth dependences on cooling rate are already known for directionally solidified (DS hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys. In the case of rapidly solidified (RS samples, extrapolations of such experimental laws are needed, which can be very helpful to estimate realistic values of high cooling rates imposed during the spray forming process. The present study aims to compare directionally solidified and spray-formed Al-5wt. (%Ni alloy samples with a view to providing a basis for understanding how to control solidification parameters and the as-cast microstructure. The Al-5.0wt. (%Ni alloy was shown to have a cellular morphology for the overspray powder size range examined (up to 500 µm. The mean cell spacing decreased from 5.0 to 1.1 µm with the decrease in the powder average diameter. It was found that the experimental cooling rates imposed during the atomization step of the overspray powder solidification varied from 10³ to 2.10(4 K/s. The DSC trace depicted a crystallization peak of an amorphous structure fraction in the smallest Al-5.0wt. (%Ni alloy powder size range (<32 µm estimating a 15 µm critical diameter of amorphous powder in the binary Al97.5Ni2.5 (at% alloy.

  1. Development of a rapid serological assay for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using a novel diffraction-based biosensor technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Pak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a persistent human parasitic infection caused by the intestinal nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite has a world-wide distribution, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitary conditions. Since individuals with strongyloidiasis are typically asymptomatic, the infection can persist for decades without detection. Problems arise when individuals with unrecognized S. stercoralis infection are immunosuppressed, which can lead to hyper-infection syndrome and disseminated disease with an associated high mortality if untreated. Therefore a rapid, sensitive and easy to use method of diagnosing Strongyloides infection may improve the clinical management of this disease.An immunological assay for diagnosing strongyloidiasis was developed on a novel diffraction-based optical bionsensor technology. The test employs a 31-kDa recombinant antigen called NIE derived from Strongyloides stercoralis L3-stage larvae. Assay performance was tested using retrospectively collected sera from patients with parasitologically confirmed strongyloidiasis and control sera from healthy individuals or those with other parasitoses including schistosomiasis, trichinosis, echinococcosis or amebiasis who were seronegative using the NIE ELISA assay. If we consider the control group as the true negative group, the assay readily differentiated S. stercoralis-infected patients from controls detecting 96.3% of the positive cases, and with no cross reactivity observed in the control group These results were in excellent agreement (κ = 0.98 with results obtained by an NIE-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A further 44 sera from patients with suspected S. stercoralis infection were analyzed and showed 91% agreement with the NIE ELISA.In summary, this test provides high sensitivity detection of serum IgG against the NIE Strongyloides antigen. The assay is easy to perform and provides results in less than 30 minutes

  2. A transferable approach towards rapid inventory data capturing for seismic vulnerability assessment using open-source geospatial technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Parolai, S.; Zschau, J.

    2012-04-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being used in pre-disaster vulnerability assessment and post-disaster impact assessment for different types of hazards. Especially the use of remote sensing data has been strongly promoted in recent years due to its capabilities of providing up-to-date information over large areas at a comparatively low cost with increasingly high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. Despite its clear potentials, a purely remote sensing based approach has its limitations in that it is only capable of providing information about the birds-eye view of the objects of interest. The use of omnidirectional imaging in addition can provide the necessary street-view that furthermore allows for a rapid visual screening of a buildings façade. In this context, we propose an integrated approach to rapid inventory data capturing for the assessment of structural vulnerability of buildings in case of an earthquake. Globally available low-cost data sources are preferred and the tools are developed on an open-source basis to allow for a high degree of transferability and usability. On a neighbourhood scale medium spatial but high temporal and spectral resolution satellite images are analysed to outline areas of homogeneous urban structure. Following a proportional allocation scheme, for each urban structure type representative sample areas are selected for a more detailed analysis of the building stock with high resolution image data. On a building-by-building scale a ground-based, rapid visual survey is performed using an omnidirectional imaging system driven around with a car inside the identified sample areas. Processing of the acquired images allows for an extraction of vulnerability-related features of single buildings (e.g. building height, detection of soft-storeys). An analysis of high resolution satellite images provides with further inventory features (e.g. footprint area, shape irregularity). Since we are dealing with information coming from

  3. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  4. Leaching of heavy metals from solidified waste using Portland cement and zeolite as a binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napia, Chuwit; Sinsiri, Theerawat; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the properties of solidified waste using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing synthesized zeolite (SZ) and natural zeolite (NZ) as a binder. Natural and synthesized zeolites were used to partially replace the OPC at rates of 0%, 20%, and 40% by weight of the binder. Plating sludge was used as contaminated waste to replace the binder at rates of 40%, 50% and 60% by weight. A water to binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 was used for all of the mixtures. The setting time and compressive strength of the solidified waste were investigated, while the leachability of the heavy metals was determined by TCLP. Additionally, XRD, XRF, and SEM were performed to investigate the fracture surface, while the pore size distribution was analyzed with MIP. The results indicated that the setting time of the binders marginally increased as the amount of SZ and NZ increased in the mix. The compressive strengths of the pastes containing 20 and 40wt.% of NZ were higher than those containing SZ. The compressive strengths at 28 days of the SZ solidified waste mixes were 1.2-31.1MPa and those of NZ solidified waste mixes were 26.0-62.4MPa as compared to 72.9MPa of the control mix at the same age. The quality of the solidified waste containing zeolites was better than that with OPC alone in terms of the effectiveness in reducing the leachability. The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachates were within the limits specified by the US EPA. SEM and MIP revealed that the replacement of Portland cement by zeolites increased the total porosity but decreased the average pore size and resulted in the better containment of heavy ions from the solidified waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of Steel Solidified Layer Thickness, for Continuous Casting Control Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MUNTEANU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in continuous casting automation process rest in establishing a proper casting speed being able to assure a compromise between machine productivity and solidified skin cracking protection on the mould level. Contextually, this paper presents new solutions regarding solidified layer thickness estimation for steel continuous casting. The new model starts from actual stadium analysis and propose a solution for analytical model modification, in such a way that the model to approximate solidification dynamics at different casting speeds, using both important parameters for continuous casting process, meaning casting speed and time. A series of results obtained using numeric simulation are presented as a validation for proposed solution.

  6. SSR-patchwork: An optimized protocol to obtain a rapid and inexpensive SSR library using first-generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonietta; De Castro, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We have optimized a version of a microsatellite loci isolation protocol for first-generation sequencing (FGS) technologies. The protocol is optimized to reduce the cost and number of steps, and it combines some procedures from previous simple sequence repeat (SSR) protocols with several key improvements that significantly affect the final yield of the SSR library. This protocol may be accessible for laboratories with a moderate budget or for which next-generation sequencing (NGS) is not readily available. • We drew from classic protocols for library enrichment by digestion, ligation, amplification, hybridization, cloning, and sequencing. Three different systems were chosen: two with very different genome sizes (Galdieria sulphuraria, 10 Mbp; Pancratium maritimum, 30 000 Mbp), and a third with an undetermined genome size (Kochia saxicola). Moreover, we also report the optimization of the sequencing reagents. A good frequency of the obtained microsatellite loci was achieved. • The method presented here is very detailed; comparative tests with other SSR protocols are also reported. This optimized protocol is a promising tool for low-cost genetic studies and the rapid, simple construction of homemade SSR libraries for small and large genomes.

  7. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rapid analysis and quantification of fluorescent brighteners in wheat flour by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Dong-Chen; Sun, Su-Qin; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Fluorescent brightener, industrial whitening agent, has been illegally used to whitening wheat flour. In this article, computer vision technology (E-eyes) and colorimetry were employed to investigate color difference among different concentrations of fluorescent brightener in wheat flour using DMS as an example. Tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR)) was used to identify and quantitate DMS in wheat flour. According to color analysis, the whitening effect was significant when added with less than 30 mg/g DMS but when more than 100 mg/g, the flour began greenish. Thus it was speculated that the concentration of DMS should be below 100 mg/g in real flour adulterant with DMS. With the increase of the concentration, the spectral similarity of wheat flour with DMS to DMS standard was increasing. SD-IR peaks at 1153 cm-1, 1141 cm-1, 1112 cm-1, 1085 cm-1 and 1025 cm-1 attributed to DMS were regularly enhanced. Furthermore, it could be differentiated by 2DOS-IR between DMS standard and wheat flour added with DMS low to 0.05 mg/g and the bands in the range of 1000-1500 cm-1 could be an exclusive range to identify whether wheat flour contained DMS. Finally, a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by Partial least squares (PLS) with a concentration range from 1 mg/g to 100 mg/g. The calibration set gave a determination coefficient of 0.9884 with a standard error (RMSEC) of 5.56 and the validation set presented a determination coefficient of 0.9881 with a standard error of 5.73. It was demonstrated that computer vision technology and colorimetry were effective to estimate the content of DMS in wheat flour and the Tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PLS was applicable for rapid and nondestructive fluorescent brightener identification and quantitation.

  9. Influence of Short-time Oxidation on Corrosion Properties of Directionally Solidified Superalloys with Different Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Luo-ning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the corrosion performance on intersecting and longitudinal surfaces of unoxidized and oxidized directionally solidified superalloys, Ni-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ125 and Co-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ40M were selected. Oxidation behavior on both alloys with different orientations was investigated at 1050℃ at different times, simulating the oxidation process of vanes or blades in service; subsequent electrochemical performance in 3.5%NaCl aqueous solution was studied on two orientations of unoxidized and oxidized alloys, simulating the corrosion process of superalloy during downtime. The results show that grain boundaries and sub-boundaries of directionally solidified superalloys are susceptible to corrosion and thus longitudinal surface with lower area fraction of grain boundaries has higher corrosion resistance. Compared to intersecting surface of alloys, the structure of grain boundaries of longitudinal surface is less conducive to diffusion and thus the oxidation rate on longitudinal surface is lower. Formation of oxide layers on alloys after short-time oxidation provides protective effect and enhances the corrosion resistance.

  10. Evaluation of Carbonation Effects on Cement-Solidified Contaminated Soil Used in Road Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement solidification/stabilization is widely used towards contaminated soil since it has a low price and significant improvement for the structural capacity of soil. To increase the usage of the solidified matrix, cement-solidified contaminated soil was used as road subgrade material. In this study, carbonation effect that reflected the durability on strength characteristics of cement-solidified contaminated soil and the settlement of pavement were evaluated through experimental and numerical analysis, respectively. According to results, compressive strengths of specimens with 1% Pb(II under carbonation and standard curing range from 0.44 MPa to 1.17 MPa and 0.14 MPa to 2.67 MPa, respectively. The relatively low strengths were attributed to immobilization of heavy metal, which consumed part of SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO components in the cement or kaolin and reduced the hydration and pozzolanic reaction materials. This phenomenon further decreased the strength of solidified soils. The carbonation depth of 1% Cu(II or Zn(II contaminated soils was 18 mm, which significantly increased with the increase of curing time and contamination concentration. Furthermore, the finite element calculation results showed that surface settlements decreased with the increase of modulus of subgrade and the distance away from the center. At the center, the pavement settlement was proportional to the level of traffic load.

  11. Direct Numerical Study of a Molten Metal Drop Solidifying on a Cold Plate with Different Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong V. Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct numerical simulation of solidification of a molten metal drop on a cold plate with various wettability by an axisymmetric front-tracking method. Because of the plate kept at a temperature below the fusion value of the melt, a thin solid layer forms at the plate and evolves upwards. The numerical results show that the solidifying front is almost flat except near the triple point with a high solidification rate at the beginning and final stages of solidification. Two solid-to-liquid density ratios ρsl = 0.9 (volume change and 1.0 (no change in volume, with two growth angles φ0 = 0° and 12° are considered. The presence of volume change and a non-zero growth angle results in a solidified drop with a conical shape at the top. The focusing issue is the effects of the wettability of the plate in terms of the contact angle φ0. Increasing the contact angle in the range of 45° to 120° increases time for completing solidification, i.e., solidification time. However, it has a minor effect on the conical angle at the top of the solidified drop and the difference between the initial liquid and final solidified heights of the drop. The effects of the density ratio and growth angle are also presented.

  12. Periodontal tissue regeneration using enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without cell loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.Z.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Cai, X; Yu, N.; Jansen, J.A.; Yang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility and periodontal regenerative potential of enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without incorporated periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). To this end, chitosan hydrogels, with (n=8; CHIT+CELL) or without (n=8; CHIT)

  13. A review of rapid solidification studies of intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of rapid solidification studies of high-temperature ordered intermetallic compounds is presented. Emphasis is on the nickel - and iron- aluminides which are of potential interest as structural materials. The nickel-base aluminides which have been rapidly solidified exhibit changes in grain size, compositional segregation, and degree of long range order (as reflected in APB size and distribution) which markedly affect mechanical properties. Some experiments indicate the formation of a metastable L1(2) phase in rapidly solidified Fe-(Ni,Mn)-Al-C alloys, while other work observes only a metastable fcc phase in the same composition range. The metastable phases and/or microstructures in both nickel and iron aluminides are destroyed by annealing at temperatures above 750 K, with subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. Rapid solidification studies of several other intermetallic compounds are briefly noted.

  14. Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer

  15. Effect of heat treatment on the fracture behaviour of directionally solidified (gamma/gamma-prime)-alpha alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramamurthy, A. M.; Tewari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is conducted into the influence of various heat treatments on the work of fracture and its relation to microstructure for a directionally solidified Ni-33Mo-5.7Al (wt pct) (gamma/gamma-prime)-alpha alloy. The jagged crack propagation observed is due to delamination of the ligaments and associated plastic deformation. Fracture behavior is examined with respect to alloy microstructures and load-deflection curves. The four heat-treatment conditions considered are: (1) as-directionally solidified, (2) solutionized, (3) directionally solidified and thermally cycled, and (4) solutionized and thermally cycled.

  16. Potential of multispectral imaging technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of the microbiological quality of beef filets during aerobic storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagou, Efstathios Z.; Papadopoulou, Olga; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2014-01-01

    samples and correlated with microbiological data (log counts), for total viable counts (TVCs), Pseudomonas spp., and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Qualitative analysis (PLS-DA) was employed for the discrimination of meat samples in three microbiological quality classes based on the values of total viable....... thermosphacta, and TVC, respectively. The results indicated that multispectral vision technology has significant potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique in assessing the microbiological quality of beef fillets....

  17. The effect of gravity level on the average primary dendritic spacing of a directionally solidified superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, M. H.; Lee, J. E.; Curreri, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alternating low (0.01 g) and high (1.8 g) gravity force on the primary spacings in the dendrite structure in a directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1480, containing 5 pct Co, 10 pct Cr, 4 pct W, 12 pct Ta, 5 pct Al, 1.5 pct Ti, and the balance Ni) was investigated using samples solidified in a directional solidification furnace aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft that made a series of low-g parabolas. The cross-section slices for each growth rate were polished and etched with Kallings II, and the primary dendritic arm spacings were measured using the method of Jacobi and Schwerdtfeger (1976). The arm spacings were found to fluctuate with gravity force, increasing as the gravity level decreased, and growing finer as gravity increased.

  18. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-17

    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function 4.2.4.1, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  19. INTERIM REPORT ON THE EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE EICHROM TECHNOLOGIES PROCEPT RAPID DIOXIN ASSAY FOR SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's(EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. T...

  20. Characterization of solidified gas thin film targets via alpha particle energy loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Beer, G.A.; Douglas, J.L.; Knowles, P.E.; Maier, M.; Mason, G.R.; Porcelli, T.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Mulhauser, F.; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Department of Physics, Gustavus Adolphus College, St.Peter, MN 56082 (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Physics Institute, Universite de Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kim, S.K. [Department of Physics, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju City 560-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kunselman, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Wien (Austria); TRIUMF Collaboration

    1997-08-11

    A method is reported for measuring the thickness and uniformity of thin films of solidified gas targets. The energy of {alpha} particles traversing the film is measured and the energy loss is converted to thickness using the range. The uniformity is determined by measuring the thickness at different positions with an array of sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to study the film deposition mechanism. Thickness calibrations for a TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system are presented. (orig.).

  1. Microstructure and orientation evolution in unidirectional solidified Al–Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhongwei, E-mail: chzw@nwpu.edu.cn; Wang, Enyuan; Hao, Xiaolei

    2016-06-14

    Morphological instability and growth orientation evolution during unidirectional solidification of Al–Zn alloys with different pulling speeds were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results show that, as the pulling speed increases, the primary dendrite spacing becomes smaller gradually and dendrite trunks incline to the heat flow direction perfectly in unidirectional solidified Al–9.8 wt%Zn and Al–89 wt%Zn alloys. However, regardless of the pulling speed in unidirectional solidified Al–Zn alloys under fixed thermal gradient, the regular dendrites with <100> directions of primary trunks and secondary arms in 9.8 wt% Zn composition are replaced by <110> dendrites of primary trunks and secondary arms in 89 wt% Zn composition. In unidirectional solidified Al–32 wt% Zn alloy, cellular, fractal seaweed, and stabilized seaweed structures were observed at high pulling speeds. At a high pulling speed of 1000 µm/s, seaweed structures transform to the columnar dendrites with <110> trunks and <100> arms. The above orientation evolution can be attributed to low anisotropy of solid-liquid interface energy and the seaweed structure is responsible for isotropy of {111} planes.

  2. Investigation of the as-solidified microstructure of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kai; Song, Min [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: yongducalphad@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Dong, Hongbiao [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ni, Song [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • AlMgSiCu-Q particles preferentially grow along the solidification direction. • A new orientation relationship between Q particles and α-Al matrix was found. • The solidified microstructure was simulated based on Scheil–Gulliver model. • The effect of solidification on solution and aging processes were analyzed. - Abstract: The as-solidified microstructure of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Quaternary Q particles were found to elongate preferentially along the solidification direction of the cylindrical cast ingot, whilst a small number of Si leaf-like particles aggregate mainly along the grain boundaries. The volume fractions of the Q and Si particles are quantitatively measured from electron microscopy images and thermodynamically simulated based on the Scheil–Gulliver solidification model. The results from experimental measurement agree well with those from simulation. The Q particles, which have dendrite-like internal structure and are uniformly distributed within the α-Al grains with a different orientation from that found in the aged alloys, are fast-dissolving and aid the formation of uniform aged microstructures. The aggregation of the Si particles along the grain boundaries in the as-solidified microstructure results in Si-rich boundaries even after a solution treatment, and causes the re-emergence of Si particles in the over-aged microstructure. This phenomenon helps to reduce the width of the precipitate-free zones.

  3. Development of new-type rapid analysis technology of polychlorinated biphenyls by using liquid chromatographic clean-up material (polyvinyl alcohol gel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsubashi, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Chisato; Baba, Keigo; Ohi, Etsumasa; Shinoda, Akiko; Miura, Norio

    2008-01-04

    We developed a new-type rapid polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis technology on the basis of a liquid chromatographic clean-up system combined with a large-volume injection GC-LRMS. Among 18 kinds of materials such as polymer gels, normal-phase silica gels, reversed-phase silica gels, carbon material and ion-exchange material, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel and poly (hydroxylmethacrylate) gel were found to give rather good separation performance for insulating oil. Especially, PVA gel was confirmed to be the most suitable for rapid PCB analysis because of its least required quantity of fraction liquid as well as the highest resolution. Then, we confirmed elution characteristics of all PCB isomers and removal efficiency of insulating oil on PVA gel under an optimized condition, and established high-performance clean-up system using a combination of octadecyl silica gel (ODS), porous graphite carbon (PGC) and PVA gel. In this system, we applied newly valve-switching method that could remove other impurities. In addition, it was demonstrated that the proposed clean-up system could become highly sensitive and rapid PCB analysis technology with 2-h analysis time, lower measurement limit of less than 0.05 mg/kg, and a variation coefficient of less than 5%, by coupling with a large-volume injection type GC-LRMS. Thus, we can conclude that this rapid PCB analysis technology has not only good correlativity (R2>0.999) with standard analysis method but also high durability and can be fully applied to actual PCB-treatment plants.

  4. Thrombus-Targeted Theranostic Microbubbles: A New Technology towards Concurrent Rapid Ultrasound Diagnosis and Bleeding-free Fibrinolytic Treatment of Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Gkanatsas, Yannik; Palasubramaniam, Jathushan; Hohmann, Jan David; Chen, Yung Chih; Lim, Bock; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Peter, Karlheinz

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and stroke are leading causes of morbidity/mortality. The typical underlying pathology is the formation of thrombi/emboli and subsequent vessel occlusion. Systemically administered fibrinolytic drugs are the most effective pharmacological therapy. However, bleeding complications are relatively common and this risk as such limits their broader use. Furthermore, a rapid non-invasive imaging technology is not available. Thereby, many thrombotic events are missed or only diagnosed when ischemic damage has already occurred. Design and preclinical testing of a novel 'theranostic' technology for the rapid non-invasive diagnosis and effective, bleeding-free treatment of thrombosis. A newly created, innovative theranostic microbubble combines a recombinant fibrinolytic drug, an echo-enhancing microbubble and a recombinant thrombus-targeting device in form of an activated-platelet-specific single-chain antibody. After initial in vitro proof of functionality, we tested this theranostic microbubble both in ultrasound imaging and thrombolytic therapy using a mouse model of ferric-chloride-induced thrombosis in the carotid artery. We demonstrate the reliable highly sensitive detection of in vivo thrombi and the ability to monitor their size changes in real time. Furthermore, these theranostic microbubbles proofed to be as effective in thrombolysis as commercial urokinase but without the prolongation of bleeding time as seen with urokinase. We describe a novel theranostic technology enabling simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis, as well as monitoring of success or failure of thrombolysis. This technology holds promise for major progress in rapid diagnosis and bleeding-free thrombolysis thereby potentially preventing the often devastating consequences of thrombotic disease in many patients.

  5. Selective laser sintering: application of a rapid prototyping method in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, S C; Tan, B K; Foo, C L; Lee, S T

    1999-09-01

    Advances in technology have benefited the medical world in many ways and a new generation of computed tomography (CT) scanners and three-dimensional (3-D) model making rapid prototyping systems (RPS) have taken craniofacial surgical planning and management to new heights. With the development of new rapid prototyping systems and the improvements in CT scan technology, such as the helical scanner, biomedical modelling has improved considerably and accurate 3-D models can now be fabricated to allow surgeons to visualise and physically handle a 3-D model on which simulation surgery can be performed. The principle behind this technology is to first acquire digital data (CT scan data) which is then imported to the RPS to fabricate fine layers or cuts of the model which are gradually built up to form the 3-D models. Either liquid resin or nylon powder or special paper may be used to make these models using the various RPS available today. Selective laser sintering (SLS), which employs a CO2 laser beam to solidify special nylon powder and build up the model in layers is described in this case report, where a 23-year old Chinese female with panfacial fracture and a skull defect benefited from SLS biomodelling in the preoperative workup.

  6. Modeling second-phase formation during rapid resolidification of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Eagar, T.W.; Allen, S.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1991-01-28

    Many common stainless steel (SS) alloy microstructures consist of a mixture of ferrite and austenite phases, however, when these alloys are rapidly resolidified using laser beam (LB) or electron beam (EB) processes they solidify in the single-phase-austenite or single-phase-ferrite mode. This paper investigates the influence of solidification rate on the reduction, and eventual elimination, of second phases during the rapid solidification of SS alloys. The influence of solidification rate on the ferrite content of these alloys was studied by calculating the dendrite-tip undercooling and then incorporating these results into a solute-redistribution model to calculate the relative fractions of primary and secondary phase that solidify from the melt. Single-phase solidification was predicted at high cooling rates and was confirmed through STEM analysis, showing solidification microstructures void of any significant microchemical composition gradients. Results showed a rapid-solidification model was used to calculate the relative fractions of primary and secondary phases that form during the resolidification of stainless steel alloys. The rapid-solidification model shows that the ferrite content of primary-austenite solidified alloys decreases and the ferrite content of primary-ferrite solidified alloys increases with increasing cooling rate. Results of the model indicate that primary-austenite alloys will solidify in the single-phase mode at all interface velocities greater than about 20 mm/s. This value correlates well with experiments. Results of the model indicate that primary-ferrite alloys will solidify in the single-phase mode at all interface velocities greater than about 50 mm/s. The experimentally-observed interface velocity for single-phase-ferrite solidification is significantly less (10 mm/s). This discrepancy is proposed to be related to the relative difficulty of nucleating austenite from the eutectic liquid. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Rapid hydrolysis of proteins and peptides by means of microwave technology and its application to amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T; Chiou, S H; Chu, Y H; Wang, K T

    1987-10-01

    A rapid heating method of hydrolysis by the use of microwave oven has been applied to amino acid analysis of proteins and peptides. This convenient method has been compared with the conventional 6 N HCl hydrolysis at 110 degrees for 24 h. The advantages of this new method are its expedition and the accurate and comparable results as compared to the tedious conventional technique. The method provides a rapid processing of multiple samples within minutes instead of days and inexpensive access to the important data of amino acid compositions of proteins by the commonly used microwave oven. The necessary change in the design of hydrolysis vials and the safety precautions accompanying this novel use of microwave acid-digestion method are also described.

  8. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 10(4) CFU mL(-1) or 10(5) CFU mL(-1) for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.916-0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥ 80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water.

  9. Prospective assessment of FilmArray® technology for the rapid identification of yeast isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Franck-Martel, Claire; Bailly, Éric; Le Brun, Cécile; Gyan, Emmanuel; Goudeau, Alain; Chandenier, Jacques; Lanotte, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We prospectively assessed the ability of FilmArray® device to identify fungal species involved in bloodstream infections. It succeeded in identifying 85.7% of isolates. The automated readout of results enabled the rapid initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Thus, FilmArray® appeared as a reliable alternative diagnostic method for the most common yeast-like species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of organic matter from surface water during coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration - a full-scale technological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration was selected as a surface water treatment technology to be optimised with a full-scale investigation, which was carried out in Poland between August and October 2013. The river water treated was characterized by low alkalinity, high-temperature variability and a high organic matter content. In the course of technological studies, the processes of coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration were analysed. The studies were performed in the most adverse conditions for the applied technology i.e. during the period of algal bloom and subsequent decomposition of dead plankton. Throughout the study, the river water contained mainly dissolved organic matter, with occasional increases in the concentration of the undissolved fraction during algal bloom. The undissolved total organic carbon (TOC) fraction was effectively removed through coagulation while small doses of ClO₂added prior to coagulation enhanced the process. The process of coagulation using high-coagulant doses at pH = 6.5 did not provide a reduction in the TOC value below the level of 4 mg C/L required for treated water. The effect was achieved by adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) before the filters. The coagulation products were characterised by low-hydraulic resistance which should be taken into account at the stage of water delivery to the filters, after flotation.

  11. Acceptability Among Community Healthcare Nurses of Intelligent Wireless Sensor-system Technology for the Rapid Detection of Health Issues in Home-dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk

    2017-01-01

    The effective care and support of community healthcare nurses (CHNs) contribute greatly to the healthy aging of older adults living at home. Integrating innovative technologies into CHNs' daily practice offers new opportunities and perspectives for early detection of health issues and interventions among home-dwelling older adults. To explore the perception of acceptability among CHNs of an intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) for use in daily practice for the detection of health issues in home-dwelling older adults receiving home healthcare. Descriptive and qualitative data were sourced from a pilot randomized controlled trial involving 17 CHNs using an IWSS in their daily practice to rapidly detect falls and other health issues in patients' homes. IWSS alerts indicating behavior changes were sent to CHNs. Their perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) were assessed. The acceptability of IWSS technology was explored using a questionnaire and focus group discussions. The PU and PEOU of the IWSS technology were low to moderate. A majority of the CHNs were dissatisfied with its performance and intrusiveness; they reported multiple obstacles in the usefulness and ease of use of the IWSS technology in daily practice. To improve the IWSS technology's low to moderate acceptability among CHNs, we recommend a more user-centered implementation strategy and an embedded model of nursing care.

  12. A rapid method for alpha-spectrometric analysis of radium isotopes in natural waters using ion-selective membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkl, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2003-10-01

    An alpha-spectrometric method for the rapid determination of radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra) in environmental samples is presented. Using Empore Radium Rad Disks complete separation of the target radionuclides is achieved. The high selectivity of these Rad Disks allows the straightforward use of 225Ra as yield tracer. Chemical yield is up to 92 +/- 9%. The chemical procedure can be accomplished within 5h. Alpha-sources show energy resolution in the range of typically 26-40 keV (FWHM). Despite minimal thickness of the sources no significant radon (Rn) losses can be observed.

  13. Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice D; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Parsons, Richard; Buzzard, Jennifer; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid single-tube method for small-scale affinity purification of polyclonal antibodies using HaloTag Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Manabu

    2007-06-10

    Even in this era of advanced biotechniques, specific antibodies against a protein still prove to be powerful tools to study proteins and their functions. The polyclonal antisera obtained from the immunized rabbits, however, are not always pure, high affinity, antigen-specific polyclonal antibodies. With our new rapid HaloTag-based procedure, specific antibodies are obtained in just two, short steps: (1) simultaneous purification and covalent coupling of the antigen to Sepharose resin via the HaloTag and HaloLink reaction, and (2) affinity column purification of the polyclonal serum (10 microl). The combined antigen purification and coupling step requires only 1 h of room-temperature incubation, plus successive washing steps. Because different regions of an antigen can elicit the production of low affinity antibodies with relatively high cross-reactivity, the best way to produce high affinity antibodies against a protein of interest is to survey all antigenic determinants of that protein and identify the epitopes that result in the production of antibodies with a high affinity and specificity for that protein. Because our HaloTag procedure is quite rapid and simple, potential epitopes can be assessed with relatively little effort for their ability to elicit the production of highly specific antibodies.

  15. Effect of an alkaline environment on the engineering behavior of cement-stabilized/solidified Zn-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zha, Fusheng; Deng, Yongfeng; Cui, Kerui; Zhang, Xueqin

    2017-10-12

    Although the stabilization/solidification method has been widely used for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils in recent decades, the engineering behavior and mobility of heavy metal ions under alkaline groundwater conditions are still unclear. Therefore, the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS) combined with toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and general acid neutralization capacity (GANC) was used to investigate the effects of alkalinity (using NaOH to simulate alkalinity in the environment) on the mechanical and leaching characteristics of cement-solidified/stabilized (S/S) Zn-contaminated soils. Moreover, the microstructure was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) technology. The results indicated that alkaline environment could accelerate the UCS development compared with specimens without soaking in NaOH solution,, regardless of whether the specimens contained Zn2+ or not. And the UCS varied obviously attributed to the variations of both NaOH concentration and soaking time. Except for the specimens soaked for 90 days, the leached Zn2+ concentrations were higher than that of without soaking. However, the leachability of Zn2+ in all the stabilized specimens is in the regulatory level. ANC results indicated that the Zn2+ leaching behavior can be divided into three stages related to the initial leachate pH. Moreover, SEM results proved that the alkaline environment could actually facilitate the cement hydration process. The results proved in the present paper could be useful in treating the heavy metal-contaminated soils involved in the solidification/stabilization technology under alkaline environment.

  16. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 758 Held in Boston, Massachusetts on December 3-5, 2002. Rapid Prototyping Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    BioMEMS and Bionanotechnology, L.P. Lee, J.T. Borenstein, R.P. Manginell, M. Okandan, P.J. Hesketh, 2002, ISBN: 1-55899-665-6 Volume 730- Materials for... INTRODUCTION Microstereolithography is the general designation of various microfabrication technologies based on the principle used in stereolithography, a...parts. For Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) this was enabled by the introduction of the powders for 20 micron layer thickness; steel-based powder in

  17. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  18. Solidified self-nanoemulsifying formulation for oral delivery of combinatorial therapeutic regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Amit K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present work reports rationalized development and characterization of solidified self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for oral delivery of combinatorial (tamoxifen and quercetin) therapeutic regimen. METHODS: Suitable oil for the preparation of liquid SNEDDS was selected based...... formulation revealed 9.63-fold and 8.44-fold higher Caco-2 uptake of tamoxifen and quercetin, respectively in comparison with free drug counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The developed formulation strategy revealed a great potential for oral delivery of combination drugs having utmost clinical relevance....

  19. Pressure transmitting medium Daphne 7474 solidifying at 3.7 GPa at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Keizo; Yokogawa, Keiichi; Yoshino, Harukazu; Klotz, Stefan; Munsch, Pascal; Irizawa, Akinori; Nishiyama, Mototsugu; Iizuka, Kenzo; Nanba, Takao; Okada, Tahei; Shiraga, Yoshitaka; Aoyama, Shoji

    2008-08-01

    A pressure transmitting medium named Daphne 7474, which solidifies at Ps=3.7 GPa at room temperature, is presented. The value of Ps increases almost linearly with temperature up to 6.7 GPa at 100 °C. The high pressure realized by a medium at the liquid state allows a higher limit of pressurization, which assures an ideal hydrostatic pressure. We show a volume change against pressure, pressure reduction from room to liquid helium temperature in a clamped piston cylinder cell, pressure distribution and its standard deviation in a diamond anvil cell, and infrared properties, which might be useful for experimental applications.

  20. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.

    1979-05-07

    To minimize radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system, performance limits on volatilization, particulate dispersion, and dissolution characteristics of solidified high level waste must be specified. The results show clearly that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. Absolute values of expected risk are very sensitive to modeling assumptions. The transportation and interim storage operations appear to be most limiting in determining the performance characteristics required. The expected values of risk do not rely upon the repositories remaining intact over the potentially hazardous lifetime of the waste.

  1. Leaching of rapidly quenched Al65Cu20Fe15 quasicrystalline ribbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-06

    Dec 6, 2017 ... The Al–Mn QC exhibiting a simple icosahedral (i) symmetry. (Pm35), however the ordered QC was showing face-centred icosahedral (FCI) symmetry (Fm35) reported in annealed. Al–Cu–Fe rapidly solidified alloy [7,8]. A stable (i) Al–Cu–. Fe ternary QC has been discovered, which is a part of the.

  2. Rapid Solid-Phase Immunoassay for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Using Cycling Probe Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Whalley K.; Modrusan, Zora; McNevin, John P.; Marostenmaki, Johanna; Zin, Ben; Bekkaoui, Faouzi

    2000-01-01

    A Cycling Probe Technology (CPT) assay with a lateral-flow device (strip) was developed for the detection of the mecA gene from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cultures. The assay uses a mecA probe (DNA-RNA-DNA) labeled with fluorescein at the 5′ terminus and biotin at the 3′ terminus. The CPT reaction occurs at a constant temperature, which allows the probe to anneal to the target DNA. RNase H cuts the RNA portion of the probe, allowing the cleaved fragments to dissociate ...

  3. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Janaka Rochana Rupesinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  4. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Updates on the Construction of an Eyeglass-Supported Nasal Prosthesis Using Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Tarsitano, Achille; Marchetti, Claudio; Scotti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to design an updated connection system for an eyeglass-supported nasal prosthesis using rapid prototyping techniques. The substructure was developed with two main endpoints in mind: the connection to the silicone and the connection to the eyeglasses. The mold design was also updated; the mold was composed of various parts, each carefully designed to allow for easy release after silicone processing and to facilitate extraction of the prosthesis without any strain. The approach used in this study enabled perfect transfer of the reciprocal position of the prosthesis with respect to the eyeglasses, from the virtual to the clinical environment. Moreover, the reduction in thickness improved the flexibility of the prosthesis and promoted adaptation to the contours of the skin, even during functional movements. The method described here is a simplified and viable alternative to standard construction techniques for nasal prostheses and offers improved esthetic and functional results when no bone is available for implant-supported prostheses. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Making our data impactful: Working with researchers to meet diverse data needs in a rapidly shifting technological world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Making data easily accessible and actionable is critical in our drive to understand ecological drivers and responses in our rapidly changing world. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), operated by Battelle and sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a continental-scale, long-term observation facility built specifically to meet such needs. By the end of construction at the end of 2017, NEON will be generating and synthesizing data from in situ instruments, field sampling, and airborne platforms covering 81 field sites across the U.S. A challenge of such observatories is not only to generate, quality-control, and synthesize enormous and high-resolution datasets, but to provide it freely to researchers in formats that are easy to understand and integrate with other datasets. Here, we present how NEON is preparing publication-ready data for ready reuse by a broad range of practitioners through numerous mechanisms: 1) developing a robust and intuitive data portal and public API, 2) collaborating with numerous partners to support and enrich standards to assure interoperability and reproducibility, and 3) providing training materials covering the key concepts and tools researchers may need to fully leverage NEON data. In addition, we will solicit feedback on NEON's current, in-design, and proposed data services and portal features in order to best serve the diverse research interests of a AGU's scientific community.

  7. Rapid comparison of a candidate biosimilar to an innovator monoclonal antibody with advanced liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Chakraborty, Asish; Ahn, Joomi; Yu, Ying Qing; Dakshinamoorthy, Deepalakshmi P; Gilar, Martin; Chen, Weibin; Skilton, St John; Mazzeo, Jeffery R

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that state-of-the-art liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for rapid verification of identity and characterization of sequence variants and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) for antibody products. A candidate biosimilar IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was compared in detail to a commercially available innovator product. Intact protein mass, primary sequence, PTMs, and the micro-differences between the two mAbs were identified and quantified simultaneously. Although very similar in terms of sequences and modifications, a mass difference observed by LC-MS intact mass measurements indicated that they were not identical. Peptide mapping, performed with data independent acquisition LC-MS using an alternating low and elevated collision energy scan mode (LC-MS(E)), located the mass difference between the biosimilar and the innovator to a two amino acid residue variance in the heavy chain sequences. The peptide mapping technique was also used to comprehensively catalogue and compare the differences in PTMs of the biosimilar and innovator mAbs. Comprehensive glycosylation profiling confirmed that the proportion of individual glycans was different between the biosimilar and the innovator, although the number and identity of glycans were the same. These results demonstrate that the combination of accurate intact mass measurement, released glycan profiling, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping provides a set of routine tools that can be used to comprehensively compare a candidate biosimilar and an innovator mAb.

  8. Invert biopanning: A novel method for efficient and rapid isolation of scFvs by phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbarnia, Leila; Farajnia, Safar; Babaei, Hossein; Majidi, Jafar; Veisi, Kamal; Tanomand, Asghar; Akbari, Bahman

    2016-11-01

    Phage display is a prominent screening technique for development of novel high affinity antibodies against almost any antigen. However, removing false positive clones in screening process remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and rapid method for isolation of high affinity scFvs by removing NSBs without losing rare specific clones. Therefore, a novel two rounds strategy called invert biopanning was developed for isolating high affinity scFvs against EGFRvIII antigen from human scFv library. The efficiency of invert biopanning method (procedure III) was analyzed by comparing with results of conventional biopanning methods (procedures I and II). According to the results of polyclonal ELISA, the second round of procedure III displayed highest binding affinity against EGFRvIII peptide accompanied by lowest NSB comparing to other two procedures. Several positive clones were identified among output phages of procedure III by monoclonal phage ELISA which displayed high affinity to EGFRvIII antigen. In conclusion, results of our study indicate that invert biopanning is an efficient method for avoiding NSBs and conservation of rare specific clones during screening of a scFv phage library. Novel anti EGFRvIII scFv isolated could be a promising candidate for potential use in treatment of EGFRvIII expressing cancers. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. AE Monitoring of Diamond Turned Rapidly Soldified Aluminium 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, G.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Mkoko, Z.

    2017-05-01

    The fast replacement of conventional aluminium with rapidly solidified aluminium alloys has become a noticeable trend in the current manufacturing industries involved in the production of optics and optical molding inserts. This is as a result of the improved performance and durability of rapidly solidified aluminium alloys when compared to conventional aluminium. Melt spinning process is vital for manufacturing rapidly solidified aluminium alloys like RSA 905, RSA 6061 and RSA 443 which are common in the industries today. RSA 443 is a newly developed alloy with few research findings and huge research potential. There is no available literature focused on monitoring the machining of RSA 443 alloys. In this research, Acoustic Emission sensing technique was applied to monitor the single point diamond turning of RSA 443 on an ultrahigh precision lathe machine. The machining process was carried out after careful selection of feed, speed and depths of cut. The monitoring process was achieved with a high sampling data acquisition system using different tools while concurrent measurement of the surface roughness and tool wear were initiated after covering a total feed distance of 13km. An increasing trend of raw AE spikes and peak to peak signal were observed with an increase in the surface roughness and tool wear values. Hence, acoustic emission sensing technique proves to be an effective monitoring method for the machining of RSA 443 alloy.

  10. Rapid access to compound libraries through flow technology: fully automated synthesis of a 3-aminoindolizine library via orthogonal diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Paul P; James, Keith

    2012-10-08

    A novel methodology for the synthesis of druglike heterocycle libraries has been developed through the use of flow reactor technology. The strategy employs orthogonal modification of a heterocyclic core, which is generated in situ, and was used to construct both a 25-membered library of druglike 3-aminoindolizines, and selected examples of a 100-member virtual library. This general protocol allows a broad range of acylation, alkylation and sulfonamidation reactions to be performed in conjunction with a tandem Sonogashira coupling/cycloisomerization sequence. All three synthetic steps were conducted under full automation in the flow reactor, with no handling or isolation of intermediates, to afford the desired products in good yields. This fully automated, multistep flow approach opens the way to highly efficient generation of druglike heterocyclic systems as part of a lead discovery strategy or within a lead optimization program.

  11. Extracellular micro and nanostructures forming the velvet worm solidified adhesive secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Ureña, Yendry Regina; Sanchez, Angie; Pereira, Reinaldo; Rischka, Klaus; Kowalik, Thomas; Vega-Baudrit, José

    2017-12-01

    The onychophoran Epiperipatus hilkae secrets a sticky slime that solidifies almost immediately upon contact with air and under high humidy environmental condition forming a glassy like material. The general adhesive biochemical composition, the releasing and hardening mechanism have been partially described in literature. In this study, the structural characterization of the extracellular microstructures and nanostructures forming the solid adhesive of the secretion from Epiperipatus hilkae velvet worm is presented. The adhesive secretion is formed by macro-threads, which, in their solid state, are composed of globular particles approximately 700 nm in diameter that are distributed homogeneously throughout the matrix surface, and nanoparticles approximately 70 nm in diameter that and 6 nm in height self-assemble forming fiber-like structures. Nanoparticules with approximately 2 nm heights and others with non roundish forms are also observed. These 70 nm nano particles could be associated to proteins that form high density coverage films with low roughness; suggesting the formation of 2D ordered films. A crystalline and an amorphous phase composes the solidified secretion. The glassy or viscoelastic properties depend on the time in contact with air before being adhered to a solid surface and/or the mechanical stimulus; suggesting a key role of the drying on the hardening process.

  12. Directionally solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xue; Su, Haijun; Guo, Fengwei; Tan, Xi; Cao, Lamei

    2016-11-01

    We reported a novel route to prepare directionally solidified (DS) Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. The eutectic crystallizations, microstructure characters and evolutions, and their mechanical properties were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Al2O3/GAP eutectic composites can be successfully fabricated through μ-PD method, possessed smooth surface, full density and large crystal size (the maximal size: φ90 mm × 20 mm). At the process of Diameter, the as-solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic presented a combination of "Chinese script" and elongated colony microstructure with complex regular structure. Inside the colonies, the rod-type or lamellar-type eutectic microstructures with ultra-fine GAP surrounded by the Al2O3 matrix were observed. At an appropriate solidificational rate, the binary eutectic exhibited a typical DS irregular eutectic structure of "chinese script" consisting of interpenetrating network of α-Al2O3 and GAP phases without any other phases. Therefore, the interphase spacing was refined to 1-2 µm and the irregular microstructure led to an outstanding vickers hardness of 17.04 GPa and fracture toughness of 6.3 MPa × m1/2 at room temperature.

  13. EPICOR-II: a field leaching test of solidified radioactively loaded ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Todd, R.A.; Craig, P.M.

    1986-08-01

    As part of an ongoing research program investigating the disposal of radioactive solid wastes in the environment' the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is participating with Argonne National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a study of the leachability of solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resin under simulated disposal conditions. To simulate disposal, a group of five 2-m/sup 3/ soil lysimeters has been installed in Solid Waste Storage Area Six at ORNL, with each lysimeter containing a small sample of solidified resin at its center. Two solidification techniques are being investigated: a Portland cement and a vinyl ester-styrene treatment. During construction, soil moisture temperature cells were placed in each lysimeter, along with five porous ceramic tubes for sampling water near the waste source. A meteorological station was set up at the study site to monitor climatic conditions (primarily precipitation and air temperature), and a data acquisition system was installed to keep daily records of these meteorological parameters as well as lysimeter soil moisture and temperature conditions. This report documents the first year of the long-term field study and includes discussions of lysimeter installation, calibration of soil moisture probes, installation of the site meteorological station, and the results of the first-quarter sampling for radionuclides in lysimeter leachate. In addition, the data collection and processing system developed for this study is documented, and the results of the first three months of data collection are summarized in Appendix D.

  14. Effect of hafnium addition on solidifi cation structure of cast Ti-46Al alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yanqing

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of hafnium addition on the solidifi cation structure, Ti-46Al alloys with nominal compositions of Ti-46Al-xHf (x = 0, 3, 5, 7 (at.% were arc-melted into small ingots in an argon atmosphere. The characteristics of the macrostructures and microstructures were studied using a linear intercept method, OM, SEM (BSE, XRD and TEM. The results showed that the ingots with Hf have near lamellar microstructure in columnar and dendrite morphology. The hafnium concentration has a strong effect on the columnar spacing refi nement. Increasing Hf from 0 to 7 (at.%, the columnar spacing can be reduced from ~ 1000 to ~ 400 μm. Constitute phases of the ingots are α2, a small amount of B2 and c. Most of the B2 phases, richer in Hf and leaner in Al and Ti, exist on the node of the dendrite core in block shape and a little across the lamellar colonies in stick shape. The c phases exist on the boundaries of lamellar colonies in small cellular shape. There also exists a segregation of Hf on the columnar and dendrite core. Particularly, both the α- and β-phase form from the melt as prior phases. The possible phase sequencing during solidifi cation and solid-state transformations with Hf is given in this paper.

  15. Cryogenic EBSD reveals structure of directionally solidified ice–polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donius, Amalie E., E-mail: amalie.donius@gmail.com [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Obbard, Rachel W., E-mail: Rachel.W.Obbard@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Burger, Joan N., E-mail: ridge.of.the.ancients@gmail.com [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hunger, Philipp M., E-mail: philipp.m.hunger@gmail.com [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Baker, Ian, E-mail: Ian.Baker@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Doherty, Roger D., E-mail: dohertrd@drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wegst, Ulrike G.K., E-mail: ulrike.wegst@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on directionally solidified or freeze-cast materials in recent years, little fundamental knowledge has been gained that links model with experiment. In this contribution, the cryogenic characterization of directionally solidified polymer solutions illustrates, how powerful cryo-scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscatter diffraction is for the structural characterization of ice–polymer composite materials. Under controlled sublimation, the freeze-cast polymer scaffold structure is revealed and imaged with secondary electrons. Electron backscatter diffraction fabric analysis shows that the ice crystals, which template the polymer scaffold and create the lamellar structure, have a-axes oriented parallel to the direction of solidification and the c-axes perpendicular to it. These results indicate the great potential of both cryo-scanning electron microscopy and cryo-electron backscatter diffraction in gaining fundamental knowledge of structure–property–processing correlations. - Highlights: • Cryo-SEM of freeze-cast polymer solution reveals an ice-templated structure. • Cryo-EBSD reveals the ice crystal a-axis to parallel the solidification direction. • The honeycomb-like polymer phase favors columnar ridges only on one side. • Combining cryo-SEM with EBSD links solidification theory with experiment.

  16. Relationship between cooling rate and microsegregation in bottom-chilled directionally solidified ductile irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between cooling rate and microsegregation of directionally solidified ductile iron. The unidirectional heat transfer system used in this research is made up of a copper mold kept chilled by circulating water and embedded in the bottom of Furan sand mold. Thermocouples are connected to the computer measuring system to record the cooling curves of the castings at a distance of 0, 30, 60 and 90 mm from the chilled copper mold surface. Alloys including Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni and Ti were added to the specimens. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA was employed to examine distribution of elements between the dendrite arms and nodular graphite. Results show that unidirectional heat transfer affects directly the solidification mode and microstructure of the casting. The cooling curves reveal that local solidification time increases with increasing distance from the chilled copper mold surface. Different solidification rates with corresponding microstructure and element segregation were observed in the same unidirectionally solidified casting. Local solidification time was closely related to element segregation. The effective segregation coefficient (Keff calculated using the Scheil equation was found to vary, according to the stage of solidification. The actual segregation characteristics of complex alloys generally follow the Scheil equation.

  17. Guidelines for the selection of appropriate remote sensing technologies for landslide detection, monitoring and rapid mapping: the experience of the SafeLand European Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Malet, J.-P.; Kerle, N.; Tofani, V.; Segoni, S.; Casagli, N.; Michoud, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Fornaro, G.; Peduto, D.; Cascini, L.; Baron, I.; Supper, R.; Oppikofer, T.; L'Heureux, J.-S.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Hervás, J.; Moya, J.; Raucoules, D.; Carman, M.

    2012-04-01

    New earth observation satellites, innovative airborne platforms and sensors, high precision laser scanners, and enhanced ground-based geophysical investigation tools are a few examples of the increasing diversity of remote sensing technologies used in landslide analysis. The use of advanced sensors and analysis methods can help to significantly increase our understanding of potentially hazardous areas and helps to reduce associated risk. However, the choice of the optimal technology, analysis method and observation strategy requires careful considerations of the landslide process in the local and regional context, and the advantages and limitations of each technique. Guidelines for the selection of the most suitable remote sensing technologies according to different landslide types, displacement velocities, observational scales and risk management strategies have been proposed. The guidelines are meant to aid operational decision making, and include information such as spatial resolution and coverage, data and processing costs, and maturity of the method. The guidelines target scientists and end-users in charge of risk management, from the detection to the monitoring and the rapid mapping of landslides. They are illustrated by recent innovative methodologies developed for the creation and updating of landslide inventory maps, for the construction of landslide deformation maps and for the quantification of hazard. The guidelines were compiled with contributions from experts on landslide remote sensing from 13 European institutions coming from 8 different countries. This work is presented within the framework of the SafeLand project funded by the European Commission's FP7 Programme.

  18. Shape Memory Characteristics of Rapidly Solidified Ti-37.8Cu-18.7Ni Alloy Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alana Pereira; de Castro, Walman Benicio

    Amorphization and martensitic transformation (Ms) characteristics of Ti-Ni-Cu alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the wheel linear velocity from 21 to 63 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate and alloy composition on martensitic transformation behavior is discussed.

  19. Evolution of the dendritic morphology with the solidification velocity in rapidly solidified Al-4.5wt.%Cu droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Reinhart, G.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Bogno, A.-A.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Henein, H.

    2015-06-01

    The microstructure morphology of Al-4.5wt.%Cu droplets formed by the Impulse Atomization technique is investigated. Three-dimensional reconstructions by synchrotron X- ray micro-tomography of several droplets reveal different morphologies in droplets of similar diameter and produced in the same batch. Moreover, microstructural features also indicate that the development of the dendrite arms occurs in some droplets along crystallographic axes instead of the usual directions observed in conventional casting for the same alloy. It has been observed that such an unusual growth direction of the dendrites is directly related to the solidification velocity. We underpin these results by carrying out comparisons with a solidification model. Predictions are used to discuss the change of dendrite growth direction, as well as the existence of a dendrite growth direction range for a given type of droplets. In addition, the effect of the droplet size and the cooling gas on the dendrite growth direction range observed experimentally is also investigated by using the model.

  20. Effect of Annealing on the Microstructure of Rapidly Solidified Foils of Alloy Bi50Sn35In15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelevich, V. G.; Shcherbachenko, L. P.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of annealing on the microstructure of foils of alloy Bi50Sn35In15 is studied. It is shown that prolongation of the annealing time is accompanied by coarsening of the structure, which reduces the specific surface of the interfaces virtually without changing the volume fractions of the phases.

  1. Microstructure and Phase Formation in a Rapidly Solidified Laser-Deposited Ni-Cr-B-Si-C Hardfacing Alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, Ismail; Ocelik, Vaclav; Csach, Kornel; de Hosson, Jeff Th M.

    In this study, microstructural evolutions and phase selection phenomena during laser deposition of a hardfacing Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloy at different processing conditions are experimentally investigated. The results show that even minor variations in the thermal conditions during solidification can

  2. Homogenization and texture development in rapidly solidified AZ91E consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N. R.; Whalen, S. A.; Bowden, M. E.; Olszta, M. J.; Kruska, K.; Clark, T.; Stevens, E. L.; Darsell, J. T.; Joshi, V. V.; Jiang, X.; Mattlin, K. F.; Mathaudhu, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) -a novel processing route that combines high shear and extrusion conditions- was evaluated as a processing method to densify melt spun magnesium alloy (AZ91E) flake materials. This study illustrates the microstructural regimes and transitions in crystallographic texture that occur as a result of applying simultaneous linear and rotational shear during extrusion. Characterization of the flake precursor and extruded tube was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microindentation techniques. Results show a unique transition in the orientation of basal texture development. Despite the high temperatures involved during processing, uniform grain refinement and material homogenization are observed. These results forecast the ability to implement the ShAPE processing approach for a broader range of materials with novel microstructures and high performance.

  3. Effect of Ce on Casting Structure of Near-rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Gao-ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through using XRD,DSC,SEM,EDS and other modern analysis methods, the effects of rare earth element Ce on microstructure and solidification temperature of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu under different cooling rates were studied, the principle of Ce on grain refining and melt cleaning of alloys was analyzed and discussed. The results show that MgZn2 phase and α-Al matrix are the main precipitations, Al,Cu,Mg and other elements dissolve in MgZn2 phase, a new phase Mg(Zn, Cu, Al2 is formed, solute elements in the grain boundary have higher concentration, eutectic reaction takes place between MgZn2 and α-Al, lamellar eutectic structure is generated. The addition of Ce decreases the dendritic arm spacing,reduces the layer spacing between eutectic phases and refines the eutectic structure and the grain significantly, and inhibits the appearance of the impurity phase Al7Cu2Fe in aluminum alloys. The addition of Ce also reduces the precipitation temperature of α-Al matrix and eutectic phase by 6.4℃ and 5.6℃ respectively.

  4. Review of thermal recovery technologies for the Clearwater and lower Grand Rapids formations in the Cold Lake area in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.; Thornton, B.; Houston, J.R.; Spence, S. [OSUM Oil Sands Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a performance review conducted to assess steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) projects in the Cold Lake region. Commercial and pilot plant projects in the region were discussed. The aim of the study was to design a development plan for achieving bitumen production rates of 35,000 barrels per day in the Taiga region. While relatively high pressure drawdowns are created between the wellbore and formation during CSS production phases, the CSS process has limited applications in fine grain sands reservoirs, or in reservoirs with thick bottom water. SAGD processes require a minimum pressure drawdown to drive reservoir fluids to the wellbore, making them ideal for reservoirs with top gas, or in formations with fine grain sands and bottom water. Selection criteria for CSS and SAGD technologies were reviewed. Simulations were conducted to assess the impacts of well placement, reservoir heterogeneity, and operating parameters on SAGD and CSS performance. Well configurations for optimal SAGD performance were also presented. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Optimizing patient treatment decisions in an era of rapid technological advances: the case of hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Brandeau, Margaret L; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2017-03-01

    How long should a patient with a treatable chronic disease wait for more effective treatments before accepting the best available treatment? We develop a framework to guide optimal treatment decisions for a deteriorating chronic disease when treatment technologies are improving over time. We formulate an optimal stopping problem using a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov decision process. The goal is to maximize a patient's quality-adjusted life expectancy. We derive structural properties of the model and analytically solve a three-period treatment decision problem. We illustrate the model with the example of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic HCV affects 3-4 million Americans and has been historically difficult to treat, but increasingly effective treatments have been commercialized in the past few years. We show that the optimal treatment decision is more likely to be to accept currently available treatment-despite expectations for future treatment improvement-for patients who have high-risk history, who are older, or who have more comorbidities. Insights from this study can guide HCV treatment decisions for individual patients. More broadly, our model can guide treatment decisions for curable chronic diseases by finding the optimal treatment policy for individual patients in a heterogeneous population.

  6. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-01

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861 cm- 1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082 cm- 1 (v1 band), 712 cm- 1 and 699 cm- 1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862 cm- 1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350 cm- 1, 730-680 cm- 1) and (830-880 cm- 1, 690-725 cm- 1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner.

  7. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-15

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861cm-1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082cm-1 (v1 band), 712cm-1 and 699cm-1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862cm-1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350cm-1, 730-680cm-1) and (830-880cm-1, 690-725cm-1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rapid identification of Candida spp. frequently involved in invasive mycoses by using flow-through hybridization and Gene Chip (FHGC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. This new system represents a reliable method that is of potential use in clinical laboratories for the simultaneous detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parametric Study to Determine the Effect of Temperature on Oil Solidifier Performance and the Development of a New Empirical Correlation for Predicting Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by conduc...

  10. Development and evaluation of an up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow assay for rapid and quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xinrui; Zhang, Pingping; Qiu, Jingfu; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Contamination of grains and other crops by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, poses a serious threat to human health and is an important food safety issue. In this study, a competitive up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (AFB1-UPT-LF) assay was developed for rapid detection of AFB1. Detection sensitivity of the proposed assay can reach 0.03ngmL -1 for standard AFB1 solutions, with the coefficients of variation (CV) less than 10% (from 1.0 to 9.4%). A good linearity (r=0.9889) was observed for quantification of AFB1 from 0.03 to 1000ngmL -1 . Except for aflatoxin M1, no cross-reactivity was found with the abrin, ricin, ochratoxin A, botulinum toxin, shiga toxin 1, shiga toxin 2, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B, even at high concentrations of 100 or 1000ngmL - 1 . After optimizing the extraction of AFB1, the assay showed good tolerance to various crop samples, with the detection limit (from 0.1 to 5ngg - 1 ) lower than the corresponding maximum residue level (MRL) set in China. The AFB1-UPT-LF assay provides a promising tool for rapid on-site detection of AFB1 because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and sample tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  12. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com [Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Bingfei [Airport College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Xue, Lijun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading–unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading–unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications. - Highlights: • The magnetic-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The temperature-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The effects of coupling factors on directional solidification samples are studied.

  13. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuping; Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao; Liu, Bingfei; Xue, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading-unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading-unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications.

  14. Morphological instability of lamellar structures in directionally solidified Ni-Ni3Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lufeng; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Jianjun; Cui, Kai; Guo, Jingying; Chen, Sen; Liu, Lin

    2018-02-01

    The morphological instability of lamellar structures in Ni-Ni3Si eutectic and hypereutectic alloys directionally solidified at low growth rates was investigated. The first instability in large lamellar structures was zigzag instability, which formed curved lamellae. A zigzag pattern was first displayed in three dimensions. The diffusion-limited growth of the Ni3Si phase decreased phase width and spacing, consequently causing zigzag instability. The reduced spacing was observed at λ/λave = 0.9. After zigzag instability, the microstructure of the eutectic alloy turned into a labyrinth structure and lamellar fragmentation. However, in hypereutectic alloys, shape transition from lamellae to rods occurred, in turn, by the broken lamellae or elongated rods to dumbbell-shaped rods, peanut-shaped rods, and circular rods.

  15. Microstructure and property of directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chunjuan; Tian, Lulu; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Shengnan; Liu, Lin; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the solidification rate on the microstructure, solid/liquid interface, and micro-hardness of the directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy. Microstructure of the Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy is refined with the increase of the solidification rate. The Ni-Si hypereutectic composite is mainly composed of α-Ni matrix, Ni-Ni3Si eutectic phase, and metastable Ni31Si12 phase. The solid/liquid interface always keeps planar interface no matter how high the solidification rate is increased. This is proved by the calculation in terms of M-S interface stability criterion. Moreover, the Ni-Si hypereutectic composites present higher micro-hardness as compared with that of the pure Ni3Si compound. This is caused by the formation of the metastable Ni31Si12 phase and NiSi phase during the directional solidification process.

  16. On oscillatory microstructure during cellular growth of directionally solidified Sn-36at.%Ni peritectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie

    2016-04-01

    An oscillatory microstructure has been observed during deep-cellular growth of directionally solidified Sn-36at.%Ni hyperperitectic alloy containing intermetallic compounds with narrow solubility range. This oscillatory microstructure with a dimension of tens of micrometers has been observed for the first time. The morphology of this wave-like oscillatory structure is similar to secondary dendrite arms, and can be observed only in some local positions of the sample. Through analysis such as successive sectioning of the sample, it can be concluded that this oscillatory microstructure is caused by oscillatory convection of the mushy zone during solidification. And the influence of convection on this oscillatory microstructure was characterized through comparison between experimental and calculations results on the wavelength. Besides, the change in morphology of this oscillatory microstructure has been proved to be caused by peritectic transformation during solidification. Furthermore, the melt concentration increases continuously during solidification of intermetallic compounds with narrow solubility range, which helps formation of this oscillatory microstructure.

  17. Microstructural Development in Al-Ni Alloys Directionally Solidified under Unsteady-State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canté, Manuel V.; Spinelli, José E.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L.; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2008-07-01

    Three Al-Ni hypoeutectic alloys were directionally solidified under upward unsteady-state heat-flow conditions. Primary ( λ 1) and secondary ( λ 2) dendrite arm spacings were measured along the castings for all alloys and correlated with transient solidification thermal variables. A combined theoretical and experimental approach was used to quantitatively determine such thermal variables, i.e., transient metal/mold heat-transfer coefficients, tip growth rates, thermal gradients, tip cooling rates, and local solidification time. The article also focuses on the dependence of dendrite arm spacings on the alloy solute content. Furthermore, the experimental data concerning the solidification of Al-1.0, 2.5, and 4.7 wt pct Ni alloys are compared with the main predictive dendritic models from the literature.

  18. The correlation between dendritic microstructure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canté, Manuel V.; Spinelli, José E.; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2010-02-01

    Al-Ni hypoeutectic alloys were directionally solidified under upward transient heat flow conditions. The aim of the present study is to set up correlations between the as-cast microstructure and the resulting mechanical properties of these alloys. The dependence of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing on the alloy solute content and on solidification thermal parameters is also analyzed. The results include transient metal/mold heat transfer coefficient, tip growth rate, cooling rate, dendrite arm spacing, ultimate tensile strength, yield tensile strength and elongation. Expressions relating dendrite spacing to solidification thermal parameters and mechanical properties to the scale of the dendritic microstructure have been determined. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength and the yield tensile strength increase with increasing alloy solute content and with decreasing primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing. In contrast, the elongation was found to be independent of both alloy composition and dendritic arrangement.

  19. Leaching behavior and immobilization of heavy metals in solidified/stabilized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of hazardous sludge from steel processing plant has been studied. Mechanical strength and leaching behavior test of solidified/stabilized product was performed. Mechanical strength decreases with increase in waste content. Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn could be considerably immobilized by the solidification/stabilization process. The elements least immobilized were Na, K, and Cl. Leaching of heavy metals in the S/S matrix can be considered as pH dependent and corresponding metal hydroxide solubility controlled process. Geochemical modeling was performed for the prediction of speciation. On the basis of test results, mobility and mechanism of leaching was assessed. Dominant leaching mechanism was surface wash off in the initial stages followed by diffusion for Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. Diffusion coefficient was above 11.5 indicating low mobility in the cement matrix.

  20. Solute redistribution and Rayleigh number in the mushy zone during directional solidifi cation of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interdendritic segregation along the mushy zone of directionally solidifi ed superalloy Inconel 718 has been measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion analysis spectrometry (EDAXtechniques and the corresponding liquid composition profile was presented. The liquid density and Rayleigh number (Ra profi les along the mushy zone were calculated as well. It was found that the liquid density difference increased from top to bottom in the mushy zone and there was no density inversion due to the segregation of Nb and Mo. However carbide formation in the freezing range and the preferred angle of the orientated dendrite array could prompt the fl uid fl ow in the mushy zone although there was no liquid density inversion. The largest relative Rayleigh number appeared at 1,326 篊 for Inconel 718 where the fl uid fl ow most easily occurred.

  1. Evaluation of leaching behavior and immobilization of zinc in cement-based solidified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolo Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has examined leaching behavior of monolithic stabilized/solidified products contaminated with zinc by performing modified dynamic leaching test. The effectiveness of cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was evaluated by determining the cumulative release of Zn and diffusion coefficients, De. The experimental results indicated that the cumulative release of Zn decreases as the addition of binder increases. The values of the Zn diffusion coefficients for all samples ranged from 1.210-8 to 1.1610-12 cm2 s-1. The samples with higher amounts of binder had lower De values. The test results showed that cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was effective in immobilization of electroplating sludge and waste zeolite. A model developed by de Groot and van der Sloot was used to clarify the controlling mechanisms. The controlling leaching mechanism was found to be diffusion for samples with small amounts of waste material, and dissolution for higher waste contents.

  2. Strain hardening and fracture behavior during tension of directionally solidified high-nitrogen austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Galina; Astafurova, Elena; Melnikov, Eugene; Moskvina, Valentina; Galchenko, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The effect of grain orientation relative to tensile load on the strain hardening behavior and fracture mechanism of directionally solidified high-nitrogen steel Fe-20Cr-22Mn-1.5V-0.2C-0.6N (in wt %) was studied. The tensile samples oriented along the longitudinal direction of columnar grains demonstrated the improved mechanical properties compared to specimens with the transversal directions of columnar grains: the values of tensile strength and strain-to-fracture were as high as 1080 MPa and 22%, respectively, for tension along the columnar grains and 870 MPa and 11%, respectively, for the tension transversal to the columnar grains. The change in the grain orientation relative to the tensile load varies a fracture mode of the steel. The fraction of the transgranular fracture was higher in the samples with longitudinal directions of the columnar grains compared to the transversal ones.

  3. Microstructural evolution and corrosion behavior of directionally solidified FeCoNiCrAl high entropy alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hongbao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The FeCoNiCrAl alloys have many potential applications in the fields of structural materials, but few attempts were made to characterize the directional solidification of high entropy alloys. In the present research, the microstructure and corrosion behavior of FeCoNiCrAl high entropy alloy have been investigated under directional solidification. The results show that with increasing solidification rate, the interface morphology of the alloy evolves from planar to cellular and dendritic. The electrochemical experiment results demonstrate that the corrosion products of both non-directionally and directionally solidified FeCoNiCrAl alloys appear as rectangular blocks in phases which Cr and Fe are enriched, while Al and Ni are depleted, suggesting that Al and Ni are dissolved into the NaCl solution. Comparison of the potentiodynamic polarization behaviors between the two differently solidified FeCoNiCrAl high entropy alloys in a 3.5%NaCl solution shows that the corrosion resistance of directionally solidified FeCoNiCrAl alloy is superior to that of the non-directionally solidified FeCoNiCrAl alloy.

  4. Integrated Use of Tools and Technologies for Rapidly Prototyping Simulated Data Products of Future NASA Observing Systems For Evaluation in Applications of National Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, C. G.; Moorhead, R.; Shaw, D.; Shrestha, B.; Ross, K.; Prados, D.; Russell, J.; Ryan, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    NASA sponsored "Rapid Prototyping Capability" (RPC) research activities of the Mississippi Research Consortium are aimed at developing infrastructure and experiments to evaluate data products from future NASA observing systems in applications, models or decision support tools of national importance. The RPC will host a wide variety of experiments, many of which will require the simulation of data streams to approximate products from future NASA observing systems. To simulate data from a future observing system, a variety of tools and technologies must be employed in an integrated computational workflow. Future data product simulations will typically involve using data products from currently operational science data mission observing systems to provide inputs to a process wherein data will be extracted and manipulated to provide products that approximate the spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal characteristics of planned future sensors. The integration of tools and technologies and adapting interfaces for ease of use will enable researchers to test a variety of simulations to efficiently determine an acceptable set of procedures whereby a simulated data product may be derived from existing data sources. Interactive research and testing of data product simulation scenarios will strongly leverage NASA tools and technologies such as the HDF Extraction to GeoTiff tool (HEG2.7) to extract large volumes of data in batch mode, the Time-Series Product Toolkit (TSPT) to evaluate methods for data fusion, de-noising, and creating multi-temporal composites, and the Application Research Toolbox (ART) to manipulate data product characteristics in the simulation process. Given an accepted simulation configuration generated by a set of methods and a documented process workflow, the process will be computationally implemented using Mississippi State University's Temporal Map Algebra (TMA) tools which will enable handling large data sets, computing efficiently the desired

  5. Rapid solidification via melt spinning - Equipment and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jech, R. W.; Moore, T. J.; Glasgow, T. K.; Orth, N. W.

    1984-01-01

    One of the simpler methods available to accomplish rapid solidification processing is free jet melt spinning. With only a modest expenditure of time, effort, and capital, an apparatus suitable for preliminary experimentation can be assembled. Wheel and crucible materials, process atmospheres, crucible design, heating methods, and process parameters and their relationship to melt composition are described. Practical solutions to processing problems, based on 'hands-on' experience, are offered. Alloys with melting points up to 3000 F have been rapidly solidified using the techniques described.

  6. Adapting a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for forecasting the number of coronary artery revascularisation procedures in an era of rapidly changing technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Haider R; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael

    2008-06-25

    Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD) have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs) and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs). It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007). In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard) model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995-99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG procedure stemming from changed CARP preference

  7. A novel generic dipstick-based technology for rapid and precise detection of tetracycline, streptogramin and macrolide antibiotics in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Nils; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-02-20

    Excessive use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and as growth promoters in stock farming has been associated with the dramatically increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant human pathogenic bacteria. European community legislators have therefore restricted the veterinary use of antibiotics and banned them as growth-promoting food additives in stock breeding (1831/2003/EC). The monitoring of such legislation requires technology for precise and straightforward on-site quantification of antibiotics in farm samples and food products without the need for extensive laboratory equipment and trained personnel. Capitalizing on bacterial transcriptional regulators (TetR, PIP, E), which are dose-dependently released from their cognate operators (tetO, PIR, ETR) upon binding of specific classes of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptogramins, macrolides) we have designed an easy-to-handle dipstick-based assay for detection of antibiotic levels in serum, meat and milk whose detection limits are up to 40-fold below licensed threshold values. The generic dipstick consists of either nitrocellulose, nylon or polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF) membrane strips coated with streptavidin and immobilized biotinylated operator DNA, which acts as capture DNA to bind hexa-histidine (His(6))-tagged bacterial biosensors. Antibiotics present in specific samples triggered the dose-dependent release of the capture DNA-biosensor interaction, which, after dipping into two different solutions, results in a correlated conversion of a chromogenic substrate by a standard His(6)-targeted enzyme complex. This can be quantified by comparison of the dipstick to a standardized color scale or by assessing the terminal solution at 450nm. As demonstrated using serum, meat and milk samples spiked with 14 different antibiotics, the dipstick technology provided sensitive detection in a rapid assay format, and could be employed to monitor non-authorized use of antibiotics and to discover novel antibiotics.

  8. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  9. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  10. Formation and growth of crystal defects in directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryningen, Birgit

    2008-07-01

    Included in this thesis are five publications and one report. The common theme is characterisation of directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. Material characterisation of solar cell silicon is naturally closely linked to both the casting process and to the solar cell processing: Many of the material properties are determined by the casting process, and the solar cell processing will to some extend determine which properties will influence the solar cell performance. Solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) made by metallurgical refining route and supplied by Elkem Solar was directionally solidified and subsequently characterised, and a simple solar cell process was applied. Except from some metallic co-precipitates in the top of the ingot, no abnormalities were found, and it is suggested that within the limits of the tests performed in this thesis, the casting and the solar cell processing, rather than the assumed higher impurity content, was the limiting factor. It is suggested in this thesis that the main quality problem in multicrystalline silicon wafers is the existence of dislocation clusters covering large wafer areas. The clusters will reduce the effect of gettering and even if gettering could be performed successfully, the clusters will still reduce the minority carrier mobility and hence the solar cell performance. It has further been pointed out that ingots solidified under seemingly equal conditions might have a pronounced difference in minority carrier lifetime. Ingots with low minority carrier lifetime have high dislocation densities. The ingots with the substantially higher lifetime seem all to be dominated by twins. It is also found a link between a higher undercooling and the ingots dominated by twins. It is suggested that the two types of ingots are subject to different nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms: For the ingots dominated by dislocations, which are over represented, the crystal growth is randomly nucleated at the

  11. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interplay between temperature gradients field and C - E transformation in solidifying rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wołczyński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At first step of simulation a temperature field for solidifying cast steel and cast iron roll has been performed. The calculation does not take into account the convection in the liquid since convection has no influence on the proposed model for the localization of the C-E (columnar to equiaxed grains transformation. However, it allows to study the dynamics of temperature field temporal behavior in the middle of a mould. It is postulated that for the C-E transition a full accumulation of the heat in the mould has been observed (plateau at the T(t curve. The temporal range of plateau existence corresponds to the incubation time for the full equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation temporal behavior of the temperature gradient field has been studied. Three ranges within temperature gradients field have been distinguished for the operating point situated at the middle of mould: a/ for the formation of columnar grains zone, ( and high temperature gradient 0>>T&0//>>∂∂−∂∂∂∂−∂∂>EttEtrTrT. T - temperature, r - roll radius. It is evident that the heat transfer across the mould decides on the temporal appearance of incubation during which the solidification is significantly arrested and competition between columnar and equiaxed growth occurs. Moreover solidification with positive temperature gradient transforms into solidification with negative temperature gradient (locally after the incubation. A simulation has been performed for the cast steel and cast iron rolls solidifying as in industry condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into to parts (first with columnar structure, second with equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification have been made in laboratory scale. Finally, observations of the macrosegregation or microsegregation and phase or structure appearance in the cast iron ingot / roll (made in laboratory has also been done in order to confront them with theoretical predictions

  13. Optimization of dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of glucocorticoid residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Zheng, Zhiqun; Huang, Liying; Yao, Hong; Wu, Xiao Shan; Li, Shaoguang; Lin, Dandan

    2017-05-10

    A rapid, simple, cost-effective dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop (SFOD-LPME) was developed in this study. Along with high-performance liquid chromatography, we used the developed approach to determine and enrich trace amounts of four glucocorticoids, namely, prednisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, and cortisone acetate, in animal-derived food. We also investigated and optimized several important parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of SFOD-LPME. These parameters include the extractant species, volumes of extraction and dispersant solvents, sodium chloride addition, sample pH, extraction time and temperature, and stirring rate. Under optimum experimental conditions, the calibration graph exhibited linearity over the range of 1.2-200.0ng/ml for the four analytes, with a reasonable linearity(r 2 : 0.9990-0.9999). The enrichment factor was 142-276, and the detection limits was 0.39-0.46ng/ml (0.078-0.23μg/kg). This method was successfully applied to analyze actual food samples, and good spiked recoveries of over 81.5%-114.3% were obtained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of copper ions by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpa Şahin Ç.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and inexpensive solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination (FI-FAAS method for copper was developed. 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral red, NR was used as the complexing agent. Several factors affecting the microextraction efficiency, such as, pH, NR and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, and temperature were investigated and optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions an enrichment factor of 541 was obtained for 100 mL of sample solution. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 – 20.0 ng mL–1 and the limit of detection (3s was 0.18 ng mL–1, the limit of quantification (10s was 0.58 ng mL–1. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 10 replicate measurements of 10 ng mL–1 copper was 2.7%. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of copper in different certified reference materials (Estuarine water, Slew 3 and fortified water, TM 23.2 and real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. Comparative Investigation of the Downward and Upward Directionally Solidified Single-Crystal Blades of Superalloy CMSX-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Ma, Dexin; Bogner, Samuel; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Single-crystal blades of Ni-base superalloys CMSX-4 have been directionally solidified using the downward directional solidification (DWDS) process. The possible benefits of the process were comparatively evaluated with respect to the Bridgman process' results. The DWDS process exhibits good capabilities for casting the single-crystal components. The thermal gradients of this process are approximately seven times higher than those of the Bridgman process. It provides more advantages for solidifying the single-crystal superalloy blades by reducing the casting defects, refining the microstructure, decreasing the size of the γ/ γ' eutectic pools, refining the γ' precipitates, alleviating the degree of the microsegregation, and minimizing the size and volume fraction of the micropores.

  16. The influence of melt convection on dendritic spacing of downward unsteady-state directionally solidified Sn-Pb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Spinelli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures are the strategic link between materials processing and materials behavior. A dendritic structure is the most frequently observed pattern of solidified alloys. The microstructural scales of dendrites, such as primary and secondary arm spacings, control the segregation profiles and the formation of secondary phases within interdendritic regions, determine the properties of cast structures. In this work, the influence of thermosolutal convection on dendrite arm spacings is experimentally examined in the downward vertical unsteady-state directional solidification of Sn-Pb hypoeutectic alloys. The experimental observations are compared not only with the main predictive theoretical models for dendritic spacings but also with experimental results obtained for Sn-Pb alloys solidified vertically upwards. Primary dendritic arm spacings have been affected by the direction of growth, decreasing in conditions of downward vertical solidification when compared with those grown vertically upwards. Further, the unsteady-state lambda1 predictive models did not generate the experimental observations.

  17. A SEM and X-ray study for investigation of solidified/stabilized arsenic-iron hydroxide sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Marhaba, Taha F; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn

    2005-02-14

    Despite the fact that the solidification/stabilization of arsenic containing wastes with Portland cement and lime has an extensively documented history of use, the physical and chemical phenomena as a result of the interaction between arsenic and cement components have not been fully characterized. The study investigates the behavior of synthesized arsenic-iron hydroxide sludge, the by-product of arsenic removal by coagulation with ferric chloride, in solidified/stabilized matrices as well as its binding mechanisms by exploring the cementitious matrices in the micro-scale by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It was revealed that arsenic can be chemically fixed into cementitious environment of the solidified/stabilized matrices by three important immobilization mechanisms; sorption onto C-S-H surface, replacing SO4(2-) of ettringite, and reaction with cement components to form calcium-arsenic compounds, the solubility limiting phases.

  18. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  19. Effects of Rapid Solidification Process and 0.1 wt.% Pr Addition on Properties of Sn-9Zn Alloy and Cu/Solder/Cu Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoji; Jing, Yanxia; Sheng, Guangmin; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-05-01

    Effects of 0.1 wt.% Pr addition and rapid solidification process on Sn-9Zn solder alloy were investigated. Solder characteristics of the as-solidified and rapidly solidified Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr alloys were analyzed in comparison with those of the as-solidified Sn-9Zn alloy. Mechanical properties and interfacial microstructure of solder/Cu joints obtained using these solders were comparatively studied. By comparison with the as-solidified Sn-9Zn alloy, the wettability of the solder was obviously improved with 0.1 wt.% Pr addition, and the melting behavior of the solder was promoted due to the rapid solidification process. The corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr alloy was improved due to the refined microstructure resulting from 0.1 wt.% Pr addition and rapid solidification. The growth of IMCs at the interface of Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr/Cu joints was depressed in some degree. Rapid solidification process promoted the interfacial reaction during soldering and improved the bonding strength of joints.

  20. On oscillatory microstructure during cellular growth of directionally solidified Sn–36at.%Ni peritectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie

    2016-01-01

    An oscillatory microstructure has been observed during deep-cellular growth of directionally solidified Sn–36at.%Ni hyperperitectic alloy containing intermetallic compounds with narrow solubility range. This oscillatory microstructure with a dimension of tens of micrometers has been observed for the first time. The morphology of this wave-like oscillatory structure is similar to secondary dendrite arms, and can be observed only in some local positions of the sample. Through analysis such as successive sectioning of the sample, it can be concluded that this oscillatory microstructure is caused by oscillatory convection of the mushy zone during solidification. And the influence of convection on this oscillatory microstructure was characterized through comparison between experimental and calculations results on the wavelength. Besides, the change in morphology of this oscillatory microstructure has been proved to be caused by peritectic transformation during solidification. Furthermore, the melt concentration increases continuously during solidification of intermetallic compounds with narrow solubility range, which helps formation of this oscillatory microstructure. PMID:27066761

  1. Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructure in directionally solidified peritectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Lu, Zhenyuan; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Moreau, Rene; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-11-01

    Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructures in directionally solidified Fe-Ni and Pb-Bi peritectic alloys has been investigated experimentally. The results indicate that the magnetic field can induce the formation of banded and island-like structures and refine the primary phase in peritectic alloys. The above results are enhanced with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) analysis reveals that the magnetic field increases the Ni solute content on one side and enhances the solid solubility in the primary phase in the Fe-Ni alloy. The thermoelectric (TE) power difference at the liquid/solid interface of the Pb-Bi peritectic alloy is measured in situ, and the results show that a TE power difference exists at the liquid/solid interface. 3 D numerical simulations for the TE magnetic convection in the liquid are performed, and the results show that a unidirectional TE magnetic convection forms in the liquid near the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification under a transverse magnetic field and that the amplitude of the TE magnetic convection at different scales is different. The TE magnetic convections on the macroscopic interface and the cell/dendrite scales are responsible for the modification of microstructures during directional solidification under a magnetic field.

  2. Tensile behavior of directionally solidified Ni3Al intermetallics with different Al contents and solidification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Gu, Jiho; Kim, Sangshik; Hong, Hyunuk; Choi, Heekyu; Lee, Jehyun

    2014-03-01

    Despite the excellent high temperature mechanical properties of the Ni3Al intermetallic compound, its application is still limited due to its inherently weak grain boundary. Recent research advances have demonstrated that the tensile ductility can be enhanced by controlling the grain morphology using a directional solidification. In this study, a series of directional solidification experiments were carried out to increase both the tensile ductility and the strength of Ni3Al alloys by arraying either the ductile phase of γ-Ni-rich dendrite fibers or the hard phase of β-NiAl dendrite fibers in the γ'-Ni3Al matrix. The dendrite arm spacing could be controlled by the solidification rate, and the volume fraction of the γ or β phase could be altered by the Al content, ranging from 23 at.% to 27 at.%. With an increasing Al content, the γ dendritic microstructure was transformed into the β dendrite in the γ' matrix, thereby reducing the tensile ductility by increasing the volume fraction of brittle β dendrites in the γ' matrix. With an increasing solidification rate, the dendrite arm spacing decreased and the tensile properties of Ni3Al varied in a complex manner. The microstructural evolution affecting the tensile behavior of directionally solidified Ni3Al alloy specimens with different solidification rates and Al contents is discussed.

  3. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  4. Microstructure Control of Columnar-Grained Silicon Substrate Solidified from Silicon Melts Using Gas Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Kyu Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A silicon substrate with the dimensions of 100 × 140 × 0.3 mm was grown directly from liquid silicon with gas pressure. The silicon melt in the sealed melting part was injected into the growth part at applied pressure of 780–850 Torr. The solidified silicon substrate was then transferred by the pull of the cooled dummy bar. A desirable structure with a liquid-solid interface perpendicular to the pulling direction was formed when the mold temperature in the solidification zone of the growth part was much higher than that of the dummy bar, as this technique should be able to overcome thermal loss through the molds and the limited heat flux derived from the very narrow contact area between the silicon melt and the dummy bar. In addition, because the metallic impurities and expansion of volume during solidification are preferably moved to a liquid phase, a high-quality silicon substrate, without defects such as cracks and impurities in the substrate, could be manufactured in the interface structure. The present study reports the experimental findings on a new and direct growth system for obtaining silicon substrates characterized by high quality and productivity, as a candidate for alternate routes for the fabrication of silicon substrates.

  5. High-temperature performance evaluation of adirectionally solidified nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, D. A.; Stiles, D.

    1997-08-01

    The application of a new approach, design for performance, for high-temperature alloy development, design analysis, and remaining life assessment, based on short-time high-precision testing, is described in this paper. The material tested was a directionally solidified nickel-base alloy, GTD111. It was found that the creep strength at 850 °C was indeed superior to that of a competitive alloy, IN738, but was not necessarily enhanced by the preferred alignment of grain boundaries and crystal orientation. In contrast, the fracture resistance at 800 °C was improved in the longitudinal direction compared with transverse and diagonal orientations in terms of susceptibility to gas phase embrittlement (GPE) by oxygen. Specimens cut transversely and diagonally to the growth direction were more sensitive to GPE than specimens taken from conventionally cast IN738. The new conceptual framework allows account to be taken of GPE and other embrittling phenomena, which may develop in service, leading to rational life management decisions for gas turbine users. Additionally, straightforward design analysis procedures can be developed from the test data, which for the first time allow separate measurements of creep strength and fracture resistance to be used for performance evaluation.

  6. Massive, solidified bone in the wing of a volant courting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Riccio, Mark L; Humphries, Julian M

    2012-10-23

    One pervasive morphological feature of tetrapods is the pipe-like, often marrow-filled, structure of the limb or long bones. This 'hollow' form maximizes flexural strength and stiffness with the minimum amount of bony material, and is exemplified by truly hollow (air-filled), or pneumatic, humeri in many modern birds. High-resolution microCT scans of the wings of two male club-winged manakins (Machaeropterus deliciosus) uncovered a notable exception to the hollow-tube rule in terrestrial vertebrates; males exhibited solidified ulnae more than three times the volume of birds of comparable body size, with significantly higher tissue mineral densities. The humeri exhibited similar (but less extreme) modifications. Each of the observed osteological modifications increases the overall mass of the bone, running counter to pervasive weight-reducing optimizations for flight in birds. The club-winged manakin is named for a pair of unique wing feathers found in adult males; these enlarged feathers attach directly to the ulna and resonate to produce a distinctive sound used in courtship displays. Given that the observed modifications probably assist in sound production, the club-winged manakin represents a case in which sexual selection by female choice has generated an ecologically 'costly' forelimb morphology, unique in being specialized for sound production at a presumed cost in flight efficiency.

  7. Primary arm spacing in directionally solidified Pb-10 wt pct Sn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, M. A.; Tewari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of primary arm spacings on growth speed was investigated for cellular and dendritic arrays in Pb-10 wt percent Sn samples directionally solidified under a constant positive thermal gradient in the melt. The gradient of constitutional supercooling was varied from almost zero (near the break-down of the planar liquid-solid interface at small growth speeds, cellular morphology) to near unity (large growth speeds, dendritic morphology). The spatial arrangements of cells and dendrites, as given by their coordination number, are not very different from each other. It appears that primary arm spacing maxima and the cell to dendrite transition are strongly influenced by the magnitude of the solute partition coefficient. The planar to cellular bifurction is supercritical in Pb-Sn which has a high partition coefficient, as compared to the subcritical behavior reported in Al-Cu and succinonitrile-acetone, both of which have low partition coefficients. The primary arm spacing model due to Hunt agrees with the experimentally observed trend for the whole growth regime. There is a good quantitative agreement at higher grdients of supercooling. However, the model overpredicts the primary arm spacings at low gradients of constitutional supercooling.

  8. Organic semiconductor rubrene thin films deposited by pulsed laser evaporation of solidified solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, N.; Gazda, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; Majumdar, S.; Sawczak, M.; Śliwiński, G.

    2017-08-01

    Organic semiconductor rubrene (C42H28) belongs to most preferred spintronic materials because of the high charge carrier mobility up to 40 cm2(V·s)-1. However, the fabrication of a defect-free, polycrystalline rubrene for spintronic applications represents a difficult task. We report preparation and properties of rubrene thin films deposited by pulsed laser evaporation of solidified solutions. Samples of rubrene dissolved in aromatic solvents toluene, xylene, dichloromethane and 1,1-dichloroethane (0.23-1% wt) were cooled to temperatures in the range of 16.5-163 K and served as targets. The target ablation was provided by a pulsed 1064 nm or 266 nm laser. For films of thickness up to 100 nm deposited on Si, glass and ITO glass substrates, the Raman and AFM data show presence of the mixed crystalline and amorphous rubrene phases. Agglomerates of rubrene crystals are revealed by SEM observation too, and presence of oxide/peroxide (C42H28O2) in the films is concluded from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectroscopic analysis.

  9. Multi-scale Constitutive Model of Solidifying Cementitious Composites and Application to Cracking Assessment of a Concrete Structure

    OpenAIRE

    石田, 哲也; 浅本, 晋吾; 前川, 宏一

    2006-01-01

    A multi-scale constitutive model of solidifying cementitious materials is presented based on a systematic knowledge coupling structural mechanics with chemo-physical phenomena. The model can reasonably simulate time-dependent deformations such as autogenous/drying shrinkage and basic/drying creep in laboratory tests under arbitrary environmental and loading conditions. Shrinkage induced cracking in an actual PRC bridge structure was examined by the analytical system, which reveals that large ...

  10. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C. 153.1108 Section 153.1108 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID,...

  11. Development of methodology to evaluate microbially influenced degradation of cement-solidified low-level radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Because of its apparent structural integrity, cement has been widely used in the United States as a binder to solidify Class B and C low-level radioactive waste (LLW). However, the resulting cement preparations are susceptible to failure due to the actions of stress and environment. An environmentally mediated process that could affect cement stability is the action of naturally occurring microorganisms. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), recognizing this eventuality, stated that the effects of microbial action on waste form integrity must be addressed. This paper provides present results from an ongoing program that addresses the effects of microbially influenced degradation (MID) on cement-solidified LLW. Data are provided on the development of an evaluation method using acid-producing bacteria. Results are from work with one type of these bacteria, the sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus. This work involved the use of a system in which laboratory- and vendor-manufactured, simulated waste forms were exposed on an intermittent basis to media containing thiobacilli. Testing demonstrated that MID has the potential to severely compromise the structural integrity of ion-exchange resin and evaporator-bottoms waste that is solidified with cement. In addition, it was found that a significant percentage of calcium and other elements were leached from the treated waste forms. Also, the surface pH of the treated specimens decreased to below 2. These conditions apparently contributed to the physical deterioration of simulated waste forms after 60 days of exposure to the thiobacilli.

  12. Studies on uniformity of the active ingredients in acetaminophen suppositories re-solidified after melting under high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Katori, Noriko; Tomono, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The target of the present pharmaceutical study was the antipyretic analgesic, acetaminophen; its suppository form is usually split when used in pediatric patients. We focused on the active ingredient uniformity in these products, which were re-solidified after melting under high temperature condition. When sections of the cut surfaces of the seven acetaminophen suppository products (SUP-A-G) commercially available in Japan were visualized by polarized microscopy, acetaminophen crystals that were dispersed in the base were identified. The results of the quantitative determination of agent concentration for each cut portion (mg/g) suggested uniform dispersion of these crystals in the base of each product. The agent concentration in each portion of the suppositories that was re-solidified after melting at high temperatures was measured. Segregation of the active ingredient was observed in four products at a temperature of 40°C for 1 h, while active ingredient uniformity was maintained in the other three products (SUP-C, SUP-F and SUP-G). The latter three products also showed high viscosity at 40°C. At 50°C for 4 h, only the uniformity of the active ingredient in SUP-C was maintained. These results suggest that the uniformity of the active ingredient is lost in some acetaminophen suppositories that were re-solidified after melting under high temperature conditions. The degree of loss varies depending on the product.

  13. Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Hema, E-mail: hhasija@gmail.com [TERI University, Plot No. 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi (India); Pandey, Suneel [Centre for Regulatory and Policy Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India Habitat Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge from textile wastewater treatment plants using Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) containing fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical engineering (compressive strength and block density) indicates that sludge has potential to be reused for construction purpose after stabilization/solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leaching of heavy metals from stabilized/solidified materials were within stipulated limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a modification of microstructural properties of PPC with sludge addition as indicated by XRD and SEM patterns. - Abstract: The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10-25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62-33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17-1688.72 kg/m{sup 3}) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications.

  14. Evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow strips for rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis Spore, Brucella spp., and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Zhang

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Brucella spp., and Yersinia pestis are zoonotic pathogens and biowarfare- or bioterrorism-associated agents that must be detected rapidly on-site from various samples (e.g., viscera and powders. An up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (UPT-LF strip was developed as a point-of-care testing (POCT to satisfy the requirements of first-level emergency response. We developed UPT-LF POCT to quantitatively detect the three pathogens within 15 min. Sample and operation-error tolerances of the assay were comprehensively evaluated. The sensitivity of UPT-LF assay to bacterial detection reached 10(4 cfu · mL(-1 (100 cfu/test, with a linear quantitative range of 4 to 6 orders of magnitude. Results revealed that the UPT-LF assay exhibited a high specificity with the absence of false-positive results even at 10(9 cfu · mL(-1 of non-specific bacterial contamination. The assay could tolerate samples with a wide pH range (2 to 12, high ion strengths (≥ 4 mol · L(-1 of NaCl, high viscosities (≤ 25 mg · mL(-1 of PEG20000 or ≥ 20% of glycerol, and high concentrations of bio-macromolecule (≤ 200 mg · mL(-1 of bovine serum albumin or ≥ 80 mg · mL(-1 of casein. The influence of various types of powders and viscera (fresh and decomposed on the performance of UPT-LF assay was determined. The operational error of liquid measurement exhibited few effects on sensitivity and specificity. The developed UPT-LF POCT assay is applicable under field conditions with excellent tolerance to sample complexity and operational error.

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. Leaching behavior and effectiveness of curing days (7& 28) of solidified/stabilized fly ash based geopolymer (multi-metal bearing sludge): experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Khaleb, Divya; Badur, Smita

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the immobilization of heavy metals like Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn by fly ash based geopolymers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of fly ash based geopolymeric solidification/stabilization technology. For S/S of waste, geopolymer as a binding agent was mixed with waste at different ratios. For initial waste characterization, contaminants concentration and some physical waste characterization such as dry density, bulk density, specific gravity, porosity, moisture holding capacity, and moisture content were determined. Waste and geopolymer mixture were cured for 7 and 28 days to study the effect of curing days on the solidified/ stabilized product. Diffusion leaching test was performed on the geopolymers containing industrial sludge to determine the leaching mechanism of binders to entrap the waste constituents within their matrix. Movement of the elements was identified with the help of leachability index. S/S through geopolymer was found to be effective in immobilizing toxic metals present in the sludge. Zn was 100% and other metals like Pb, Fe, Mn and Cu were in the range 80-99% immobilized. The order of fixation of metals was Zn >Cu > Fe > Mn > Pb.

  17. The relationship of microstructure to fracture and corrosion behavior of a directionally solidified superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Matthew D.

    GTD-111 DS is a directionally solidified superalloy currently used in turbine engines. To accurately predict the life of engine components it is essential to examine and characterize the microstructural evolution of the material and its effects on material properties. The as-cast microstructure of GTD-111 is highly inhomogeneous as a result of coring. The current post-casting heat treatments do not effectively eliminate the inhomogeneity. This inhomogeneity affects properties including tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture path, and corrosion behavior, primarily in terms of the number of grains per specimen. The goal of this work was to link microstructural features to these properties. Quantitative fractography was used to determine that the path of cracks during failure of tensile specimens is influenced by the presence of carbides, which are located in the interdendritic regions of the material as dictated by segregation. The solvus temperature of the precipitate phase, Ni3(Al, Ti), was determined to be 1200°C using traditional metallography, differential thermal analysis, and dilatometry. A heat-treatment was designed to homogenize the microstructure for tensile testing that isolates the carbide by dissolving all of the "eutectic" Ni3(Al, Ti) precipitate phase, which is also found in the interdendritic areas. High temperature oxidation/sulfidation tests were conducted to investigate the corrosion processes involved when GTD-111 DS is utilized in steam and gas combustion turbine engines. The kinetics of corrosion in both oxidizing and sulfidizing atmospheres were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Additionally, metallography of these samples after TGA revealed a correlation between the presence of grain boundaries and sulfur attack, which led to catastrophic failure of the material under stress-free conditions in a sulfur bearing environment. In summary, this work correlates the inhomogeneous microstructure of GTD-111 DS to tensile fracture

  18. Microstructural evolution of directionally solidified DZ125 superalloy castings with different solidification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Bingming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of Ni-base superalloy castings are closely related to the uniformity of their as-cast microstructure, and different solidification methods have serious effect on microstructural uniformity. In this paper, the influences of high rate solidification (HRS process (with or without superheating and liquid metal cooling (LMC process on the microstructure of DZ125 superalloy were investigated. Blade-shape castings were solidified at rates of 40 μm·s-1 to 110 μm·s-1 using HRS process and a comparative experiment was carried out at a rate of 70 μm·s-1 by LMC process. The optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to observe the microstructure and the grain size was analyzed using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD technique. Results show that for the castings by either HRS or LMC process, the primary dendrite arm spacing and size of γ' precipitates decrease with increasing the withdrawal rate; the dendrites and γ' precipitates at the upper section of the blade are coarser than those in the middle, especially for the HRS castings without high superheating technique. When the withdrawal rate is 70 μm·s-1, the castings by HRS with high superheating technique have the smallest PDAS with fine γ' precipitates; while the size distribution of γ' precipitates is more homogenous in LMC castings, and the number of larger grains in LMC castings is smaller than that in the HRS castings. Moreover, high superheating technique yields smaller grains in the castings. Both the LMC method and HRS with high superheating technique can be used to prepare castings with reduced maximum grain size.

  19. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  20. Rapid detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection in critical care using multipathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction technology: a diagnostic accuracy study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Geoffrey; Dunn, Graham; Chadwick, Paul; Blackwood, Bronagh; McAuley, Daniel; Perkins, Gavin D; McMullan, Ronan; Gates, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Young, Duncan; Carlson, Gordon L; Dark, Paul

    2015-05-01

    antibiotic exposure. SeptiFast real-time PCR, when compared with culture-proven bloodstream infection at species/genus level, had better specificity (85.8%, 95% CI 83.3% to 88.1%) than sensitivity (50%, 95% CI 39.1% to 60.8%). When compared with pooled diagnostic metrics derived from our systematic review, our clinical study revealed lower test accuracy of SeptiFast real-time PCR, mainly as a result of low diagnostic sensitivity. There was a low prevalence of BC-proven pathogens in these patients (9.2%, 95% CI 7.4% to 11.2%) such that the post-test probabilities of both a positive (26.3%, 95% CI 19.8% to 33.7%) and a negative SeptiFast test (5.6%, 95% CI 4.1% to 7.4%) indicate the potential limitations of this technology in the diagnosis of bloodstream infection. However, latent class analysis indicates that BC has a low sensitivity, questioning its relevance as a reference test in this setting. Using this analysis approach, the sensitivity of the SeptiFast test was low but also appeared significantly better than BC. Blood samples identified as positive by either culture or SeptiFast real-time PCR were associated with a high probability (> 95%) of infection, indicating higher diagnostic rule-in utility than was apparent using conventional analyses of diagnostic accuracy. SeptiFast real-time PCR on blood samples may have rapid rule-in utility for the diagnosis of health-care-associated bloodstream infection but the lack of sensitivity is a significant limiting factor. Innovations aimed at improved diagnostic sensitivity of real-time PCR in this setting are urgently required. Future work recommendations include technology developments to improve the efficiency of pathogen DNA extraction and the capacity to detect a much broader range of pathogens and drug resistance genes and the application of new statistical approaches able to more reliably assess test performance in situation where the reference standard (e.g. blood culture in the setting of high antimicrobial use) is

  1. The Agile Rapid Global Combat Support (ARGCS) System: A Cost and Benefit Analysis of Including the ARGCS Technologies in the Acquisition of the Enhanced Consolidated Support System (ECASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Franck and Carmelita Troy in January 2007. Revised in May of 2007, this interim BCA, based on the data then available, offered an assessment of the...www.drivedemand.com/roipart1.html Franck, Raymond and Carmelita Troy, Agile Rapid Global Combat Support, Business Case Analysis, Version 1.0. Naval

  2. Reuse of cement-solidified municipal incinerator fly ash in cement mortars: physico-mechanical and leaching characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquepalmi, Maria Anna; Mangialardi, Teresa; Panei, Liliana; Paolini, Antonio Evangelista; Piga, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    The reuse of cement-solidified Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash (solidified/stabilised (S/S) product) as an artificial aggregate in Portland cement mortars was investigated. The S/S product consisted of a mixture of 48 wt.% washed MSWI fly ash, 20 wt.% Portland cement and 32 wt.% water, aged for 365 days at 20 degrees C and 100% RH. Cement mortars (water/cement weight ratio=0.62) were made with Portland cement, S/S product and natural sand at three replacement levels of sand with S/S product (0%, 10% and 50% by mass). After 28 days of curing at 20 degrees C and 100% RH, the mortar specimens were characterised for their physico-mechanical (porosity, compressive strength) and leaching behaviour. No retardation in strength development, relatively high compressive strengths (up to 36 N/mm2) and low leaching rates of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were always recorded. The leaching data from sequential leach tests on monolithic specimens were successfully elaborated with a pseudo-diffusional model including a chemical retardation factor related to the partial dissolution of contaminant.

  3. Directionally Solidified NiAl-Based Alloys Studied for Improved Elevated-Temperature Strength and Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are underway to replace superalloys used in the hot sections of gas turbine engines with materials possessing better mechanical and physical properties. Alloys based on the intermetallic NiAl have demonstrated potential; however, they generally suffer from low fracture resistance (toughness) at room temperature and from poor strength at elevated temperatures. Directional solidification of NiAl alloyed with both Cr and Mo has yielded materials with useful toughness and elevated-temperature strength values. The intermetallic alloy NiAl has been proposed as an advanced material to extend the maximum operational temperature of gas turbine engines by several hundred degrees centigrade. This intermetallic alloy displays a lower density (approximately 30-percent less) and a higher thermal conductivity (4 to 8 times greater) than conventional superalloys as well as good high-temperature oxidation resistance. Unfortunately, unalloyed NiAl has poor elevated temperature strength (approximately 50 MPa at 1027 C) and low room-temperature fracture toughness (about 5 MPa). Directionally solidified NiAl eutectic alloys are known to possess a combination of high elevated-temperature strength and good room-temperature fracture toughness. Research has demonstrated that a NiAl matrix containing a uniform distribution of very thin Cr plates alloyed with Mo possessed both increased fracture toughness and elevated-temperature creep strength. Although attractive properties were obtained, these alloys were formed at low growth rates (greater than 19 mm/hr), which are considered to be economically unviable. Hence, an investigation was warranted of the strength and toughness behavior of NiAl-(Cr,Mo) directionally solidified at faster growth rates. If the mechanical properties did not deteriorate with increased growth rates, directional solidification could offer an economical means to produce NiAl-based alloys commercially for gas turbine engines. An investigation at the NASA Glenn

  4. Flow-induced morphological instabilities due to temporally-modulated stagnation-point flow. [in single crystals growth by directionally-solidifying interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, G. J.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of periodically-modulated planar stagnation-point flow on the morphological stability of a directionally-solidifying interface is presently considered with a view to the effect of unsteady nonparallel flows on single-crystal growth. The modeling of the system assumes that the viscous boundary layer thickness is much greater than that of the solute boundary layer, and that the modulation frequency is much smaller than the strength of plane stagnation-point flow. The solidifying interface is either stabilized or destabilized depending on the ratio of the period of modulation to the solute-diffusion time.

  5. Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Feng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 μm to 150 μm diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

  6. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  7. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  9. A coupled analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and deformation behavior of solidifying shell in continuously cast beam blank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Eui; Yeo, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Jong Kyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul Nat`l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heung Nam [Oxford Center for Advanced Materials and Composites, Department of Materials, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model for a coupled analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and deformation behavior in the continuously cast beam blank has been developed. The fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification in the mold region were analyzed with 3-dimensional finite difference method (FDM) based on control volume method. A body fitted coordinate system was introduced for the complex geometry of the beam blank. The effects of turbulence and natural convection of molten steel were taken into account in determining the fluid flow in the strand. The thermo-elasto-plastic deformation behavior in the cast strand and the formation of air gap between the solidifying shell and the mold were analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) using the 2-dimensional slice temperature profile calculated by the FDM. The heat flow between the strand and the mold was evaluated by the coupled analysis between the fluid flow-heat transfer analysis and the thermo-elasto-plastic stress analysis. In order to determine the solid fraction in the mushy zone, the microsegregation of solute element was assessed. The effects of fluid flow on the heat transfer, the solidification of steel and the distribution of shell thickness during the casting of the beam blank were simulated. The deformation behavior of the solidifying shell and the possibility of cracking of the strand were also investigated. The recirculating flows were developed in the regions of the web and the flange tip. The impinging of the inlet flow from the nozzle retarded the growing of solidifying shell in the regions of the fillet and the flange. The air gap between the strand and the mold was formed near the region of the corner of the flange tip. At the initial stage of casting, the probability of the surface cracking was high in the regions of the fillet and the flange tip. After the middle stage of casting, the internal cracking was predicted in the regions of the flange tip, and between the fillet and the flange tip. (author) 38

  10. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  11. Potential assessment of using fly ash as a binding agent for stabilization and solidification of dredged material; Potentialbedoemning av flygaskor som bindemedelskomponent foer stabilisering och solidifiering (s/s) av muddermassor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsson, Anna; Holm, Goeran; Lagerlund, Johan; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2010-04-15

    Over the next few years, about 200 000-800 000 m3 of contaminated sediments, with a muddy, slimy texture, high water ratio and low strength, shall be dredged annually in the development of ports and maintenance dredging of navigable waterways. Dumping at sea is limited since the dredged materials are contaminated. Land disposal requires transports and land area and is thus high in costs. In the construction of new port areas, large volumes of crushed rock, etc. are normally used as construction filling materials. These materials can be replaced by stabilised and solidified dredged materials, with modified geotechnical properties. The method of stabilising/solidifying (s/s) contaminated dredged materials has been used internationally for a long period of time, and, in more recent years, also in the Nordic countries. In Sweden, for instance, the Port of Gaevle and the Port of Oxeloesund have received permissions to reuse s/s-treated contaminated dredged materials in the port structures. Reuse of the stabilised/solidified masses in a geotechnical structure is supported by the new Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) on waste where great emphasis is placed on recycling. Within the project, fly ashes were inventoried with respect to suitability and availability. Five fly ashes, both individual fly ashes and mixtures of different fly ashes, were investigated in the laboratory as a binder component in a binder mix consisting of 50% cement, 20% Merit 5000 and 30% fly ash. Sediment from the Port of Gaevle were stabilised with a binder mixture amount of 150 kg/m3. Produced samples were examined in terms of strength, permeability and leaching. An assessment of the fly ashes' potential was performed based on technological, environmental and economical aspects, as well as market demand and the acceptance of stabilised and solidified dredged materials as construction material. The results show that fly ash, together in a binder mixture with construction cement and slag cement

  12. Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the morphology and orientation of directionally solidified Al-Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanxiao; Fautrelle, Yves; Hou, Long; Du, Dafan; Zhang, Yikun; Ren, Zhongming; Lu, Xionggang; Moreau, Rene; Li, Xi

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a weak transverse magnetic field on the morphology and orientation of Al3Ni dendrites in directionally solidified Al-12 wt% Ni alloys was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the magnetic field caused segregation. It was also found that the application of a magnetic field decreased the primary dendrite spacing. By means of electronic backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the orientation of the Al3Ni dendrite was studied. In the case of no magnetic field, the crystal direction of the Al3Ni crystal was oriented along the solidification direction. When a transverse magnetic field was applied, the crystal direction rotated to the magnetic field direction, whereas the crystal direction remained oriented along the solidification direction. The above experimental results are discussed in the context of thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and crystal anisotropy.

  13. Influence of Growth Rate on Microstructural Length Scales in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Hypo-Eutectic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfei; Ma, Xuewei; Ren, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Jin, Zili; Li, Zhenliang; Shen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Ni-46.1Al-7.8Mo (at.%) alloy was directionally solidified at different growth rates ranging from 15 μm/s to 1000 μm/s under a constant temperature gradient (334 K/cm). The dependence of microstructural length scales on the growth rate was investigated. The results show that, with the growth rate increasing, the primary dendritic arm spacings (PDAS) and secondary dendritic arm spacings (SDAS) decreased. There exists a large distribution range in PDAS under directional solidification conditions at a constant temperature gradient. The average PDAS and SDAS as a function of growth rate can be given as λ1 = 848.8967 V-0.4509 and λ2 = 64.2196 V-0.4140, respectively. In addition, a comparison of our results with the current theoretical models and previous experimental results has also been made.

  14. Effect of Sr content on porosity formation in directionally solidified Al-12.3wt.%Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hengcheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Sr addition on pore formation in directionally solidified Al-12.3wt.% alloy was investigated using X-ray detection, optical microscope, and SEM-EDX. Results indicate that addition of Sr significantly increases the number density and volume fraction of porosity. The considerable rise in volume fraction of porosity is attributed to the remarkable increase in the numbers of pores formed. It is found that Sr solute in liquid Al-Si alloy can diffuse into the oxide inclusions to form loose oxide aggregations which have more activity as the nucleation sites for porosity. Adding more Sr considerably increases the numbers of active nucleation sites. There is an obvious fluctuation of pore number density during steady state solidification, which is believed to be related to a fluctuation of local hydrogen supersaturation induced by the competition of pore nucleation and growth for hydrogen solute supplement.

  15. Numerical simulation of non-dendritic structure formation in Mg-Al alloy solidified with ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Fuze; Jia, Hongmin; Li, Yingju; Yang, Yuansheng

    2018-01-01

    The formation of non-dendritic structure of Mg alloy solidified with ultrasonic treatment was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment. The models of nucleation and crystal growth involved the effects of ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming were built. Based on the models, the grain refinement and the microstructure change from dendrite to non-dendritic structure of a Mg-Al alloy were numerically simulated by cellular automata method. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the ultrasonic cavitation strongly contributes to the grain refinement by improving nucleation, while the acoustic streaming is mainly responsible for the formation of non-dendritic structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium.

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  19. Spatial Ability for STEM Domains: Aligning over 50 Years of Cumulative Psychological Knowledge Solidifies Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Jonathan; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability in educational pursuits and the world of work was examined, with particular attention devoted to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) domains. Participants were drawn from a stratified random sample of U.S. high schools (Grades 9-12, N = 400,000) and were tracked for 11+ years; their…

  20. Rapid Screening and Identification of Daidzein Metabolites in Rats Based on UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Data-Mining Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daidzein, the main bioactive soy isoflavone in Nature, has been found to possess many biological functions. It has been investigated in particular as a phytoestrogen owing to the similarity of its structure with that of the human hormone estrogen. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on daidzein metabolism, further research is still required to clarify its in vivo metabolic fate and intermediate processes. In this study, an efficient strategy was established using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry to profile the metabolism of daidzein in rats. Meanwhile, multiple data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC, multiple mass defect filtering (MMDF, neutral loss fragment (NLF, and diagnostic product ion (DPI were utilized to investigate daidzein metabolites from the HR-ESI-MS1 to ESI-MSn stage in both positive and negative ion modes. Consequently, 59 metabolites, including prototype compounds, were positively or tentatively elucidated based on reference standards, accurate mass measurements, mass fragmentation behaviors, chromatographic retention times, and corresponding calculated ClogP values. As a result, dehydration, hydrogenation, methylation, dimethylation, glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfonation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions were ascertained to interpret its in vivo biotransformation. Overall, our results not only revealed the potential pharmacodynamics forms of daidzein, but also aid in establishing a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying metabolites of natural compounds.

  1. Rapid Screening and Identification of Daidzein Metabolites in Rats Based on UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Data-Mining Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Shang, Zhanpeng; Li, Qinqing; Huang, Moran; He, Wenbin; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Jiayu

    2018-01-12

    Daidzein, the main bioactive soy isoflavone in Nature, has been found to possess many biological functions. It has been investigated in particular as a phytoestrogen owing to the similarity of its structure with that of the human hormone estrogen. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on daidzein metabolism, further research is still required to clarify its in vivo metabolic fate and intermediate processes. In this study, an efficient strategy was established using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry to profile the metabolism of daidzein in rats. Meanwhile, multiple data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filtering (MMDF), neutral loss fragment (NLF), and diagnostic product ion (DPI) were utilized to investigate daidzein metabolites from the HR-ESI-MS¹ to ESI-MSn stage in both positive and negative ion modes. Consequently, 59 metabolites, including prototype compounds, were positively or tentatively elucidated based on reference standards, accurate mass measurements, mass fragmentation behaviors, chromatographic retention times, and corresponding calculated ClogP values. As a result, dehydration, hydrogenation, methylation, dimethylation, glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfonation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions were ascertained to interpret its in vivo biotransformation. Overall, our results not only revealed the potential pharmacodynamics forms of daidzein, but also aid in establishing a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying metabolites of natural compounds.

  2. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  3. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  4. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  5. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified; Caracterizacao da liga Ni-45wt%Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  6. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  7. Girls in Technology Essay Contest Winner Spends a Day in the Life of a Scientist | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen-year-old Celina Paudel solidified her career interest in biomedical engineering after winning a scholarship through the national Girls in Technology (GIT) program. Then, thanks to Rachel Bagni, she got to see what it really means to be a scie

  8. A novel extraction method for β-carotene and other carotenoids in fruit juices using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoen, Phitchan; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-07-15

    Green extraction using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets (AA-LDS-LLME-SFOD) prior to spectrophotometry was successfully applied for quantitation of carotenoids in fruit juices. Under optimal conditions, β-carotene could be quantified with a linear response up to a concentration of 60 μg mL(-1). The procedure was performed in a microcentrifuge tube with 40 μL of 1-dodecanol as the extraction solvent and a 1.0 mL juice sample containing 8% NaCl under seven extraction cycles of air pumping by syringe. This method was validated based on linearity (0.2-30 μg mL(-1), R(2) 0.998), limit of detection (0.04 μg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (0.13 μg mL(-1)). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the calibration curve slope (n=12), for inter-day and intra-day analysis was 4.85% and 7.92%, respectively. Recovery of β-carotene was in the range of 93.6-101.5%. The newly proposed method is simple, rapid and environmentally friendly, particularly as a useful screening test for food analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detachment of secondary dendrite arm in a directionally solidified Sn-Ni peritectic alloy under deceleration growth condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-06-01

    In order to better understand the detachment mechanism of secondary dendrite arm during peritectic solidification, the detachment of secondary dendrite arm from the primary dendrite arms in directionally solidified Sn-36at.%Ni peritectic alloys is investigated at different deceleration rates. Extensive detachment of secondary dendrite arms from primary stem is observed below peritectic reaction temperature TP. And an analytical model is established to characterize the detachment process in terms of the secondary dendrite arm spacing λ2, the root radius of detached arms and the specific surface area (SV) of dendrites. It is found that the detachment mechanism is caused by not only curvature difference between the tips and roots of secondary branches, but also that between the thicker secondary branches and the thinner ones. Besides, this detachment process is significantly accelerated by the temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) effect during peritectic solidification. It is demonstrated that the reaction constant (f) which is used to characterize the kinetics of peritectic reaction is crucial for the determination of the detachment process. The value of f not only changes with growth rate but also with solidification time at a given deceleration rate. In conclusion, these findings help the better understanding of the detachment mechanism.

  10. Determination of molybdenum in plants by vortex-assisted emulsification solidified floating organic drop microextraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A., E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2013-08-01

    A fast and sensitive procedure for extraction and preconcentration of molybdenum in plant samples based on solidified floating organic drop microextraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry and discrete nebulization was developed. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was used as complexing agent. The experimental conditions established were: 0.5% m v{sup −1} of 8-HQ, 60 μL of 1-undecanol as the extractant phase, 2 min vortex extraction time, centrifugation for 2 min at 2000 rpm, 10 min into an ice bath and discrete nebulization by introducing 200 μL of solution. The calibration curve was linear from 0.02 to 4.0 mg L{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 4.9 μg L{sup −1} and an enhancement factor of 67. The relative standard deviations for ten replicate measurements of 0.05 and 1.0 mg L{sup −1} Mo were 6.0 and 14.5%, respectively. The developed procedure was applied for determining molybdenum in corn samples and accuracy was proved using certified reference materials. - Highlights: ► Molybdenum was determined in plants by flame AAS. ► Flame AAS sensitivity was improved using microextraction and discrete nebulization. ► The developed procedure can be easily implemented in routine analysis. ► Green chemistry principles are followed.

  11. Modeling the growth of Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri on solidified apple juice by measuring colony diameter and ergosterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremarin, Andréia; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Salomão, Beatriz de Cassia Martins; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2015-01-16

    Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri are heat-resistant fungi which are a concern to food industries (e.g. apple juice industry) since their growth represents significant economic liabilities. Although the most common method used to assess fungal growth in solid substrates is by measuring the colony's diameter, it is difficult to apply this method to food substrates. Alternatively, ergosterol contents have been used to quantify fungal contamination in some types of food. The current study aimed at modeling the growth of the heat-resistant fungi B. fulva and N. fischeri by measuring the colony diameter and ergosterol content, fitting the Baranyi and Roberts model to the results, and finally establishing a correlation between the parameters of the two analytical methods. Whereas the colony diameter was measured daily, the quantification of ergosterol was performed when the colonies reached diameters of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm. Results showed that B. fulva and N. fischeri were able to grow successfully on solidified apple juice at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C, and the Baranyi and Roberts model showed good ability to describe growth data. The correlation curves between the parameters of colony diameter and ergosterol content were obtained with satisfactory statistical indexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface NH2-rich nanoparticles: Solidifying ionic-liquid electrolytes and improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Ma, Pin; Fu, Nianqing; Zhou, Xiaowen; Fang, Shibi; Lin, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The surface properties of nanoparticles have a significant influence on the properties of the gel electrolytes. Herein, the surface NH2-rich nanoparticle (A-SiO2), with a tightening network, is synthesized by silanizing SiO2 nanoparticles with pre-polymerized aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is further employed to prepare ionic-liquid gel electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The addition of a small amount of A-SiO2 can effectively solidify the ionic-liquid, whereas a large number of NH2 groups on the SiO2 surface leads to a large negative shift of the TiO2 conduction band edge, and can react with I3- in the form of a Lewis complex, resulting in an increase in the concentration of I- and a decrease in the concentration of I3- in the electrolyte. In addition, the ionic-liquid gel electrolyte possesses thixotropic behavior, which allows it to easily penetrate into the inner part of the TiO2 mesoporous film. As a result, large improvements of the photovoltage from 695 mV to 785 mV and of the photocurrent from 13.3 mA cm-2 to 14.9 mA cm-2 are achieved. This leads to significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency, from 6.2% to 8.1%, for the cell with A-SiO2 compared to that of the pristine ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  13. Sensitive determination of cadmium using solidified floating organic drop microextraction-slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Erhan; Chormey, Dotse Selali; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2017-09-20

    In this study, solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) by 1-undecanol was combined with slotted quartz tube flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SQT-FAAS) for the determination of cadmium at trace levels. Formation of a complex with 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine facilitated the extraction of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Several chemical variables were optimized in order to obtain high extraction outputs. Parameters such as concentration of the ligand, pH, and amount of buffer solution were optimized to enhance the formation of cadmium complex. The SFODME method was assisted by dispersion of extractor solvent into aqueous solutions using 2-propanol. Under the optimum extraction and instrumental conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantitation values obtained for cadmium using the combined methods (SFODME-SQT-FAAS) were found to be 0.4 and 1.3 μg L -1 , respectively. Matrix effects on the method were also examined for tap water and wastewater, and spiked recovery results were found to be very satisfactory. Graphical Abstract SFODME-SQT-FAAS system for sensitive determination of cadmium.

  14. Effects of Growth Rates and Compositions on Dendrite Arm Spacings in Directionally Solidified Al-Zn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Emine; Çadırlı, Emin; Erol, Harun; Kaya, Hasan; Gündüz, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Dendritic spacing can affect microsegregation profiles and also the formation of secondary phases within interdendritic regions, which influences the mechanical properties of cast structures. To understand dendritic spacings, it is important to understand the effects of growth rate and composition on primary dendrite arm spacing ( λ 1) and secondary dendrite arm spacing ( λ 2). In this study, aluminum alloys with concentrations of (1, 3, and 5 wt pct) Zn were directionally solidified upwards using a Bridgman-type directional solidification apparatus under a constant temperature gradient (10.3 K/mm), resulting in a wide range of growth rates (8.3-165.0 μm/s). Microstructural parameters, λ 1 and λ 2 were measured and expressed as functions of growth rate and composition using a linear regression analysis method. The values of λ 1 and λ 2 decreased with increasing growth rates. However, the values of λ 1 increased with increasing concentration of Zn in the Al-Zn alloy, but the values of λ 2 decreased systematically with an increased Zn concentration. In addition, a transition from a cellular to a dendritic structure was observed at a relatively low growth rate (16.5 μm/s) in this study of binary alloys. The experimental results were compared with predictive theoretical models as well as experimental works for dendritic spacing.

  15. High Rate of N2 Fixation by East Siberian Cryophilic Soil Bacteria as Determined by Measuring Acetylene Reduction in Nitrogen-Poor Medium Solidified with Gellan Gum▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Desyatkin, Roman V.; Hatano, Ryusuke; Tahara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    For evaluating N2 fixation of diazotrophic bacteria, nitrogen-poor liquid media supplemented with at least 0.5% sugar and 0.2% agar are widely used for acetylene reduction assays. In such a soft gel medium, however, many N2-fixing soil bacteria generally show only trace acetylene reduction activity. Here, we report that use of a N2 fixation medium solidified with gellan gum instead of agar promoted growth of some gellan-preferring soil bacteria. In a soft gel medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum under appropriate culture conditions, bacterial microbiota from boreal forest bed soils and some free-living N2-fixing soil bacteria isolated from the microbiota exhibited 10- to 200-fold-higher acetylene reduction than those cultured in 0.2% agar medium. To determine the N2 fixation-activating mechanism of gellan gum medium, qualitative differences in the colony-forming bacterial components from tested soil microbiota were investigated in plate cultures solidified with either agar or gellan gum for use with modified Winogradsky's medium. On 1.5% agar plates, apparently cryophilic bacterial microbiota showed strictly distinguishable microbiota according to the depth of soil in samples from an eastern Siberian Taiga forest bed. Some pure cultures of proteobacteria, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Burkholderia xenovorans, showed remarkable acetylene reduction. On plates solidified with 1.0% gellan gum, some soil bacteria, including Luteibacter sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Paenibacillus sp., and Arthrobacter sp., uniquely grew that had not grown in the presence of the same inoculants on agar plates. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia spp. were apparent only as minor colonies on the gellan gum plates. Moreover, only gellan gum plates allowed some bacteria, particularly those isolated from the shallow organic soil layer, to actively swarm. In consequence, gellan gum is a useful gel matrix to bring out growth potential capabilities of many soil diazotrophs and

  16. High rate of N2 fixation by East Siberian cryophilic soil bacteria as determined by measuring acetylene reduction in nitrogen-poor medium solidified with gellan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Desyatkin, Roman V; Hatano, Ryusuke; Tahara, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    For evaluating N(2) fixation of diazotrophic bacteria, nitrogen-poor liquid media supplemented with at least 0.5% sugar and 0.2% agar are widely used for acetylene reduction assays. In such a soft gel medium, however, many N(2)-fixing soil bacteria generally show only trace acetylene reduction activity. Here, we report that use of a N(2) fixation medium solidified with gellan gum instead of agar promoted growth of some gellan-preferring soil bacteria. In a soft gel medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum under appropriate culture conditions, bacterial microbiota from boreal forest bed soils and some free-living N(2)-fixing soil bacteria isolated from the microbiota exhibited 10- to 200-fold-higher acetylene reduction than those cultured in 0.2% agar medium. To determine the N(2) fixation-activating mechanism of gellan gum medium, qualitative differences in the colony-forming bacterial components from tested soil microbiota were investigated in plate cultures solidified with either agar or gellan gum for use with modified Winogradsky's medium. On 1.5% agar plates, apparently cryophilic bacterial microbiota showed strictly distinguishable microbiota according to the depth of soil in samples from an eastern Siberian Taiga forest bed. Some pure cultures of proteobacteria, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Burkholderia xenovorans, showed remarkable acetylene reduction. On plates solidified with 1.0% gellan gum, some soil bacteria, including Luteibacter sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Paenibacillus sp., and Arthrobacter sp., uniquely grew that had not grown in the presence of the same inoculants on agar plates. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia spp. were apparent only as minor colonies on the gellan gum plates. Moreover, only gellan gum plates allowed some bacteria, particularly those isolated from the shallow organic soil layer, to actively swarm. In consequence, gellan gum is a useful gel matrix to bring out growth potential capabilities of many soil

  17. The effect of thermal cycling on the structure and properties of a Co, Cr, Ni-TaC directionally solidified eutectic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlevey, F. M.; Wallace, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of thermal cycling on the structure and properties of a cobalt, chromium, nickel, tantalum carbide directionally solidified eutectic composite is reported. It was determined that the stress rupture properties of the alloy were decreased by the thermal cycling. The loss in stress rupture properties varied with the number of cycles with the loss in properties after about 200 cycles being relatively high. The formation of serrations and the resulting changes in the mechanical properties of the material are discussed.

  18. Návrh prototypového dílu s využitím technologií reverzního inženýrství a rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luňák, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na postup výroby součásti blinkru pro motocykl s využitím technologií reverzního inženýrství a Rapid Prototyping. Práce obsahuje stručný popis dostupných metod těchto technologií. V následujících částech se práce zabývá návrhem součásti a přípravou pro odlévání. Výroba součásti se provádí metodou FDM. Následně probíhá kontrola součásti 3D skenerem ATOS. Součást se porovná s původním návrhem součásti. Pro součást se vyrobí silikonová forma. Forma slouží pro odléván...

  19. Examination of solidified and stabilized matrices as a result of solidification and stabilization process of arseniccontaining sludge with portland cement and lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapon Phenrat

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available By solidification and stabilization (S/S with Portland cement and lime, it is possible to reduce arsenic concentration in leachate of the arsenic-containing sludge from arsenic removal process by coagulation with ferric chloride. From the initial arsenic concentration in leachate of unsolidified /unstabilized sludge which was around 20.75 mg/L, the arsenic concentrations in leachate of solidified/stabilized waste were reduced to 0.3, 0.58, 1.09, and 1.85 mg/L for the waste-to-binder ratios of 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, and 1, respectively, due tothe formation of insoluble calcium-arsenic compounds. To be more cost effective for the future, alternative uses of these S/S products were also assessed by measurement of compressive strength of the mortar specimens. It was found that the compressive strengths of these matrices were from 28 ksc to 461 ksc. In conclusion, considering compressive strength and leachability of the solidified matrices, some of these solidified/ stabilized products have potential to serve as an interlocking concrete paving block.

  20. Microstructure formation and in situ phase identification from undercooled Co-61.8 at.% Si melts solidified on an electromagnetic levitator and an electrostatic levitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mingjun [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, 2266-98 Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Tsukuba Space Centre, ISS Science Project Office, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)], E-mail: li.mingjun@aist.go.jp; Nagashio, Kosuke [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Sagamihara Campus, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Ishikawa, Takehiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Tsukuba Space Centre, ISS Science Project Office, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Mizuno, Akitoshi; Adachi, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Masahito [Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Yoda, Shinichi [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Tsukuba Space Centre, ISS Science Project Office, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Sagamihara Campus, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Katayama, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Co-61.8 at.% Si (CoSi-CoSi{sub 2}) eutectic alloys were solidified on an electromagnetic levitator (EML) and an electrostatic levitator (ESL) at different undercooling levels. The results indicated that there is only a single recalescence event at low undercooling with the CoSi intermetallic compound as primary phase, which is independent of processing facilities, on either an EML or an ESL. The microstructure, however, is strongly dependent on the processing facility. The interior melt flow behavior in the sphere solidified at the EML differs substantially from that at the ESL, thus yielding different microstructures. On high undercooling, double recalescence takes place regardless of levitation condition. In situ X-ray diffraction of alloys solidified on the EML demonstrates that the CoSi{sub 2} compound becomes the primary phase upon the first recalescence, and the CoSi intermetallic phase crystallizes during the second recalescence. In addition to phase identification, real-time diffraction patterns can also provide additional evidence of the fragmentation of the primary phase and the ripening feature in the subsequent cooling process in the semisolid state. The phase competition between the CoSi and CoSi{sub 2} compounds is discussed when considering the nucleation barrier. The low interfacial energy of the CoSi{sub 2} phase favors a preferential nucleation event over the CoSi phase, which also plays a critical role in non-reciprocity nucleation and thus yields a double recalescence profile at high undercooling.

  1. Carbon additions and grain defect formation in directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sammy

    Over the past fifty years, technological advances leading up to the development of modern high-performance turbine engines for aircraft and power generation applications have coincided with significant engineering accomplishments in the area of Ni-base superalloy metallurgy. As the levels of refractory alloying additions to these Ni-base superalloys increase to enhance high-temperature mechanical properties, grain defect formation, particularly the development of freckle chains, during directional solidification has become an increasingly important problem. In this dissertation, the effect of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of single crystal Ni-base superalloys has been investigated over a wide range of composition. Using statistically designed experiments, carbon additions of 0.1 to 0.125 wt. % were shown to be beneficial in stabilizing against the formation of grain defects due to thermosolutal convective instabilities. Detailed analyses were performed on the single crystal castings to identify the underlying mechanisms by which the carbon additions improve the solidification characteristics. In addition to forming Ta-rich MC carbides during solidification, the carbon additions were also revealed to influence the segregation behavior of the constituent elements in a manner that was beneficial in suppressing the formation of freckle defects during solidification. Using a segregation mapping technique, less segregation of rhenium, tungsten and tantalum was measured in the carbon containing alloys. Carbide formation during solidification was studied using differential thermal analysis. The influence of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of the experimental single crystal alloys was assessed using a dimensionless Rayleigh analysis. Based on these analyses, the physical presence of carbides during the initial stages of solidification was also shown to inhibit the formation of freckle defects. In this investigation, carbon

  2. Microstructure refinement and hardening of Ag–20 wt.%Cu alloy by rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussana, Danilo, E-mail: danilo.lussana@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Castellero, Alberto [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Vedani, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ripamonti, Dario; Angella, Giuliano [Istituto IENI-CNR, Unità territoriale di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baricco, Marcello [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Ag80–Cu20 alloy were rapidly solidified by planar flow casting technique. • A significant refinement of the eutectic microstructure has been obtained. • A refinement of the primary silver-rich phase has been achieved with high cooling rate. • The hardness increases up to the 150% of the value of an annealed sample. - Abstract: Ag–20 wt.%Cu (wt%) hypoeutectic alloy has been rapidly solidified by means of planar flow casting technique. Two fcc solid solutions have been identified by X-ray diffraction. Microstructures have been observed by electron microscopy. A refinement of the eutectic microstructure, as well as of the Ag-rich primary phase, has been observed for high quenching rates, leading to a hardness value up to 235 Vickers. The lattice parameter and phase fraction of the Ag-rich solid solution increase as a function of quenching rates (i.e. wheel speed). The solidification processes occurring during rapid quenching have been described on the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic arguments.

  3. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  4. Rapid evolution of air sensor technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  5. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    significant trends in this domain has been globalisation of the supply chains associated with reduction of local manufacturing. This has given us...broad and global in nature due to ICT connectivity and globalisation , with some being more extreme extrapolations of the current trends...40] • Financial austerity [4, 36, 38] • Globalisation of supply chains leading to reduced local manufacturing and better standardisation

  6. Rapid, Automated, and Specific Immunoassay to Directly Measure Matrix Metalloproteinase-9–Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Interactions in Human Plasma Using AlphaLISA Technology: A New Alternative to Classical ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Elena; Navarro-García, José Alberto; Barderas, María G.; Álvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Segura, Julián; Fernández-Alfonso, Marisol; Ruilope, Luis M.; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema

    2017-01-01

    The protocol describes a novel, rapid, and no-wash one-step immunoassay for highly sensitive and direct detection of the complexes between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) based on AlphaLISA® technology. We describe two procedures: (i) one approach is used to analyze MMP-9–TIMP-1 interactions using recombinant human MMP-9 with its corresponding recombinant human TIMP-1 inhibitor and (ii) the second approach is used to analyze native or endogenous MMP-9–TIMP-1 protein interactions in samples of human plasma. Evaluating native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes using this approach avoids the use of indirect calculations of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio for which independent MMP-9 and TIMP-1 quantifications by two conventional ELISAs are needed. The MMP-9–TIMP-1 AlphaLISA® assay is quick, highly simplified, and cost-effective and can be completed in less than 3 h. Moreover, the assay has great potential for use in basic and preclinical research as it allows direct determination of native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes in circulating blood as biofluid. PMID:28791014

  7. Rapid, Automated, and Specific Immunoassay to Directly Measure Matrix Metalloproteinase-9–Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Interactions in Human Plasma Using AlphaLISA Technology: A New Alternative to Classical ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pulido-Olmo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The protocol describes a novel, rapid, and no-wash one-step immunoassay for highly sensitive and direct detection of the complexes between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs based on AlphaLISA® technology. We describe two procedures: (i one approach is used to analyze MMP-9–TIMP-1 interactions using recombinant human MMP-9 with its corresponding recombinant human TIMP-1 inhibitor and (ii the second approach is used to analyze native or endogenous MMP-9–TIMP-1 protein interactions in samples of human plasma. Evaluating native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes using this approach avoids the use of indirect calculations of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio for which independent MMP-9 and TIMP-1 quantifications by two conventional ELISAs are needed. The MMP-9–TIMP-1 AlphaLISA® assay is quick, highly simplified, and cost-effective and can be completed in less than 3 h. Moreover, the assay has great potential for use in basic and preclinical research as it allows direct determination of native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes in circulating blood as biofluid.

  8. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  9. Stabilization/solidification of a porous waste by an hydraulic binder. Effects of grain size on the quality of the solidified product. Industrial test; Stabilisation/solidification d`un dechet poreux par un liant hydraulique influence de la granulometrie sur la qualite du produit solidifie, test industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyraud, P.; Teniere, C. [Groupement de Recherches de Lacq, 64 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The solidification of a porous and highly reactive waste (a catalyst that has been used for sulfuric acid) by the mean of a hydraulic binder, has been studied. Three different grain size distributions have been tested in order to determine if grinding is required before stabilization/solidification. The solidified waste is then evaluated through the SRETIE protocol. Site tests allowed for the optimization of an industrial scale implementation

  10. Development and evaluation of an up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow assay for the rapid, simultaneous detection of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Min; Zhang, Pingping; Li, Baisheng; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Hailing; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Qiu, Haiyan; Wang, Duochun; Diao, Baowei; Jing, Huaiqi; Yang, Ruifu; Kan, Biao; Zhou, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are etiological agents of cholera, a serious and acute diarrheal disease, and rapid detection of V. cholerae is a key method for preventing and controlling cholera epidemics. Here, a point of care testing (POCT) method called Vch-UPT-LF, which is an up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay with a dual-target detection mode, was developed to detect V. cholerae O1 and O139 simultaneously from one sample loading. Although applying an independent reaction pair made both detection results for the two Vch-UPT-LF detection channels more stable, the sensitivity slightly declined from 104 to 105 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 compared with that of the single-target assay, while the quantification ranges covering four orders of magnitude were maintained. The strip showed excellent specificity for seven Vibrio species that are highly related genetically, and nine food-borne species whose transmission routes are similar to those of V. cholerae. The legitimate arrangement of the two adjacent test lines lessened the mutual impact of the quantitation results between the two targets, and the quantification values did not differ by more than one order of magnitude when the samples contained high concentrations of both V. cholerae O1 and O139. Under pre-incubation conditions, 1×101 CFU mL-1 of V. cholerae O1 or O139 could be detected in fewer than 7 h, while the Vch-UPT-LF assay exhibited sensitivity as high as a real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction with fewer false-positive results. Therefore, successful development of Vch-UPT-LF as a dual-target assay for quantitative detection makes this assay a good candidate POCT method for the detection and surveillance of epidemic cholera.

  11. Globalization and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Traian-Alexandru Miu

    2016-01-01

    Globalization, very complex phenomenon, involves overcoming the barriers between different states, which allowed the rapid transfer of capital, technology, information, and the "toxins" from one country to another. First, the technology formed the basis of rapid expansion of great ideas promoted by globalization. Undeniable progress in the field of technology and science, has conferred to the man extraordinary powers that have been used most often to the detriment of his spiritual progress. W...

  12. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  13. Interconnection between microstructure and microhardness of directionally solidified binary Al-6wt.%Cu and multicomponent Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Angela J; Kikuchi, Rafael H; Barros, André S; Costa, Thiago A; Dias, Marcelino; Moreira, Antonio L; Silva, Adrina P; Rocha, Otávio L

    2016-05-31

    An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the microstructural and microhardness evolution on the directionally solidified binary Al-Cu and multicomponent Al-Cu-Si alloys and the influence of Si alloying. For this purpose specimens of Al-6wt.%Cu and Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys were prepared and directionally solidified under transient conditions of heat extraction. A water-cooled horizontal directional solidification device was applied. A comprehensive characterization is performed including experimental dendrite tip growth rates (VL) and cooling rates (TR) by measuring Vickers microhardness (HV), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis performed by energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show, for both studied alloys, the increasing of TR and VL reduced the primary dendrite arm spacing (l1) increasing the microhardness. Furthermore, the incorporation of Si in Al-6wt.%Cu alloy to form the Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloy influenced significantly the microstructure and consequently the microhardness but did not affect the primary dendritic growth law. An analysis on the formation of the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) is also performed and the results show that the occurrence of CET is not sharp, i.e., the CET in both cases occurs in a zone rather than in a parallel plane to the chill wall, where both columnar and equiaxed grains are be able to exist.

  14. Numerical Research on Magnetic Field, Temperature Field and Flow Field During Melting and Directionally Solidifying TiAl Alloys by Electromagnetic Cold Crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruirun; Yang, Yaohua; Gong, Xue; Guo, Jingjie; Su, Yanqing; Ding, Hongsheng; Fu, Hengzhi

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic cold crucible (EMCC) technique is an effective method to melt and directionally solidify reactive and high-temperature materials without contamination. The temperature field and fluid flow induced by the electromagnetic field are very important for melting and controlling the microstructure. In this article, a 3D EMCC model for calculating the magnetic field in the charges (TiAl alloys) using the T-Ω finite element method was established and verified. Magnetic fields in the charge under different electrical parameters, positions and dimensions of the charge were calculated and analyzed. The calculated results show that the magnetic field concentrates in the skin layer, and the magnetic flux density ( B) increases with increasing of the frequency, charge diameter and current. The maximum B in the charge is affected by the position of the charge in EMCC ( h 1) and the charge height ( h 2), which emerges at the middle of coils ( h c) when the relationship of h c field in the charge. Consequently, the induced uniform electromagnetic stirring weakens the turbulence and improves temperature uniformity in the vicinity of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface, which is beneficial to forming a planar S/L interface during directional solidification. Based on the above conclusions, the TiAlNb alloy was successfully melted with lower power consumption and directionally solidified by the square EMCC.

  15. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  16. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  17. 3D Printing for the Rapid Prototyping of Structural Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Eric; Salas, Rudy; Espalin, David; Perez, Mireya; Aguilera, Efrain; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan B

    2014-01-01

    .... The use of advanced 3D printing technology enhanced with component placement and electrical interconnect deposition can provide electronic prototypes that now can be rapidly fabricated in comparable...

  18. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  19. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  20. FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLET TECHNOLOGY: NEWLY PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Verma

    2011-01-01

    Tablet that disintegrate rapidly in the mouth are convenient for patient who have difficulty in swallowing conventional dosages forms. Although various formulation technologies like Zydis Technology, Durasolve Technology, Orasolve Technology, Flash Dose Technology, Wow Tab Technology, Flash Tab Technology, Quicksolv Technology, Lyos Technology, Fast Melt Technology and Zip-lets Technology are used. This review highlights numerous techniques to explain the phenomenon of preparing mouth disinte...

  1. Inactivation efficiency and mechanism of UV-TiO2photocatalysis against murine norovirus using a solidified agar matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daseul; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kim, Sun-Hyoung; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Wooseong; Oh, Jong-Won; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2016-12-05

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Fresh blueberries are among high risk foods associated with norovirus related outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to assess intervention strategies to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The disinfection efficiency of decontamination methods is difficult to evaluate for fruits and vegetables due to an inconsistent degree of contamination and irregular surface characteristics. The inactivation efficiency and mechanism of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1, a surrogate for HuNoV) was studied on an experimentally prepared solidified agar matrix (SAM) to simulate blueberries using different wavelengths (A, B, C) of UV light both with and without TiO 2 photocatalysis (TP). MNV-1 was inoculated on exterior and interior of SAM and inactivation efficiencies of different treatments were investigated using a number of assays. Initial inoculum levels of MNV-1 on the SAM surface and interior were 5.2logPFU/mL. UVC with TiO 2 (UVC-TP) achieved the highest level of viral reduction for both externally inoculated and internalized MNV-1. Externally inoculated MNV-1 was reduced to non-detectable levels after UVC-TP treatment for 5min while there was still a 0.9 log viral titer after UVC alone. For internalized MNV-1, 3.2 log and 2.7 log reductions were obtained with UVC-TP and UVC alone treatments for 10min, respectively. The Weibull model was applied to describe the inactivation behavior of MNV-1, and the model showed a good fit to the data. An excellent correlation between the steady-state concentration of OH radicals ([OH] ss ) and viral inactivation was quantified using a para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) probe compound, suggesting that OH radicals produced in the UV-TP reaction were the major species for MNV-1 inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the structure of viral particles was completely disrupted with UVC-TP and UVC alone. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the major capsid

  2. Effect of Growth Rate on Elevated Temperature Plastic Flow and Room Temperature Fracture Toughness of Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Salem, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The eutectic system Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo was directionally solidified at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h. Samples were examined for microstructure and alloy chemistry, compression tested at 1200 and 1300 K, and subjected to room temperature fracture toughness measurements. Lamellar eutectic grains were formed at 12.7 mm/h; however cellular structures with a radial eutectic pattern developed at faster growth rates. Elevated temperature compression testing between 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -7)/s did not reveal an optimum growth condition, nor did any single growth condition result in a significant fracture toughness advantage. The mechanical behavior, taken together, suggests that Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo grown at rates from 25.4 to 254 mm/h will have nominally equivalent properties.

  3. Solidified Floating Organic Drop Microextraction for the Detection of Trace Amount of Lead in Various Samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Aydın Urucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method was developed for determination of trace amounts of lead in water and food samples. Solidified floating organic drop microextraction was used to preconcentrate the lead ion. After the analyte was complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo-2-naphthol, undecanol and acetonitrile were added as extraction and dispersive solvent, respectively. Variables such as pH, volumes of extraction and dispersive solvents, and concentration of chelating agent were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit of Pb (II was determined as 0.042 µg L−1 with an enrichment factor of 300. The relative standard deviation is <10%. Accuracy of the developed procedure was evaluated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCS DC 73347 and wastewater (SPS-WW2 with satisfactory results. The developed procedure was then successfully applied to biscuit and water samples for detection of Pb (II ions.

  4. Development of a Fluid-Particle Model in Simulating the Motion of External Solidified Crystals and the Evolution of Defect Bands in High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cheng; Xiong, Shoumei; Li, Xiaobo; Guo, Zhipeng

    2016-04-01

    A numerical fluid-particle model was developed to simulate the motion of external solidified crystals (ESCs) in the melt during the filling process of high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Simulation results on a tensile bar casting with two types of ingates (semi-circle and circle) revealed that for a long time scale the ESCs tended to distribute in a ring pattern around the specimen center, whereas for a short time scale the ESC distribution changed constantly from the ring pattern to either the center pattern or the ring-center pattern. It was proposed that the defect bands would form at these areas where two solidification fronts met (where solidification shrinkage occurred), including one originating from the skin layer of the specimen and the other from the ESC region. Accordingly, three types of defect band patterns, which were commonly observed in HPDC experiment, could be successfully simulated and explained using this model.

  5. Experimental investigation of influence of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic characteristics of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ning-Jun; Shen, Shui-Long; Jin, Fei

    2012-07-30

    Remediation of contaminated lands in China urban areas is of great concern. Degradation of construction facilities caused by acid rain is a serious environmental pollution issue in China. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic properties of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated soil. Laboratory tests including infiltration test and soaking test are conducted. It is found that the soil hydraulic conductivity decreases with increase in the pore volume of flow of permeant liquids (acid rain and distilled water). The decreasing rate in the case of the acid rain is lower than that in the case of the distilled water. The soaking test results show that pH and the presence of sulfate ions of acid rain have considerable influence on the leached concentrations and leaching rate of calcium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Notion of Technological Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)

  7. Microstructural Characterization of a Directionally-Solidified Ni-33 (at. %)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloy as a Function of Withdrawal Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Salem, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Ni-33 (at. %)Al-3lCr-3Mo eutectic alloy was directionally-solidified (DS) at different rates, V(sub I), varying between 2.5 to 508 mm/ h. Detailed qualitative and quantitative metallographic and chemical analyses were conducted on the directionally-solidified rods. The microstructures consisted of eutectic colonies with parallel lamellar NiAl/(Cr,Mo) plates for solidification rates at and below 12.7 mm/ h. Cellular eutectic microstructures were observed at higher solidification rates, where the plates exhibited a radial pattern. The microstructures were demonstrated to be fairly uniform throughout a 100 mm length of the DS zone by quantitative metallography. The average cell size, bar-d, decreased with increasing growth rate to a value of 125 microns at 508 mm/ h according to the relation bar-d (microns) approx. = 465 V(sup -0.22, sub I), where V(sub I) is in mm/ h. Both the average NiAl plate thickness, bar-Delta(sub NiAl), and the interlamellar spacing, bar-lambda, were observed to be constant for V(sub I) less than or = 50.8 mm/ h but decreased with increasing growth rate above this value as 0.93 bar-Delta(sub NiAl)(microns) = 61.2 V(sup -0.93, sub I) and bar-lambda (microns) = 47.7 V(sup -0.64, sub I), respectively. The present results are detailed on a microstructural map. Keywords Optical microscopy, microstructure, compounds intermetallic, directional solidification

  8. Effects of Microalloying on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33(at.%)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloys Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloys' attractive combination of oxidation and thermophysical properties, their development as replacements for superalloy airfoils in gas turbine engines has been largely limited by difficulties in developing alloys with an optimum combination of elevated-temperature creep resistance and room-temperature fracture toughness. Alternatively, research has focused on developing directionally solidified NiAl-based in situ eutectic composites composed of NiAl and (Cr,Mo) phases in order to obtain a desirable combination of properties a systematic investigation was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of small additions of 11 alloying elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Nb, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, and Zr) in amounts varying from 0.25 to 1.0 at.% on the elevated-temperature strength and room-temperature fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic alloy. The alloys were grown at 12.7 mm/hr, where the unalloyed eutectic base alloy exhibited a planar eutectic microstructure. The different microstructures that formed because of these fifth-element additions are included in the table. The additions of these elements even in small amounts resulted in the formation of cellular microstructures, and in some cases, dendrites and third phases were observed. Most of these elemental additions did not improve either the elevated-temperature strength or the room-temperature fracture toughness over that of the base alloy. However, small improvements in the compression strength were observed between 1200 and 1400 K when 0.5 at.% Hf and 0.25 at.% Ti were added to the base alloy. The results of this study suggest that the microalloying of Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo will not significantly improve either its elevatedtemperature strength or its room-temperature fracture toughness. Thus, any improvements in these properties must be acquired by changing the processing conditions.

  9. Simultaneously fabrication of free and solidified N, S-doped graphene quantum dots via a facile solvent-free synthesis route for fluorescent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang; Hai, Xin; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-step solvent-free synthesis approach is proposed for the simultaneous fabrication of free and solidified N, S-doped graphene quantum dots (N, S-GQDs) by using citric acid as precursor and L-cysteine as dopant. Graphene nucleus is firstly formed via the intermolecular dehydration of citric acid. N and S are then incorporated into the graphene structure by attacking the margin of graphene nucleus. The cross-linking among the graphene nucleus via the intermolecular condensation leads to the generation of free N, S-GQDs, while the intermolecular amidation between L-cysteine molecules and graphene nucleuses contributes to the solid-state fluorescence graphene quantum dots (SSF-GQDs). The free N, S-GQDs exhibit favorable photoluminescence behaviors such as high fluorescent quantum yield of 74.5%, stable photoluminescence within a wide range of pH and high tolerance to external ionic strength of up to 1.0molL-1 NaCl, making it excellent fluorescence probe for the sensitive detection of Fe3+ with a linear range of 0.01-3μM and a detection limit of 3.3nM. The solidification of GQDs prevents the aggregation of GQDs efficiently and offers the solidified N, S-GQDs yellow-green fluorescence, with a fluorescence quantum yield of 10.6%. This proposed protocol provides a novel avenue to fabricate diverse fluorescent graphene materials for different practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  11. Ultra-fast in-situ X-ray studies of evolving columnar dendrites in solidifying steel weld pools

    OpenAIRE

    Mirihanage, W.U.; Di Michiel, M.; Mathiesen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    High-brilliance polychromatic synchrotron radiation has been used to conduct in-situ studies of the solidification microstructure evolution during simulated welding. The welding simulations were realized by rapidly fusing ~ 5 mm spot in Fe-Cr-Ni steel. During the solid- liquid-solid phase transformations, a section of the weld pool was placed in an incident 50-150 keV polychromatic synchrotron X-ray beam, in a near-horizontal position at a very low inclination angle. Multiple high-resolution ...

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  14. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, O.; Aghion, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Goldman, J., E-mail: jgoldman@mtu.edu [Biomedical Engineering Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg–6%Nd–2%Y–0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Here we have evaluated the corrosion resistance of a novel Mg alloy (EW62). • Rapid solidification reduces the hydrogen gas evolution and hydrogen embrittlement. • Rapid solidification increases the stress corrosion cracking resistance of EW62. • Improvement is due to enrichment with supersaturated Nd in the external oxide film. • Rapidly solidified and extruded EW62 may serve as a biodegradable medical implant.

  15. Organizational Design for USSOCOM Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    2 Ibid., 249. 25 of the programs.3 In rapid innovation , it is important for Program Executive Officers to ensure that technical...organizational learning is what the company does in order to create innovative products and survive. They note that, “interviewees emphasized the importance ...14. ABSTRACT USSOCOM Special Operations Forces (SOF) Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) struggles to keep pace with technology innovation

  16. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  18. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  19. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing and Trunk Diameter in Al-7-Weight-Percentage Si Alloy Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Lauer, M.; Poirier, D. R.; Grugel, R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Under a NASA-ESA collaborative research project, three Al-7-weight-percentage Si samples (MICAST-6, MICAST-7 and MICAST 2-12) were directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station to determine the effect of mitigating convection on the primary dendrite array. The samples were approximately 25 centimeters in length with a diameter of 7.8 millimeter-diameter cylinders that were machined from [100] oriented terrestrially grown dendritic Al-7Si samples and inserted into alumina ampoules within the Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) inserts of the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF). The feed rods were partially remelted in space and directionally solidified to effect the [100] dendrite-orientation. MICAST-6 was grown at 5 microns per second for 3.75 centimeters and then at 50 microns per second for its remaining 11.2 centimeters of its length. MICAST-7 was grown at 20 microns per second for 8.5 centimeters and then at 10 microns per second for 9 centimeters of its remaining length. MICAST2-12 was grown at 40 microns per second for 11 centimeters. The thermal gradient at the liquidus temperature varied from 22 to 14 degrees Kelvin per centimeter during growth of MICAST-6, from 26 to 24 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST-7 and from 33 to 31 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST2-12. Microstructures on the transverse sections along the sample length were analyzed to determine nearest-neighbor spacing of the primary dendrite arms and trunk diameters of the primary dendrite-arrays. This was done along the lengths where steady-state growth prevailed and also during the transients associated with the speed-changes. The observed nearest-neighbor spacings during steady-state growth of the MICAST samples show a very good agreement with predictions from the Hunt-Lu primary spacing model for diffusion controlled growth. The observed primary dendrite trunk diameters during steady-state growth of these samples also agree with predictions from a coarsening-based model

  20. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  2. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  3. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    thesis the changes of the crystal structure and the grain structure of La{sub 0.60}Ce{sub 0.29}Pr{sub 0.04}Nd{sub 0.07}Ni{sub 3.37}Co{sub 0.79}Mn{sub 0.25}Al{sub 0.7}= cooling rate during chill-block melt spinning are described. Totally, the material was rapidly solidified at 9 different cooling rates. The grain structure, crystallographic texture and the lattice parameters were studied by means of electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the density of the rapidly solidified materials was measured by a gas pycnometer. All these properties were found to change with increasing cooling rate. The grain size decreased continuously with increasing cooling rate and was in the range of 1-5 {mu}m. The strength of the crystallographic texture first increased and then decreased with increasing cooling rate. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the grains contained a large amount of crystallographic twins and that the solidification morphology changed from cellular to plane front at a cooling rate during solidification of approximately 6*10{sup 4} Ks{sup -1}. The unit cell volume and the density followed the same pattern with increasing cooling rate and decreased within each solidification morphology, but at the cooling rate from which the morphology changed, both these parameters suddenly increased. The identical variations in the unit cell volume and the density is explained by formation of excess lattice vacancies during rapid solidification. In Part IV of the thesis rapid solidification of the materials La{sub 0.60}Ce{sub 0.27}Pr{sub 0.04}Nd{sub 0.09}Ni{sub 4.76}Sn{sub 0.24} and LaNi{sub 4.76}Sn different cooling rates are described. The materials were analysed by means of electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The grain structures of both alloys were found to be in the nanometer range, and the grain sizes were almost invariant with increasing cooling rate. Furthermore, the lattice parameters of these materials were almost

  4. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  5. Battling malaria in rural Zambia with modern technology: a qualitative study on the value of cell phones, geographical information systems, asymptomatic carriers and rapid diagnostic tests to identify, treat and control malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nygren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade much progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission in Macha, Southern Province, Zambia. Introduction of artemisinin combination therapies as well as mass screenings of asymptomatic carriers is believed to have contributed the most. When an endemic malaria situation is moving towards a non-endemic situation the resident population loses acquired immunity and therefore active case detection and efficient surveillance is crucial to prevent epidemic outbreaks. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of cell phone surveillance and geographical information systems on malaria control in Macha. Furthermore, it evaluates what screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests in rural health care has led to. Ten in-depth semistructured interviews, field observations and data collection were performed at the Macha Research Trust and at surrounding rural health centers. This qualitative method was inspired by rapid assessment procedure. The cell phone surveillance has been easily integrated in health care, and its integration with Geographical Information Systems has provided the ability to follow malaria transmission on a weekly basis. In addition, active case detection of asymptomatic carriers has been fruitful, which is reflected in it soon being applied nationwide. Furthermore, rapid diagnostic tests have provided rural health centers with reliable malaria diagnostics, thereby decreasing excessive malaria treatments and selection for drug resistance. This report reflects the importance of asymptomatic carriers in targeting malaria elimination, as well as development of effective surveillance systems when transmission decreases. Such an approach would be cost-efficient in the long run through positive effects in reduced child mortality and relief in health care.

  6. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  7. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  8. Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition and Equiaxed Grain Alignment in Directionally Solidified Ni3Al Alloy Under an Axial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xuan, Weidong; Xie, Xinliang; Li, Chuanjun; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Jianbo; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the solidification structure in directionally solidified Ni-21.5Al-0.4Zr-0.1B (at. pct) alloy was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the application of a high magnetic field caused the deformation of dendrites and the occurrence of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The magnetic field tended to orient the 〈001〉 crystal direction of the equiaxed grains along the magnetic field direction. The bulk solidification experiment under a high magnetic field showed that the crystal exhibited magnetic crystalline anisotropy. Further, the thermoelectric (TE) magnetic force and TE magnetic convention were analyzed by three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations. The results showed that the maximum value of TE magnetic force localized in the vicinity of the secondary dendrite arm root, which should be responsible for the dendrite break and CET. Based on the high-temperature creep mechanism, a simple model was proposed to describe the magnetic field intensity needed for CET: B ≥ kG^{ - 1.5} R^{1.25} . The model is in good agreement with the experiment results. The experimental results should be attributed to the combined action of TE magnetic effects and the magnetic moment.

  9. Effects of Withdrawal Rate and Temperature Gradient on the Microstructure Evolution in Directionally Solidified NiAl-36Cr-6Mo Hypereutectic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhao; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Wang, Lei; Qin, Ling; Fu, Heng-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of withdrawal rate and temperature gradient on the microstructure and growth interface morphology in directionally solidified Ni-29Al-36Cr-6Mo(at.%) hypereutectic alloy were investigated. Under the temperature gradient of 250 K/cm, well-aligned eutectic microstructure with lamellar morphology was obtained at the withdrawal rate of 6 μm/s. When the withdrawal rate was 10 μm/s, the microstructure changed to Cr(Mo) dendrites + eutectic lamellae. With the increasing withdrawal rate, the interdendritic eutectic growth interface changed from planar to cellular, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites became greater, and the microstructure was refined. When the temperature gradient increased to 600 K/cm, the coupled eutectic growth zone of NiAl-Cr(Mo) alloy was expanded; a well-aligned eutectic microstructure could be obtained at higher rate of 10 μm/s. Furthermore, the planar/cellular transition rate of the interdendritic eutectic growth interface increased. Even at the same withdrawal rate, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites was less and the microstructure was finer under the temperature gradient of 600 K/cm.

  10. Novel solidified reverse micellar solution-based mucoadhesive nano lipid gels encapsulating miconazole nitrate-loaded nanoparticles for improved treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenechukwu, Franklin Chimaobi; Attama, Anthony Amaechi; Ibezim, Emmanuel Chinedum

    2017-09-01

    To develop and evaluate solidified-reverse-micellar-solution (SRMS)-based oromucosal nano lipid gels for improved localised delivery of miconazole nitrate (MN). Phospholipon ® 90G and Softisan ® 154 (3:7) were used to prepare SRMS by fusion. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, 0.25-1.0% w/w MN) formulated with the SRMS by high shear homogenisation were employed to prepare mucoadhesive nano lipid gels. Physicochemical characterisation, drug release in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) (pH 6.8) and anti-candidal activity were carried out. The SLNs were spherical nanoparticles, had mean size of 133.8 ± 6.4 to 393.2 ± 14.5 nm, low polydispersity indices, good encapsulation efficiency (EE) (51.96 ± 2.33-67.12 ± 1.65%) and drug loading (DL) (19.05 ± 2.44-24.93 ± 1.98%). The nano lipid gels were stable, spreadable, pseudoplastic viscoelastic mucoadhesive systems that exhibited better prolonged release and anti-candidal properties than marketed formulation (Daktarin ® oral gel) (p < 0.05). This study has shown that SRMS-based nano lipid gels could be employed to prolong localised oromucosal delivery of MN.

  11. Coupling Effects of Melt Treatment and Ultrasonic Treatment on Solidifying Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Ti44Al6Nb1Cr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshuang, Zheng; Ruirun, Chen; Tengfei, Ma; Hongsheng, Ding; Yanqing, Su; Jingjie, Guo; Hengzhi, Fu

    2018-02-01

    The coupling effects of melt treatment and ultrasonic treatment on the solidifying microstructure and mechanical performance of Ti44Al6Nb1Cr alloy are investigated. During melt treatment, a low superheat degree is beneficial for microstructure refinement, with the lamellar colony size decreasing from 512 to 243 μm, while a low cooling rate leads to the microstructure coarsening as the lamellar colony size enlarges from 458 to 615 μm. After coupling with ultrasonic treatment, under moderate superheat degree and cooling rate, the original coarse lamellar colony size is significantly refined to 56 and 38 μm, the compressive strength is improved by 60.71 and 47.89 pct, and the compressive strain is enlarged by 80.19 and 112.33 pct, respectively. It is found that the ultrasonic refining efficiency is dominated by the melt temperature, and there is an optimum temperature range near the crystallization temperature: a too-high temperature leads to the remelting of crystal nuclei, impairing the refining efficiency, whereas a too-low temperature results in high viscosity, hindering the ultrasonic effects. Under ultrasonic treatment, the melt supercooling is increased, leading to an extended constitutional supercooling region, which will enlarge the crystal nucleation; the solute enrichment is enhanced, forming a quasi-steady state with a higher solution concentration gradient, which improves the crystal growth velocity.

  12. Comparative Study on the Grain Refinement of Al-Si Alloy Solidified under the Impact of Pulsed Electric Current and Travelling Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is high of commercial importance to generate the grain refinement in alloys during solidification by means of electromagnetic fields. Two typical patterns of electromagnetic fields, pulsed electric currents (ECP and traveling magnetic field (TMF, are frequently employed to produce the finer equiaxed grains in solidifying alloys. Various mechanisms were proposed to understand the grain refinement in alloys caused by ECP and TMF. In this paper, a comparative study is carried out in the same solidification regime to investigate the grain refinement of Al-7 wt. %Si alloy driven by ECP and TMF. Experimental results show that the application of ECP or TMF can cause the same grain refinement occurrence period, during which the refinement of primary Al continuously occurs. In addition, the related grain refinement mechanisms are reviewed and discussed, which shows the most likely one caused by ECP and TMF is the promoted dendrite fragmentation as the result of the ECP-induced or TMF-induced forced flow. It suggests that the same grain refinement process in alloys is provoked when ECP and TMF are applied in the same solidification regime, respectively.

  13. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  14. Composition, Taste, Aroma, and Antioxidant Activity of Solidified Noncentrifugal Brown Sugars Prepared from Whole Stalk and Separated Pith of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ishmael, Mutanda; Asikin, Yonathan; Hirose, Naoto; Mizu, Masami; Shikanai, Takesi; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2016-10-25

    In this study, 2 types of solidified noncentrifugal brown sugars (W-NCS and P-NCS) were prepared from the whole stalk and separated pith, respectively, of raw sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). These products were discriminated in terms of their quality attributes, including color, sugars and minerals composition, taste, aroma, and antioxidant activity. The brown color of P-NCS was clearly different compared with that of W-NCS with a color difference value (ΔE* ) of 9.36. There was no difference in the sugars and minerals composition between the 2 types of sugar, which led to very similar taste profiles. However, P-NCS had a weaker aroma intensity than W-NCS did. Moreover, P-NCS retained more than 60% of the antioxidant activity of W-NCS. The information gleaned from this study might be used to select appropriate end-uses for these 2 types of sugars. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Determination of Cadmium by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after its Separation and Preconcentration by Syringe to Syringe Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Solidified Floating Organic Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop was extended for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of cadmium ions from water and cereal samples. The extracted cadmium was quantified by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors affecting the complex formation as well as microextraction efficiency such as the concentration of dithizone as the chelating agent, sample pH, type and volume of the extractant, number of injections, ionic strength and sample volume were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-14.0 ng L-1 with the coefficient of determination of 0.9994. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.25 and 0.85 ng L-1, respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision at two concentration levels (3.0 and 10.0 ng L-1 were in the range of 3.9-9.2%. The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated through recovery experiments and the analysis of certified reference material (SLRS-6.

  16. Speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted emulsification of solidified floating organic drop microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shengping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2013-10-15

    A simple, sensitive and efficient method of ultrasound-assisted emulsification of solidified floating organic drop microextraction (USE-SFODME) coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony at different oxidation state Sb(III)/Sb(V) in environmental samples was established. In this method, the hydrophobic complex of Sb(III) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) is extracted by 1-undecanol at pH 9.0, while Sb(V) remains in aqueous phase. Sb(V) content can be calculated by subtracting Sb(III) from the total antimony after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) by l-cysteine. Various factors affecting USE-SFODME including pH, extraction solvent and its volume, concentration of DDTC, sonication time, and extraction temperature were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range from 0.05 to 10.0 ng mL(-1), with the limit of detection (3σ) 9.89 ng L(-1) for Sb(III). The relative standard deviation for Sb(III) was 4.5% (n=9, c=1.0 ng mL(-1)). This method was validated against the certified reference materials (GSB 07-1376-2001, GBW07441), and applied to the speciation of antimony in environmental samples (soil and water samples) with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inverse steptoes in Las Bombas volcano, as an evidence of explosive volcanism in a solidified lava flow field. Southern Mendoza-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Corina; Prezzi, Claudia; Orgeira, María Julia; Nullo, Francisco; Margonari, Liliana; Németh, Karoly

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the unusual genesis of steptoes in Las Bombas volcano- Llancanelo Volcanic Field (LVF) (Pliocene - Quaternary), Mendoza, Argentina. Typically, a steptoe forms when a lava flow envelops a hill, creating a well-defined stratigraphic relationship between the older hill and the younger lava flow. In the Llancanelo Volcanic Field, we find steptoes formed with an apparent normal stratigraphic relationship but an inverse age-relationship. Eroded remnants of scoria cones occur in ;circular depressions; in the lava field. To express the inverse age-relationship between flow fields and depression-filled cones here we define this landforms as inverse steptoes. Magnetometric analysis supports this inverse age relationship, indicating reverse dipolar magnetic anomalies in the lava field and normal dipolar magnetization in the scoria cones (e.g. La Bombas). Negative Bouguer anomalies calculated for Las Bombas further support the interpretation that the scoria cones formed by secondary fracturing on already solidified basaltic lava flows. Advanced erosion and mass movements in the inner edge of the depressions created a perfectly excavated circular depression enhancing the ;crater-like; architecture of the preserved landforms. Given the unusual genesis of the steptoes in LVF, we prefer the term inverse steptoe for these landforms. The term steptoe is a geomorphological name that has genetic implications, indicating an older hill and a younger lava flow. Here the relationship is reversed.

  18. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure formation during rapid solidification of binary TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenel, C., E-mail: Christoph.Kenel@empa.ch; Leinenbach, C.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Rapid solidification studies with varying cooling rates were realized for Ti–Al. • Experiments were combined with finite element simulations of heat transfer. • The resulting microstructure of Ti–Al alloys is strongly dependent on the Al content. • The microstructure and phase transformation behavior can be predicted. • The method allows alloy development for processes involving rapid solidification. - Abstract: Titanium aluminides as structural intermetallics are possible candidates for a potential weight reduction and increased performance of high temperature components. A method for the characterization of the microstructure formation in rapidly solidified alloys was developed and applied for binary Ti–(44–48)Al (at.%). The results show a strong dependency of the microstructure on the Al content at cooling rates between 6 ⋅ 10{sup 2} and 1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 4} K s{sup −1}. The formation of α → α{sub 2} ordering, lamellar α{sub 2} + γ colonies and interdendritic TiAl γ-phase were observed, depending on the Al amount. Based on thermodynamic calculations the observed microstructure can be explained using the CALPHAD approach taking into account the non-equilibrium conditions. The presented method provides a useful tool for alloy development for processing techniques involving rapid solidification with varying cooling rates.

  19. An Analysis of Technology Transition Within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    for Savings Program TPM Technical Performance Measure TRA Technology Readiness Assessment TRL Technology Readiness Level TTI Technology...Rapid Technology Transition Program (RTT) Navy Has a charter to rapidly transition technology from any source, including those not traditionally...Metrics such as MOEs, Technical Performance Measures ( TPMs ), and Design-dependent Parameters (DDPs) should be established and monitored to ensure

  20. Studies of technology of mass production and quality control in road base material using coal ash; Sekitanbai wo genryo to suru robanzai no ryosan hinshitsu kanri gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Ozasa, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzura, K. [Naruto Salt Mfg. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Izumi, H. [Nippon Hodo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    Use of granular solidified coal ash as a road base material has been studied to facilitate the large scale utilization of powdered material. The proposed technology of producing granular solidified coal ash includes steam curing combined with different unit operations. Investigations on the technological and quality control aspects make clear the followings: (1) A proper technology for large scale processing may consists of the following steps: kneading of coal ash with water around its plastic limit, low pressure molding, steam curing and crushing. (2) A road base material of good quality can be produced in large qualities from coal ash of fixed CaO content and unburnt carbon content. Further processing includes mixing with the amount of water based on the size and the time change degree of the consuming power in kneader, kneading and molding. The temperature of the kneading water should be adjusted to the ambient conditions. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Development of solid SEDDS, III: application of Acconon® C-50 and Gelucire® 50/13 as both solidifying and emulsifying agents for medium chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nrupa Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS for medium chain triglycerides (Captex® 355, ABITEC were developed using stearoyl polyoxyl glycerides (Acconon® C-50, ABITEC and Gelucire® 50/13, Gattefosse as both solidifying and emulsifying agents. Different mixtures of the lipid and each solidifying agent were heated to 65ºC until homogenously mixed clear liquids were formed. Probucol was dissolved as the model drug. The molten mass was then filled into hard gelatin capsules, which upon cooling to room temperature converted to a solid mass inside capsules. The triglyceride could be incorporated into the system to a concentration as high as 80% w/w, still maintaining the solid or semisolid consistency of the system. Powder XRD, DSC, microscopy (cross-polarization and confocal fluorescence techniques, dispersion test and particle size analysis of the solid systems with, and without, drug were conducted to characterize different formulations. The solidifying agents maintained their crystallinity in solid systems, while the lipids were interspersed in between crystalline regions. The drug remained solubilized in the lipid phase. The formulations dispersed almost completely in 2 hours with particle size of the dispersed lipid in the range of 250 to 500 nm when the lipid content in the formulation was up to 50% w/w. Thus, a novel method of developing solid formulations of liquid triglycerides by incorporating lipids in stearoyl polyoxyl glycerides has been developed.

  2. Robotic craft: Rapid-prototype technology may take the labor out of craft, but it also allows individually styled items to compete with those that have been mass-produced

    OpenAIRE

    Miodownik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-controlled manufacturing machines are no longer confined in the large companies, but they are also being increasingly bought and used in small small businesses and craftspeople. Customers can order any design that they in the shop, which is then tailored digitally to their exact needs. Another important aspect of this machines is that they are affordable, so that jewelers, designers, and craft cooperatives can compete on price and precision with big business. The technology is revolu...

  3. Globalization and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Alexandru Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, very complex phenomenon, involves overcoming the barriers between different states, which allowed the rapid transfer of capital, technology, information, and the "toxins" from one country to another. First, the technology formed the basis of rapid expansion of great ideas promoted by globalization. Undeniable progress in the field of technology and science, has conferred to the man extraordinary powers that have been used most often to the detriment of his spiritual progress. We must not deny that science and technology have brought many benefits to human, and he could expand the knowledge horizon upon the world in which he lives, exploiting information acquired and share them with others. Science and technology must become for postmodern man ways of talk and communion between human and divinity, all to the praise of God and the perfection of the creature.

  4. Technology Integration Experiences of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Yurdakul, Isil Kabakçi

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are important providers of educational sustainability. Teachers' ability to adapt themselves to rapidly developing technologies applicable to learning environments is connected with technology integration. The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' technology integration experiences in the course of learning and teaching…

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION RAPID COMMUNICATION ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulfated polyborate: A mild, efficient catalyst for synthesis of N-tert- butyl/N-trityl protected amides via Ritter reaction. KRISHNA S INDALKAR, CHETAN K KHATRI and GANESH U CHATURBHUJ*. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 019 ...

  6. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  7. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  8. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  9. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  10. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  11. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  12. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  13. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  14. Dendritic Arm Spacing Affecting Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Al-Sn and Al-Si Alloys Directionally Solidified under Unsteady-State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kleber S.; Meza, Elisangela S.; Fernandes, Frederico A. P.; Quaresma, José M. V.; Casteletti, Luiz C.; Garcia, Amauri

    2010-04-01

    Alloys of Al-Sn and Al-Si are widely used in tribological applications such as cylinder liners and journal bearings. Studies of the influence of the as-cast microstructures of these alloys on the final mechanical properties and wear resistance can be very useful for planning solidification conditions in order to permit a desired level of final properties to be achieved. The aim of the present study was to contribute to a better understanding about the relationship between the scale of the dendritic network and the corresponding mechanical properties and wear behavior. The Al-Sn (15 and 20 wt pct Sn) and Al-Si (3 and 5 wt pct Si) alloys were directionally solidified under unsteady-state heat flow conditions in water-cooled molds in order to permit samples with a wide range of dendritic spacings to be obtained. These samples were subjected to tensile and wear tests, and experimental quantitative expressions correlating the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield tensile strength, elongation, and wear volume to the primary dendritic arm spacing (DAS) have been determined. The wear resistance was shown to be significantly affected by the scale of primary dendrite arm spacing. For Al-Si alloys, the refinement of the dendritic array improved the wear resistance, while for the Al-Sn alloys, an opposite effect was observed, i.e., the increase in primary dendrite arm spacing improved the wear resistance. The effect of inverse segregation, which is observed for Al-Sn alloys, on the wear resistance is also discussed.

  15. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  17. Alloy composition dependence of formation of porous Ni prepared by rapid solidification and chemical dealloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn; Jia Haoling [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Qu Yingjie [Shandong Labor Occupational Technology College, Jingshi Road 388, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu Guodong; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-20

    In this paper, the effect of alloy composition on the formation of porous Ni catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al-Ni alloys has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments. The experimental results show that rapid solidification and alloy composition have a significant effect on the phase constituent and microstructure of Al-Ni alloys. The melt spun Al-20 at.% Ni alloy consists of {alpha}-Al, NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, while the melt spun Al-25 and 31.5 at.% Ni alloys comprise NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. Moreover, the formation and microstructure of the porous Ni catalysts are dependent upon the composition of the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. The morphology and size of Ni particles in the Ni catalysts inherit from those of grains in the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. Rapid solidification can extend the alloy composition of Al-Ni alloys suitable for preparation of the Ni catalysts, and obviously accelerate the dealloying process of the Al-Ni alloys.

  18. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  19. Use of Optical Imaging Technology in the Validation of a New, Rapid, Cost-Effective Drug Screen as Part of a Tiered In Vivo Screening Paradigm for Development of Drugs To Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, Diana; Parriot, Sandi; Hudson, Thomas H; Lang, Thierry; Ngundam, Franklyn; Leed, Susan; Sena, Jenell; Harris, Michael; O'Neil, Michael; Sciotti, Richard; Read, Lisa; Lecoeur, Herve; Hickman, Mark; Grogl, Max

    2017-04-01

    In any drug discovery and development effort, a reduction in the time of the lead optimization cycle is critical to decrease the time to license and reduce costs. In addition, ethical guidelines call for the more ethical use of animals to minimize the number of animals used and decrease their suffering. Therefore, any effort to develop drugs to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis requires multiple tiers of in vivo testing that start with higher-throughput efficacy assessments and progress to lower-throughput models with the most clinical relevance. Here, we describe the validation of a high-throughput, first-tier, noninvasive model of lesion suppression that uses an in vivo optical imaging technology for the initial screening of compounds. A strong correlation between luciferase activity and the parasite load at up to 18 days postinfection was found. This correlation allows the direct assessment of the effects of drug treatment on parasite burden. We demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between drug efficacy measured on day 18 postinfection and the suppression of lesion size by day 60 postinfection, which allows us to reach an accurate conclusion on drug efficacy in only 18 days. Compounds demonstrating a significant reduction in the bioluminescence signal compared to that in control animals can be tested in lower-throughput, more definitive tests of lesion cure in BALB/c mice and Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) using Old World and New World parasites. Copyright © 2017 Caridha et al.

  20. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  1. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  2. NFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolina S Prokopovic; Tijana B Prokopovic; Miloje A Jelic

    2016-01-01

      The rapid development of the Internet and the use of new possibilities which the digital technologies have brought about, have made significant changes in all the areas of business, including logistics...

  3. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation: A technological paradox in. Nigeria's urban centres. Akinwale Coker1* and Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Division of Environmental Health, Department of ...

  4. Educational technologies in health sciences libraries: teaching technology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    As technology rapidly changes, libraries remain go-to points for education and technology skill development. In academic health sciences libraries, trends suggest librarians provide more training on technology topics than ever before. While education and training have always been roles for librarians, providing technology training on new mobile devices and emerging systems requires class creation and training capabilities that are new to many librarians. To appeal to their users, many health sciences librarians are interested in developing technology-based classes. This column explores the question: what skills are necessary for developing and teaching technology in an academic health sciences library setting?

  5. Educational Technologies in Health Science Libraries: Teaching Technology Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    As technology rapidly changes, libraries remain go-to points for education and technology skill development. In academic health sciences libraries, trends suggest librarians provide more training on technology topics than ever before. While education and training have always been roles for librarians, providing technology training on new mobile devices and emerging systems requires class creation and training capabilities that are new to many. To appeal to their users, many health sciences librarians are interested in developing technology-based classes. This column explores the question: what skills are necessary for developing and teaching technology in an academic health sciences library setting? PMID:24528269

  6. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University

    2014-06-13

    In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was

  7. Giant magnetoimpedance intrinsic impedance and voltage sensitivity of rapidly solidified Co{sub 66}Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 4}Si{sub 13}B{sub 15} amorphous wire for highly sensitive sensors applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Tarun K.; Mandal, Sushil K. [CSIR - National Metallurgical Laboratory, NDE and Magnetic Materials Group, MST Division, Jamshedpur (India); Banerji, Pallab [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Materials Science Centre, Kharagpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    We report a systematic study of the influence of wire length, L, dependence of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) sensitivity of Co{sub 66}Fe{sub 2}Cr{sub 4}Si{sub 13}B{sub 15} soft magnetic amorphous wire of diameter ∝ 100 μm developed by in-water quenching technique. The magnetization behaviour (hysteresis loops) of the wire with different length (L = 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 cm) has been evaluated by fuxmetric induction method. It was observed that the behaviour of the hysteresis loops change drastically with the wire length, being attributed to the existence of a critical length, L{sub C}, found to be around 3 cm. GMI measurements have been taken using automated GMI measurement system and the GMI sensitivities in terms of intrinsic impedance sensitivity (S{sub Ω/Am}{sup -1}) and voltage sensitivity (S{sub V/Am}{sup -1}) of the wire have been evaluated under optimal bias field and excitation current. It was found that the maximum (S{sub Ω/Am}{sup -1}){sub max} ∼ 0.63 Ω/kAm{sup -1}/cm and (S{sub V/Am}{sup -1}){sub max} ∼ 3.10 V/kAm{sup -1}/cm were achieved at a critical length L{sub C} ∝ 3 cm of the wire for an AC current of 5 mA and a frequency of 5 MHz. These findings provide crucial insights for optimization of the geometrical dimensions of magnetic sensing elements and important practical guidance for designing high sensitive GMI sensors. The relevant combinations of magnetic material parameters and operating conditions that optimize the sensitivity are highlighted. (orig.)

  8. Soft technologies, hard choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1979-01-01

    In the years since the 1st United Nations conference on science, technology, and development in 1963, technology has come under scrutiny and criticism. The 2nd such UN Conference was held in August 1979 and initiated a reassessment of technological development in all countries. The following problems are not amenable to Western-style technology: 1) unemployment; 2) disparities of wealth both inter- and intracountry; and 3) energy needs. Simple transference of technology from the rich to the poor countries will not create badly needed jobs. That is not to say that much capital-intensive technology, e.g., that used in producing chemical fertilizers, is not useful to developing countries. There is a need to spread capital resources and the benefits therefrom more broadly. For example, in the health field, efforts should be made to meet basic health needs rather than invest in expensive medical technology and high-cost hospitals. All the assumptions of rapid economic development for the less developed countries were made in the era of inexpensive energy sources. There is now a need to develop and use technologies utilizing renewable energy sources. Modern technology seems to be placing a stress on the world's biological systems. Certain technologies may simply be incompatible with the need to sustain the earth and its resources. Government efforts will be needed to supplement market action. A world of diversified technologies is envisioned.

  9. Planning for Instructional Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…

  10. Can information technology improve my ambulatory practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eHealth is the use of information and communication technologies for health. mHealth is the use of mobile technology in health. As with all information technology (IT), advances in development are rapidly taking place. The application of such technology to individual ambulatory anaesthesia practice should improve the ...

  11. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  12. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  13. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  14. The effects of low-molecular-weight emulsifiers in O/W-emulsions on microviscosity of non-solidified oil in fat globules and the mobility of emulsifiers at the globule surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete B.; Erichsen, Henriette Rifbjerg; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2014-01-01

    Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to measure the mobility of the spin probe TEMPO in O/W-emulsions. This allowed determination of temperature-dependent microviscosity of the liquid fraction in lipid globules. Six hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) based emulsions containing...... caseinate and different combinations of lactic acid ester of monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglycerides (GMU) or saturated monoglyceride (GMS) were studied. The non-solidified oil in emulsions made with LACTEM. +. GMU had a high microviscosity, whereas the emulsion made with GMS had a low...

  15. Learning Technology standardizaion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Trying to acquaint oneself with the learning technology standardisationarea rapidly becomes a bewildering experience.Acronyms and organisations abound, a search for firm grounds on who decides what seems futile, and the gurus contradict each other. This short paper by Peter Sloep provides some

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  18. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  1. Microstructure Formation and Resistivity Change in CuCr during Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hauf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural regions that result from the heat, which is generated and dissipated during interruption. In the topmost region, local and global texture, as well as the resulting microstructure, indicate that both Cu and Cr were melted during rapid heating and solidification whereas in the region underneath, only Cu was melted and elongated Cu-grains solidified with the <001>-direction perpendicularly aligned to the surface. By analysing the lattice parameter of the Cu solid solution, a supersaturation of the solid solution with about 2.25 at % Cr was found independent if Cu was melted solely or together with the Cr. The according reduction of electrical conductivity in the topmost region subsequent to current interruption and the resulting heat distribution are discussed based on these experimental results.

  2. Rapid solidification mechanism of highly undercooled ternary Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W.; Wang, B. J.; Lu, X. Y.; Wei, B.

    2015-10-01

    The rapid solidification of ternary Cu40Sn45Sb15 peri-eutectic type alloy was realized by glass fluxing and drop tube methods, and the corresponding maximum undercoolings are 185 K (0.22 T L) and 321 K (0.39 T L), respectively. The phase constitution of Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy in these two rapid solidification experiments deviates from the two equilibrium phases (Sn + Cu6Sn5). In glass fluxing method, the structural morphology of Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy is mainly characterized by a three-layer lamellar structure, which is comprised by an inner layer of long strips of primary ɛ(Cu3Sn) phase, an intermediate layer of η(Cu6Sn5) phase and an outer layer of β(SnSb) phase. As undercooling rises, this lamellar structure is remarkably refined. When small alloy droplets are containerlessly solidified during free fall in drop tube, the primary ɛ(Cu3Sn) phase grows by non-faceted mode into dendrites as droplet diameter decreases. Especially, solidification path alters in the smallest droplet with 50 μm diameter, in which η(Cu6Sn5) and Sn3Sb2 phases form directly from the metastable liquid phase by suppressing the primary ɛ phase formation and the following peri-eutectic transformation.

  3. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, T M A; Palma, R; Farr, R S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model of innovation in which products are composed of components and new components are adopted one at a time. We show that the number of products we can make now gives a distorted view of the number we can make in the future: the more complex a product is, the more it gets under-represented. From this complexity discount we derive a strategy for increasing the rate of innovation by choosing components on the basis of long-term growth rather than just short-term gain. We test our model on data from language, gastronomy and technology and predict the best strategy for innovating in each.

  4. Rapid prototyping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Birkeland, Petter I

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the description of the method and result of the master project of Petter Ildgruben at the Department of Engineering Design and Materials (IPM) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in the spring of 2016. The goal of this master s thesis has been to explore the barriers that novel users face in makerspaces, specifically when interacting with the 3D printer, the laser cutter and the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) mill and how to overcome them. The first...

  5. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  6. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  7. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  8. Rapid prototyping with high power fiber lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, R.M. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University Lisbon (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lopes, G. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Quintino, L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lquintino@ist.utl.pt; Rodrigues, J.P. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Williams, S. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Laser rapid prototyping technologies comprise a set of technologies used in a wide range of materials to produce prototypes or small batches of complex shaped components. This paper presents a research work on rapid prototyping technology with laser additive manufacture of wire based alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an 8 kW fiber laser for the production of components with cylindrical geometry. For this, an engineering system was developed, a demonstration part produced and the deposition process was characterized. Two processing parameters were investigated: and these were the relative position between the wire feeding system and the substrate and the laser beam to wire width ratio. The former affects the molten metal transfer mode and the pressure exerted by the wire tip on the molten pool, while the laser beam to wire width ratio affects the process efficiency, since this is a compromise of process stability and process speed. Both parameters control surface finishing and the smoothness of the part. The melting efficiency of the process is low when compared to alternative processes involving powder pre deposition, but the density of the part is improved with homogeneous structural characteristics.

  9. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  10. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  11. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  12. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  13. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: segun_nniwo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-05-05

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  14. Low-density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...

  15. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may...

  16. Rapid bridge construction technology : precast elements for substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this research was to propose an alternate system of precast bridge substructures which can : substitute for conventional cast in place systems in Wisconsin to achieve accelerated construction. : Three types of abutment modules (hollow wal...

  17. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  18. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  19. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  20. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  1. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  2. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  3. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  4. Use of Educational Technologies to assist Academics in their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ever changing world of technology, traditional ways of doing classes have been greatly overtaken by the integration of educational technologies in the curriculum. In this digital era, with rapid technological innovations, the learning and teaching process is also changing rapidly at tertiary level. The use of educational ...

  5. Handbook of antenna technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Duixian; Nakano, Hisamatsu; Qing, Xianming; Zwick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Antenna Technologies aims to present the rapid development of antenna technologies, particularly in the past two decades, and also showcasing the newly developed technologies and the latest applications. The handbook will provide readers with the comprehensive updated reference information covering theory, modeling and optimization methods, design and measurement, new electromagnetic materials, and applications of antennas. The handbook will widely cover not only all key antenna design issues but also fundamentals, issues related to antennas (transmission, propagation, feeding structure, materials, fabrication, measurement, system, and unique design challenges in specific applications). This handbook will benefit the readers as a full and quick technical reference with a high-level historic review of technology, detailed technical descriptions and the latest practical applications.

  6. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  7. Technology Transience and the Challenges It Poses to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2015-01-01

    Today's technologies come and go at an alarming rate, and the length of time any one technology, either software or hardware, exists before being supplanted by a newer technology is growing ever shorter. For anyone working within the field of instructional technology, this rapid replacement rate of technologies can hold immense implications for…

  8. Parent Involvement, Technology, and Media: Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakou, Eva N.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid technological advances, the expansion of online media use, and the declining cost of mobile technology have introduced a communication factor that has precipitously affected parent involvement and the relationship between parents and children. The present article explores ways through which technology and online media have affected…

  9. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  10. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  11. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  12. Information technology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a re...

  13. Environmental Stress Screening Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    2402 04 47 11 TITLE (Includ& Security Classofication) Environmental Stress Screening Technology 12 PRSONAL AUTOR(S) Quartin, Herbert; Kube, Frank...Infrared (IR), Environmental Stress Screening, 09 03 Thermography, Acceptance Testing, Electronics 14 i _ .. .. 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse of...become a necessity (Ref I and 2). A principal driver of the effectiveness of Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) is the ability to rapidly and

  14. Breaking the addiction to technology adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stirling; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2014-04-01

    A major driver of cost growth in health care is the rapid increase in the utilisation of existing technology and not simply the adoption of new technology. Health economists and their health technology assessment colleagues have become obsessed by technology adoption questions and have largely ignored 'technology management' questions. Technology management would include the life-cycle assessment of technologies in use, to assess their real-world performance; and monitoring of technology indication creep. A rebalancing of focus might serve to encourage a more self-critical and learning culture amongst those involved in technology evaluation analysis. Further, health economists and health technology assessment analysts could make a more significant contribution to system efficiency through rebalancing their efforts away from technology adoption questions towards technology management issues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sheet metal forming using rapid prototyped tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Bin

    The demand for rapid, low-cost die fabrication and modification technology is greater than ever in sheet metal forming industry. One category of rapid tooling technology involves the application of advanced polymers and composites to fabricate metal forming dies. Despite their advantages in lead time and cost reductions, polymer dies for sheet metal forming applications have several drawbacks. Due to their lack of strength as compared to conventional die materials, the use of polymer dies is often limited to prototype or short-run production. In addition, because the mechanisms by which they fail are not fully understood, the dies are designed on the basis of experience and intuition. The research (1) characterized the mechanical behavior of an advanced polymer composite tooling material, (2) developed a method to predict the failure mode and the life of a polymer die, and (3) established optimal die design guidelines. The focus was on rapid prototyped, aluminum trihydrate(ATH)-filled, polyurethane-based dies in sheet metal forming. The study involved the determination of dominant process parameters based on the finite element analyses of 90° V-die bending and cylindrical cup drawing processes. The effects of process parameters on stress distribution in the die provided guidelines to the modification of die design for achieving the desired die life. The presented parametric study lays the groundwork for providing reliable tool failure prediction and design optimization guidelines for advanced polymer tooling materials in metal forming. In addition, the failure mechanisms were investigated to predict the failure mode and the fatigue life of the die. To establish a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior of the polyurethane-based die material, extensive material tests were performed, the microstructure was studied, and the fatigue properties were identified experimentally. The test data were incorporated into the local stress-based fatigue analysis to

  16. Subchondral pre-solidified chitosan/blood implants elicit reproducible early osteochondral wound-repair responses including neutrophil and stromal cell chemotaxis, bone resorption and repair, enhanced repair tissue integration and delayed matrix deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we evaluated a novel approach to guide the bone marrow-driven articular cartilage repair response in skeletally aged rabbits. We hypothesized that dispersed chitosan particles implanted close to the bone marrow degrade in situ in a molecular mass-dependent manner, and attract more stromal cells to the site in aged rabbits compared to the blood clot in untreated controls. Methods Three microdrill hole defects, 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm deep, were created in both knee trochlea of 30 month-old New Zealand White rabbits. Each of 3 isotonic chitosan solutions (150, 40, 10 kDa, 80% degree of deaceylation, with fluorescent chitosan tracer) was mixed with autologous rabbit whole blood, clotted with Tissue Factor to form cylindrical implants, and press-fit in drill holes in the left knee while contralateral holes received Tissue Factor or no treatment. At day 1 or day 21 post-operative, defects were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and stereology for bone and soft tissue repair. Results All 3 implants filled the top of defects at day 1 and were partly degraded in situ at 21 days post-operative. All implants attracted neutrophils, osteoclasts and abundant bone marrow-derived stromal cells, stimulated bone resorption followed by new woven bone repair (bone remodeling) and promoted repair tissue-bone integration. 150 kDa chitosan implant was less degraded, and elicited more apoptotic neutrophils and bone resorption than 10 kDa chitosan implant. Drilled controls elicited a poorly integrated fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue. Conclusions Pre-solidified implants elicit stromal cells and vigorous bone plate remodeling through a phase involving neutrophil chemotaxis. Pre-solidified chitosan implants are tunable by molecular mass, and could be beneficial for augmented marrow stimulation therapy if the recruited stromal cells can progress to bone and cartilage repair. PMID:23324433

  17. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform...... technologies results in emerging changes in the organisation's social networks and roles and how these changes affect the organisation's use of new technology (Barley 1986; 1990: Compton, White & DeWine 1991; Orlikowski 2000,)....

  18. Technology for Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Puig Larrauri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available New technologies are changing how and when we learn about events and choose to respond to them. Mobile phones and the internet have altered how we engage with the world. With technology usage expanding rapidly in the developing world, new avenues of participation, engagement, and accountability are emerging. Globally, more people now have the opportunity to actively make use of these tools to participate in processes that impact their societies. This opportunity for participation is also an opportunity for engaging in new ways with peacebuilding processes. As the field of technology for peacebuilding grows, most attention has been paid to the potential of new technologies for bridging the gap between warning and response. Whilst the focus on the use of technology for early warning and response is important, there is more to this growing field. The empowerment of people to participate in localized conflict management efforts is one of the most significant innovations and opportunities created by new technologies. Technology can contribute to peacebuilding processes by offering tools that foster collaboration, transform attitudes, and give a stronger voice to communities. This article aims to give practitioners two related frameworks to understand how new technologies can enhance peacebuilding. The first section looks at the functions that technology can have in a peacebuilding program as a tool for data processing, communication, engagement, and gaming. We then examine the program areas that new technologies can best contribute to, covering early warning/early response systems, programs that allow citizens to voice their opinions and experiences, collaboration efforts, and programs aimed at transforming attitudes.

  19. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  20. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys of hypereutectic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    A combination of bulk undercooling in an electromagnetic levitation apparatus and splat quenching between two copper plates is used to process Nb-Si alloys in order to maximize rapid solidification conditions and minimize the effects of recalescence, with emphasis on the solidification of characteristics of alloys in the 21 to 27 at. pct Si range of composition. SEM and TEM as well as X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the microstructures of the processed samples. In the range of compositions studied, the splat-quenched drops always formed the tetragonal Nb3Si phase directly from the liquid. Drops solidified in the coil were characterized by the presence of the primary intermetallic Nb5Si3 and the absence of both peritectic Nb3Si and the equilibrium eutectic. In these cases, a metastable alpha-Nb + beta-Nb5Si3 eutectic formed. The results are discussed in terms of possible metastable configurations of the Nb-Si phase diagram as well as concepts of nucleation and growth kinetics applied to the Nb3Si and Nb5Si3 intermetallics.