Sample records for rapidly rotating superfluid

  1. Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction (United States)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.


    We study the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars, focusing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearize the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two-fluid components corotate and are in β-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time-evolutions of the linearized dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, that is, without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti & Andersson. In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

  2. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.


    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  3. Rotational quantum friction in superfluids: Radiation from object rotating in superfluid vacuum


    Calogeracos, A.; Volovik, G. E.


    We discuss the friction experienced by the body rotating in superfluid liquid at T=0. The effect is analogous to the amplification of electromagnetic radiation and spontaneous emission by the body or black hole rotating in quantum vacuum, first discussed by Zel'dovich and Starobinsky. The friction is caused by the interaction of the part of the liquid, which is rigidly connected with the rotating body and thus represents the comoving detector, with the "Minkowski" vacuum outside the body. The...

  4. Axially symmetric equations for differential pulsar rotation with superfluid entrainment (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Pizzochero, P. M.


    In this article we present an analytical two-component model for pulsar rotational dynamics. Under the assumption of axial symmetry, implemented by a paraxial array of straight vortices that thread the entire neutron superfluid, we are able to project exactly the 3D hydrodynamical problem to a 1D cylindrical one. In the presence of density-dependent entrainment the superfluid rotation is non-columnar: we circumvent this by using an auxiliary dynamical variable directly related to the areal density of vortices. The main result is a system of differential equations that take consistently into account the stratified spherical structure of the star, the dynamical effects of non-uniform entrainment, the differential rotation of the superfluid component and its coupling to the normal crust. These equations represent a mathematical framework in which to test quantitatively the macroscopic consequences of the presence of a stable vortex array, a working hypothesis widely used in glitch models. Even without solving the equations explicitly, we are able to draw some general quantitative conclusions; in particular, we show that the reservoir of angular momentum (corresponding to recent values of the pinning forces) is enough to reproduce the largest glitch observed in the Vela pulsar, provided its mass is not too large.

  5. Decoupling of Superfluid and Normal Oscillation Modes in Rotating Neutron Stars (United States)

    Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.


    It was shown in Gusakov & Kantor (2011) that equations governing oscillations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two systems of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. Here we demonstrate that similar decoupling of modes also occurs in rotating NSs. To this aim we formulated the relativistic hydrodynamics of superfluid mixtures allowing for vortices. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid oscillation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows one to drastically simplify modeling of oscillations of superfluid rotating neutron stars.

  6. Pinned vorticity in rotating superfluids, with application to neutron stars

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    Pines, D.; Shaham, J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA). Dept. of Physics); Alpar, M.A.; Anderson, P.W.


    The dynamic consequences of the existence of pinned vorticity in a rotating superfluid are studied by means of a simple model: the behavior of a rotating cylinder which contains a uniform region of either weakly or strongly pinned vorticity and which is being spun up or spun down by an external torque. It is shown that in the case of strong pinning, spin down can lead to periodic jumps (glitches) in the rotation frequency of the cylinder, followed by quasi-oscillatory relaxation, while in the case of weak pinning no glitches occur unless the cylinder is shaken so violently that vortices unpin. We conclude that the giant glitches and post-glitch behavior observed in the Vela pulsar may be explained by the sudden release of some 10% of the strongly pinned vortices in the neutron crust every few years as a result of pulsar spin down. We further suggest that the post-glitch behavior observed in the Crab pulsar can be explained if the macroglitches represent vorticity jumps induced by small starquakes in the weakly pinned vortex region expected in the crust of a young neutron star, and that the differences in ''glitch'' behavior of the Crab, Vela, and older pulsars may be explained on evolutionary grounds.

  7. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  8. Waves propagation in turbulent superfluid helium in presence of combined rotation and counterflow


    Peruzza, Rosa Anna; Sciacca, Michele


    A complete study of the propagation of waves (namely longitudinal density and temperature waves, longitudinal and transversal velocity waves and heat waves) in turbulent superfluid helium is made in three situations: a rotating frame, a thermal counterflow, and the simultaneous combination of thermal counterflow and rotation. Our analysis aims to obtain as much as possible information on the tangle of quantized vortices from the wave speed and attenuation factor of these different waves, depe...

  9. Superfluid phases of triplet pairing and rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A

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    Lev B. Leinson


    Full Text Available In a simple model it is demonstrated that the neutron star surface temperature evolution is sensitive to the phase state of the triplet superfluid condensate. A multicomponent triplet pairing of superfluid neutrons in the core of a neutron star with participation of several magnetic quantum numbers leads to neutrino energy losses exceeding the losses from the unicomponent pairing. A phase transition of the neutron condensate into the multicomponent state triggers more rapid cooling of superfluid core in neutron stars. This makes it possible to simulate an anomalously rapid cooling of neutron stars within the minimal cooling paradigm without employing any exotic scenarios suggested earlier for rapid cooling of isolated neutron star in Cassiopeia A.

  10. Superfluid instability of r-modes in ``differentially rotating'' neutron stars (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Glampedakis, K.; Hogg, M.


    Superfluid hydrodynamics affects the spin evolution of mature neutron stars and may be key to explaining timing irregularities such as pulsar glitches. However, most models for this phenomenon exclude the global instability required to trigger the event. In this paper we discuss a mechanism that may fill this gap. We establish that small scale inertial r-modes become unstable in a superfluid neutron star that exhibits a rotational lag expected to build up due to vortex pinning as the star spins down. Somewhat counterintuitively, this instability arises due to the (under normal circumstances dissipative) vortex-mediated mutual friction. We explore the nature of the superfluid instability for a simple incompressible model allowing for entrainment coupling between the two fluid components. Our results recover a previously discussed dynamical instability in systems where the two components are strongly coupled. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that the system is secularly unstable (with a growth time that scales with the mutual friction) throughout much of parameter space. Interestingly, large scale r-modes are also affected by this new aspect of the instability. We analyze the damping effect of shear viscosity, which should be particularly efficient at small scales, arguing that it will not be sufficient to completely suppress the instability in astrophysical systems.


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    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  12. Rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A triggered by neutron superfluidity in dense matter. (United States)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M; Steiner, Andrew W


    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the (3)P(2) channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ≃0.5×10(9) K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. Instability windows and evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars. (United States)

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Chugunov, Andrey I; Kantor, Elena M


    We consider an instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with respect to excitation of r modes (which are analogous to Earth's Rossby waves controlled by the Coriolis force). We argue that finite temperature effects in the superfluid core of a neutron star lead to a resonance coupling and enhanced damping (and hence stability) of oscillation modes at certain stellar temperatures. Using a simple phenomenological model we demonstrate that neutron stars with high spin frequency may spend a substantial amount of time at these "resonance" temperatures. This finding allows us to explain puzzling observations of hot rapidly rotating neutron stars in LMXBs and to predict a new class of hot, nonaccreting, rapidly rotating neutron stars, some of which may have already been observed and tentatively identified as quiescent LMXB candidates. We also impose a new theoretical limit on the neutron star spin frequency, which can explain the cutoff spin frequency ∼730  Hz, following from the statistical analysis of accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars. In addition to explaining the observations, our model provides a new tool to constrain superdense matter properties by comparing measured and theoretically predicted resonance temperatures.

  14. Rotational fluctuation of molecules in quantum clusters. II. Molecular rotation and superfluidity in OCS-doped helium-4 clusters. (United States)

    Miura, Shinichi


    In this paper, quantum fluctuations of a carbonyl sulfide molecule in helium-4 clusters are studied as a function of cluster size N in a small-to-large size regime (2or=20, which is larger than the experimental nanodroplet value. Superfluid response of the doped cluster is found to show remarkable anisotropy especially for Nfluctuation of the molecule. On the other hand, the superfluid fraction regarding the axis parallel to the molecular axis reaches 0.9 at N=5, arising from the bosonic exchange cycles of the helium atoms around the molecular axis. The anisotropy in the superfluid response is found to be the direct consequence of the configurations of the bosonic exchange cycles.

  15. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

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    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))


    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.

  16. Superfluidity in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.


    The possible role played by superfluid neutrons in the dynamics of neutron stars is discussed, with attention given to vortex structure and dynamics, the modes of the free vortex lattice, and the pinning of crustal vortices. Some effects associated with the interior superfluid state of neutron stars are discussed, including (1) the macroscopic post-glitch time scales, resulting from coupling between normal and superfluid components, (2) glitches due to unpinning events or to crust breaking by pinning vortices, (3) possible long-term modulation in rotation period, resulting from vortex coherent modes, and (4) gyroscopic effects of pinned vorticity.

  17. Rotation periods and photometric variability of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs (United States)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.


    We used the optical and near-infrared imagers located on the Liverpool, the IAC80, and the William Herschel telescopes to monitor 18 M7-L9.5 dwarfs with the objective of measuring their rotation periods. We achieved accuracies typically in the range ±1.5-28 mmag by means of differential photometry, which allowed us to detect photometric variability at the 2σ level in the 50 per cent of the sample. We also detected periodic modulation with periods in the interval 1.5-4.4 h in 9 out of 18 dwarfs that we attribute to rotation. Our variability detections were combined with data from the literature; we found that 65 ± 18 per cent of M7-L3.5 dwarfs with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 exhibit photometric variability with typical amplitudes ≤20 mmag in the I band. For those targets and field ultracool dwarfs with measurements of v sin I and rotation period we derived the expected inclination angle of their rotation axis, and found that those with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 are more likely to have inclinations ≳40 deg. In addition, we used these rotation periods and others from the literature to study the likely relationship between rotation and linear polarization in dusty ultracool dwarfs. We found a correlation between short rotation periods and large values of linear polarization at optical and near-infrared wavelengths.

  18. Rapid Rotation of a Heavy White Dwarf (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    New Kepler observations of a pulsating white dwarf have revealed clues about the rotation of intermediate-mass stars.Learning About ProgenitorsStars weighing in at under 8 solar masses generally end their lives as slowly cooling white dwarfs. By studying the rotation of white dwarfs, therefore, we are able to learn about the final stages of angular momentum evolution in these progenitor stars.Most isolated field white dwarfs cluster in mass around 0.62 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of around 2.2 solar masses. This abundance means that weve already learned a good deal about the final rotation of low-mass (13 solar-mass) stars. Our knowledge about the angular momentum of intermediate-mass (38 solar-mass) stars, on the other hand, remains fairly limited.Fourier transform of the pulsations from SDSSJ0837+1856. The six frequencies of stellar variability, marked with red dots, reveal a rotation period of 1.13 hours. [Hermes et al. 2017]Record-Breaking FindA newly discovered white dwarf, SDSSJ0837+1856, is now helping to shed light on this mass range. SDSSJ0837+1856 appears to be unusually massive: its measured at 0.87 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of roughly 4.0 solar masses. Determining the rotation of this white dwarf would therefore tell us about the final stages of angular momentum in an intermediate-mass star.In a new study led by J.J. Hermes (Hubble Fellow at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), a team of scientists presents a series of measurements of SDSSJ0837+1856 that suggest its the highest-mass and fastest-rotating isolated pulsating white dwarf known.Histogram of rotation rates determined from the asteroseismology of pulsating white dwarfs (marked in red). SDSSJ0837+1856 (indicated in black) is more massive and rotates faster than any other known pulsating white dwarf. [Hermes et al. 2017]Rotation from PulsationsWhy pulsating? In the absence of measurable spots and other surface features, the way we

  19. Hydromagnetic quasi-geostrophic modes in rapidly rotating planetary cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canet, E.; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, A.


    The core of a terrestrial-type planet consists of a spherical shell of rapidly rotating, electrically conducting, fluid. Such a body supports two distinct classes of quasi-geostrophic (QG) eigenmodes: fast, primarily hydrodynamic, inertial modes with period related to the rotation time scale and ...

  20. Limb-effect of rapidly rotating stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Morcos


    Full Text Available Kerr metric is used to study the limb-effect phenomenon for axially rotating massive stars. The limb-effect phenomenon is concerned by the variation of the red-shift from the center to the limb of star. This phenomenon has been studied before for the sun. The solar gravitational field is assumed to be given by Schwarzschild and Lense-Thirring fields. In this trial, a study of the limb-effect for a massive axially symmetric rotating star is done. The line of site of inclination and the motion of the observer are taken into consideration to interpret a formula for this phenomenon using a general relativistic red-shift formula. A comparison between the obtained formula and previous formulae is given.

  1. Linear Eсkman friction in the mechanism of the cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry and in a new theory of rotating superfluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov


    Full Text Available Aims The observed experimental and natural phenomenon of cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry implies that a relatively more stable and showing a longer life, as well as a relatively more intense mode of rotation with an anticyclonic circulation direction (opposite to the direction of rotation of the medium as a whole is realized as compared with an oppositely directed rotation of the cyclonic vortex mode. Until now, however, it was not a success to identify a universal triggering mechanism responsible for the formation of the corresponding breaking of chiral vortex symmetry. Materials and methods In this paper we reveal the said linear universal instability mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry in the sign of vortex circulation in the rotating medium in the presence of linear Eckman friction. Results Obtained is a condition for the linear dissipative - centrifugal instability (DCI, which leads (only when considering the external linear Eckman friction for an abovethreshold value of rotation frequency of the underlying boundary surface of fluid to the breaking of chiral symmetry in the Lagrangian fluid particle dynamics and the corresponding realization of the cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry. Conclusion A new non-stationary solution to the problem for the disc which carries out weak axial-torsional oscillations in fluid with the frequency which are superimposed on its rotation with the previously considered frequency ω0 in connection with the experimental data on the rotating superfluid helium II has been found. It gives the possibility to conclude that the effects of external, linear on velocity, friction forces must be important to include into consideration for the solve of any fundamental problems of hydrodynamics in bounded systems (as for the blood dynamics in cardiovascular system, for example.

  2. Experimental investigation of a rapidly rotating turbulent duct flow

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    Maartensson, G.E.; Johansson, A.V. [Department of Mechanics, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Gunnarsson, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Moberg, H. [Alfa Laval, 14780 Tumba (Sweden)


    Rapidly rotating duct flow is studied experimentally with Rotation numbers in the interval. To achieve this, in combination with relatively high Reynolds numbers (5,000-30,000 based on the hydraulic radius), water was used as the working medium. Square and rectangular duct cross-sections were used and the angle between the rotation vector and the main axis of the duct was varied. The influence of the rotation on the pressure drop in the duct was investigated and suitable scalings of this quantity were studied. (orig.)


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    Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.

  4. Asymmetric core collapse of rapidly rotating massive star (United States)

    Gilkis, Avishai


    Non-axisymmetric features are found in the core collapse of a rapidly rotating massive star, which might have important implications for magnetic field amplification and production of a bipolar outflow that can explode the star, as well as for r-process nucleosynthesis and natal kicks. The collapse of an evolved rapidly rotating MZAMS = 54 M⊙ star is followed in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the FLASH code with neutrino leakage. A rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) forms with a non-zero linear velocity. This can contribute to the natal kick of the remnant compact object. The PNS is surrounded by a turbulent medium, where high shearing is likely to amplify magnetic fields, which in turn can drive a bipolar outflow. Neutron-rich material in the PNS vicinity might induce strong r-process nucleosynthesis. The rapidly rotating PNS possesses a rotational energy of E_rot ≳ 10^{52} erg. Magnetar formation proceeding in a similar fashion will be able to deposit a portion of this energy later on in the supernova ejecta through a spin-down mechanism. These processes can be important for rare supernovae generated by rapidly rotating progenitors, even though a complete explosion is not simulated in the present study.

  5. Unconventional rotational responses of hadronic superfluids in a neutron star caused by strong entrainment and a Sigma- hyperon gap. (United States)

    Babaev, Egor


    I show that the usual model of the rotational response of a neutron star, which predicts rotation-induced neutronic vortices and no rotation-induced protonic vortices, does not hold (i) beyond a certain threshold of entrainment interaction strength nor (ii) in the case of nonzero Sigma(-) hyperon gap. I show that in both of these cases the rotational response involves the creation of phase windings in an electrically charged condensate. Lattices of bound states of vortices which result from these phase windings can (for a range of parameters) strongly reduce the interaction between rotation-induced vortices with magnetic-field carrying superconducting components.

  6. Novel superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    This book reports on the latest developments in the field of Superfluidity. The phenomenon has had a tremendous impact on the fundamental sciences as well as a host of technologies. It began with the discovery of superconductivity in mercury in 1911, which was ultimately described theoretically by the theory of Bardeen Cooper and Schriever (BCS) in 1957. The analogous phenomena, superfluidity, was discovered in helium in 1938 and tentatively explained shortly thereafter as arising from a Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) by London. But the importance of superfluidity, and the range of systems in which it occurs, has grown enormously. In addition to metals and the helium liquids the phenomena has now been observed for photons in cavities, excitons in semiconductors, magnons in certain materials, and cold gasses trapped in high vacuum. It very likely exist for neutrons in a neutron star and, possibly, in a conjectured quark state at their center. Even the Universe itself can be regarded as being in a kind of sup...

  7. Electromagnetic radiation from a rapidly rotating magnetized star in orbit (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen


    A general formula for the electromagnetic energy radiated by a rapidly rotating magnetic dipole in arbitrary motion is obtained. For a pulsar orbiting in a binary system, it is shown that the electromagnetic radiation produced by the orbital motion is usually weaker than the gravitational radiation, but not entirely negligible for general relativistic corrections.

  8. In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Natesh, Rahul; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ryall, Karen; Eucker, Stephanie A; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S


    Head trauma is the leading cause of death and debilitating injury in children. Computational models are important tools used to understand head injury mechanisms but they must be validated with experimental data. In this communication we present in situ measurements of brain deformation during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in juvenile pigs of different ages. These data will be used to validate computational models identifying age-dependent thresholds of axonal injury. Fresh 5 days (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=2) old piglet heads were transected horizontally and secured in a container. The cut surface of each brain was marked and covered with a transparent, lubricated plate that allowed the brain to move freely in the plane of rotation. For each brain, a rapid (20-28 ms) 65 deg rotation was applied sequentially at 50 rad/s, 75 rad/s, and 75 rad/s. Each rotation was digitally captured at 2500 frames/s (480x320 pixels) and mark locations were tracked and used to compute strain using an in-house program in MATLAB. Peak values of principal strain (E(peak)) were significantly larger during deceleration than during acceleration of the head rotation (p<0.05), and doubled with a 50% increase in velocity. E(peak) was also significantly higher during the second 75 rad/s rotation than during the first 75 rad/s rotation (p<0.0001), suggesting structural alteration at 75 rad/s and the possibility that similar changes may have occurred at 50 rad/s. Analyzing only lower velocity (50 rad/s) rotations, E(peak) significantly increased with age (16.5% versus 12.4%, p<0.003), which was likely due to the larger brain mass and smaller viscoelastic modulus of the 4 weeks old pig brain compared with those of the 5 days old. Strain measurement error for the overall methodology was estimated to be 1%. Brain tissue strain during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in the juvenile pig varies significantly with age. The empirical data presented will be used to validate computational model predictions of

  9. Dynamics of quantised vortices in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Sonin, Edouard B


    A comprehensive overview of the basic principles of vortex dynamics in superfluids, this book addresses the problems of vortex dynamics in all three superfluids available in laboratories (4He, 3He, and BEC of cold atoms) alongside discussions of the elasticity of vortices, forces on vortices, and vortex mass. Beginning with a summary of classical hydrodynamics, the book guides the reader through examinations of vortex dynamics from large scales to the microscopic scale. Topics such as vortex arrays in rotating superfluids, bound states in vortex cores and interaction of vortices with quasiparticles are discussed. The final chapter of the book considers implications of vortex dynamics to superfluid turbulence using simple scaling and symmetry arguments. Written from a unified point of view that avoids complicated mathematical approaches, this text is ideal for students and researchers working with vortex dynamics in superfluids, superconductors, magnetically ordered materials, neutron stars and cosmological mo...

  10. Spherical convective dynamos in the rapidly rotating asymptotic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre


    Self-sustained convective dynamos in planetary systems operate in an asymptotic regime of rapid rotation, where a balance is thought to hold between the Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces (the MAC balance). Classical numerical solutions have previously been obtained in a regime of moderate rotation where viscous and inertial forces are still significant. We define a unidimensional path in parameter space between classical models and asymptotic conditions from the requirements to enforce a MAC balance and to preserve the ratio between the magnetic diffusion and convective overturn times (the magnetic Reynolds number). Direct numerical simulations performed along this path show that the spatial structure of the solution at scales larger than the magnetic dissipation length is largely invariant. This enables the definition of large-eddy simulations resting on the assumption that small-scale details of the hydrodynamic turbulence are irrelevant to the determination of the large-scale asymptotic state...

  11. Superfluid densities in neutron-star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borumand, M.; Joynt, R.; Kluzniak, W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)]|[Department of Technical Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, 02150-Espoo, Finland Copernicus Astronomical Center, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland)


    The superfluid densities in a mixture of neutron and proton superfluids are discussed within Fermi-liquid theory. There are the usual diagonal densities {rho}{sub {ital nn}} and {rho}{sub {ital pp}} but also off-diagonal densities {rho}{sub {ital np}} and {rho}{sub {ital pn}} which represent coupling between the two species. We express these quantities solely in terms of the Fermi momenta and the Landau parameter {ital f}{sub 1}{sup {ital pn}} in a way that explicitly satisfies the Galilean invariance constraints {rho}{sub {ital pp}}+{rho}{sub {ital pn}}={ital m}{sub {ital pn}}{sub {ital p}} and {rho}{sub {ital nn}}+{rho}{sub {ital pn}}={ital m}{sub {ital nn}}{sub {ital n}}. The results are of astrophysical interest, e.g., in a discussion of the damping of gravitational instability in rapidly rotating neutron stars or of post-glitch relaxation of pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Rapidly Rotating Magnetospheres (United States)

    Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.


    Spacecraft measurements reveal perplexing dawn-dusk asymmetries of field and plasma properties in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter. Here we describe a previously unrecognized source of dawn-dusk asymmetry in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. As plasma rotates from dawn to noon on a dipolarizing flux tube, it flows away from the equator at close to the sound speed. As plasma rotates from noon to dusk on a stretching flux tube, it is accelerated back to the equator by centrifugal acceleration at flow speeds typically smaller than the sound speed. Correspondingly, the plasma sheet remains far thicker in the afternoon than in the morning. Using two magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we analyze the forces that account for flows along and across the field in Saturn's magnetosphere and point out analogous effects at Jupiter. Different radial force balance in the morning and afternoon sectors produces net dusk to dawn flow, or equivalently, a large-scale electric field oriented from post-noon to pre-midnight.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Thermal Convection in Rapidly Rotating Spherical Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenkov, Constantine; Peltier, Richard, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada)


    We present a novel numerical model used to simulate convection in the atmospheres of the Gas Giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. Nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependant solutions of the anelastic hydrodynamic equations are presented for a stratified, rotating spherical fluid shell heated from below. This new model is specified in terms of a grid-point based methodology which employs a hierarchy of tessellations of the regular icosahedron onto the sphere through the process of recurrent dyadic refinements of the spherical surface. We describe discretizations of the governing equations in which all calculations are performed in Cartesian coordinates in the local neighborhoods of the almost uniform icosahedral grid, a methodology which avoids the potential mathematical and numerical difficulties associated with the pole problem in spherical geometry. Using this methodology we have built our model in primitive equations formulation, whereas the three-dimensional vector velocity field and temperature are directly advanced in time. We show results of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shell which leads to the formation of well pronounced prograde zonal jets at the equator, results which previous experiments with two-dimensional models in the limit of freely evolving turbulence were not able to achieve.

  14. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains (United States)


    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  15. Featured Image: Making a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    These stills from a simulation show the evolution (from left to right and top to bottom) of a high-mass X-ray binary over 1.1 days, starting after the star on the right fails to explode as a supernova and then collapses into a black hole. Many high-mass X-ray binaries like the well-known Cygnus X-1, the first source widely accepted to be a black hole host rapidly spinning black holes. Despite our observations of these systems, however, were still not sure how these objects end up with such high rotation speeds. Using simulations like that shown above, a team of scientists led by Aldo Batta (UC Santa Cruz) has demonstrated how a failed supernova explosion can result in such a rapidly spinning black hole. The authors work shows that in a binary where one star attempts to explode as a supernova and fails it doesnt succeed in unbinding the star the large amount of fallback material can interact with the companion star and then accrete onto the black hole, spinning it up in the process. You can read more about the authors simulations and conclusions in the paper below.CitationAldo Batta et al 2017 ApJL 846 L15. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8506

  16. Vega: A rapidly rotating pole-on star (United States)

    Gulliver, Austin F.; Hill, Graham; Adelman, Saul J.


    High-dispersion (2.4 A/mm), ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (3000:1) Reticon spectra of Vega revealed two distinct types of profiles. The strong lines exhibit classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings, but the weak lines have distinctly different, flat-bottomed profiles. Using ATLAS9 model atmopheres and SYNTHE synthetic spectra, Vega has been modeled as a rapidly rotating, pole-on star with a gradient in temperature and gravity over the photosphere. By fitting to the flat-bottomed line profiles of Fe 1 lambda 4528 and Ti 2 lambda 4529, we find least-squares fit values of V sin i = 21.8 plus or minus 0.2 km/sec polar T(sub eff) = 9695 plus or minus 25 K, polar log(base 10)g = 3.75 plus or minus 0.02 dex, V(sub eq) = 245 plus or minus 15 km/sec, and inclination 5 deg .1 plus or minus 0 deg .3. The variations in T(sub eff) and log(base 10)g over the photosphere total 390 K and 0.08 dex, respectively. Assuming V sin i = 21.8 km/sec, an independent fit to the observed continuous flux from 1200 to 10,500 A produced a similar set of values with polar T(sub eff) = 9595 plus or minus 20 K, polar log(base 10)g = 3.80 plus or minus 0.03 dex, and inclination 6 deg .0 plus or minus 0 deg .7.

  17. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E


    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  18. Feasibility study of rapid opioid rotation and titration. (United States)

    Korkmazsky, Marina; Ghandehari, Javid; Sanchez, Angela; Lin, Hung-Mo; Lin, Huong-Mo; Pappagallo, Marco


    Opioid guidelines recommend opioid rotation and switching for patients who do not achieve adequate pain relief or who experience intolerable adverse events (AEs) with their current opioid. However, specific recommendations and protocols for opioid rotation are lacking, making the practice time consuming and difficult for primary care physicians to accomplish independently or coordinate with a pain specialist. To assess the safety and feasibility of using 24-hour intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) to achieve rapid opioid rotation and titration (RORT). Open-label pilot study. Hospital research center. At admission, patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with treatment-refractory chronic pain who were taking morphine or oxycodone for ≥ 3 months and had pain scores ≥ 4 on a 10-point scale, underwent opioid rotation to oral oxymorphone extended release (ER). They also received IV-PCA oxymorphone for 24 hours as needed. At discharge, the participants were taking oral oxymorphone ER with oxymorphone immediate release (IR) as needed based on their total 24-hour oral plus IV-PCA oxymorphone use. During a 2-week follow-up, their oxymorphone usage was titrated as needed. Main outcome measures were AEs, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Brief Pain Inventory (0 = no pain/interference, 10 = worst pain/complete interference), treatment satisfaction, and change in oxymorphone dose. Twelve patients enrolled and completed the 24-hour IV-PCA; 10 completed the 2-week follow-up post-24-hour IV-PCA. PGIC status improved by 12 hours (odds ratio [OR], 0.19, 95% CI, 0.08 - 0.44; P < 0.001), and both PGIC status and activity scores improved by 24 hours (OR, 0.23, 95% CI, 0.09 - 0.55; P = 0.001; OR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.25 - 0.96; P = 0.04, respectively) and 2 weeks (OR, 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04 - 0.46; P = 0.001; OR, 0.21, 95% CI, 0.06 - 0.72; P = 0.01) versus 6 hours. During the 24-hour IV-PCA time period, 6 of 10 patients accomplished ≥ 50% of their overall dose titration. At 2

  19. Superfluid neutron stars


    Langlois, David


    Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.

  20. Vortex structure in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alford Mark G.


    Full Text Available The core region of a neutron star may feature quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL phase. The CFL condensate breaks the baryon number symmetry, such that the phenomenon of superfluidity arises. If the core of the star is rotating, vortices will form in the superfluid, carrying the quanta of angular momentum. In a previous study we have solved the question of stability of these vortices, where we found numerical proof of a conjectured instability, according to which superfluid vortices will decay into an arrangement of so-called semi-superfluid fluxtubes. Here we report first results of an extension of our framework that allows us to study multi-vortex dynamics. This will in turn enable us to investigate the structure of semi-superfluid string lattices, which could be relevant to study pinning phenomena at the boundary of the core.

  1. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.


    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  2. Current reversals in rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gases (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Medjedel, S.; Vignale, G.


    We study the equilibrium current density profiles of harmonically trapped ultracold Fermi gases in quantum Hall-like states that appear when the quasi-two-dimensional trap is set in fast rotation. The density profile of the gas (in the rotating reference frame) consists of incompressible strips of constant quantized density separated by compressible regions in which the density varies. Remarkably, we find that the atomic currents flow in opposite directions in the compressible and incompressible regions—a prediction that should be amenable to experimental verification.

  3. Superfluid Brillouin Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kashkanova, A D; Brown, C D; Flowers-Jacobs, N E; Childress, L; Hoch, S W; Hohmann, L; Ott, K; Reichel, J; Harris, J G E


    Optomechanical systems couple an electromagnetic cavity to a mechanical resonator which is typically formed from a solid object. The range of phenomena accessible to these systems depends on the properties of the mechanical resonator and on the manner in which it couples to the cavity fields. In both respects, a mechanical resonator formed from superfluid liquid helium offers several appealing features: low electromagnetic absorption, high thermal conductivity, vanishing viscosity, well-understood mechanical loss, and in situ alignment with cryogenic cavities. In addition, it offers degrees of freedom that differ qualitatively from those of a solid. Here, we describe an optomechanical system consisting of a miniature optical cavity filled with superfluid helium. The cavity mirrors define optical and mechanical modes with near-perfect overlap, resulting in an optomechanical coupling rate ~3 kHz. This coupling is used to drive the superfluid; it is also used to observe the superfluid's thermal motion, resolving...

  4. Breaking up a superfluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.


    Ultracold atoms held in a three-dimensional pattern by a web of light beams can now be switched from a superfluid to an insulating state. This achievement may be useful for performing quantum computations.

  5. Asymptotic and Numerical Methods for Rapidly Rotating Buoyant Flow (United States)

    Grooms, Ian G.

    This thesis documents three investigations carried out in pursuance of a doctoral degree in applied mathematics at the University of Colorado (Boulder). The first investigation concerns the properties of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection -- thermal convection in a rotating infinite plane layer between two constant-temperature boundaries. It is noted that in certain parameter regimes convective Taylor columns appear which dominate the dynamics, and a semi-analytical model of these is presented. Investigation of the columns and of various other properties of the flow is ongoing. The second investigation concerns the interactions between planetary-scale and mesoscale dynamics in the oceans. Using multiple-scale asymptotics the possible connections between planetary geostrophic and quasigeostrophic dynamics are investigated, and three different systems of coupled equations are derived. Possible use of these equations in conjunction with the method of superparameterization, and extension of the asymptotic methods to the interactions between mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics is ongoing. The third investigation concerns the linear stability properties of semi-implicit methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, focusing in particular on the linear stability of IMEX (Implicit-Explicit) methods and exponential integrators applied to systems of ordinary differential equations arising in the numerical solution of spatially discretized nonlinear partial differential equations containing both dispersive and dissipative linear terms. While these investigations may seem unrelated at first glance, some reflection shows that they are in fact closely linked. The investigation of rotating convection makes use of single-space, multiple-time-scale asymptotics to deal with dynamics strongly constrained by rotation. Although the context of thermal convection in an infinite layer seems somewhat removed from large-scale ocean dynamics, the asymptotic

  6. Spontaneous and triggered vortices in polariton OPO superfluids


    Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.; Tejedor, C.; Whittaker, D. M.


    We study non-equilibrium polariton superfluids in the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) regime using a two-component Gross-Pitaevskii equation with pumping and decay. We identify a regime above OPO threshold, where the system undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking and is unstable towards vortex formation without any driving rotation. Stable vortex solutions differ from metastable ones; the latter can persist in OPO superfluids but can only be triggered externally. Both spontaneous and trig...

  7. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ultra-Rapid Earth Rotation Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Ultra-Rapid Earth Rotation Product (ERP) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information...

  8. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Earth Rotation Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Earth Rotation Product (ERP) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System...

  9. Rossby-wave turbulence in a rapidly rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schaeffer


    Full Text Available We use a quasi-geostrophic numerical model to study the turbulence of rotating flows in a sphere, with realistic Ekman friction and bulk viscous dissipation. The forcing is caused by the destabilization of an axisymmetric Stewartson shear layer, generated by differential rotation, resulting in a forcing at rather large scales. The equilibrium regime is strongly anisotropic and inhomogeneous but exhibits a steep m-5 spectrum in the azimuthal (periodic direction, at scales smaller than the injection scale. This spectrum has been proposed by Rhines for a Rossby wave turbulence. For some parameter range, we observe a turbulent flow dominated by a large scale vortex located in the shear layer, reminding us of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter.

  10. Electromagnetically driven zonal flows in a rapidly rotating spherical shell


    Hollerbach, Rainer; Wei, Xing; Noir, Jérõme; JACKSON, Andrew


    We consider the flow of an electrically conducting fluid confined in a rotating spherical shell. The flow is driven by a directly imposed electromagnetic body force, created by the combination of an electric current flowing from the inner sphere to a ring-shaped electrode around the equator of the outer sphere and a separately imposed predominantly axial magnetic field. We begin by numerically computing the axisymmetric basic states, which consist of a strong zonal flow. We nex...

  11. Transport in superfluid mixtures (United States)

    Geracie, Michael


    We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for nonrelativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity-odd "Hall drag" in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various subcomplexes of a "velocity polyhedron": the convex hull formed by the end points of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits nonzero Hall drag.

  12. Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin


    A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.

  13. Perturbations of self-gravitating, ellipsoidal superfluid-normal fluid mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A; Wasserman, [No Value


    We study the perturbation modes of rotating superfluid ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium in the framework of the two-fluid superfluid hydrodynamics and Newtonian gravity. Our calculations focus on linear perturbations of background equilibria in which the two fluids move together, the total density


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, O.; Yadav, R.; Garraffo, C.; Saar, S. H.; Wolk, S. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Drake, J. J.; Pillitteri, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Observations indicate that magnetic fields in rapidly rotating stars are very strong, on both small and large scales. What is the nature of the resulting corona? Here we seek to shed some light on this question. We use the results of an anelastic dynamo simulation of a rapidly rotating fully convective M star to drive a physics-based model for the stellar corona. We find that due to the several kilo Gauss large-scale magnetic fields at high latitudes, the corona, and its X-ray emission are dominated by star-size large hot loops, while the smaller, underlying colder loops are not visible much in the X-ray. Based on this result, we propose that, in rapidly rotating stars, emission from such coronal structures dominates the quiescent, cooler but saturated X-ray emission.

  15. Oscillation modes of rapidly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories of gravity (United States)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.


    We perform the first study of the oscillation frequencies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, focusing mainly on the fundamental f modes. We concentrated on a particular class of alternative theories—the (massive) scalar-tensor theories. The generalization to rapid rotation is important because on one hand the rapid rotation can magnify the deviations from general relativity compared to the static case and on the other hand some of the most efficient emitters of gravitational radiation, such as the binary neutron star merger remnants, are supposed to be rotating close to their Kepler (mass-shedding) limits shortly after their formation. We have constructed several sequences of models starting from the nonrotating case and reaching up to the Kepler limit, with different values of the scalar-tensor theory coupling constant and the scalar field mass. The results show that the deviations from pure Einstein's theory can be significant, especially in the case of nonzero scalar field mass. An important property of the oscillation modes of rapidly rotating stars is that they can become secularly unstable due to the emission of gravitational radiation, the so-called Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. Such unstable modes are efficient emitters of gravitational radiation. Our studies show that the inclusion of a nonzero scalar field would decrease the threshold value of the normalized angular momentum where this instability starts to operate, but the growth time of the instability seems to be increased compared to pure general relativity.

  16. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)


    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ{sub gap}/τ{sub emission} = O(1), where τ{sub gap} is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ{sub emission} is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  17. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator. (United States)

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V


    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  18. Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars (United States)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Chugunov, A. I.; Gualtieri, L.


    We analyse damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in Gusakov & Kantor. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f modes, (ii) for radial and p modes such an approximation is poor and (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighbouring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.

  19. Electric response in superfluid helium (United States)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.


    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  20. Laboratory-numerical models of rapidly rotating convection in planetary cores (United States)

    Cheng, J. S.; Stellmach, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Grannan, A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.


    We present laboratory and numerical models investigating the behavioural regimes of rapidly rotating convection in high-latitude planetary core-style settings. Our combined laboratory-numerical approach, utilizing simplified geometries, can access more extreme parameters (e.g. Rayleigh numbers Ra ≲ 1013; Nusselt numbers Nu ≲ 103; Ekman numbers E ≳ 3 × 10- 8) than current global-scale dynamo simulations. Using flow visualizations and heat transfer measurements, we study the axialized flows that exist near the onset of rotating convection, as well as the 3-D flows that develop with stronger forcing. With water as the working fluid (Prandtl number Pr ≃ 7), we find a steep scaling trend for rapidly rotating convective heat transfer, Nu ˜ (Ra/RaC)3.6, that is associated with the existence of coherent, axialized columns. This rapidly rotating trend is steeper than the trends found at moderate values of the Ekman number, and continues a trend of ever-steepening scalings as the rotation rate of the system is increased. In contrast, in more strongly forced or lower rotation rate cases, the heat transfer scaling consistently follows a shallower slope equivalent to that of non-rotating convection systems. The steep heat transfer scaling in the columnar convection regime, corroborated by our laboratory flow visualizations, imply that coherent, axial columns have a relatively narrow range of stability. Thus, we hypothesize that coherent convection columns are not stable in planetary core settings, where the Ekman number is estimated to be ˜10-15. As a consequence, convective motions in the core may not be related to the columnar motions found in present-day global-scale models. Instead, we hypothesize that turbulent rotating convection cascades energy upwards from 3-D motions to large-scale quasi-2-D flow structures that are capable of efficiently generating planetary-scale magnetic fields. We argue that the turbulent regimes of rapidly rotating convection are

  1. Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium (United States)

    Daney, D. E.


    Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .

  2. When superfluids are a drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The article considers the dramatic phenomenon of seemingly frictionless flow of slow-moving superfluids. Specifically the question of whether an object in a superfluid flow experiences any drag force is addressed. A brief account is given of the history of this problem and it is argued that recent advances in ultracold atomic physics can shed much new light on this problem. The article presents the commonly held notion that sufficiently slow-moving superfluids can flow without drag and also discusses research suggesting that scattering quantum fluctuations might cause drag in a superfluid moving at any speed.

  3. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.


    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  4. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core (United States)


    superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The

  5. Anisotropic emission of neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae (United States)

    Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei


    We present analysis on neutrino and GW signals based on three-dimensional (3D) core-collapse supernova simulations of a rapidly rotating 27 M⊙ star. We find a new neutrino signature that is produced by a lighthouse effect where the spinning of strong neutrino emission regions around the rotational axis leads to quasi-periodic modulation in the neutrino signal. Depending on the observer's viewing angle, the time modulation will be clearly detectable in IceCube and the future Hyper-Kamiokande. The GW emission is also anisotropic where the GW signal is emitted, as previously identified, most strongly towards the equator at rotating core-collapse and bounce, and the non-axisymmetric instabilities in the postbounce phase lead to stronger GW emission towards the spin axis. We show that these GW signals can be a target of LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic event. The origin of the postbounce GW emission naturally explains why the peak GW frequency is about twice of the neutrino modulation frequency. We point out that the simultaneous detection of the rotation-induced neutrino and GW signatures could provide a smoking-gun signature of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star at the birth.

  6. A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae. (United States)

    Mösta, Philipp; Ott, Christian D; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F; Schnetter, Erik; Haas, Roland


    Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is important in many high-energy astrophysical systems, where instabilities can amplify the local magnetic field over very short timescales. Specifically, the magnetorotational instability and dynamo action have been suggested as a mechanism for the growth of magnetar-strength magnetic fields (of 10(15) gauss and above) and for powering the explosion of a rotating massive star. Such stars are candidate progenitors of type Ic-bl hypernovae, which make up all supernovae that are connected to long γ-ray bursts. The magnetorotational instability has been studied with local high-resolution shearing-box simulations in three dimensions, and with global two-dimensional simulations, but it is not known whether turbulence driven by this instability can result in the creation of a large-scale, ordered and dynamically relevant field. Here we report results from global, three-dimensional, general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. We show that hydromagnetic turbulence in rapidly rotating protoneutron stars produces an inverse cascade of energy. We find a large-scale, ordered toroidal field that is consistent with the formation of bipolar magnetorotationally driven outflows. Our results demonstrate that rapidly rotating massive stars are plausible progenitors for both type Ic-bl supernovae and long γ-ray bursts, and provide a viable mechanism for the formation of magnetars. Moreover, our findings suggest that rapidly rotating massive stars might lie behind potentially magnetar-powered superluminous supernovae.

  7. Resonant tunneling in superfluid 3He (United States)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wohns, Daniel


    The A phase and the B phase of superfluid He-3 are well studied, both theoretically and experimentally. The decay time scale of the A phase to the B phase of a typical supercooled superfluid 3He-A sample is calculated to be 1020,000 years or longer, yet the actual first-order phase transition of supercooled A phase happens very rapidly (in seconds to minutes) in the laboratory. We propose that this very fast phase transition puzzle can be explained by the resonant tunneling effect in field theory, which generically happens since the degeneracies of both the A and the B phases are lifted by many small interaction effects. This explanation predicts the existence of peaks in the A→B transition rate for certain values of the temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Away from these peaks, the transition simply will not happen.

  8. R-mode frequencies of rapidly and differentially rotating relativistic neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jasiulek, Michael


    R-modes of neutron stars could be a source of gravitational waves for ground based detectors. If the precise frequency $\\sigma$ is known, guided gravitational wave searches with enhanced detectability are possible. Because of its physical importance many authors have calculated the r-mode frequency. For the dominant mode, the associated gravitational wave frequency is 4/3 times the angular velocity of the star $\\Omega$, subject to various corrections of which relativistic and rotational corrections are the most important. This has led several authors to investigate the dependence of the r-mode frequency on factors such as the relativistic compactness parameter ($M/R$) and the angular velocity of stars with different equations of state. The results found so far, however, are almost independent of the equation of state. Here we investigate the effect of rapid rotation and differential rotation on $\\sigma$. We evolve the perturbation equations using the Cowling approximation by applying finite differencing metho...

  9. Validity of sound-proof approaches in rapidly-rotating compressible convection: marginal stability versus turbulence (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jan; Glatzmaier, Gary A.


    The validity of the anelastic approximation has recently been questioned in the regime of rapidly-rotating compressible convection in low Prandtl number fluids (Calkins et al. 2015). Given the broad usage and the high computational efficiency of sound-proof approaches in this astrophysically relevant regime, this paper clarifies the conditions for a safe application. The potential of the alternative pseudo-incompressible approximation is investigated, which in contrast to the anelastic approximation is shown to never break down for predicting the point of marginal stability. Its accuracy, however, decreases close to the parameters corresponding to the failure of the anelastic approach, which is shown to occur when the sound-crossing time of the domain exceeds a rotation time scale, i.e. for rotational Mach numbers greater than one. Concerning the supercritical case, which is naturally characterised by smaller rotational Mach numbers, we find that the anelastic approximation does not show unphysical behaviour. Growth rates computed with the linearised anelastic equations converge toward the corresponding fully compressible values as the Rayleigh number increases. Likewise, our fully nonlinear turbulent simulations, produced with our fully compressible and anelastic models and carried out in a highly supercritical, rotating, compressible, low Prandtl number regime show good agreement. However, this nonlinear test example is for only a moderately low convective Rossby number of 0.14.

  10. Superfluid Black Holes. (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson


    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  11. Magnetic Domain Walls as Hosts of Spin Superfluids and Generators of Skyrmions (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav


    A domain wall in a magnet with easy-axis anisotropy is shown to harbor spin superfluid associated with its spontaneous breaking of the U(1) spin-rotational symmetry. The spin superfluid is shown to have several topological properties, which are absent in conventional superfluids. First, the associated phase slips create and destroy Skyrmions to obey the conservation of the total Skyrmion charge, which allows us to use a domain wall as a generator and detector of Skyrmions. Second, the domain wall engenders the emergent magnetic flux for magnons along its length, which are proportional to the spin supercurrent flowing through it, and thereby provides a way to manipulate magnons. Third, the spin supercurrent can be driven by the magnon current traveling across it owing to the spin transfer between the domain wall and magnons, leading to the magnonic manipulation of the spin superfluid. The theory for superfluid spin transport within the domain wall is confirmed by numerical simulations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Ricky [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Metcalfe, Travis S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Hall, Jeffrey C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Henry, Gregory W., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)


    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial (∼2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, a ∼1 Gyr old G1.5 V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at ∼1.7 years and a long cycle of ∼12 years. We measure three individual long-period cycles and find durations ranging from 9.6 to 15.5 years. We find the short-term variability to be intermittent, but present throughout the majority of the time series, though its occurrence and amplitude are uncorrelated with the longer cycle. These essentially solar-like variations occur in a Sun-like star with more rapid rotation, though surface differential rotation measurements leave open the possibility of a solar equivalence.

  13. Frequency regularities of acoustic modes and multi-colour mode identification in rapidly rotating stars (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Lignières, F.; Ballot, J.; Dupret, M.-A.; Barban, C.; van't Veer-Menneret, C.; MacGregor, K. B.


    Context. Mode identification has remained a major obstacle in the interpretation of pulsation spectra in rapidly rotating stars. This has motivated recent work on calculating realistic multi-colour mode visibilities in this type of star. Aims: We would like to test mode identification methods and seismic diagnostics in rapidly rotating stars, using oscillation spectra that are based on these new theoretical predictions. Methods: We investigate the auto-correlation function and Fourier transform of theoretically calculated frequency spectra, in which modes are selected according to their visibilities. Given that intrinsic mode amplitudes are determined by non-linear saturation and cannot currently be theoretically predicted, we experimented with various ad-hoc prescriptions for setting the mode amplitudes, including using random values. Furthermore, we analyse the ratios between mode amplitudes observed in different photometric bands to see up to what extent they can identify modes. Results: When non-random intrinsic mode amplitudes are used, our results show that it is possible to extract a mean value for the large frequency separation or half its value and, sometimes, twice the rotation rate, from the auto-correlation of the frequency spectra. Furthermore, the Fourier transforms are mostly sensitive to the large frequency separation or half its value. The combination of the two methods may therefore measure and distinguish the two types of separations. When the intrinsic mode amplitudes include random factors, which seems more representative of real stars, the results are far less favourable. It is only when the large separation or half its value coincides with twice the rotation rate, that it might be possible to detect the signature of a frequency regularity. We also find that amplitude ratios are a good way of grouping together modes with similar characteristics. By analysing the frequencies of these groups, it is possible to constrain mode identification, as

  14. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars. (United States)

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R


    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  15. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere (United States)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.


    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  16. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation. (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi


    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  17. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)


    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity Ω, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity Ω{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  18. Superfluid Boundary Layer. (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F


    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  19. First order Galilean superfluid dynamics (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash


    We study dynamics of an (anomalous) Galilean superfluid up to first order in derivative expansion, both in parity-even and parity-odd sectors. We construct a relativistic system—null superfluid, which is a null fluid (introduced in N. Banerjee, S. Dutta, and A. Jain Akash, [Phys. Rev. D 93, 105020 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.105020]) with a spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry. A null superfluid is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean superfluid in one lower dimension; i.e., they have the same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations and are related to each other by a mere choice of basis. The correspondence is based on null reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean symmetry in one lower dimension. To perform this analysis, we use off-shell formalism of (super)fluid dynamics, adopting it appropriately to null (super)fluids. We also verify these results via c →∞ limit of a parent relativistic system.

  20. Inverse cascade and symmetry breaking in rapidly-rotating Boussinesq convection

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, B; Proctor, M R E


    In this paper we present numerical simulations of rapidly-rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in the Boussinesq approximation with stress-free boundary conditions. At moderately low Rossby number and large Rayleigh number, we show that a large-scale depth-invariant flow is formed, reminiscent of the condensate state observed in two-dimensional flows. We show that the large-scale circulation shares many similarities with the so-called vortex, or slow-mode, of forced rotating turbulence. Our investigations show that at a fixed rotation rate the large-scale vortex is only observed for a finite range of Rayleigh numbers, as the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the flow disappears at very high Rayleigh numbers. We observe slow vortex merging events and find a non-local inverse cascade of energy in addition to the regular direct cascade associated with fast small-scale turbulent motions. Finally, we show that cyclonic structures are dominant in the small-scale turbulent flow and this symmetry breaking persists in ...

  1. Miniaturized rotating disc rheometer test for rapid screening of drag reducing marine coatings (United States)

    Dennington, Simon; Mekkhunthod, Ponkrit; Rides, Martin; Gibbs, David; Salta, Maria; Stoodley, Victoria; Wharton, Julian; Stoodley, Paul


    Frictional drag from the submerged hull surface of a ship is a major component of the resistance experienced when moving through water. Techniques for measuring frictional drag on test surfaces include towing tanks, flow tunnels and rotating discs. These large-scale methods present practical difficulties that hinder their widespread adoption and they are not conducive to rapid throughput. In this study a miniaturized benchtop rotating disc method is described that uses test discs 25 mm in diameter. A highly sensitive analytical rheometer is used to measure the torque acting on the discs rotating in water. Frictional resistance changes are estimated by comparing momentum coefficients. Model rough surfaces were prepared by attaching different grades of sandpaper to the disc surface. Discs with experimental antifouling coatings applied were exposed in the marine environment for the accumulation of microbial fouling, and the rotor was capable of detecting the increased drag due to biofilm formation. The drag due to biofilm was related to an equivalent sand roughness.

  2. Bounds on Heat Transport in Rapidly Rotating Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Grooms, Ian


    The heat transport in rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is considered in the limit of rapid rotation (small Ekman number $E$) and strong thermal forcing (large Rayleigh number $Ra$). The analysis proceeds from a set of asymptotically reduced equations appropriate for rotationally constrained dynamics; the conjectured range of validity for these equations is $Ra \\lesssim E^{-8/5}$. A rigorous bound on heat transport of $Nu \\le 20.56Ra^3E^4$ is derived in the limit of infinite Prandtl number using the background method. We demonstrate that the exponent in this bound cannot be improved on using a piece-wise monotonic background temperature profile like the one used here. This is true for finite Prandtl numbers as well, i.e. $Nu \\lesssim Ra^3$ is the best upper bound for this particular setup of the background method. The feature that obstructs the availability of a better bound in this case is the appearance of small-scale thermal plumes emanating from (or entering) the thermal boundary layer.

  3. The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.

  4. Rotations (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd


    The rotation, in forestry, is the planned number of years between formation of a crop or stand and its final harvest at a specified stage of maturity (Ford-Robertson 1971). The rotation used for many species is the age of culmination of mean usable volume growth [net mean annual increment (MAI)]. At that age, usable volume divided by age reaches its highest level. That...

  5. On the effect of laterally varying boundary heat flux on rapidly rotating spherical shell convection (United States)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod


    The onset of convection in a rotating spherical shell subject to laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary is considered in this paper. The focus is on the geophysically relevant regime of rapid rotation (low Ekman number) where the natural length scale of convection is significantly smaller than the length scale imposed by the boundary heat flux pattern. Contrary to earlier studies at a higher Ekman number, we find a substantial reduction in the onset Rayleigh number Rac with increasing lateral variation. The decrease in Rac is shown to be closely correlated to the equatorial heat flux surplus in the steady, basic state solution. The consistency of such a correlation makes the estimation of Rac possible without solving the full stability problem. The steady baroclinic flow has a strong cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in the kinetic helicity only for equatorially symmetric lateral variations, with possible implications for dynamo action. Equatorially antisymmetric variations, on the other hand, break the symmetry of the mean flow, in turn negating its helicity. Analysis of the perturbation solution reveals strongly localized clusters through which convection rolls drift in and out at a frequency higher than that for the reference case with homogeneous boundary heat flux. Large lateral variations produce a marked decrease in the azimuthal length scale of columns, which indicates that small-scale motions are essential to the transport of heat in rapidly rotating, localized convection. With an equatorially antisymmetric heat flux pattern, convection in individual clusters goes through an asynchronous wax-wane cycle whose frequency is much lower than the drift rate of the columns. These continual variations in convection intensity may in turn result in fluctuations in the magnetic field intensity, an effect that needs to be considered in dynamo models. Finally, there is a notable analogy between the role of a laterally varying boundary heat flux and the role of a

  6. On the surface of superfluids (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Jain, Akash; Kundu, Nilay


    Developing on a recent work on localized bubbles of ordinary relativistic fluids, we study the comparatively richer leading order surface physics of relativistic superfluids, coupled to an arbitrary stationary background metric and gauge field in 3 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions. The analysis is performed with the help of a Euclidean effective action in one lower dimension, written in terms of the superfluid Goldstone mode, the shape-field (characterizing the surface of the superfluid bubble) and the background fields. We find new terms in the ideal order constitutive relations of the superfluid surface, in both the parity-even and parity-odd sectors, with the corresponding transport coefficients entirely fixed in terms of the first order bulk transport coefficients. Some bulk transport coefficients even enter and modify the surface thermodynamics. In the process, we also evaluate the stationary first order parity-odd bulk currents in 2 + 1 dimensions, which follows from four independent terms in the superfluid effective action in that sector. In the second part of the paper, we extend our analysis to stationary surfaces in 3 + 1 dimensional Galilean superfluids via the null reduction of null superfluids in 4 + 1 dimensions. The ideal order constitutive relations in the Galilean case also exhibit some new terms similar to their relativistic counterparts. Finally, in the relativistic context, we turn on slow but arbitrary time dependence and answer some of the key questions regarding the time-dependent dynamics of the shape-field using the second law of thermodynamics. A linearized fluctuation analysis in 2 + 1 dimensions about a toy equilibrium configuration reveals some new surface modes, including parity-odd ones. Our framework can be easily applied to model more general interfaces between distinct fluid-phases.

  7. Bifundamental superfluids from holography (United States)

    Areán, Daniel; Tarrío, Javier


    We study the holographic dual of a (2 + 1)-dimensional s-wave superfluid that breaks an abelian U(1) × U(1) global symmetry group to the diagonal U(1) V . The model is inspired by Sen's tachyonic action, and the operator that condenses transforms in the bifundamental representation of the symmetry group. We focus on two configurations: the first one describes a marginal operator, and the phase diagram at finite temperature contains a first or a second order phase transition, depending on the parameters that determine the theory. In the second model the operator is relevant and the finite temperature transitions are always second order. In the latter case the conductivity for the current associated to the broken symmetry shows quasiparticle excitations at low temperatures, with mass given by the width of the superconducting gap. The suppression of spectral weight at low frequencies is also observed in the conductivity associated to the conserved symmetry, for which the DC value decreases as the temperature is reduced.

  8. Bifundamental superfluids from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areán, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Tarrío, Javier [Departament de Física Fonamental andInstitut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain)


    We study the holographic dual of a (2+1)-dimensional s-wave superfluid that breaks an abelian U(1)×U(1) global symmetry group to the diagonal U(1){sub V}. The model is inspired by Sen’s tachyonic action, and the operator that condenses transforms in the bifundamental representation of the symmetry group. We focus on two configurations: the first one describes a marginal operator, and the phase diagram at finite temperature contains a first or a second order phase transition, depending on the parameters that determine the theory. In the second model the operator is relevant and the finite temperature transitions are always second order. In the latter case the conductivity for the current associated to the broken symmetry shows quasiparticle excitations at low temperatures, with mass given by the width of the superconducting gap. The suppression of spectral weight at low frequencies is also observed in the conductivity associated to the conserved symmetry, for which the DC value decreases as the temperature is reduced.

  9. Fourier analysis of He 4471/Mg 4481 line profiles for separating rotational velocity and axial inclination in rapidly rotating B-type stars (United States)

    Takeda, Y.; Kawanomoto, S.; Ohishi, N.


    While the effect of rotation on spectral lines is complicated in rapidly rotating stars because of the appreciable gravity-darkening effect differing from line to line, it is possible to make use of this line-dependent complexity to separately determine the equatorial rotation velocity (ve) and the inclination angle (I) of rotational axis. Although linewidths of spectral lines were traditionally used for this aim, we tried in this study to apply the Fourier method, which utilizes the unambiguously determinable first-zero frequency (σ1) in the Fourier transform of line profile. Equipped with this technique, we analysed the profiles of He I 4471 and Mg I 4481 lines of six rapidly rotating (ve sin I ˜ 150-300 km s-1) late B-type stars, while comparing them with the theoretical profiles simulated on a grid of models computed for various combination of (ve, I). According to our calculation, σ1 tends to be larger than the classical value for given ve sin I. This excess progressively grows with an increase in ve, and is larger for the He line than the Mg line, which leads to {σ} 1^He > {σ} 1^Mg. It was shown that ve and I are separately determinable from the intersection of two loci (sets of solutions reproducing the observed σ1 for each line) on the ve versus I plane. Yet, line profiles alone are not sufficient for their unique discrimination, for which photometric information (such as colours) needs to be simultaneously employed.

  10. Scaling and excitation of combined convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starchenko, S. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnesium, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (Russian Federation)


    The optimum (to my mind) scaling of the combined thermal and compositional convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer is proposed.This scaling follows from self-consistent estimates of typical physical quantities. Similarity coefficients are introduced for the ratio convection dissipation/convection generation (s) and the ratio thermal convection/compositional convection (r). The third new and most important coefficient δ is the ratio of the characteristic size normal to the axis of rotation to the layer thickness. The faster the rotation, the lower δ. In the case of the liquid Earth core, δ ~ 10{sup –3} substitutes for the generally accepted Ekman number (E ~ 10{sup –15}) and s ~ 10{sup –6} substitutes for the inverse Rayleigh number 1/Ra ~ 10{sup –30}. It is found that, at turbulent transport coefficients, number s and the Prandtl number are on the order of unity for any objects and δ is independent of transport coefficients. As a result of expansion in powers of δ, an initially 3D system of six variables is simplified to an almost 2D system of four variables without δ. The problem of convection excitation in the main volume is algebraically solved and this problem for critical values is analytically solved. Dispersion relations and general expressions for critical wavenumbers, numbers s (which determine Rayleigh numbers), other critical parameters, and asymptotic solutions are derived. Numerical estimates are made for the liquid cores in the planets that resemble the Earth. Further possible applications of the results obtained are proposed for the interior of planets, moons, their oceans, stars, and experimental objects.

  11. Production of gamma-ray bursts near rapidly rotating accreting black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piran, T.; Shaham, J.


    A model for the production of ..gamma..-rays during the occurrence of instabilities in accretion of matter onto rapidly rotating black holes is described. Gamma rays are produced by Compton scattering of infalling X-ray photons, whenever the optical depth in the deep ergosphere is of the order of the gravitational distance. The initial photons are produced farther away by viscous processes in the infalling plasma, and contribute to the lower-energy regime of the burst spectrum, along with low-energy photons produced in the deep ergosphere. Calculated spectra for that specific Compton scattering may account for burst spectra in the range approx.300 keV--3 MeV.

  12. Approaching the Asymptotic Regime of Rapidly Rotating Convection: Boundary Layers vs Interior Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmach, S; Julien, K; Vasil, G; Cheng, J S; Ribeiro, A; King, E M; Aurnou, J M


    Rapidly rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is studied by combining results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments and asymptotic modeling. The asymptotic theory is shown to provide a good description of the bulk dynamics at low, but finite Rossby number. However, large deviations from the asymptotically predicted heat transfer scaling are found, with laboratory experiments and DNS consistently yielding much larger Nusselt numbers than expected. These deviations are traced down to dynamically active Ekman boundary layers, which are shown to play an integral part in controlling heat transfer even for Ekman numbers as small as $10^{-7}$. By adding an analytical parameterization of the Ekman transport to simulations using stress-free boundary conditions, we demonstrate that the heat transfer jumps from values broadly compatible with the asymptotic theory to states of strongly increased heat transfer, in good quantitative agreement with no-slip DNS and compatible with the experimental d...

  13. Low-Cost Rotating Experimentation in Compressor Aerodynamics Using Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Michaud


    Full Text Available With the rapid evolution of additive manufacturing, 3D printed parts are no longer limited to display purposes but can also be used in structural applications. The objective of this paper is to show that 3D prototyping can be used to produce low-cost rotating turbomachinery rigs capable of carrying out detailed flow measurements that can be used, among other things, for computational fluid dynamics (CFD code validation. A fully instrumented polymer two-stage axial-mixed flow compressor test rig was designed and fabricated with stereolithography (SLA technology by a team of undergraduate students as part of a senior-year design course. Experiments were subsequently performed on this rig to obtain both the overall pressure rise characteristics of the compressor and the stagnation pressure distributions downstream of the blade rows for comparison with CFD simulations. In doing so, this work provides a first-of-a-kind assessment of the use of polymer additive technology for low-cost rotating turbomachinery experimentation with detailed measurements.

  14. Subcritical convection in a rapidly rotating sphere at low Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Celine


    We study non-linear convection in a low Prandtl number fluid ($Pr = 0.01-0.1$) in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of a superposition of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl nu...

  15. Sensitivity of rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection to Ekman pumping (United States)

    Plumley, Meredith; Julien, Keith; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan


    The dependence of the heat transfer, as measured by the nondimensional Nusselt number Nu, on Ekman pumping for rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an infinite plane layer is examined for fluids with Prandtl number Pr=1 . A joint effort utilizing simulations from the composite non-hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic model and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the incompressible fluid equations has mapped a wide range of the Rayleigh number Ra-Ekman number E parameter space within the geostrophic regime of rotating convection. Corroboration of the Nu-Ra relation at E =10-7 from both methods along with higher E covered by DNS and lower E by the asymptotic model allows for this extensive range of the heat transfer results. For stress-free boundaries, the relation Nu-1 ∝(RaE4/3) α has the dissipation-free scaling of α =3 /2 for all E ≤10-7 . This is directly related to a geostrophic turbulent interior that throttles the heat transport supplied to the thermal boundary layers. For no-slip boundaries, the existence of ageostrophic viscous boundary layers and their associated Ekman pumping yields a more complex two-dimensional surface in Nu(E ,Ra) parameter space. For E <10-7 results suggest that the surface can be expressed as Nu-1 ∝[1 +P (E ) ] (RaE4/3) 3 /2 indicating the dissipation-free scaling law is enhanced by Ekman pumping by the multiplicative prefactor [1 +P (E )] where P (E ) ≈5.97 E1 /8 . It follows for E <10-7 that the geostrophic turbulent interior remains the flux bottleneck in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection. For E ˜10-7 , where DNS and asymptotic simulations agree quantitatively, it is found that the effects of Ekman pumping are sufficiently strong to influence the heat transport with diminished exponent α ≈1.2 and Nu-1 ∝(RaE4/3) 1.2 .

  16. Asymptotic g modes: Evidence for a rapid rotation of the solar core (United States)

    Fossat, E.; Boumier, P.; Corbard, T.; Provost, J.; Salabert, D.; Schmider, F. X.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grec, G.; Renaud, C.; Robillot, J. M.; Roca-Cortés, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ulrich, R. K.; Lazrek, M.


    , P0 is measured to be 34 min 01 s, with a 1 s uncertainty. The previously unknown g-mode splittings have now been measured from a non-synodic reference with very high accuracy, and they imply a mean weighted rotation of 1277 ± 10 nHz (9-day period) of their kernels, resulting in a rapid rotation frequency of 1644 ± 23 nHz (period of one week) of the solar core itself, which is a factor 3.8 ± 0.1 faster than the rotation of the radiative envelope. Conclusions: The g modes are known to be the keys to a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of the solar core. Their detection with these precise parameters will certainly stimulate a new era of research in this field.

  17. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M


    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger.

  18. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia. (United States)

    Hughes, David W; Cattaneo, Fausto


    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, Leonardo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Rueda, Jorge A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Santiago de Cali (Colombia)


    Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  20. Gauge Wheel of Superfluids


    Kazumasa, MIYAKE; Tunemaru, USUI; Department of Physics, Nagoya University; Department of Physics, Nagoya University


    Josephson equation in rotatig vessels is derived, in a unfied way for ^4He-II and ^3He-A, by explicity taking account of the effect of rotation. Although the equation thus obtained for ^3He-A is similar to those of previous authers, the physical meaning of each term in the equation is determined without ambiguity. It is pointed out, in particular, that the chemical potential can have dependence on ω (angular velocity), that one can find the value of the partial angular momentum (∂L_0/∂N)_T th...

  1. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowley, Roger [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  2. Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical fluid shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.P.


    Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shells of Boussinesq fluid have been carried out with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent spectral-transform code. The basic state is hydrostatic, spherically symmetric, and independent of time. The numerical methods, the numerical stability, and the adequacy of the spatial resolution were examined by a benchmarking study. A sequence of bifurcations from the onset of a steadily propagating convective state, to a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state and thence a chaotic state has been found. Convective solutions at each stage along the route to chaos have been studied. The emphases are on the three-dimensional and time-dependent convective structures and associated mean zonal flow. The spherical shell is heated from both below and within. The boundaries are isothermal and stress-free. The author has also explored the consequences of imposing a spatially varying temperature anomaly on the upper surface of a spherical shell on thermal convection in the shell. The spherical shell is heated from below and cooled from above. The lower boundary is isothermal and both boundaries are rigid and impermeable. The results show that the patterns and amplitudes of the convective motions and associated mean zonal and meridional flows depend largely on the pattern and amplitude of the imposted thermal anomaly. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the influence of thermal conditions in the lower mantle on motions in the Earth's liquid outer core. The author has carried out numerical simulations at both high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers. The spherical shell is heated from below and cooled from above. The boundaries are isothermal and stress-free. Columnar rolls that are quasi-layered in cylindrical radius and associated banded mean zonal flow are obtained. The quasi-layered convective structure and the banded zonal wind are consequent upon both the high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)


    It was shown recently that normalized relations between the moment of inertia (I), the quadrupole moment (Q), and the tidal deformability (Love number) exist and for slowly rotating neutron stars they are almost independent of the equation of state (EOS). We extend the computation of the I-Q relation to models rotating up to the mass-shedding limit and show that the universality of the relations is lost. With increasing rotation rate, the normalized I-Q relation departs significantly from its slow-rotation limit, deviating up to 40% for neutron stars and up to 75% for strange stars. The deviation is also EOS dependent and for a broad set of hadronic and strange matter EOSs the spread due to rotation is comparable to the spread due to the EOS, if one considers sequences with fixed rotational frequency. Still, for a restricted sample of modern realistic EOSs one can parameterize the deviations from universality as a function of rotation only. The previously proposed I-Love-Q relations should thus be used with care, because they lose their universality in astrophysical situations involving compact objects rotating faster than a few hundred Hz.

  4. Non-radial oscillations of the rapidly rotating Be star HD 163868

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savonije, G.J.


    Context: Oscillations in rotating stars with frequency barsigma of the same order or smaller than the rotation rate Omega cannot be described by a single spherical harmonic due to the effect of the Coriolis force. This is a serious complication which is usually treated by writing the eigenfunctions

  5. Detection of Binary and Multiple Systems Among Rapidly Rotating K and M Dwarf Stars From Kepler Data (United States)

    Oláh, K.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.


    From an examination of ˜18,000 Kepler light curves of K- and M-stars we find some 500 which exhibit rotational periods of less than 2 days. Among such stars, approximately 50 show two or more incommensurate periodicities. We discuss the tools that allow us to differentiate between rotational modulation and other types of light variations, e.g., due to pulsations or binary modulations. We find that these multiple periodicities are independent of each other and likely belong to different, but physically bound, stars. This scenario was checked directly by UKIRT and adaptive optics imaging, time-resolved Fourier transforms, and pixel-level analysis of the data. Our result is potentially important for discovering young multiple stellar systems among rapidly rotating K- and M-dwarfs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The flow phenomena occurring around a rotating shaft are extremely complex and are a common feature in turbomachinery such as the bearing chambers of aero engines. As the liquid jet impinges onto the shaft, circumferential streams of lubricating liquid droplets centrifuge away from the rotor surface and impinge onto the inner circumference of the stationary case. A further break-up of drops occurred whilst rotating around the shaft before impacting on to the casing surface. Non-intrusive laser techniques have been employed to aid the visualisation processes and the analysis of the flow phenomena occurring within the rotating annular enclosure. Results reveal that, the liquid flow conditions and the shaft rotation regimes, along with the aerodynamic movement of the air circulating around the shaft influence the dynamics of the droplets and consequently the lubrication processes within the bearing chambers.

  7. Rotovibrational spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Raston, Paul L; Knapp, Chrissy J; Jäger, Wolfgang


    We report the infrared depletion spectrum of para- and ortho-hydrogen peroxide embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets in the OH stretching region. Six transitions were observed in the antisymmetric stretching band (v(5)) of H(2)O(2), and three in the weaker symmetric stretching band (v(1)). While rotations about the b- and c-axes are slowed by a factor of ∼0.4 relative to the gas phase, rotations about the a-axis are not significantly affected; this relates to the rotational speed about the a-axis being too fast for helium density to adiabatically follow. The trans tunneling splitting does not appear to be considerably affected by the helium droplet environment, and is reduced by only 6% relative to the gas phase, under the assumption that the vibrational shifts of the v(5) and v(1) torsional subbands are the same. The linewidths increase with increasing rotorsional energies, and are significantly narrower for energies which fall within the "phonon gap" of superfluid helium. These narrower lines are asymmetrically broadened, indicative of a dynamical coupling between the H(2)O(2) rotor and surrounding helium density.

  8. Phase separation in asymmetrical fermion superfluids. (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo F; Caldas, Heron; Rupak, Gautam


    Motivated by recent developments on cold atom traps and high density QCD we consider fermionic systems composed of two particle species with different densities. We argue that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state. We suggest how this phase separation can be used as a probe of fermion superfluidity in atomic traps.

  9. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R


    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  10. Possible new electric effect in superfluid systems


    Shevchenko, S. I.; Konstantinov, A. M.


    We predict that propagation of third sound in a superfluid film creates an electric field in the surrounding area that can be observable with modern measurement devices when there are many vortex pairs in the system (e. g. in the vicinity of the superfluid transition temperature).

  11. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani


    Full Text Available We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not: dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  12. Spin superfluid Josephson quantum devices (United States)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Mohseni, Masoud


    A macroscopic spintronic qubit based on spin superfluidity and spin Hall phenomena is proposed. This magnetic quantum information processing device realizes the spin-supercurrent analog of the superconducting phase qubit and allows for full electrical control and readout. We also show that an array of interacting magnetic phase qubits can realize a quantum annealer. These devices can be built through standard solid-state fabrication technology, allowing for scalability. However, the upper bound for the operational temperature can, in principle, be higher than the superconducting counterpart, as it is ultimately governed by the magnetic ordering temperatures, which could be much higher than the critical temperatures of the conventional superconducting devices.

  13. Interferometric Measurement of the Current-Phase Relationship of a Superfluid Weak Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckel


    Full Text Available Weak connections between superconductors or superfluids can differ from classical links due to quantum coherence, which allows flow without resistance. Transport properties through such weak links can be described with a single function, the current-phase relationship, which serves as the quantum analog of the current-voltage relationship. Here, we present a technique for inteferometrically measuring the current-phase relationship of superfluid weak links. We interferometrically measure the phase gradient around a ring-shaped superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate containing a rotating weak link, allowing us to identify the current flowing around the ring. While our Bose-Einstein condensate weak link operates in the hydrodynamic regime, this technique can be extended to all types of weak links (including tunnel junctions in any phase-coherent quantum gas. Moreover, it can also measure the current-phase relationships of excitations. Such measurements may open new avenues of research in quantum transport.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, S. Q.; Wang, J. S. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, L. J. [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Y. W., E-mail: [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)


    In this paper we show that the most luminous supernova discovered very recently, ASASSN-15lh, could have been powered by a newborn ultra-strongly magnetized pulsar, which initially rotates near the Kepler limit. We find that if this pulsar is a neutron star, its rotational energy could be quickly lost as a result of gravitational-radiation-driven r-mode instability; if it is a strange quark star (SQS), however, this instability is highly suppressed due to a large bulk viscosity associated with the nonleptonic weak interaction among quarks and thus most of its rotational energy could be extracted to drive ASASSN-15lh. Therefore, we conclude that such an ultra-energetic supernova provides a possible signature for the birth of an SQS.

  15. Patterns, an efficient way to analyse the p-mode content in rapidly rotating stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández A. García


    Full Text Available High precision photometric observations from space has led to the detection of hundreds of frequencies in the light curves of δ Scuti pulsators. In this work, we analyzed a sample of Kepler δ Sct stars to search for frequency patterns in the p-mode regime. To avoid g-modes, we looked at the mode density histogram (MDH. We then used the Fourier transform technique (FT, histograms of frequency differences (HFD and Echelle diagrams (ED to find periodicities in the frequency content. We compared the results with those expected for SCF rotating models [4] with the aim of identifying large separations and rotational splittings.

  16. Majorana excitations, spin and mass currents on the surface of topological superfluid 3He-B (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sauls, J. A.


    The B-phase of superfluid 3He is a 3D time-reversal-invariant topological superfluid with an isotropic energy gap, Δ, separating the ground state and bulk continuum states. We report calculations of surface spectrum and spin and mass current densities originating from the Andreev surface states for confined 3He-B. The surface states are Majorana Fermions with their spins polarized transverse to their direction of propagation along the surface, p∥. The negative-energy states give rise to a ground-state helical spin current confined on the surface. The spectral functions reveal the subtle role of the spin-polarized surface states in relation to the ground-state spin current. By contrast, these states do not contribute to the T=0 mass current. Superfluid flow through a channel of confined 3He-B is characterized by the flow field, ps=(ℏ)/(2)∇φ. The flow field breaks SO(2)Lz+Sz rotational symmetry and time reversal (T). However, the Bogoliubov-Nambu Hamiltonian remains invariant under the combined symmetry, Uz(π)×T, where Uz(π) is a π rotation about the surface normal. As a result the B phase in the presence of a superflow remains a topological phase with a gapless spectrum of Majorana modes on the surface. Thermal excitation of the Doppler-shifted Majorana branches leads to a power-law suppression of the superfluid mass current for 0superfluid, 3He-B. Results are reported for the superfluid fraction (mass current) and helical spin current for confined 3He-B, including the temperature dependencies, as well as dependencies on confinement, pressure and interactions between quasiparticles.

  17. Fermion Superfluidity And Confining Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galal, A A


    We study the pairing of Fermi systems with long-range, confining interparticle interactions. We solve the Cooper problem for a pair of fermions interacting via a regularized harmonic oscillator potential and determine the s-wave spectrum of bound states. Using a model of two interacting species of fermions, we calculate the ground state energy of the normal phase in the Hartree-Fock approximation and find that it is infrared (IR) divergent, due to a combination of the sharpness of the Fermi sea and the long-range nature of the interaction. We calculate the correlation energy in the normal phase using the random phase approximation (RPA) and demonstrate the cancellation of infrared divergences between the Hartree-Fock and RPA contributions. Introducing a variational wavefunction to study the superfluid phase, we solve the BCS equations using a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) analysis to determine the wave-function, excitation gap, and other parameters of the superfluid phase. We show that the system crosses over...

  18. Evolution of rapidly rotating metal-poor massive stars towards gamma-ray bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, S.-C.; Langer, N.


    Recent models of rotating massive stars including magnetic fields prove it difficult for the cores of single stars to retain enough angular momentum to produce a collapsar and gamma-ray burst. At low metallicity, even very massive stars may retain a massive hydrogen envelope due to the weakness of

  19. Spin Superfluidity in Biaxial Antiferromagnetic Insulators (United States)

    Qaiumzadeh, Alireza; Skarsvâg, Hans; Holmqvist, Cecilia; Brataas, Arne


    Antiferromagnets may exhibit spin superfluidity since the dipole interaction is weak. We seek to establish that this phenomenon occurs in insulators such as NiO, which is a good spin conductor according to previous studies. We investigate nonlocal spin transport in a planar antiferromagnetic insulator with a weak uniaxial anisotropy. The anisotropy hinders spin superfluidity by creating a substantial threshold that the current must overcome. Nevertheless, we show that applying a high magnetic field removes this obstacle near the spin-flop transition of the antiferromagnet. Importantly, the spin superfluidity can then persist across many micrometers, even in dirty samples.

  20. Stability of precessing superfluid neutron stars. (United States)

    Glampedakis, K; Andersson, N; Jones, D I


    We discuss a new superfluid instability occurring in the interior of mature neutron stars with implications for free precession. This instability is similar to the instability which is responsible for the formation of turbulence in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that the instability is unlikely to affect slowly precessing systems with weak superfluid coupling. In contrast, fast precession in systems with strong coupling appears to be generically unstable. This raises serious questions about our understanding of neutron star precession and complicates attempts to constrain neutron star interiors using such observations.

  1. Radiation Driven Instability of Rapidly Rotating Relativistic Stars: Criterion and Evolution Equations Via Multipolar Expansion of Gravitational Waves (United States)

    Chugunov, A. I.


    I suggest a novel approach for deriving evolution equations for rapidly rotating relativistic stars affected by radiation-driven Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. This approach is based on the multipolar expansion of gravitational wave emission and appeals to the global physical properties of the star (energy, angular momentum, and thermal state), but not to canonical energy and angular momentum, which is traditional. It leads to simple derivation of the Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability criterion for normal modes and the evolution equations for a star, affected by this instability. The approach also gives a precise form to simple explanation of the Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability; it occurs when two conditions are met: (a) gravitational wave emission removes angular momentum from the rotating star (thus releasing the rotation energy) and (b) gravitational waves carry less energy, than the released amount of the rotation energy. To illustrate the results, I take the r-mode instability in slowly rotating Newtonian stellar models as an example. It leads to evolution equations, where the emission of gravitational waves directly affects the spin frequency, being in apparent contradiction with widely accepted equations. According to the latter, effective spin frequency decrease is coupled with dissipation of unstable mode, but not with the instability as it is. This problem is shown to be superficial, and arises as a result of specific definition of the effective spin frequency applied previously. Namely, it is shown, that if this definition is taken into account properly, the evolution equations coincide with obtained here in the leading order in mode amplitude. I also argue that the next-to-leading order terms in evolution equations were not yet derived accurately and thus it would be more self-consistent to omit them.

  2. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. Methods The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV and high (18 MV beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. Results The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively. For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%: GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. Conclusion The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid

  3. Impacts of Earth rotation parameters on GNSS ultra-rapid orbit prediction: Derivation and real-time correction (United States)

    Wang, Qianxin; Hu, Chao; Xu, Tianhe; Chang, Guobin; Hernández Moraleda, Alberto


    Analysis centers (ACs) for global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) cannot accurately obtain real-time Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). Thus, the prediction of ultra-rapid orbits in the international terrestrial reference system (ITRS) has to utilize the predicted ERPs issued by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) or the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this study, the accuracy of ERPs predicted by IERS and IGS is analyzed. The error of the ERPs predicted for one day can reach 0.15 mas and 0.053 ms in polar motion and UT1-UTC direction, respectively. Then, the impact of ERP errors on ultra-rapid orbit prediction by GNSS is studied. The methods for orbit integration and frame transformation in orbit prediction with introduced ERP errors dominate the accuracy of the predicted orbit. Experimental results show that the transformation from the geocentric celestial references system (GCRS) to ITRS exerts the strongest effect on the accuracy of the predicted ultra-rapid orbit. To obtain the most accurate predicted ultra-rapid orbit, a corresponding real-time orbit correction method is developed. First, orbits without ERP-related errors are predicted on the basis of ITRS observed part of ultra-rapid orbit for use as reference. Then, the corresponding predicted orbit is transformed from GCRS to ITRS to adjust for the predicted ERPs. Finally, the corrected ERPs with error slopes are re-introduced to correct the predicted orbit in ITRS. To validate the proposed method, three experimental schemes are designed: function extrapolation, simulation experiments, and experiments with predicted ultra-rapid orbits and international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) products. Experimental results show that using the proposed correction method with IERS products considerably improved the accuracy of ultra-rapid orbit prediction (except the geosynchronous BeiDou orbits). The accuracy of orbit prediction is enhanced by at least 50

  4. Particles and fields in superfluids: Insights from the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (United States)

    Shukla, Vishwanath; Pandit, Rahul; Brachet, Marc


    We carry out extensive direct numerical simulations to investigate the interaction of active particles and fields in the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii superfluid, in both simple and turbulent flows. The particles are active in the sense that they affect the superfluid even as they are affected by it. We tune the mass of the particles, which is an important control parameter. At the one-particle level, we show how light, neutral, and heavy particles move in the superfluid, when a constant external force acts on them; in particular, beyond a critical velocity, at which a vortex-antivortex pair is emitted, particle motion can be periodic or chaotic. We demonstrate that the interaction of a particle with vortices leads to dynamics that depends sensitively on the particle characteristics. We also demonstrate that assemblies of particles and vortices can have rich, and often turbulent, spatiotemporal evolution. In particular, we consider the dynamics of the following illustrative initial configurations: (a) one particle placed in front of a translating vortex-antivortex pair; (b) two particles placed in front of a translating vortex-antivortex pair; (c) a single particle moving in the presence of counter-rotating vortex clusters; (d) four particles in the presence of counter-rotating vortex clusters. We compare our work with earlier studies and examine its implications for recent experimental studies in superfluid helium and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  5. Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Amo; S. Pigeon; D. Sanvitto; V. G. Sala; R. Hivet; I. Carusotto; F. Pisanello; G. Leménager; R. Houdré; E Giacobino; C. Ciuti; A. Bramati


    .... Using an interacting Bose gas of exciton-polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity, we report the transition from superfluidity to the hydrodynamic formation of oblique dark solitons and vortex...

  6. Pairing gaps in nucleonic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.M.C. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Clark, J.W. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Dave, R.D. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Khodel, V.V. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))


    Singlet S-wave nucleonic superfluids are studied within a microscopic many-body theory that incorporates explicit spatial correlations due to strong short-range repulsive forces as well as the momentum-space pairing correlations of BCS theory. The theory is formulated within the method of correlated basis functions (CBF). Within this scheme, there results a nonlinear problem for the superfluid energy gap that is identical in form to the gap problem of conventional BCS theory. However, the input single-particle energies and pairing matrix elements are dressed by the short-range spatial correlations and accordingly incorporate an important class of medium corrections. The effective pairing force of the theory is finite even if the bare two-nucleon potential contains an infinitely hard core; both the pairing matrix elements and single-particle energies are to be constructed from normal-state CBF matrix elements and may be evaluated by cluster-expansion techniques. The theory is explicated and applied at a variational level that is equivalent to the leading order of a CBF superstate perturbation theory. New results are presented for the [sup 1]S[sub 0] pairing gap [Delta][sub kF] in pure neutron matter at densities relevant to the inner crust of a neutron star, based on a simplified version of the Reid soft-core interaction and spin-dependent spatial correlations optimized in the correlated normal state. Careful considering is given to the treatment of the gap equation at large intermediate-state momenta. The variational gap function evaluated at the Fermi surface, [Delta][sub F], is found to be larger than predicted in earlier work. Estimates of the suppression of the gap due to polarization processes (and other particle-particle and hole-irreducible medium effects of higher order within CBF superstate perturbation theory) yield values of [Delta][sub kF].

  7. Effect of Finite-Range Interactions on Rapidly Rotating Ultracold Bosonic Atoms (United States)

    Hamamoto, Nobukuni


    We investigate the effects of the finite-range interactions of six rotating ultracold bosonic atoms using a Gaussian-type interatomic interaction model. The model is analyzed numerically by exact diagonalization within the Lowest Landau Level (LLL) approximation and semiclassical approximation. The result of exact diagonalization shows that the ground-state angular momentum changes discretely with increasing angular velocity. For the short-range limit, the ground-state angular momentum and wavefunctions agree with those of the delta interaction evaluated by Bertsch and Papenbrock [" xlink:type="simple">Phys. Rev. A 63, 023616 (2001)]. Different from the delta interaction, the ground-state angular momenta higher than 30, i.e., N(N - 1), are observed at a high angular frequency as a result of the finite-range two-body interactions. For the intermediate-range interaction, the sequence of ground-state angular momenta increases in steps of five, which was not found in previous works on the Gaussian interaction. For the long-range limit of Gaussian interaction, we find that the ground-state angular momenta increase in steps of six. These steps of the ground-state angular momentum according to the width of the Gaussian interactions are explained by semiclassical and classical analysis based on the rovibrating molecule picture. The increments of the ground-state angular momentum of five and six are explained by the semiclassical quantization condition of the rotational and vibrational modes of fivefold and sixfold molecules, respectively. Our analysis based on the classical model also confirms that the fivefold molecule picture is more stable than the sixfold molecule picture in the intermediate range of the Gaussian interaction. These results suggest that the Gaussian interaction model can be used to emulate and characterize interactions by their width as the model can reproduce various rotational states including the ground

  8. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri. (United States)

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto


    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters.

  9. CN Jet Morphology and the Very Rapidly Changing Rotation Period of Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak (United States)

    Schleicher, David G.; Eisner, Nora; Knight, Matthew M.; Thirouin, Audrey


    In the first half of 2017, Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak had its best apparition since its first discovery in 1858, remaining within 0.15 AU of Earth for three weeks and within 0.20 AU over a two month interval. These circumstances allowed us to study its coma morphology in search of possible jets, whose appearance and motion as a function of time would yield the rotation period and, with appropriate modeling, the pole orientation of the nucleus and source location(s). Imaging was obtained on a total of 45 nights between February 16 and July 2, using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, the Hall 1.1-m telescope, and the robotic 0.8-m telescope. All narrowband CN images exhibit either one or two gas jets, and on most nights both jets appear as partial spirals with a clockwise rotation. Only a slow evolution of the jet morphology took place from mid-March to early June, presumably due to viewing geometry changes coupled with seasonal changes. Our coverage in late March was sufficient to rule out aliases of the rotation period, and further revealed a rapidly increasing period from about 24 hr to about 27 hr at the end of the month (Knight et al. 2017, CBET 4377). This rate of increase is roughly consistent with the solution of 19.9 hr found by Farnham et al. (2017, CBET 4375) in early March. Images from April 15 to May 4 yield an accelerating change in periods, passing 48 hr approximately on April 28. This is the fastest rate of change ever measured for a comet nucleus. These and other results, including those from Monte Carlo jet modeling just begun by us, will be presented.These studies were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grant NNX14AG81G and the Marcus Cometary Research Fund.

  10. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  11. The asymptotic equivalence of fixed heat flux and fixed temperature thermal boundary conditions for rapidly rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Julien, Keith; Nieves, David; Driggs, Derek; Marti, Philippe


    The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers adjusts the temperature such that the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions are satisfied. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading order reduced system of governing equations are therefore equivalent for both boundary condit...

  12. The Formation of Rapidly Rotating Black Holes in High-mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Chris


    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXRBs), such as Cygnus X-1, host some of the most rapidly spinning black holes (BHs) known to date, reaching spin parameters a≳ 0.84. However, there are several effects that can severely limit the maximum BH spin parameter that could be obtained from direct collapse, such as tidal synchronization, magnetic core-envelope coupling, and mass loss. Here, we propose an alternative scenario where the BH is produced by a failed supernova (SN) explosion that is unable to unbind the stellar progenitor. A large amount of fallback material ensues, whose interaction with the secondary naturally increases its overall angular momentum content, and therefore the spin of the BH when accreted. Through SPH hydrodynamic simulations, we studied the unsuccessful explosion of an 8 {M}⊙ pre-SN star in a close binary with a 12 {M}⊙ companion with an orbital period of ≈1.2 days, finding that it is possible to obtain a BH with a high spin parameter a≳ 0.8 even when the expected spin parameter from direct collapse is a≲ 0.3. This scenario also naturally explains the atmospheric metal pollution observed in HMXRB stellar companions.

  13. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel (United States)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier


    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  14. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  15. How superfluid vortex knots untie (United States)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Kauffman, Louis H.; Irvine, William T. M.


    Knots and links often occur in physical systems, including shaken strands of rope and DNA (ref. ), as well as the more subtle structure of vortices in fluids and magnetic fields in plasmas. Theories of fluid flows without dissipation predict these tangled structures persist, constraining the evolution of the flow much like a knot tied in a shoelace. This constraint gives rise to a conserved quantity known as helicity, offering both fundamental insights and enticing possibilities for controlling complex flows. However, even small amounts of dissipation allow knots to untie by means of `cut-and-splice’ operations known as reconnections. Despite the potentially fundamental role of these reconnections in understanding helicity--and the stability of knotted fields more generally--their effect is known only for a handful of simple knots. Here we study the evolution of 322 elemental knots and links in the Gross-Pitaevskii model for a superfluid, and find that they universally untie. We observe that the centreline helicity is partially preserved even as the knots untie, a remnant of the perfect helicity conservation predicted for idealized fluids. Moreover, we find that the topological pathways of untying knots have simple descriptions in terms of minimal two-dimensional knot diagrams, and tend to concentrate in states which are twisted in only one direction. These results have direct analogies to previous studies of simple knots in several systems, including DNA recombination and classical fluids. This similarity in the geometric and topological evolution suggests there are universal aspects in the behaviour of knots in dissipative fields.

  16. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  17. Spin Superfluidity and Magnone BEC in He-3 (United States)

    Bunkov, Yury


    The spin superfluidity -- superfluidity in the magnetic subsystem of a condensed matter -- is manifested as the spontaneous phase-coherent precession of spins first discovered in 1984 in 3 He-B. This superfluid current of spins -- spin supercurrent -- is one more representative of superfluid currents known or discussed in other systems, such as the superfluid current of mass and atoms in superfluid 4 He; superfluid current of electric charge in superconductors; superfluid current of hypercharge in Standard Model of particle physics; superfluid baryonic current and current of chiral charge in quark matter; etc. Spin superfluidity can be described in terms of the Bose condensation of spin waves -- magnons. We discuss different states of magnon superfluidity with different types of spin-orbit coupling: in bulk 3 He-B; magnetically traped `` Q -balls'' at very low temperatures; in 3 He-A and 3 He-B immerged in deformed aerogel; etc. Some effects in normal 3 He can also be treated as a magnetic BEC of fermi liquid. A very similar phenomena can be observed also in a magnetic systems with dinamical frequensy shift, like MnC03 . We will discuss the main experimental signatures of magnons superfluidity: (i) spin supercurrent, which transports the magnetization on a macroscopic distance more than 1 cm long; (ii) spin current Josephson effect which shows interference between two condensates; (iii) spin current vortex -- a topological defect which is an analog of a quantized vortex in superfluids, of an Abrikosov vortex in superconductors, and cosmic strings in relativistic theories; (iv) Goldstone modes related to the broken U (1) symmetry -- phonons in the spin-superfluid magnon gas; etc. For recent review see Yu. M. Bunkov and G. E. Volovik J. Phys. Cond. Matter. 22, 164210 (2010) This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract N 02.740.11.5217).

  18. Excitations in Topological Superfluids and Superconductors (United States)

    Wu, Hao

    In this thesis I present the theoretical work on Fermionic surface states, and %the bulk Bosonic collective excitations in topological superfluids and superconductors. Broken symmetries %Bulk-edge correspondence in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Imaging characterization of the rapid adiabatic passage in a source-rotatable, crossed-beam scattering experiment (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Mondal, Sohidul; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Kopin


    In order to achieve a more efficient preparation of a specific ro-vibrationally excited reactant state for reactive scattering experiments, we implemented the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) scheme to our pulsed crossed-beam machine, using a single-mode, continuous-wave mid-infrared laser. The challenge for this source-rotatable apparatus lies in the non-orthogonal geometry between the molecular beam and the laser propagation directions. As such, the velocity spread of the supersonic beam results in a significantly broader Doppler distribution that needs to be activated for RAP to occur than the conventional orthogonal configuration. In this report, we detail our approach to shifting, locking, and stabilizing the absolute mid-infrared frequency. We exploited the imaging detection technique to characterize the RAP process and to quantify the excitation efficiency. We showed that with appropriate focusing of the IR laser, a nearly complete population transfer can still be achieved in favorable cases. Compared to our previous setup—a pulsed optical parametric oscillator/amplifier in combination with a multipass ring reflector for saturated absorption, the present RAP scheme with a single-pass, continuous-wave laser yields noticeably higher population-transfer efficiency.

  20. Nuclear superfluidity and cooling time of neutron-star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrozeau, C.; Margueron, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Sandulescu, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest (Romania)


    We analyse the effect of neutron superfluidity on the cooling time of inner crust matter in neutron stars, in the case of a rapid cooling of the core. The specific heat of the inner crust, which determines the thermal response of the crust, is calculated in the framework of HFB approach at finite temperature. The calculations are performed with two paring forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding respectively to Gogny-BCS approximation and to many-body techniques including polarisation effects. Using a simple model for the heat transport across the inner crust, it is shown that the two pairing forces give very different values for the cooling time. (authors)

  1. Superfluid phases of $^3$He in nano-scale channels


    Wiman, J. J.; Sauls, J. A.


    Confinement of superfluid $^3$He on length scales comparable to the radial size of the p-wave Cooper pairs can greatly alter the phase diagram by stabilizing broken symmetry phases not observed in bulk $^3$He. We consider superfluid $^3$He confined within long cylindrical channels of radius $100\\mbox{ nm}$, and report new theoretical predictions for the equilibrium superfluid phases under strong confinement. The results are based on the strong-coupling formulation of Ginzburg-Landau theory wi...

  2. Novel $p$-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules


    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.


    We show that recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological $p$-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer $p$-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilay...

  3. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. (United States)

    Fedorov, A K; Matveenko, S I; Yudson, V I; Shlyapnikov, G V


    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry.

  4. Superfluid density in 3He film (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mikio; Higashitani, Seiji; Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko


    The size effect on the superfluid density ρs of 3He films with thickness of the order of the coherence length is discussed on the basis of the quasi-classical Green's function method. We formulate a linear response theory in 3He films where the ABM state is stabilized owing to the size effect. This study is motivated by the third sound experiment recently reported by Schechter et al. In this experiment, the superfluid density ρs has been obtained for films with thicknesses in the range 92-281 nm. We show that when we assume the scattering from the substrate to be diffusive and that from the free surface of 3He to be specular, our results reproduce well the temperature dependence of ρs measured for films thinner than 174 nm, while the data for thicker films deviate from our ABM results.

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity

    CERN Document Server

    Pitaevskii, Lev


    This volume introduces the basic concepts of Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity. It makes special reference to the physics of ultracold atomic gases; an area in which enormous experimental and theoretical progress has been achieved in the last twenty years. Various theoretical approaches to describing the physics of interacting bosons and of interacting Fermi gases, giving rise to bosonic pairs and hence to condensation, are discussed in detail, both in uniform and harmonically trapped configurations. Special focus is given to the comparison between theory and experiment, concerning various equilibrium, dynamic, thermodynamic, and superfluid properties of these novel systems. The volume also includes discussions of ultracold gases in dimensions, quantum mixtures, and long-range dipolar interactions.

  6. Modern trends in superconductivity and superfluidity

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, M Yu


    This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject...

  7. Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He (United States)

    Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Maestro, A. Del


    Area laws were first discovered by Bekenstein and Hawking, who found that the entropy of a black hole grows proportional to its surface area, and not its volume. Entropy area laws have since become a fundamental part of modern physics, from the holographic principle in quantum gravity to ground-state wavefunctions of quantum matter, where entanglement entropy is generically found to obey area law scaling. As no experiments are currently capable of directly probing the entanglement area law in naturally occurring many-body systems, evidence of its existence is based on studies of simplified qualitative theories. Using new exact microscopic numerical simulations of superfluid 4He, we demonstrate for the first time an area law scaling of entanglement entropy in a real quantum liquid in three dimensions. We validate the fundamental principle that the area law originates from correlations local to the entangling boundary, and present an entanglement equation of state showing how it depends on the density of the superfluid.

  8. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang


    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  9. Vortices and sound waves in superfluids


    Lee, Kimyeong


    We consider the dynamics of vortex strings and sound waves in superfluids in the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg equation. We first derive the vortex equation where the velocity of a vortex is determined by the average fluid velocity and the density gradient near the vortex. We then derive the effective action for vortex strings and sound waves by the dual formulation. The effective action might be useful in calculating the emission rate of sound waves by moving vortex strings.

  10. High temperature superconductors and other superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A S


    Written by eminent researchers in the field, this text describes the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity starting from liquid helium and a charged Bose-gas. It also discusses the modern bipolaron theory of strongly coupled superconductors, which explains the basic physical properties of high-temperature superconductors. This book will be of interest to fourth year graduate and postgraduate students, specialist libraries, information centres and chemists working in high-temperature superconductivity.

  11. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  12. Velocity statistics in superfluid and classical turbulence (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Donzis, D. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Lathrop, D. P.; Paoletti, M. S.; Young, P. K.


    Past work, summarized in part by Vinen & Niemela (J. Low Temp. Phys. 129, 213 (2002)) and by Walmsley et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265302 (2007)), suggests that similarities exist between superfluid and classical turbulence. Conversely, the more recent work of Paoletti et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 154501 (2008)) has highlighted differences: in particular, the probability density function (PDF) of the turbulent superfluid velocity, measured by tracking the trajectories of small hydrogen particles, is strongly non-Gaussian with power-law tails, in contrast to classical homogeneous and isotropic turbulence for which the PDF is nearly Gaussian. Here, we explore this dichotomy. Since the observed power-law exponent of -3 in the superfluid case can be traced to the reconnection of quantized vortices, it is natural to explore the role of vortex reconnection in the classical case. We surmise that the latter, if it is significant at all, must involve vortices of high intensity. Using direct numerical solutions of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence on a grid of linear size 4096, we condition the velocity statistics on the magnitude of vorticity and find that the resulting conditional PDFs, if normalized on their own standard deviation, remain Gaussian for all vorticity magnitudes.

  13. Ultralow-Dissipation Superfluid Micromechanical Resonator (United States)

    Souris, F.; Rojas, X.; Kim, P. H.; Davis, J. P.


    Micro- and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow dissipation have great potential as useful quantum resources. The superfluid micromechanical resonators presented here possess several advantageous characteristics: straightforward thermalization, dissipationless flow, and in situ tunability. We identify and quantitatively model the various dissipation mechanisms in two resonators, one fabricated from borosilicate glass and one from single-crystal quartz. As the resonators are cryogenically cooled into the superfluid state, the damping from thermal effects and from the normal-fluid component are strongly suppressed. At our lowest temperatures, damping is limited solely by internal dissipation in the substrate materials, and the resonators reach quality factors of up to 913 000 at 13 mK. By lifting this limitation through substrate-material choice and resonator design, modeling suggests that the resonators could reach quality factors as high as 108 at 100 mK, putting this architecture in an ideal position to harness mechanical quantum effects and to facilitate the study of superfluids in confined geometries.

  14. Numerical studies of superfluids and superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Winiecki, T


    superconducting wire subject to an external magnetic field. We observe the motion of flux lines, and hence dissipation, due to the Lorentz force. We measure the V - I curve which is analogous to the drag force in a superfluid. With the introduction of impurities, flux lines become pinned which gives rise to an increased critical current. In this thesis we demonstrate the power of the Gross-Pitaevskii and the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations by numerically solving them for various fundamental problems related to superfluidity and superconductivity. We start by studying the motion of a massive object through a quantum fluid modelled by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Below a critical velocity, the object does not exchange momentum or energy with the fluid. This is a manifestation of its superfluid nature. We discuss the effect of applying a constant force to the object and show that for small forces a vortex ring is created to which the object becomes attached. For a larger force the object detaches from...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melatos, A., E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)


    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  16. Fast Fossil Rotation of Neutron Star Cores (United States)

    Melatos, A.


    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed ~103 yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  17. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves (United States)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.


    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  18. Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Jami; Bruun, Georg


    We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single...

  19. Interlayer superfluidity in bilayer systems of fermionic polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikovski, A.; Klawunn, M.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Santos, L.


    We consider fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry where they are oriented perpendicularly to the layers, which permits both low inelastic losses and superfluid pairing. The dipole-dipole interaction between molecules of different layers leads to the emergence of interlayer superfluids. The

  20. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorov, A.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Yudson, V.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of

  1. Superfluid effects in collision between systems with small particle number (United States)

    Scamps, Guillaume; Hashimoto, Yukio


    The interpretation of the new effects of the superfluidity in reactions with small number of particles is discussed in a simple model where the exact solution is accessible. It is find that the fluctuations of observable with the gauge angle reproduce well the exact fluctuations. Then a method of projection is proposed and tested to determine the transfer probabilities between two superfluid systems.

  2. Tkachenko modes in rotating neutron stars: The effect of compressibility and implications for pulsar timing noise (United States)

    Haskell, B.


    Long wavelength oscillations (Tkachenko waves) of the triangular lattice of quantized vortices in superfluid neutron stars have been suggested as one of the possible explanations for the timing noise observed in many radio pulsars, in particular, for the 100-1000 day variations in the spin of PSR 1828-11. Most studies to date have, however, been based on the hydrodynamics developed for superfluid Helium. In this paper we extend the formulation to a two-fluid neutron and proton system, relevant for neutron star interiors and include the effect of chemical coupling, compressibility and mutual friction between the components. In particular we find that chemical coupling and compressibility can have a drastic effect on the mode structure. However, for the slower pulsars rotating at 1-10 Hz (such as PSR B1828-11), most choices of parameters in the equation of state lead to Tkachenko oscillations with frequencies in the correct range to explain the timing noise. We also investigate the case of more rapidly rotating pulsars (above 100 Hz) for which we find that there is a vast portion of parameter space in which there are no Tkachenko modes, but only modified sound waves at much higher frequencies.

  3. Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui


    In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.

  4. Helicity conservation and twisted Seifert surfaces for superfluid vortices (United States)

    Salman, Hayder


    Starting from the continuum definition of helicity, we derive from first principles its different contributions for superfluid vortices. Our analysis shows that an internal twist contribution emerges naturally from the mathematical derivation. This reveals that the spanwise vector that is used to characterize the twist contribution must point in the direction of a surface of constant velocity potential. An immediate consequence of the Seifert framing is that the continuum definition of helicity for a superfluid is trivially zero at all times. It follows that the Gauss-linking number is a more appropriate definition of helicity for superfluids. Despite this, we explain how a quasi-classical limit can arise in a superfluid in which the continuum definition for helicity can be used. This provides a clear connection between a microscopic and a macroscopic description of a superfluid as provided by the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov equations. This leads to consistency with the definition of helicity used for classical vortices.

  5. Superfluid phase transitions in dense neutron matter. (United States)

    Khodel, V A; Clark, J W; Zverev, M V


    The phase transitions in a realistic system with triplet pairing, dense neutron matter, have been investigated. The spectrum of phases of the 3P2-3F2 model, which adequately describes pairing in this system, is analytically constructed with the aid of a separation method for solving BCS gap equations in states of arbitrary angular momentum. In addition to solutions involving a single value of the magnetic quantum number (and its negative), there exist ten real multicomponent solutions. Five of the corresponding angle-dependent order parameters have nodes, and five do not. In contrast to the case of superfluid 3He, transitions occur between phases with nodeless order parameters.

  6. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  7. Probing and Manipulating Ultracold Fermi Superfluids (United States)

    Jiang, Lei

    Ultracold Fermi gas is an exciting field benefiting from atomic physics, optical physics and condensed matter physics. It covers many aspects of quantum mechanics. Here I introduce some of my work during my graduate study. We proposed an optical spectroscopic method based on electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) as a generic probing tool that provides valuable insights into the nature of Fermi paring in ultracold Fermi gases of two hyperfine states. This technique has the capability of allowing spectroscopic response to be determined in a nearly non-destructive manner and the whole spectrum may be obtained by scanning the probe laser frequency faster than the lifetime of the sample without re-preparing the atomic sample repeatedly. Both quasiparticle picture and pseudogap picture are constructed to facilitate the physical explanation of the pairing signature in the EIT spectra. Motivated by the prospect of realizing a Fermi gas of 40K atoms with a synthetic non-Abelian gauge field, we investigated theoretically BEC-HCS crossover physics in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance. A new bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We studied the properties of Rashba pairs using a standard pair fluctuation theory. As the two-fold spin degeneracy is lifted by spin-orbit interaction, bound pairs with mixed singlet and triplet pairings (referred to as rashbons) emerge, leading to an anisotropic superfluid. We discussed in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment. The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we studied the effect of a single classical impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi

  8. Seismic Evidence for a Rapidly Rotating Core in a Lower-giant-branch Star Observed with Kepler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deheuvels, S.; García, R.A.; Chaplin, W.J.; Basu, S.; Antia, H.M.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Davies, G.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Gizon, L.; Goupil, M.J.; Reese, D.R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Casagrande, L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Fischer, D.; Hekker, S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Pinsonneault, M.; Valenti, J.; Christiansen, J.L.; Kinemuchi, K.; Mullally, F.


    Rotation is expected to have an important influence on the structure and the evolution of stars. However, the mechanisms of angular momentum transport in stars remain theoretically uncertain and very complex to take into account in stellar models. To achieve a better understanding of these

  9. Superfluid phases of $^3$He in a periodic confined geometry


    Wiman, J. J.; Sauls, J. A.


    Predictions and discoveries of new phases of superfluid $^3$He in confined geometries, as well as novel topological excitations confined to surfaces and edges of near a bounding surface of $^3$He, are driving the fields of superfluid $^3$He infused into porous media, as well as the fabrication of sub-micron to nano-scale devices for controlled studies of quantum fluids. In this report we consider superfluid $^3$He confined in a periodic geometry, specifically a two-dimensional lattice of squa...

  10. Fermionic Superfluids: From Cold Atoms To High Density Qcd Gapless (breached Pair) Superfluidity And Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, M M


    In this thesis, we explore aspects of fermionic superfluidity through a mean-field approximation. Our framework is extremely general, includes both pairing and Hartree-Fock contributions, and is derived rigorously from a variational principle. This framework allows us to analyze a wide range of fermionic systems. In this thesis, we shall consider two-species non-relativistic atomic systems with various types of interactions, and relativistic QCD systems with 3 × 3 × 4 = 36 different quark degrees of freedom (3 colours, 3 flavours, and 4 relativistic degrees of freedom). We discuss properties of a new state of matter: gapless (Breached Pair) superfluidity, and include a summary of potential experimental realizations. We also present numerical results for a completely self-consistent approximation to the NJL model of high-density QCD and use these results to demonstrate a microscopic realization of kaon condensation. We describe how to match the mean-field approximation to the low-energy chi...

  11. Low-energy effective field theory of superfluid 3He-B and its gyromagnetic and Hall responses

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Keisuke


    The low-energy physics of a superfluid 3He-B is governed by Nambu-Goldstone bosons resulting from its characteristic symmetry breaking pattern. Here we construct an effective field theory at zero temperature consistent with all available symmetries in curved space, which are the U(1) phase x SU(2) spin x SO(3) orbital gauge invariance and the nonrelativistic general coordinate invariance, up to the next-to-leading order in a derivative expansion. The obtained low-energy effective field theory is capable of predicting gyromagnetic responses of the superfluid 3He-B, such as a magnetization generated by a rotation and an orbital angular momentum generated by a magnetic field, in a model-independent and nonperturbative way. We furthermore show that the stress tensor exhibits a dissipationless Hall viscosity with coefficients uniquely fixed by the orbital angular momentum density, which manifests itself as an elliptical polarization of sound wave with an induced transverse component.

  12. Mutual friction in superfluid He3-B in the low-temperature regime (United States)

    Mäkinen, J. T.; Eltsov, V. B.


    We measure the response of a rotating sample of superfluid He3-B to spin-down to rest in the zero-temperature limit. Deviations from perfect cylindrical symmetry in the flow environment cause the initial response to become turbulent. The remaining high polarization of vortices along the rotation axis suppresses the turbulent behavior and leads to laminar late-time response. We determine the dissipation during laminar decay at (0.13 -0.22 ) Tc from the precession frequency of the remnant vortex cluster. We extract the mutual friction parameter α and confirm that its dependence on temperature and pressure agrees with theoretical predictions. We find that the zero-temperature extrapolation of α has pressure-independent value α (T =0 ) ˜5 ×10-4 , which we attribute to a process where Kelvin waves, excited at surfaces of the container, propagate into the bulk and enhance energy dissipation via overheating vortex core-bound fermions.

  13. Turbulent transport of a passive contaminant in an initially anisotropic turbulence subjected to rapid rotation: an analytical study using linear theory (United States)

    El Bach, A.; Salhi, A.; Cambon, Claude


    The linear effect of rapid rotation is studied on the transport by homogeneous turbulence of a passive scalar with vertical mean scalar gradient. Connection with one-particle diffusion studied by Cambon et al. [C. Cambon, F.S. Godeferd, F. Nicolleau, J.C. Vassilicos, Turbulent diffusion in rapidly rotating turbulence with and without stable stratification, J. Fluid Mech. 499 (2004) 231-255] is discussed. The input of the initial anisotropy of the velocity field is then investigated in the axisymmetric case, using a general and systematic way to construct axisymmetric initial data: a classical expansion in terms of scalar spherical harmonics for the 3D spectral density of kinetic energy and a modified expansion for the polarization anisotropy. The scalar variance exhibits a quadratic evolution (∝t) for short times and a linear one (∝t) for larger times. The long-time behaviour looks similar to the classical 'Brownian' evolution but it has a very different origin: a linear impact of dispersive inertial waves via phase-mixing instead of a nonlinearly-induced random walk. It is shown that this trend is not altered by the polarization anisotropy. The vertical scalar flux varies linearly with time for short times and tends to a plateau for larger times. To cite this article: A. El Bach et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  14. Detection of the Earth rotation response to a rapid fluctuation of Southern Ocean circulation in November 2009 (United States)

    Marcus, S. L.; Dickey, J. O.; Fukumori, I.; de Viron, O.


    At seasonal and shorter periods the solid Earth and its overlying geophysical fluids form a closed dynamical system, which (except for tidal forcing) conserves its total angular momentum. While atmospheric effects dominate changes in the Earth's rate of rotation and hence length-of-day (LOD) on these time scales, the addition of oceanic angular momentum (OAM) estimates has been shown to improve closure of the LOD budget in a statistical sense. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the signature of a specific, sub-monthly ocean current fluctuation on the Earth's rotation rate, coinciding with recently-reported anomalies which developed in southeast Pacific surface temperature and bottom pressure fields during late 2009. Our results show that concurrent variations in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which saw a sharp drop and recovery in zonal transport during a two-week period in November, were strong enough to cause a detectable change in LOD following the removal of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) computed from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) database. The strong OAM variations driving the LOD-AAM changes were diagnosed from ocean state estimates of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) and involved roughly equal contributions from the current and pressure terms, with in situ confirmation for the latter provided by tide-corrected bottom pressure recorder data from the South Drake Passage site of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Levels by Altimetry and Island Measurements (ACCLAIM) network.

  15. A rapid three-dimensional vortex micromixer utilizing self-rotation effects under low Reynolds number conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Hsin, Lin; Lung Ming, Fu; 10.1088/0960-1317/15/5/006


    This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) vortex micromixer for micro-total-analysis-systems ( mu TAS) applications which utilizes self-rotation effects to mix fluids in a circular chamber at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The microfluidic mixer is fabricated in a three-layer glass structure for delivering fluid samples in parallel. The fluids are driven into the circular mixing chamber by means of hydrodynamic pumps from two fluid inlet ports. The two inlet channels divide into eight individual channels tangent to a 3D circular chamber for the purpose of mixing. Numerical simulation of the microfluidic dynamics is employed to predict the self-rotation phenomenon and to estimate the mixing performance under various Reynolds number conditions. Experimental flow visualization by mixing dye samples is performed in order to verify the numerical simulation results. A good agreement is found to exist between the two sets of results. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 9...

  16. Superfluid Phase Transitions in Dense Neutron Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel, V. A.; Clark, J. W.; Zverev, M. V.


    The phase transitions in a realistic system with triplet pairing, dense neutron matter, have been investigated. The spectrum of phases of the P{sub 2}{sup 3}- F{sub 2}{sup 3} model, which adequately describes pairing in this system, is analytically constructed with the aid of a separation method for solving BCS gap equations in states of arbitrary angular momentum. In addition to solutions involving a single value of the magnetic quantum number (and its negative), there exist ten real multicomponent solutions. Five of the corresponding angle-dependent order parameters have nodes, and five do not. In contrast to the case of superfluid {sup 3}He , transitions occur between phases with nodeless order parameters.

  17. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dziarmaga, Jacek [Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiello´nskiego; Tylutki, Marek [Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiello´nskiego


    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  18. On superconductivity and superfluidity a scientific autobiography

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Vitaly L


    This book presents the Nobel Laureate Vitaly Ginzburg's views on the development in the field of superconductivity. It contains a selection of Ginzburg's key writings, including his amended version of the Nobel lecture in Physics 2003. Also included are an expanded autobiography, which was written for the Nobel Committee, an article entitled "A Scientific Autobiography: An Attempt," a fundamental article co-written with L.D. Landau entitled "To the theory of superconductivity," an expanded review article "Superconductivity and superfluidity (what was done and what was not done)," and some newly written short articles about superconductivity and related subjects. So, in toto, presented here are the personal contributions of Ginzburg, that resulted in the Nobel Prize, in the context of his scientific biography.

  19. On superconductivity and superfluidity. A scientific autobiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, Vitaly L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst.


    This book presents the Nobel Laureate Vitaly Ginzburg's views on the development in the field of superconductivity. It contains a selection of Ginzburg's key writings, including his amended version of the Nobel lecture in Physics 2003. Also included are an expanded autobiography, which was written for the Nobel Committee, an article entitled 'A Scientific Autobiography: An Attempt,' a fundamental article co-written with L.D. Landau entitled 'To the theory of superconductivity,' an expanded review article 'Superconductivity and superfluidity (what was done and what was not done),' and some newly written short articles about superconductivity and related subjects. So, in toto, presented here are the personal contributions of Ginzburg, that resulted in the Nobel Prize, in the context of his scientific biography. (orig.)

  20. Excitonic superfluid phase in double bilayer graphene (United States)

    Li, J. I. A.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Hone, J.; Dean, C. R.


    A spatially indirect exciton is created when an electron and a hole, confined to separate layers of a double quantum well system, bind to form a composite boson. Such excitons are long-lived, and in the limit of strong interactions are predicted to undergo a Bose-Einstein condensate-like phase transition into a superfluid ground state. Here, we report evidence of an exciton condensate in the quantum Hall effect regime of double-layer structures of bilayer graphene. Interlayer correlation is identified by quantized Hall drag at matched layer densities, and the dissipationless nature of the phase is confirmed in the counterflow geometry. A selection rule for the condensate phase is observed involving both the orbital and valley indices of bilayer graphene. Our results establish double bilayer graphene as an ideal system for studying the rich phase diagram of strongly interacting bosonic particles in the solid state.

  1. Monopole Strength Function of Deformed Superfluid Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kortelainen, E. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Nakatsukasa, T. [RIKEN, Japan; Losa, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL


    We present an efficient method for calculating strength functions using the finite amplitude method (FAM) for deformed superfluid heavy nuclei within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrate that FAM reproduces strength functions obtained with the fully self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) at a fraction of computational cost. As a demonstration, we compute the isoscalar and isovector monopole strength for strongly deformed configurations in ^{240}Pu by considering huge quasi-particle QRPA spaces. Our approach to FAM, based on Broyden's iterative procedure, opens the possibility for large-scale calculations of strength distributions in well-bound and weakly bound nuclei across the nuclear landscape.

  2. Detection of charged particles in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, Simon R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    This thesis is concerned with the use of a large superfluid helium detector for the detection of solar neutrinos. A small-scale prototype of this type of detector has been constructed and tested. In this thesis the author discussed in detail the design of the apparatus, the experiments which have been carried out, and what has been learned about the important physical processes involved in this type of detector. These processes include the anisotropic generation of phonons and rotons by the recoiling particle, the propagation of the phonons and rotons in the liquid, the evaporation process at the liquid surface, and the adsorption of the helium atoms onto the wafers. In addition he discusses the generation and detection of fluorescent photons from recoiling particles. The implications of these results to the design of a full-scale detector of neutrinos are discussed.

  3. Sustained propagation and control of topological excitations in polariton superfluid (United States)

    Pigeon, Simon; Bramati, Alberto


    We present a simple method to compensate for losses in a polariton superfluid. Based on a weak support field, it allows for the extended propagation of a resonantly driven polariton superfluid with minimal energetic cost. Moreover, this setup is based on optical bistability and leads to the significant release of the phase constraint imposed by resonant driving. This release, together with macroscopic polariton propagation, offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrodynamics of the topological excitations of polariton superfluids such as quantized vortices and dark solitons. We numerically study how the coherent field supporting the superfluid flow interacts with the vortices and how it can be used to control them. Interestingly, we show that standard hydrodynamics does not apply for this driven-dissipative fluid and new types of behaviour are identified.

  4. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. (United States)

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Pons, José A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi


    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B> approximately 10(13) G. At a density of rho approximately 10(12)-10(14) g/cm3, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature approximately 10(8) K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  5. Non-thermal fixed point in a holographic superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewerz, Carlo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karl, Markus; Samberg, Andreas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.

  6. The extension of radiative viscosity to superfluid matter


    Pi, Chun-Mei; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Ping


    The radiative viscosity of superfluid $npe$ matter is studied, and it is found that to the lowest order of $\\delta \\mu/T$ the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of the normal matter.

  7. 3D CFD Transient Numerical Simulation of Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Reynaud, J.; Pascali, S.; Baudouy, B.


    Numerical simulations of superfluid helium are necessary to design the next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets at CERN. Previous studies have presented the thermodynamic equations implemented in the Fluent CFD software to model the thermal behavior of superfluid helium. Momentum and energy equations have been modified in the solver to model a simplified two-fluid model. In this model, the thermo-mechanical effect term and the Gorter-Mellink mutual friction term are the dominant terms in the momentum equation for the superfluid component. This assumption is valid for most of superfluid applications. Transient thermal and dynamic behavior of superfluid helium has been studied in this paper. The equivalent thermal conductivity in the energy equation is represented by the Gorter-Mellink term and both the theoretical and the Sato formulation of this term have been compared to unsteady helium superfluid experiments. The main difference between these two formulations is the coefficient to the power of the temperature gradient between the hot and the cold part in the equivalent thermal conductivity. The results of these unsteady simulations have been compared with two experiments. The first one is a Van Sciver experiment on a 10 m long, and 9 mm diameter tube at saturation conditions and the other, realized in our laboratory, is a 150×50×10 mm rectangular channel filled with pressurized superfluid helium. Both studies have been performed with a heating source that starts delivering power at the beginning of the experiment and many temperature sensors measure the transient thermal behavior of the superfluid helium along the length of the channel.

  8. Critical Behaviour of Superfluid $^4$He in Aerogel


    Moon, K.; Girvin, S. M.


    We report on Monte Carlo studies of the critical behaviour of superfluid $^4$He in the presence of quenched disorder with long-range fractal correlations. According to the heuristic argument by Harris, uncorrelated disorder is irrelevant when the specific heat critical exponent $\\alpha$ is negative, which is the case for the pure $^4$He. However, experiments on helium in aerogel have shown that the superfluid density critical exponent $\\zeta$ changes. We hypothesize that this is a cross-over ...

  9. Robust Ferromagnetism of Chromium Nanoparticles Formed in Superfluid Helium. (United States)

    Yang, Shengfu; Feng, Cheng; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Latimer, Elspeth; Ellis, Andrew M; Binns, Chris; Peddis, Davide; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei; Trohidou, Kalliopi N; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Ntallis, Nikolaos; MacLaren, Ian; de Groot, Frank M F


    Chromium nanoparticles are formed using superfluid helium droplets as the nanoreactors, which are strongly ferromagnetic. The transition from antiferromagentism to ferromagnetism is attributed to atomic-scale disorder in chromium nanoparticles, leading to abundant unbalanced surface spins. Theoretical modeling confirms a frustrated aggregation process in superfluid helium due to the antiferromagnetic nature of chromium. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fermion superfluid with hybridized s- and p-wave pairings (United States)

    Zhou, LiHong; Yi, Wei; Cui, XiaoLing


    Ever since the pioneering work of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in the 1950s, exploring novel pairing mechanisms for fermion superfluids has become one of the central tasks in modern physics. Here, we investigate a new type of fermion superfluid with hybridized s- and p-wave pairings in an ultracold spin-1/2 Fermi gas. Its occurrence is facilitated by the co-existence of comparable s- and p-wave interactions, which is realizable in a two-component 40K Fermi gas with close-by s- and p-wave Feshbach resonances. The hybridized superfluid state is stable over a considerable parameter region on the phase diagram, and can lead to intriguing patterns of spin densities and pairing fields in momentum space. In particular, it can induce a phase-locked p-wave pairing in the fermion species that has no p-wave interactions. The hybridized nature of this novel superfluid can also be confirmed by measuring the s- and p-wave contacts, which can be extracted from the high-momentum tail of the momentum distribution of each spin component. These results enrich our knowledge of pairing superfluidity in Fermi systems, and open the avenue for achieving novel fermion superfluids with multiple partial-wave scatterings in cold atomic gases.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, M.; Robertson, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fossati, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lenz, P. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Mueller, I.; Lueftinger, Th. [Institut fuer Astronphysik der Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Clarke, Bruce D. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A. [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    Two years of Kepler data of KIC 8054146 ({delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor hybrid) revealed 349 statistically significant frequencies between 0.54 and 191.36 cycles day{sup -1} (6.3 {mu}Hz to 2.21 mHz). The 117 low frequencies cluster in specific frequency bands, but do not show the equidistant period spacings predicted for gravity modes of successive radial order, n, and reported for at least one other hybrid pulsator. The four dominant low frequencies in the 2.8-3.0 cycles day{sup -1} (32-35 {mu}Hz) range show strong amplitude variability with timescales of months and years. These four low frequencies also determine the spacing of the higher frequencies in and beyond the {delta} Sct pressure-mode frequency domain. In fact, most of the higher frequencies belong to one of three families with spacings linked to a specific dominant low frequency. In the Fourier spectrum, these family regularities show up as triplets, high-frequency sequences with absolutely equidistant frequency spacings, side lobes (amplitude modulations), and other regularities in frequency spacings. Furthermore, within two families the amplitude variations between the low and high frequencies are related. We conclude that the low frequencies (gravity modes, rotation) and observed high frequencies (mostly pressure modes) are physically connected. This unusual behavior may be related to the very rapid rotation of the star: from a combination of high- and low-resolution spectroscopy we determined that KIC 8054146 is a very fast rotator ({upsilon} sin i = 300 {+-} 20 km s{sup -1}) with an effective temperature of 7600 {+-} 200 K and a surface gravity log g of 3.9 {+-} 0.3. Several astrophysical ideas explaining the origin of the relationship between the low and high frequencies are explored.

  12. On the rotational state of a Bose-Einstein condensate (United States)

    Kambe, Tsutomu


    A quantum liquid of an almost ideal Bose gas brought into rotation is investigated from a physical and mechanical point of view on the basis of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation by applying a quantum-mechanical scenario, i.e. the London scenario. This scenario allows a superfluid to have rotational states. Considering that the equation governs an interacting Bose gas, it is proposed that the GP equation admits rotational flows of a superfluid. This is carried out without incurring essential change of the equation. By this reformulation, a superfluid placed in a rotating vessel is able to have a solid body rotation with the same angular velocity as its container and also to have a meniscus approximated by a parabolic profile. The solid body rotation is accompanied by a density increase proportional to the square of its angular velocity. These are consistent with experimental observations. In addition, this formulation allows a vortex of quantized circulation with coaxial rotational core whose density does not necessarily vanish at its center.

  13. Determining the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars using energy-resolved waveforms of their X-ray burst oscillations (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman


    We have developed new, more sophisticated, and much faster Bayesian analysis methods that enable us to estimate the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars using the energy-resolved waveforms of their X-ray burst oscillations and to determine the uncertainties in these mass and radius estimates. We first generate the energy-resolved burst oscillation waveforms that would be produced by a hot spot on various rapidly rotating, oblate stars, using the oblate-star Schwarzschild-spacetime (OS) approximation. In generating these synthetic data, we assume that 1 million counts have been collected from the hot spot and that the background is 9 million counts. This produces a realistic modulation amplitude and a total number of counts comparable to the number that could be obtained by a future space mission such as the proposed LOFT or AXTAR missions or the accepted NICER mission by combining data from many bursts from a given star. We then compute the joint posterior distribution of the mass M and radius R in standard models, for each synthetic waveform, and use these posterior distributions to determine the 1-, 2-, and 3-sigma confidence regions in the M-R plane for each synthetic waveform and model. We report here the confidence regions obtained when Schwarzschild+Doppler (S+D) and OS waveform models are used, including results obtained when the properties of the star used to generate the synthetic waveform data differ from the properties of the star used in modeling the waveform. These results are based on research supported by NSF grant AST0709015 at the University of Illinois and NSF grant AST0708424 at the University of Maryland.

  14. Renormalization group approach to superfluid neutron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebeler, K.


    In the present thesis superfluid many-fermion systems are investigated in the framework of the Renormalization Group (RG). Starting from an experimentally determined two-body interaction this scheme provides a microscopic approach to strongly correlated many-body systems at low temperatures. The fundamental objects under investigation are the two-point and the four-point vertex functions. We show that explicit results for simple separable interactions on BCS-level can be reproduced in the RG framework to high accuracy. Furthermore the RG approach can immediately be applied to general realistic interaction models. In particular, we show how the complexity of the many-body problem can be reduced systematically by combining different RG schemes. Apart from technical convenience the RG framework has conceptual advantage that correlations beyond the BCS level can be incorporated in the flow equations in a systematic way. In this case however the flow equations are no more explicit equations like at BCS level but instead a coupled set of implicit equations. We show on the basis of explicit calculations for the single-channel case the efficacy of an iterative approach to this system. The generalization of this strategy provides a promising strategy for a non-perturbative treatment of the coupled channel problem. By the coupling of the flow equations of the two-point and four-point vertex self-consistency on the one-body level is guaranteed at every cutoff scale. (orig.)

  15. Optomechanics in a Levitated Droplet of Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Brown, Charles; Harris, Glen; Harris, Jack


    A critical issue common to all optomechanical systems is dissipative coupling to the environment, which limits the system's quantum coherence. Superfluid helium's extremely low optical and mechanical dissipation, as well as its high thermal conductivity and its ability cool itself via evaporation, makes the mostly uncharted territory of superfluid optomechanics an exciting avenue for exploring quantum effects in macroscopic objects. I will describe ongoing work that aims to exploit the unique properties of superfluid helium by constructing an optomechanical system consisting of a magnetically levitated droplet of superfluid helium., The optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the droplet, as well as the mechanical oscillations of its surface, should offer exceptionally low dissipation, and should couple to each other via the usual optomechanical interactions. I will present recent progress towards this goal, and also discuss the background for this work, which includes prior demonstrations of magnetic levitation of superfluid helium, high finesse WGMs in liquid drops, and the self-cooling of helium drops in vacuum.

  16. Cooling of Compact Stars with Nucleon Superfluidity and Quark Superconductivity (United States)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    We show a cooling scenario of compact stars to satisfy recent observations of compact stars. The central density of compact stars can exceed the nuclear density, and it is considered that many hadronic phases appear at such a density. It is discussed that neutron superfluidity (1S0 for lower density, and 3P2 for higher density) and proton superfluidity/superconductivity (1S0) appears in all compact stars. And some "Exotic" states are considered to appear in compact stars, such as meson condensation, hyperon mixing, deconfinement of quarks and quark colour superconductivity. These exotic states appear at the density region above the threshold densities of each state. We demonstrate the thermal evolution of isolated compact stars, adopting the effects of nucleon superfluidity and quark colour superconductivity. We assume large gap energy (Δ > 10 MeV) for colour superconducting quark phase, and include the effects of nucleon superfluidity with parametrised models. We simulate the cooling history of compact stars, and shows that the heavier star does not always cool faster than lighter one, which is determined by the parameters of neutron 3P2 superfluidity.

  17. From a semimetal to a chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid (United States)

    Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Liu, Xiong-Jun


    The recent realization of two-dimensional (2D) synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling opens a broad avenue to explore novel topological states for ultracold atoms. Here, we propose a scheme to realize chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid for ultracold fermions, and show a generic theory that the topology of chiral superfluid phases can be uniquely determined from the normal states. The main findings are twofold. First, a semimetal is driven by a type of 2D SO coupling, and can be tuned into massive Dirac fermion phase with or without inversion symmetry. Without inversion symmetry, the superfluid phase of nonzero pairing momentum is favored under an attractive interaction. Furthermore, we show a fundamental theorem that the Chern number of a 2D chiral superfluid can be obtained from the 1D invariants of Fermi surfaces, with which the chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid with a broad topological region is predicted. This generic theorem is also useful for condensed-matter physics and material science in the search for new topological superconductors.

  18. Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shancheng [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)


    We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss–Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg–Landau prediction.

  19. Unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjemâa, Abdelâali, E-mail:


    We study unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional bilayer system with dipoles are head-to-tail across the layers. We analyze the critical temperature of several unconventional pairings as a function of different system parameters. The peculiar competition between the d- and the s-wave pairings is discussed. We show that the experimental observation of such unconventional superfluids requires ultralow temperatures, which opens up new possibilities to realize several topological phases. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. • Solving the gap equation and the l-wave interlayer scattering problem. • Calculation of the critical temperature of several competing pairings using the BCS approach.

  20. Vortex precession in trapped superfluids from effective field theory (United States)

    Esposito, Angelo; Krichevsky, Rafael; Nicolis, Alberto


    We apply a recently developed effective string theory for vortex lines to the case of two-dimensional trapped superfluids. We do not assume a perturbative microscopic description for the superfluid, but only a gradient expansion for the long-distance hydrodynamical description and for the trapping potential. For any regular trapping potential, we compute the spatial dependence of the superfluid density and the orbital frequency and trajectory of an off-center vortex. Our results are fully relativistic and in the nonrelativistic limit reduce to known results based on the Gross-Pitaevskii model. In our formalism, the leading effect in the nonrelativistic limit arises from two simple Feynman diagrams in which the vortex interacts with the trapping potential through the exchange of hydrodynamical modes.

  1. Skyrmion Superfluidity in Two-Dimensional Interacting Fermionic Systems. (United States)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico; Cirio, Mauro


    In this article we describe a multi-layered honeycomb lattice model of interacting fermions which supports a new kind of parity-preserving skyrmion superfluidity. We derive the low-energy field theory describing a non-BCS fermionic superfluid phase by means of functional fermionization. Such effective theory is a new kind of non-linear sigma model, which we call double skyrmion model. In the bi-layer case, the quasiparticles of the system (skyrmions) have bosonic statistics and replace the Cooper-pairs role. Moreover, we show that the model is also equivalent to a Maxwell-BF theory, which naturally establishes an effective Meissner effect without requiring a breaking of the gauge symmetry. Finally, we map effective superfluidity effects to identities among fermionic observables for the lattice model. This provides a signature of our theoretical skyrmion superfluidy that can be detected in a possible implementation of the lattice model in a real quantum system.

  2. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium (United States)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.


    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  3. Towards Quantum Turbulence in Cold Atomic Fermionic Superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel; Wlazłowski, Gabriel


    Fermionic superfluids provide a new realization of quantum turbulence, accessible to both experiment and theory, yet relevant to both cold atoms and nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the strongly interacting Fermi gas realized in cold-atom experiments is closely related to dilute neutron matter in the neutron star crust. Unlike the liquid superfluids 4He (bosons) and 3He (fermions), where quantum turbulence has been studied in laboratory for decades, quantum gases, and in particular superfluid Fermi gases stand apart for a number of reasons. Fermi gases admit a rather reliable microscopic description based on density functional theory which describes both static and dynamical phenomena. Cold atom experiments demonstrate exquisite control over particle number, spin polarization, density, temperature, and interacting strength. Topological defects such as domain walls and quantized vortices, which lie at the heart of quantum turbulence, can be created and manipulated with time-dependent external potentials, a...

  4. A minimal model for finite temperature superfluid dynamics (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Krüger, C.; Comer, G. L.; Samuelsson, L.


    Building on a recently improved understanding of the problem of heat flow in general relativity, we develop a hydrodynamical model for coupled finite temperature superfluids. The formalism is designed with the dynamics of the outer core of a mature neutron star (where superfluid neutrons are coupled to a conglomerate of protons and electrons) in mind, but the main ingredients are relevant for a range of analogous problems. The entrainment between material fluid components (the condensates) and the entropy (the thermal excitations) plays a central role in the development. We compare and contrast the new model to previous results in the literature, and provide estimates for the relevant entrainment coefficients that should prove useful in future applications. Finally, we consider the sound-wave propagation in the system in two simple limits, demonstrating the presence of second sound if the temperature is sub-critical, but absence of this phenomenon above the critical temperature for superfluidity.

  5. A minimal model for finite temperature superfluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N; Comer, G L; Samuelsson, L


    Building on a recently improved understanding of the problem of heat flow in general relativity, we develop a hydrodynamical model for coupled finite temperature superfluids. The formalism is designed with the dynamics of the outer core of a mature neutron star (where superfluid neutrons are coupled to a conglomerate of protons and electrons) in mind, but the main ingredients are relevant for a range of analogous problems. The entrainment between material fluid components (the condensates) and the entropy (the thermal excitations) plays a central role in the development. We compare and contrast the new model to previous results in the literature, and provide estimates for the relevant entrainment coefficients that should prove useful in future applications. Finally, we consider the sound-wave propagation in the system in two simple limits, demonstrating the presence of second sound if the temperature is sub-critical, but absence of this phenomenon above the critical temperature for superfluidity.

  6. A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....

  7. Superfluid spin transport through easy-plane ferromagnetic insulators. (United States)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav


    Superfluid spin transport-dissipationless transport of spin-is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where the spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed in a magnetically mediated negative electron-drag experiment.

  8. A note on the ambipolar diffusion in superfluid neutron stars (United States)

    Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.


    We address the problem of magnetic field dissipation in the neutron star cores, focusing on the role of neutron superfluidity. Contrary to the results in the literature, we show that in the finite-temperature superfluid matter composed of neutrons, protons and electrons, magnetic field dissipates exclusively due to Ohmic losses and non-equilibrium beta-processes, and only an admixture of muons restores (to some extent) the role of particle relative motion for the field dissipation. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  9. Nonlinear field dependence and f-wave interactions in superfluid 3He (United States)

    Collett, C. A.; Pollanen, J.; Li, J. I. A.; Gannon, W. J.; Halperin, W. P.


    We present results of transverse acoustics studies in superfluid 3He-B at fields up to 0.11 T. Using acoustic cavity interferometry, we observe the acoustic Faraday effect for a transverse sound wave propagating along the magnetic field, and we measure Faraday rotations of the polarization as large as 1710∘. We use these results to determine the Zeeman splitting of the imaginary squashing mode, an order-parameter collective mode with total angular momentum J=2. We show that the pairing interaction in the f-wave channel is attractive at a pressure of P=6 bars. We also report nonlinear field dependence of the Faraday rotation at frequencies substantially above the mode frequency not accounted for in the theory of the transverse-acoustic dispersion relation formulated for frequencies near the mode. Consequently, we have identified the region of validity of the theory allowing us to make corrections to the analysis of Faraday rotation experiments performed in earlier work.

  10. Stable topological superfluid phase of ultracold polar fermionic molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, N.R.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    We show that single-component fermionic polar molecules confined to a 2D geometry and dressed by a microwave field may acquire an attractive 1/r(3) dipole-dipole interaction leading to superfluid p-wave pairing at sufficiently low temperatures even in the BCS regime. The emerging state is the

  11. Topological px+ipy superfluid phase of fermionic polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsen, J.; Cooper, N.R.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    We discuss the topological px+ipy superfluid phase in a 2D gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules dressed by a circularly polarized microwave field. This phase emerges because the molecules may interact with each other via a potential Vo(r) that has an attractive dipole-dipole 1/r^3 tail,

  12. Topological superfluidity with repulsive fermionic atoms in optical superlattice (United States)

    Isaev, Leonid; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Ortiz, Gerardo; Rey, Ana Maria

    We present a novel route to fermionic superfluidity in repulsive systems, that employs local kinetic-energy fluctuations as a ``pairing glue'' between the fermions. In a system with two bands, one itinerant and one localized, we show how quantum fluctuations in the latter mediate an attractive interaction between the itinerant fermions. In the spin-polarized case, this mechanism gives rise to a topological p-wave superfluid state in 1D, and a chiral px + ipy superfluid in 2D. We derive an effective low-energy model and demonstrate stability of these states against charge-density wave formation and phase separation. We also propose to observe this phenomenon with alkaline-earth atoms, e.g. Yb or Sr, in an optical superlattice, and discuss several probes for characterizing the topological superfluid state, including momentum-resolved RF spectroscopy and an analog of the Edelstein magneto-electric effect. Work supported NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.

  13. Quantum vortex dynamics in two-dimensional neutral superfluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. -C J.; Duine, R.A.; MacDonald, A.H.


    We derive an effective action for the vortex-position degree of freedom in a superfluid by integrating out condensate phase- and density-fluctuation environmental modes. When the quantum dynamics of environmental fluctuations is neglected, we confirm the occurrence of the vortex Magnus force and

  14. Briton wins Nobel physics prize for work on superfluids

    CERN Multimedia

    Connor, S


    A British born scientist, Anthony Leggett, 65, has jointly won this year's Nobel prize in physics for research into the arcane area of superfluids - when matter behaves in its lowest and most ordered state. He shares the 800,000 pounds prize with two Russian physicists who have worked in the field of superconductivity - when electrical conductors lose resistance (1/2 page).

  15. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas


    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  16. Superfluid Phases of 3He in a Periodic Confined Geometry (United States)

    Wiman, J. J.; Sauls, J. A.


    Predictions and discoveries of new phases of superfluid 3He in confined geometries, as well as novel topological excitations confined to surfaces and edges of near a bounding surface of 3He, are driving the fields of superfluid 3He infused into porous media, as well as the fabrication of sub-micron to nano-scale devices for controlled studies of quantum fluids. In this report we consider superfluid 3He confined in a periodic geometry, specifically a two-dimensional lattice of square, sub-micron-scale boundaries ("posts") with translational invariance in the third dimension. The equilibrium phase(s) are inhomogeneous and depend on the microscopic boundary conditions imposed by a periodic array of posts. We present results for the order parameter and phase diagram based on strong pair breaking at the boundaries. The ordered phases are obtained by numerically minimizing the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. We report results for the weak-coupling limit, appropriate at ambient pressure, as a function of temperature T, lattice spacing L, and post edge dimension, d. For all d in which a superfluid transition occurs, we find a transition from the normal state to a periodic, inhomogeneous "polar" phase with for bulk superfluid 3He. For fixed lattice spacing, L, there is a critical post dimension, d c , above which only the periodic polar phase is stable. For d< d c we find a second, low-temperature phase onsetting at from the polar phase to a periodic "B-like" phase. The low temperature phase is inhomogeneous, anisotropic and preserves time-reversal symmetry, but unlike the bulk B-phase has only point symmetry.

  17. Galaxy clusters in the context of superfluid dark matter (United States)

    Hodson, Alistair O.; Zhao, Hongsheng; Khoury, Justin; Famaey, Benoit


    Context. The mass discrepancy in the Universe has not been solved by the cold dark matter (CDM) or the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) paradigms so far. The problems and solutions of either scenario are mutually exclusive on large and small scales. It has recently been proposed, by assuming that dark matter is a superfluid, that MOND-like effects can be achieved on small scales whilst preserving the success of ΛCDM on large scales. Detailed models within this "superfluid dark matter" (SfDM) paradigm are yet to be constructed. Aims: Here, we aim to provide the first set of spherical models of galaxy clusters in the context of SfDM. We aim to determine whether the superfluid formulation is indeed sufficient to explain the mass discrepancy in galaxy clusters. Methods: The SfDM model is defined by two parameters. Λ can be thought of as a mass scale in the Lagrangian of the scalar field that effectively describes the phonons, and it acts as a coupling constant between the phonons and baryons. m is the mass of the DM particles. Based on these parameters, we outline the theoretical structure of the superfluid core and the surrounding "normal-phase" dark halo of quasi-particles. The latter are thought to encompass the largest part of galaxy clusters. Here, we set the SfDM transition at the radius where the density and pressure of the superfluid and normal phase coincide, neglecting the effect of phonons in the superfluid core. We then apply the formalism to a sample of galaxy clusters, and directly compare the SfDM predicted mass profiles to data. Results: We find that the superfluid formulation can reproduce the X-ray dynamical mass profile of clusters reasonably well, but with a slight under-prediction of the gravity in the central regions. This might be partly related to our neglecting of the effect of phonons in these regions. Two normal-phase halo profiles are tested, and it is found that clusters are better defined by a normal-phase halo resembling an Navarro

  18. Characterization of quantum vortex dynamics in superfluid helium (United States)

    Meichle, David P.

    Liquid helium obtains superfluid properties when cooled below the Lambda transition temperature of 2.17 K. A superfluid, which is a partial Bose Einstein condensate, has many exotic properties including free flow without friction, and ballistic instead of diffusive heat transport. A superfluid is also uniquely characterized by the presence of quantized vortices, dynamical line-like topological phase defects around which all circulation in the flow is constrained. Two vortices can undergo a violent process called reconnection when they approach, cross, and retract having exchanged tails. With a numerical examination of a local, linearized solution near reconnection we discovered a dynamically unstable stationary solution to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which was relaxed to a fully non-linear solution using imaginary time propagation. This investigation explored vortex reconnection in the context of the changing topology of the order parameter, a complex field governing the superfluid dynamics at zero temperature. The dynamics of the vortices can be studied experimentally by dispersing tracer particles into a superfluid flow and recording their motions with movie cameras. The pioneering work of Bewley et al. provided the first visualization technique using frozen gases to create tracer particles. Using this technique, we experimentally observed for the first time the excitation of helical traveling waves on a vortex core called Kelvin waves. Kelvin waves are thought to be a central mechanism for dissipation in this inviscid fluid, as they provide an efficient cascade mechanism for transferring energy from large to microscopic length scales. We examined the Kelvin waves in detail, and compared their dynamics in fully self-similar non-dimensional coordinates to theoretical predictions. Additionally, two experimental advances are presented. A newly invented technique for reliably dispersing robust, nanometer-scale fluorescent tracer particles directly into the

  19. Entrainment in Superfluid Neutron-Star Crusts: Hydrodynamic Description and Microscopic Origin (United States)

    Chamel, N.


    In spite of the absence of viscous drag, the neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust of a neutron star cannot flow freely and is entrained by the nuclear lattice similarly to laboratory superfluid atomic gases in optical lattices. The role of entrainment on the neutron superfluid dynamics is reviewed. For this purpose, a minimal hydrodynamical model of superfluidity in neutron-star crusts is presented. This model relies on a fully 4-dimensionally covariant action principle. The equivalence of this formulation with the more traditional approach is demonstrated. In addition, the different treatments of entrainment in terms of dynamical effective masses or superfluid density are clarified. The nuclear energy density functional theory employed for the calculations of all the necessary microscopic inputs is also reviewed, focusing on superfluid properties. In particular, the microscopic origin of entrainment and the different methods to estimate its importance are discussed.

  20. Modeling and development of a superfluid magnetic pump with no moving parts (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir Eshraghniaye; Miller, Franklin; Nellis, Gregory


    Current state of the art sub Kelvin Superfluid Stirling Refrigerators and Pulse tube Superfluid Refrigerators use multiple bellows pistons to execute the cycle. These types of displacers can be replaced by a newly introduced pump, a Superfluid Magnetic Pump, with no moving parts. Integration of this pump in the Pulse tube Superfluid Refrigeration system will make it a sub Kelvin Stirling refrigeration system free of any moving parts that is suitable for use in space cooling applications. The Superfluid Magnetic Pump consists of a canister that contains Gadolinium Gallium Garnet particles that is surrounded by a superconducting magnetic coil. The driving mechanism of this pump is the fountain effect in He II. A qualitative description of one cycle operation of the Superfluid Magnetic Pump is presented followed by a numerical model for each process of the cycle.

  1. Observation of a new superfluid phase for 3He embedded in nematically ordered aerogel (United States)

    Zhelev, N.; Reichl, M.; Abhilash, T. S.; Smith, E. N.; Nguyen, K. X.; Mueller, E. J.; Parpia, J. M.


    In bulk superfluid 3He at zero magnetic field, two phases emerge with the B-phase stable everywhere except at high pressures and temperatures, where the A-phase is favoured. Aerogels with nanostructure smaller than the superfluid coherence length are the only means to introduce disorder into the superfluid. Here we use a torsion pendulum to study 3He confined in an extremely anisotropic, nematically ordered aerogel consisting of ∼10 nm-thick alumina strands, spaced by ∼100 nm, and aligned parallel to the pendulum axis. Kinks in the development of the superfluid fraction (at various pressures) as the temperature is varied correspond to phase transitions. Two such transitions are seen in the superfluid state, and we identify the superfluid phase closest to Tc at low pressure as the polar state, a phase that is not seen in bulk 3He. PMID:27669660

  2. Microscopic Superfluidity of Small 4He and Para-He2 Clusters Inside Helium Droplets (United States)

    Toennies, J. P.

    The present review describes recent molecular beam experiments in which large 4He or 3He liquid droplets consisting typically of 103 to 104 atoms are produced and doped by pick-up of single atomic or molecular chromophores. The spectroscopy of these single particles has led to new detailed insight into the elementary microscopic interactions of the probe particles with their environment. In the visible the spectral features are unusually sharp with line widths comparable to those of the free molecules. The phonon wings of vibronic transitions give direct evidence that the droplets are supernuid. In the infra-red well defined rotational lines appear that indicate that the molecules rotate freely inside the Uquid. From the intensities of the sharp lines temperatures of 0.37 K and about 0.14 K are determined for 4He and 3He droplets, respectively. These experiments demonstrate that supernuid 4He droplets provide a new ultra cold uniquely gentle matrix for high resolution spectroscopy. At the same time the molecular spectra contribute new microscopic insight into the intriguing phenomenon of superfluidity. This last aspect will be emphasized in this review. Several reviews which emphasize more the new opportunities for high resolution spectroscopy, 1 - 4 an introductory overview 5 and a special issue of the Journal of Chemical Physics have recently been published. 6 - 8

  3. Introduction to superfluidity field-theoretical approach and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Andreas


    Superfluidity – and closely related to it, superconductivity – are very general phenomena that can occur on vastly different energy scales. Their underlying theoretical mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is even more general and applies to a multitude of physical systems.  In these lecture notes, a pedagogical introduction to the field-theory approach to superfluidity is presented. The connection to more traditional approaches, often formulated in a different language, is carefully explained in order to provide a consistent picture that is useful for students and researchers in all fields of physics. After introducing the basic concepts, such as the two-fluid model and the Goldstone mode, selected topics of current research are addressed, such as the BCS-BEC crossover and Cooper pairing with mismatched Fermi momenta.

  4. Superfluidity in an Atomic Gas of Strongly Interacting Fermions (United States)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang


    What is the benefit of realizing superfluidity in a gas a million times more dilute than air? Such systems consist of well-separated atoms which can be observed and manipulated with the control and precision of atomic physics, and which can be treated with first-principles calculations. By implementing scattering resonances, we have realized the strong-coupling limit of the Bardeen Schrieffer-Cooper (BCS) mechanism and observed a normalized transition temperature of 15% of the Fermi temperature, higher than in any superconductor. By tuning the strength of the interactions, the BEC-BCS crossover is realized. When the population of the two spin states is imbalanced, pairing is frustrated; and superfluidity is quenched at the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit. These studies illustrate a new approach to condensed-matter physics where many-body Hamiltonians are realized in dilute atomic gases.

  5. Superfluid Gap in Neutron Matter from a Microscopic Effective Interaction (United States)

    Benhar, Omar; De Rosi, Giulia


    Correlated basis function (CBF) perturbation theory and the formalism of cluster expansions have been recently employed to obtain an effective interaction from a nuclear Hamiltonian strongly constrained by phenomenology. We report the results of a study of the superfluid gap in pure neutron matter, associated with the formation of Cooper pairs in the ^1S_0 channel. The calculations have been carried out using an improved version of the CBF effective interaction, in which three-nucleon forces are taken into account using a microscopic model. Our results show that a non-vanishing superfluid gap develops at densities in the range 2 × 10^{-4} ≲ ρ /ρ _0 ≲ 0.1, where ρ _0 = 2.8 × 10^{14} g cm^{-3} is the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, corresponding mainly to the neutron-star inner crust.

  6. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Kong, Wei


    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets.

  7. Gaussian impurity moving through a Bose-Einstein superfluid (United States)

    Pinsker, Florian


    In this paper a finite Gaussian impurity moving through an equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate at T = 0 is studied. The problem can be described by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is solved perturbatively. The analysis is done for systems of 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. The Bogoliubov equation solutions for the condensate perturbed by a finite impurity are calculated in the co-moving frame. From these solutions the total energy of the perturbed system is determined as a function of the width and the amplitude of the moving Gaussian impurity and its velocity. In addition we derive the drag force the finite sized impurity approximately experiences as it moves through the superfluid, which proves the existence of a superfluid phase for finite extensions of the impurities below the speed of sound. Finally we find that the force increases with velocity until an inflection point from which it decreases again in 2 and 3d.

  8. Lifshitz effects on holographic p-wave superfluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Bo Wu


    Full Text Available In the probe limit, we numerically build a holographic p-wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional Lifshitz black hole coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We observe the rich phase structure and find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent z contributes evidently to the effective mass of the matter field and dimension of the gravitational background. Concretely, we obtain that the Cave of Winds appeared only in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime, and the increasing z hinders not only the condensate but also the appearance of the first-order phase transition. Furthermore, our results agree with the Ginzburg–Landau results near the critical temperature. In addition, the previous AdS superfluid model is generalized to the Lifshitz spacetime.

  9. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J


    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  10. Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Pshenichnyuk, I A


    We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semi-classical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.

  11. Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian


    We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.

  12. Probing the A-B interface of superfluid helium-3 (United States)

    Haley, Richard


    At temperatures around 1 mK helium-3 forms a BCS spin triplet condensate. The order parameter is sufficiently complex that more than one superfluid phase exists, each exhibiting a different broken symmetry, and there is a model first order transition between the two most stable phases, labeled A and B. The Lancaster Ultra-Low Temperature Group has developed techniques to probe the properties of the A-B interface in the deep sub-mK regime where the superfluid is in the pure condensate limit. Shaped and controllable magnetic fields are used to induce the transition, and to stabilize and move the A-B phase boundary inside the experimental volume. The latent heat of the transition has been measured, and the nucleation behavior shown to be incompatible with conventional thermodynamic models. Since superfluid helium-3 is inherently pure, and the order parameter transforms continuously across the A-B interface, it is the most coherent two-dimensional structure to which we have experimental access. It has been proposed that this 2D surface in the surrounding 3D bulk volume is a good analog of a cosmological brane separating two distinct quantum vacuum states; experiments that simulate brane annihilation and the creation of topological defects have been carried out at Lancaster. Other investigations have included measurements of the surface tension and wetting behavior of the interface. During these studies it was discovered that a large, unpredicted frictional force was acting on the interface even though it is moving through a pure superfluid. Recent breakthrough work on the dynamics of the A-B interface has finally solved this puzzle. Current experiments include a setup where the interface region is probed directly using quartz tuning fork resonators that couple to the local density of broken Cooper pair quasiparticle excitations and thus give insight into the order parameter energy gap structure as A transforms to B.

  13. Snake instability of dark solitons in fermionic superfluids


    Cetoli, A.; Brand, J.; Scott, R. G.; Dalfovo, F.; Pitaevskii, L. P.


    We present numerical calculations of the snake instability in a Fermi superfluid within the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the BEC to BCS crossover using the random phase approximation complemented by time-dependent simulations. We examine the snaking behaviour across the crossover and quantify the timescale and lengthscale of the instability. While the dynamic shows extensive snaking before eventually producing vortices and sound on the BEC side of the crossover, the snaking dynamics is pree...

  14. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation for relativistic superfluidity (United States)

    Waldron, Oliver; Van Gorder, Robert A.


    Many neutron star features can be accurately modeled only if one assumes that a significant portion of the neutron star interior is in a superfluid state and if relativitic effects are considered, and possible solutions to the underlying mathematical models include vortex solutions. It was recently shown that vorticity in relativistic superfluids can be studied under the framework of a nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NLKG) model in general curvilinear coordinates where the phase dynamics of solutions to this equation give rise to superfluidity (Xiong et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 90 125019), and some numerical solutions were obtained. The aim of this paper will be to extract asymptotic solutions to obtain a better qualitative understanding of the possible relativistic superfluid dynamics possible under the NLKG model. We obtain asymptotic results for both spherically symmetric and cylindrically symmetric solutions, demonstrating that the solutions actually appear more regular in the relativistic regime compared to the non-relativistic limit. In fact, the asymptotic and numerical solutions actually show the best agreement in the relativistic case. We demonstrate that the relativistic effects actually tend to regularize or stabilize the solutions, relative to the non-relativistic solutions, which is an interesting finding. We then obtain a Thomas-Fermi-like perturbation result in the very large-mass limit where the kinetics become negligible relative to the self-interaction term (at leading order). We finally extend the NLKG model by assuming a curved spacetime with a metric generally used to model the space surrounding a neutron star, which is a novel generalization of the NLKG model to curved spacetime. We again obtain solutions in the large-mass limit for this case, and find that for such a spacetime non-stationary states (rather than simply stationary states) are possible in the large-mass limit.

  15. Inchworm Driving of 4He Crystals in Superfluid (United States)

    Yoshida, Taichi; Tachiki, Akira; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi


    A 4He quantum crystal can be grown from a superfluid liquid extremely quickly owing to the high crystallization rate at sufficiently low temperatures. Such crystals are readily deformed by an applied force as the result of the crystal-superfluid phase transition but, to date, the remotely controlled movement of highly deformable 4He crystals has yet to be demonstrated. The present work attempted to move 4He crystals using inchworm driving, a technique that is employed to impart motion to classical solid objects based on the difference between static and dynamic friction forces. Using a plate oscillating with a sawtooth-like non-symmetric motion 100 times over the span of 1.0 s, it was found possible to move a 4He crystal on the plate in a superfluid at 0.3 K. However, the observed behavior was quite different from the ordinary inchworm driving of a classical object. Initially, one side of the crystal was seen to stick on the plate, and the crystal did not move for 0.6 s but rather deformed appreciably. After this deformation, the entire body of the crystal began to move, but the distance traversed was one order of magnitude larger than expected from the oscillation amplitude. This peculiar behavior is specific to this quantum crystal. The initial lack of motion can possibly be explained by pinning and depinning of the contact line on the substrate plate, while the extent of motion is attributed to the crystal-superfluid transition, namely crystallization on one side and melting on the other, assisted by superflow induced during the oscillation process.

  16. Superfluid Spin Transport through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators


    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav


    Superfluid spin transport $-$ dissipationless transport of spin $-$ is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport through the device is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert...

  17. On superfluidity of asymmetric mixture of fermions: How two wrongs make a right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorenko, Ilya, E-mail: [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Kezerashvili, Roman Ya., E-mail: [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10016 (United States)


    Highlights: • Mixture of two fermion species with different masses and chemical potentials are considered. • Mass and chemical potential asymmetry can adversely affect the pairing and superfluidity. • These two asymmetries can effectively compensate each other to support superfluidity. - Abstract: The existence and stability of the superfluid state in a mixture of two fermion species with different masses and chemical potentials is investigated with respect to the asymmetry between the species. It is found that the mass asymmetry between the two types of particles can be effectively compensated by the asymmetry in their chemical potentials, this way increasing the range of the parameters, which allow the superfluid state.

  18. Gap Solitons of Superfluid Fermi Gas in FS Optical Lattices (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Ke-Zhi; He, Yong-Lin; Liu, Zhen-Lai; Zhu, Liao


    By employing the mean-field theory and hydrodynamic scheme, we study the gap solitons of superfluid Fermi gas in Fourier-Synthesized(FS) optical lattices. By means of numerical methods and variational approximation, the atomic interaction, the chemical potential, the potential depth of the lattice and relative phase of the Fermi system are derived along the Bose-Enstein condensation(BEC)side to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)side. It means that the condition exciting gap solitons is obtained. Moreover, we analyze the fundamental gap soltions of the superfluid Fermi gas. It is found that the relative phase α impacts greatly on the properties of fundamental gap solitons for superfluid Fermi gas. Especially, the nonlinearity interaction term g decreases with α. Add, due to Fermi pressure, curvature changes of g in the BEC limit( γ = 1, here, γ is a function of an interaction parameter) is larger than that at unitary ( γ = 2/3). Spatial distribution of gap solitons exhibit very obvious different when the system transit from the BEC side to BCS side.

  19. Room-temperature superfluidity in a polariton condensate (United States)

    Lerario, Giovanni; Fieramosca, Antonio; Barachati, Fábio; Ballarini, Dario; Daskalakis, Konstantinos S.; Dominici, Lorenzo; de Giorgi, Milena; Maier, Stefan A.; Gigli, Giuseppe; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Sanvitto, Daniele


    Superfluidity--the suppression of scattering in a quantum fluid at velocities below a critical value--is one of the most striking manifestations of the collective behaviour typical of Bose-Einstein condensates. This phenomenon, akin to superconductivity in metals, has until now been observed only at prohibitively low cryogenic temperatures. For atoms, this limit is imposed by the small thermal de Broglie wavelength, which is inversely related to the particle mass. Even in the case of ultralight quasiparticles such as exciton-polaritons, superfluidity has been demonstrated only at liquid helium temperatures. In this case, the limit is not imposed by the mass, but instead by the small binding energy of Wannier-Mott excitons, which sets the upper temperature limit. Here we demonstrate a transition from supersonic to superfluid flow in a polariton condensate under ambient conditions. This is achieved by using an organic microcavity supporting stable Frenkel exciton-polaritons at room temperature. This result paves the way not only for tabletop studies of quantum hydrodynamics, but also for room-temperature polariton devices that can be robustly protected from scattering.

  20. Chiral superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The ''normal'' component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the ''superfluid'' part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use several nonperturbative techniques to demonstrate that. First, we analyze the fermionic spectrum in the deconfinement phase (T{sub c}superfluid'' component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.

  1. A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen. (United States)

    Babaev, Egor; Sudbø, Asle; Ashcroft, N W


    Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report a topological analysis of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

  2. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons in a phosphorene double layer (United States)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.


    We study the formation of dipolar excitons and their superfluidity in a phosphorene double layer. The analytical expressions for the single dipolar exciton energy spectrum and wave function are obtained. It is predicted that a weakly interacting gas of dipolar excitons in a double layer of black phosphorus exhibits superfluidity due to the dipole-dipole repulsion between the dipolar excitons. In calculations are employed the Keldysh and Coulomb potentials for the interaction between the charge carriers to analyze the influence of the screening effects on the studied phenomena. It is shown that the critical velocity of superfluidity, the spectrum of collective excitations, concentrations of the superfluid and normal component, and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are anisotropic and demonstrate the dependence on the direction of motion of dipolar excitons. The critical temperature for superfluidity increases if the exciton concentration and the interlayer separation increase. It is shown that the dipolar exciton binding energy and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are sensitive to the electron and hole effective masses. The proposed experiment to observe a directional superfluidity of excitons is addressed.

  3. Domain-area distribution anomaly in segregating multicomponent superfluids (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu


    The domain-area distribution in the phase transition dynamics of Z2 symmetry breaking is studied theoretically and numerically for segregating binary Bose-Einstein condensates in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Due to the dynamic-scaling law of the phase ordering kinetics, the domain-area distribution is described by a universal function of the domain area, rescaled by the mean distance between domain walls. The scaling theory for general coarsening dynamics in two dimensions hypothesizes that the distribution during the coarsening dynamics has a hierarchy with the two scaling regimes, the microscopic and macroscopic regimes with distinct power-law exponents. The power law in the macroscopic regime, where the domain size is larger than the mean distance, is universally represented with the Fisher's exponent of the percolation theory in two dimensions. On the other hand, the power-law exponent in the microscopic regime is sensitive to the microscopic dynamics of the system. This conjecture is confirmed by large-scale numerical simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation for binary condensates. In the numerical experiments of the superfluid system, the exponent in the microscopic regime anomalously reaches to its theoretical upper limit of the general scaling theory. The anomaly comes from the quantum-fluid effect in the presence of circular vortex sheets, described by the hydrodynamic approximation neglecting the fluid compressibility. It is also found that the distribution of superfluid circulation along vortex sheets obeys a dynamic-scaling law with different power-law exponents in the two regimes. An analogy to quantum turbulence on the hierarchy of vorticity distribution and the applicability to chiral superfluid 3He in a slab are also discussed.

  4. Rotational seismology (United States)

    Lee, William H K.


    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  5. Radioactive core ions of microclusters, ``snowballs`` in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shimoda, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Miyatake, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizoi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kobayashi, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sasaki, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shirakura, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Itahashi, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsuoka, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Matsukawa, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Ikeda, N. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Morinobu, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hinde, D.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ueno, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Izumi, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    Short-lived beta-ray emitters, {sup 12}B, sustaining nuclear spin polarization were introduced into superfluid helium. The nuclear polarization of {sup 12}B was observed via measurement of beta-ray asymmetry. It was found that the nuclear polarization was preserved throughout the lifetime of {sup 12}B (20.3 ms). This suggests that the ``snowball``, an aggregation of helium atoms produced around an alien ion, constitutes a suitable milieu for freezing-out the nuclear spin of the core ion and that most likely the solidification takes place at the interior of the aggregation. (orig.).

  6. Fabrication of semiconductor microspheres with laser ablation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Minowa, Yosuke; Oguni, Yuya; Ashida, Masaaki


    We fabricated semiconductor ZnO microspheres via the pulsed laser ablation in the superfluid helium. The scanning electron microscope observation revealed the high sphericity and smooth surface. We also observed whispering gallery mode resonances, the electromagnetic eigenmode resonances within the microspheres, in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, verifying the high symmetry of the fabricated microspheres. Further, we cross-sectioned the microspheres with using focused ion beam. The scanning electron microscope observation of the cross section uncovers the existence of small holes within the microspheres. The inner structure examination helps us to understand the microscopic mechanism of our fabrication method.

  7. Propagation of collective pair excitations in disordered Bose superfluids (United States)

    Lellouch, Samuel; Lim, Lih-King; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent


    We study the effect of disorder on the propagation of collective excitations in a disordered Bose superfluid. We incorporate local-density depletion induced by strong disorder at the mean-field level and formulate the transport of the excitations in terms of a screened scattering problem. We show that the competition of disorder, screening, and density depletion induces a strongly nonmonotonic energy dependence of the disorder parameter. In three dimensions, it results in a rich localization diagram with four different classes of mobility spectra, characterized by either no or up to three mobility edges. Implications on experiments with disordered ultracold atoms are discussed.

  8. Two-Fluid Theory for Spin Superfluidity in Magnetic Insulators. (United States)

    Flebus, B; Bender, S A; Tserkovnyak, Y; Duine, R A


    We investigate coupled spin and heat transport in easy-plane magnetic insulators. These materials display a continuous phase transition between normal and condensate states that is controlled by an external magnetic field. Using hydrodynamic equations supplemented by Gross-Pitaevski phenomenology and magnetoelectric circuit theory, we derive a two-fluid model to describe the dynamics of thermal and condensed magnons, and the appropriate boundary conditions in a hybrid normal-metal-magnetic-insulator-normal-metal heterostructure. We discuss how the emergent spin superfluidity can be experimentally probed via a spin Seebeck effect measurement.

  9. New theory of superfluidity. Method of equilibrium density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarev, Boris


    The variational theory of equilibrium boson system state to have been previously developed by the author under the density matrix formalism is applicable for researching equilibrium states and thermodynamic properties of the quantum Bose gas which consists of zero-spin particles. Particle pulse distribution function is obtained and duly employed for calculation of chemical potential, internal energy and gas capacity temperature dependences. It is found that specific phase transition, which is similar to transition of liquid helium to its superfluid state, occurs at the temperature exceeding that of the Bose condensation.

  10. Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium. (United States)

    Schutz, Katelin; Zurek, Kathryn M


    We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ∼keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is 3 orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. For dark matter lighter than ∼100  keV, the kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

  11. Vortex in holographic two-band superfluid/superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mu-Sheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); National Center of Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300, R.O.C. (China); Wu, Shang-Yu [Department of Electrophysics and Shing-Tung Yau Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300, R.O.C. (China); Zhang, Hai-Qing [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We construct numerically static vortex solutions in a holographic model of two-band superconductor with an interband Josephson coupling in both the superfluid and superconductor regime. We investigate the effects of the interband coupling on the order parameter of each superconducting band in the vortex solution, and we find that it is different for each of the two bands. We compute also the free energy, critical magnetic field, magnetic penetration length and coherence lengths for the two bands, and we study their dependence on the interband coupling and temperature. Interestingly, we find that the coherence lengths of the two bands are close to identical.

  12. Verification of an analytic fit for the vortex core profile in superfluid Fermi gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhelst, Nick, E-mail: [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Klimin, Serghei, E-mail: [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Theoretical Physics, State University of Moldova, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Tempere, Jacques [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University (United States)


    Highlights: • The vortex profile in an imbalanced Fermi condensate is investigated. • The analytic fit for the vortex profile is compared with numerical simulations. • The analytic fit excellently agrees with numeric results in the BCS-BEC crossover. - Abstract: A characteristic property of superfluidity and -conductivity is the presence of quantized vortices in rotating systems. To study the BEC-BCS crossover the two most common methods are the Bogoliubov-De Gennes theory and the usage of an effective field theory. In order to simplify the calculations for one vortex, it is often assumed that the hyperbolic tangent yields a good approximation for the vortex structure. The combination of a variational vortex structure, together with cylindrical symmetry yields analytic (or numerically simple) expressions. The focus of this article is to investigate to what extent this analytic fit truly reflects the vortex structure throughout the BEC-BCS crossover at finite temperatures. The vortex structure will be determined using the effective field theory presented in [Eur. Phys. Journal B 88, 122 (2015)] and compared to the variational analytic solution. By doing this it is possible to see where these two structures agree, and where they differ. This comparison results in a range of applicability where the hyperbolic tangent will be a good fit for the vortex structure.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. The Rapid Rotation of 47 Tuc Traced and Modeled in Three Dimensions (United States)

    Bellini, A.; Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.; Watkins, L. L.


    High-precision proper motions of the globular cluster 47 Tuc have allowed us to measure for the first time the cluster rotation in the plane of the sky and the velocity anisotropy profile from the cluster core out to about 13‧. These profiles are coupled with prior measurements along the line of sight (LOS) and the surface brightness profile and fit all together with self-consistent models specifically constructed to describe quasi-relaxed stellar systems with realistic differential rotation, axisymmetry, and pressure anisotropy. The best-fit model provides an inclination angle i between the rotation axis and the LOS direction of 30° and is able to simultaneously reproduce the full three-dimensional kinematics and structure of the cluster, while preserving a good agreement with the projected morphology. Literature models based solely on LOS measurements imply a significantly different inclination angle (i = 45°), demonstrating that proper motions play a key role in constraining the intrinsic structure of 47 Tuc. Our best-fit global dynamical model implies an internal rotation higher than previous studies have shown and suggests a peak of the intrinsic V/σ ratio of ∼0.9 at around two half-light radii, with a nonmonotonic intrinsic ellipticity profile reaching values up to 0.45. Our study unveils a new degree of dynamical complexity in 47 Tuc, which may be leveraged to provide new insights into the formation and evolution of globular clusters. Based on archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid (4)He fountain. (United States)

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi


    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B(1)Σg (+) ←X(1)Σu (+)) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid (4)He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu2 solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  15. Formation of Au and tetrapyridyl porphyrin complexes in superfluid helium. (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Latimer, Elspeth; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Bullen, Shem; Boatwright, Adrian; Ellis, Andrew M; Yang, Shengfu


    Binary clusters containing a large organic molecule and metal atoms have been formed by the co-addition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2TPyP) molecules and gold atoms to superfluid helium nanodroplets, and the resulting complexes were then investigated by electron impact mass spectrometry. In addition to the parent ion H2TPyP yields fragments mainly from pyrrole, pyridine and methylpyridine ions because of the stability of their ring structures. When Au is co-added to the droplets the mass spectra are dominated by H2TPyP fragment ions with one or more Au atoms attached. We also show that by switching the order in which Au and H2TPyP are added to the helium droplets, different types of H2TPyP-Au complexes are clearly evident from the mass spectra. This study suggests a new route for the control over the growth of metal-organic compounds inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

  16. Energy spectrum of thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid helium-4 (United States)

    Gao, J.; Varga, E.; Guo, W.; Vinen, W. F.


    Recent preliminary experiments [A. Marakov et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 094503 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.094503] using triplet-state He2 excimer molecules as tracers of the motion of the normal fluid have shown that, in thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid 4He, small-scale turbulence in the superfluid component is accompanied, above a critical heat flux, by partially coupled large-scale turbulence in both fluids, with an energy spectrum proportional to k-m, where m is greater than the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Here we report the results of a more detailed study of this spectrum over a range of temperatures and heat fluxes using the same experimental technique. We show that the exponent m varies systematically with heat flux but is always greater than 5/3. We interpret this as arising from the steady counterflow, which causes large-scale eddies in the two fluids to be pulled in opposite directions, giving rise to dissipation by mutual friction at all wave numbers, mutual friction tending also to oppose the effect of the counterflow. Comparison of the experimental results with a simple theory suggests that this process may be more complicated than we might have hoped, but experiments covering a wider range of heat fluxes, which are technically very difficult, will probably be required before we can arrive at a convincing theory.

  17. Two-component Superfluid Hydrodynamics of Neutron Star Cores (United States)

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.


    We consider the hydrodynamics of the outer core of a neutron star under conditions when both neutrons and protons are superfluid. Starting from the equation of motion for the phases of the wave functions of the condensates of neutron pairs and proton pairs, we derive the generalization of the Euler equation for a one-component fluid. These equations are supplemented by the conditions for conservation of neutron number and proton number. Of particular interest is the effect of entrainment, the fact that the current of one nucleon species depends on the momenta per nucleon of both condensates. We find that the nonlinear terms in the Euler-like equation contain contributions that have not always been taken into account in previous applications of superfluid hydrodynamics. We apply the formalism to determine the frequency of oscillations about a state with stationary condensates and states with a spatially uniform counterflow of neutrons and protons. The velocities of the coupled sound-like modes of neutrons and protons are calculated from properties of uniform neutron star matter evaluated on the basis of chiral effective field theory. We also derive the condition for the two-stream instability to occur.

  18. Towards laboratory detection of topological vortices in superfluid phases of QCD (United States)

    Das, Arpan; Dave, Shreyansh S.; de, Somnath; Srivastava, Ajit M.


    Topological defects arise in a variety of systems, e.g. vortices in superfluid helium to cosmic strings in the early universe. There is an indirect evidence of neutron superfluid vortices from the glitches in pulsars. One also expects that the topological defects may arise in various high baryon density phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), e.g. superfluid topological vortices in the color flavor locked (CFL) phase. Though vastly different in energy/length scales, there are universal features in the formation of all these defects. Utilizing this universality, we investigate the possibility of detecting these topological superfluid vortices in laboratory experiments, namely heavy-ion collisions (HICs). Using hydrodynamic simulations, we show that vortices can qualitatively affect the power spectrum of flow fluctuations. This can give an unambiguous signal for superfluid transition resulting in vortices, allowing for the check of defect formation theories in a relativistic quantum field theory system, and the detection of superfluid phases of QCD. Detection of nucleonic superfluid vortices in low energy HICs will give opportunity for laboratory controlled study of their properties, providing crucial inputs for the physics of pulsars.

  19. Three-component topological superfluid in one-dimensional Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hu, Hui; Xianlong, Gao


    We theoretically investigate one-dimensional three-component spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases in the presence of the Zeeman field. By solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we obtain the phase diagram at a given chemical potential and order parameter. We show that, with increasing the intensity of the Zeeman field, in addition to undergoing a phase transition from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to topological superfluid, similar to the two-component system, the three-component system may exhibit some other interesting topological phase transitions. For example, by appropriately adjusting the chemical potential μ, the system can be in a nontrivial topological superfluid in the whole region of the Zeeman field h. It also may initially be a topological superfluid and then translate to a topologically trivial BCS superfluid with increasing the field h. Even more exotically, the system may exhibit a re-entrance behavior, being a topological superfluid at small and large fields but a topologically trivial BCS superfluid in between at a mediate Zeeman field. It can therefore have two regions with zero-energy Majorana fermions. As a consequence of these interesting topological phase transitions, the system of the three-component spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases in a certain parameter range is more optimizing for the experimental realization of the topological phase due to the smaller magnetic field needed. Thus, a promising candidate for the realization of the topological phase is proposed.

  20. A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L


    CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

  1. Ultra-High Q Acoustic Resonance in Superfluid ^4He (United States)

    De Lorenzo, L. A.; Schwab, K. C.


    We report the measurement of the acoustic quality factor of a gram-scale, kilohertz-frequency superfluid resonator, detected through the parametric coupling to a superconducting niobium microwave cavity. For temperatures between 400 mK and 50 mK, we observe a T^{-4} temperature dependence of the quality factor, consistent with a 3-phonon dissipation mechanism. We observe Q factors up to 1.4× 10^8, consistent with the dissipation due to dilute ^3He impurities, and expect that significant further improvements are possible. These experiments are relevant to exploring quantum behavior and decoherence of massive macroscopic objects, the laboratory detection of continuous gravitational waves from pulsars, and the probing of possible limits to physical length scales.

  2. (Non)-universality of vortex reconnections in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Villois, Alberto; Proment, Davide


    An insight into vortex reconnections in superfluids is presented making use of analytical results and numerical simulations of the Gross--Pitaevskii model. Universal aspects of the reconnection process are investigated by considering different initial vortex configurations and making use of a recently developed tracking algorithm to reconstruct the vortex filaments. We show that about the reconnection event the vortex lines approach and separate always accordingly to the time scaling $ \\delta \\sim t^{-1/2} $ with pre-factors that depend on the vortex configuration. We also investigate the behavior of curvature and torsion close to the reconnection point, demonstrating analytically that the curvature can exhibit a self-similar behavior that might be broken by the development of shock-like structures in the torsion.

  3. Universal and nonuniversal aspects of vortex reconnections in superfluids (United States)

    Villois, Alberto; Proment, Davide; Krstulovic, Giorgio


    Insight into vortex reconnections in superfluids is presented, making use of analytical results and numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. Universal aspects of the reconnection process are investigated by considering different initial vortex configurations and making use of a recently developed tracking algorithm to reconstruct the vortex filaments. We show that during a reconnection event the vortex lines approach and separate always according to the time scaling δ ˜t1 /2 with prefactors that depend on the vortex configuration. We also investigate the behavior of curvature and torsion close to the reconnection point, demonstrating analytically that the curvature can exhibit a self-similar behavior that might be broken by the development of shocklike structures in the torsion.

  4. Snake instability of dark solitons in fermionic superfluids (United States)

    Cetoli, A.; Brand, J.; Scott, R. G.; Dalfovo, F.; Pitaevskii, L. P.


    We present numerical calculations of the snake instability in a Fermi superfluid within the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to BCS crossover using the random-phase approximation complemented by time-dependent simulations. We examine the snaking behavior across the crossover and quantify the time scale and length scale of the instability. While the dynamics shows extensive snaking before eventually producing vortices and sound on the BEC side of the crossover, the snaking dynamics is preempted by decay into sound due to pair breaking in the deep BCS regime. At the unitarity limit, hydrodynamic arguments allow us to link the rate of snaking to the experimentally observable ratio of inertial to physical mass of the soliton. In this limit we witness an unresolved discrepancy between our numerical estimates for the critical wave number of suppression of the snake instability and recent experimental observations with an ultracold Fermi gas.

  5. Quantum Rabi model in a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate (United States)

    Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Sabín, C.


    We propose a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in an atomic quantum dot, which is a single atom in a tight optical trap coupled to the quasiparticle modes of a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate. This widely tunable setup allows us to simulate the ultrastrong coupling regime of light-matter interaction in a system which enjoys an amenable characteristic time scale, paving the way for an experimental analysis of the transition between the Jaynes-Cummings and the quantum Rabi dynamics using cold-atom systems. Our scheme can be naturally extended to simulate multiqubit quantum Rabi models. In particular, we discuss the appearance of effective two-qubit interactions due to phononic exchange, among other features.

  6. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei


    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 104 ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 105/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies. PMID:26298127

  7. Atom scattering off superfluid sub 4 He clusters and films

    CERN Document Server

    Zillich, R E


    statistics on identical particle scattering is studied by comparing helium-4 scattering to impurity (helium-3) scattering off helium-4 clusters; e.g. we show how the elastic conversion process from helium-4 atom to roton and back can be understood as a resonance phenomenon at the excitation energy of the roton in helium clusters. The connection between resonances in the elastic scattering channel to their counterpart in inelastic channels is highlighted in the example of our results for quantum reflection off films. Furthermore, our theory predicts a long range of interaction between slow atoms and low energy surface waves, which increases the low energy inelastic scattering probability. In this work, the HNC-Euler-Lagrange theory is applied to the many-body scattering problem. We use time-dependent variational correlated wave functions in excitation calculations in order to describe atom scattering off nanoclusters and microscopically thin films of superfluid helium-4. Apart from elastic processes, the level...

  8. Goldstone mode and pair-breaking excitations in atomic Fermi superfluids (United States)

    Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus G.; Kinnunen, Jami J.; Bruun, Georg M.; Vale, Chris J.


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone's theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.

  9. Non-linear approach to the entrainment matrix of superfluid nucleon mixture at zero temperature (United States)

    Leinson, Lev B.


    The superfluid drag effect, in hydrodynamics of pulsating neutron stars, is conventionally described with the aid of the entrainment matrix relating the mass currents with the velocities of superfluid flows in the system. Equations for the entrainment matrix of a superfluid mixture of neutrons and protons are derived with allowance for the strong dependence of the energy gaps on the velocities of superfluid flows. The calculations are carried out in the frame of the Fermi-liquid theory. The equations obtained are highly non-linear. Numerical solutions to the equations for some typical cases demonstrate that the components of the entrainment matrix possess a highly non-linear dependence on the velocities of the two superflows simultaneously. This effect, previously ignored, can greatly influence the dynamics of neutron stars.

  10. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets. (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei


    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs(+) is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs(+)-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10(6) helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  11. Time-resolved study of laser initiated shock wave propagation in superfluid (4)He. (United States)

    Garcia, Allan; Buelna, Xavier; Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi


    Intense shock waves in superfluid (4)He between 1.7 and 2.1 K are generated by rapidly expanding confined plasma from laser ablation of a metal target immersed in the liquid. The resulting shock fronts in the liquid with initial velocities up to ca. Mach 10 are visualized by time-resolved shadowgraph photography. These high intensity shocks decay within 500 ns into less energetic shock waves traveling at Mach 2, which have their lifetime in the microsecond time scale. Based on the analysis using the classical Rankine-Hugoniot theory, the shock fronts created remain in the solid phase up to 1 μs and the associated thermodynamic state appears outside the previously studied region. The extrapolated initial shock pressure of 0.5 GPa is comparable to typical plasma pressures produced during liquid phase laser ablation. A secondary shock originating from fast heat propagation on the metal surface is also observed and a lower limit estimate for the heat propagation velocity is measured as 7 × 10(4) m/s. In the long-time limit, the high intensity shocks turn into liquid state waves that propagate near the speed of sound.

  12. The superfluid Stirling refrigerator, a new method for cooling below 0.5 K (United States)

    Brisson, J. G.; Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G. W.


    A new sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Stirling cycle refrigerator, uses a working fluid of 3He- 4He mixture in a Stirling cycle. The thermodynamically active components of the mixture are the 3He, which behaves like a Boltzmann gas, and the phonon-roton gas in the 4He. The superfluid component of the liquid is inert. Two refrigerators have been built, and temperatures of 340 mK have been achieved.

  13. 1S0 proton and neutron superfluidity in β-stable neutron star matter


    Zuo, W.; Li, Z. H.; Lu, G. C.; Li, J. Q.; Scheid, W.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J; Shen, C. W.


    We investigate the effect of a microscopic three-body force on the proton and neutron superfluidity in the $^1S_0$ channel in $\\beta$-stable neutron star matter. It is found that the three-body force has only a small effect on the neutron $^1S_0$ pairing gap, but it suppresses strongly the proton $^1S_0$ superfluidity in $\\beta$-stable neutron star matter.

  14. The influence of antikaon condensations on nucleon 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Xiu Lin; Zhang, Xiao Jun; Yu, Zi; Fan, Cun Bo; Ding, Wen Bo; Liu, Cheng Zhi


    The properties of neutron and proton 1S0 superfluidity are studied within the relativistic mean field and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theories by taking the effects of K- and \\bar{K}0 condensations into account in neutron star matter without the hyperon degrees of freedom. It is found that antikaon condensations change the Fermi momenta, the effective masses and the single particle energies of nucleons in neutron star matter. These changes lead to a strong suppression of the neutron 1S0 superfluidity and an obvious enhancement of the proton 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter, respectively. In particular, the neutron and proton 1S0 pairing gaps are gradually shrinking with the optical potential of antikaons from -80 to -130 MeV. And antikaon condensations have little influence on the neutron 1S0 superfluid range, however, they have been markedly downsized the proton 1S0 superfluid range as the deepening of the optical potential of antikaons in neutron star matter. We also found that the nucleon 1S0 superfluidity and K- condensations within the scope of above optical potential of antikaons can occur in the core of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 at the same time. Whereas \\bar{K}0 condensations only occur in the two pulsars when the range of optical potential of antikaons is from -100 to -130 MeV.

  15. WASP-167b/KELT-13b: joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star (United States)

    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.; Eastman, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gillon, M.; Gregorio, J.; James, D.; Jehin, E.; Joner, M. D.; Kielkopf, J. F.; Kuhn, R. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Latham, D. W.; Lendl, M.; Lund, M. B.; Malpas, A. L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Myers, G.; Oberst, T. E.; Pepe, F.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Ségransan, D.; Siverd, R. J.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stockdale, C.; Tan, T. G.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Villanueva, S.; West, R. G.; Zhou, G.


    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a V = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.1. The 1.5 RJup planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of <8 MJup on its mass. The planet is in a retrograde orbit with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = -165° ± 5°. This is in agreement with the known tendency for orbits around hotter stars to be more likely to be misaligned. WASP-167/KELT-13 is one of the few systems where the stellar rotation period is less than the planetary orbital period. We find evidence of non-radial stellar pulsations in the host star, making it a δ-Scuti or γ-Dor variable. The similarity to WASP-33, a previously known hot-Jupiter host with pulsations, adds to the suggestion that close-in planets might be able to excite stellar pulsations.

  16. Rotating Wavepackets (United States)

    Lekner, John


    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  17. Rotational elasticity (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri


    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint

  18. A Cantorian Superfluid Vortex and the Quantization of Planetary Motion (Apeiron, vol.11, no.1, january 2004)


    Christianto, Victor


    This article suggests a preliminary version of a Cantorian superfluid vortex hypothesis as a plausible model of nonlinear cosmology. Though some parts of the proposed theory resemble several elements of what have been proposed by Consoli (2000, 2002), Gibson (1999), Nottale (1996, 1997, 2001, 2002a), and Winterberg (2002b), it seems such a Cantorian superfluid vortex model instead of superfluid or vortex theory alone has never been proposed before. Implications of the proposed theory will...

  19. The long-term rotation dynamics of neutron stars with differentially rotating unmagnetized core (United States)

    Barsukov, D. P.; Goglichidze, O. A.; Tsygan, A. I.


    We consider the pulsar long-term rotation dynamics taking into account the non-rigidity of neutron star rotation. We restrict our attention to the models with two essential assumptions: (1) crust-core interaction occurs via the viscosity (magnetic coupling is not important); (2) neutron star shape is symmetrical over the magnetic axis. The neutron star core is described by linearized quasi-stationary Newtonian hydrodynamical equations in one-fluid and two-fluid (neutron superfluidity) approximations. It is shown that in this case the pulsar inclination angle evolves to 0° or 90° very quickly. Since such fast evolution seems to contradict the observation data, either neutron stars are triaxial or the magnetic field plays the leading role in crust-core coupling.

  20. KELT-21b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Rapidly Rotating Metal-poor Late-A Primary of a Likely Hierarchical Triple System (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gonzales, Erica J.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Crepp, Justin R.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Colón, Knicole D.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Maritch, Luke; Reed, Phillip A.; Gregorio, Joao; Bozza, Valerio; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; D’Ago, Giuseppe; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Zambelli, Roberto; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Tayar, Jamie; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Clarke, Seth P.; Martinez, Maria; Spencer, Michelle; Trump, Jason; Joner, Michael D.; Bugg, Adam G.; Hintz, Eric G.; Stephens, Denise C.; Arredondo, Anicia; Benzaid, Anissa; Yazdi, Sormeh; McLeod, Kim K.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Hancock, Daniel A.; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kasper, David H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Beatty, Thomas G.; Carroll, Thorsten; Eastman, Jason; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Mallonn, Matthias; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Yao, Xinyu; Cohen, David H.; Curtis, Ivan A.; DePoy, D. L.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Penny, Matthew T.; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.


    We present the discovery of KELT-21b, a hot Jupiter transiting the V = 10.5 A8V star HD 332124. The planet has an orbital period of P = 3.6127647 ± 0.0000033 days and a radius of {1.586}-0.040+0.039 {R}{{J}}. We set an upper limit on the planetary mass of {M}Pv\\sin {I}* =146 km s‑1, the highest projected rotation velocity of any star known to host a transiting hot Jupiter. The star also appears to be somewhat metal poor and α-enhanced, with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{0.405}-0.033+0.032 and [α/Fe] = 0.145 ± 0.053 these abundances are unusual, but not extraordinary, for a young star with thin-disk kinematics like KELT-21. High-resolution imaging observations revealed the presence of a pair of stellar companions to KELT-21, located at a separation of 1.″2 and with a combined contrast of {{Δ }}{K}S=6.39+/- 0.06 with respect to the primary. Although these companions are most likely physically associated with KELT-21, we cannot confirm this with our current data. If associated, the candidate companions KELT-21 B and C would each have masses of ∼0.12 {M}ȯ , a projected mutual separation of ∼20 au, and a projected separation of ∼500 au from KELT-21. KELT-21b may be one of only a handful of known transiting planets in hierarchical triple stellar systems.

  1. On the Nambu fermion-boson relations for superfluid 3He (United States)

    Sauls, J. A.; Mizushima, Takeshi


    Superfluid 3He is a spin-triplet (S =1 ), p -wave (L =1 ) BCS condensate of Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J =0 in the ground state. In addition to the breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry, separate spin or orbital rotation symmetry is broken to the maximal subgroup SO (3) S×SO (3) L→SO(3 ) J . The fermions acquire mass mF≡Δ , where Δ is the BCS gap. There are also 18 bosonic excitations: 4 Nambu-Goldstone modes and 14 massive amplitude Higgs modes. The bosonic modes are labeled by the total angular momentum J ∈{0 ,1 ,2 } , and parity under particle-hole symmetry c =±1 . For each pair of angular momentum quantum numbers J ,Jz , there are two bosonic partners with c =±1 . Based on this spectrum, Nambu proposed a sum rule connecting the fermion and boson masses for BCS-type theories, which for 3He-B is MJ,+ 2+MJ,- 2=4 mF2 for each family of bosonic modes labeled by J , where MJ ,c is the mass of the bosonic mode with quantum numbers (J ,c ) . The Nambu sum rule (NSR) has recently been discussed in the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models for physics beyond the standard model to speculate on possible partners to the recently discovered Higgs boson at higher energies. Here, we point out that the Nambu fermion-boson mass relations are not exact. Corrections to the bosonic masses from (i) leading-order strong-coupling corrections to BCS theory, and (ii) polarization of the parent fermionic vacuum lead to violations of the sum rule. Results for these mass corrections are given in both the T →0 and T →Tc limits. We also discuss experimental results, and theoretical analysis, for the masses of the Jc=2± Higgs modes and the magnitude of the violation of the NSR.

  2. Appropriate conditions to realize a p -wave superfluid state starting from a spin-orbit-coupled s -wave superfluid Fermi gas (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Inotani, D.; Ohashi, Y.


    We theoretically investigate a spin-orbit-coupled s -wave superfluid Fermi gas, to examine the time evolution of the system, after an s -wave pairing interaction is replaced by a p -wave one at t =0 . In our recent paper [T. Yamaguchi, D. Inotani, and Y. Ohashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 86, 013001 (2017), 10.7566/JPSJ.86.013001], we proposed that this manipulation may realize a p -wave superfluid Fermi gas because the p -wave pair amplitude that is induced in the s -wave superfluid state by a parity-broken antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction gives a nonvanishing p -wave superfluid order parameter, immediately after the p -wave interaction is turned on. In this paper, using a time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory, we assess this idea under various conditions with respect to the s -wave and p -wave interaction strengths, as well as the spin-orbit coupling strength. From these, we clarify that the momentum distribution of Fermi atoms in the initial s -wave state (t gas physics, our results may provide a possible way to accomplish this.

  3. Rotational fluctuation of molecules in quantum clusters. I. Path integral hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. (United States)

    Miura, Shinichi


    In this paper, we present a path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) method for rotating molecules in quantum fluids. This is an extension of our PIHMC for correlated Bose fluids [S. Miura and J. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2160 (2004)] to handle the molecular rotation quantum mechanically. A novel technique referred to be an effective potential of quantum rotation is introduced to incorporate the rotational degree of freedom in the path integral molecular dynamics or hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. For a permutation move to satisfy Bose statistics, we devise a multilevel Metropolis method combined with a configurational-bias technique for efficiently sampling the permutation and the associated atomic coordinates. Then, we have applied the PIHMC to a helium-4 cluster doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule. The effects of the quantum rotation on the solvation structure and energetics were examined. Translational and rotational fluctuations of the dopant in the superfluid cluster were also analyzed.

  4. Observation of thermal fluctuations in a superfluid optomechanical system (United States)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Garcia, S.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.


    In cavity optomechanics the state of a mechanical element can be manipulated by interfacing it with light via radiation pressure, electrostriction, or related phenomena. The majority of mechanical elements employed in optomechanical systems to date are solid objects (membranes, nanowires, mirrors, etc); however fluids can also be used as a mechanical element. Compared to solids, fluids have an advantage: they readily achieve precise alignment with the optical cavity, as the fluid can conformally fill or coat the optical cavity. However, almost all optomechanical systems need to be cooled to sub-Kelvin temperatures in order for quantum effects to be observed. Liquid helium is the only fluid that doesn't solidify under its own pressure at these temperatures. Additionally, helium has almost no optical absorption, high thermal conductivity and very low acoustic loss at cryogenic temperatures. We have developed an optomechanical system in which the mechanical mode is a standing density wave in superfluid helium inside a 70 μm long Fabry-Perot cavity. The optical mode is also a mode of the same cavity. Thus, the system is completely self-aligned. In this system, we used electrostriction to drive the mechanical mode with light by modulating the optical intensity. We also observed the mode's undriven Brownian motion and from that extracted it mean phonon number. We measured phonon number as low as nac=11. The optomechanical effects of optical spring and optical damping were observed, and agreed well with the predictions of conventional optomechanical theory.

  5. Non-Markovian Quantum Friction of Bright Solitons in Superfluids. (United States)

    Efimkin, Dmitry K; Hofmann, Johannes; Galitski, Victor


    We explore the quantum dynamics of a bright matter-wave soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional bosonic superfluid with attractive interactions. Specifically, we focus on the dissipative forces experienced by the soliton due to its interaction with Bogoliubov excitations. Using the collective coordinate approach and the Keldysh formalism, a Langevin equation of motion for the soliton is derived from first principles. The equation contains a stochastic Langevin force (associated with quantum noise) and a nonlocal in time dissipative force, which appears due to inelastic scattering of Bogoliubov quasiparticles off of the moving soliton. It is shown that Ohmic friction (i.e., a term proportional to the soliton's velocity) is absent in the integrable setup. However, the Markovian approximation gives rise to the Abraham-Lorentz force (i.e., a term proportional to the derivative of the soliton's acceleration), which is known from classical electrodynamics of a charged particle interacting with its own radiation. These Abraham-Lorentz equations famously contain a fundamental causality paradox, where the soliton (particle) interacts with excitations (radiation) originating from future events. We show, however, that the causality paradox is an artifact of the Markovian approximation, and our exact non-Markovian dissipative equations give rise to physical trajectories. We argue that the quantum friction discussed here should be observable in current quantum gas experiments.

  6. Excitations of Superfluid He4 Beyond the Roton (United States)

    Sakhel, Asaad; Glyde, Henry


    Excitations of Superfluid ^4He Beyond the Roton. A. R. SAKHEL and H. R. GLYDE, University of Delaware - We present a Quantum Field Theoretical Model that reproduces the basic features of the temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) as observed in the inelastic-neutron scattering results at IRIS, (J.V. Pierce, R.T. Azuah, B.Fåk, A.R. Sakhel, H.R. Glyde, and W.G. Stirling, to be published.) UK. The range of the wavevector Q beyond the roton (Q > 2.0Åis considered. The model is able to simulate the decay of the excitations into two rotons when the excitation energy exceeds 2Δ, where Δ is the roton energy. The model is based on the formulation of S(Q,ω) of Gavoret and Nozières.(J. Gavoret and Nozières, Ann. Phys.), 28, 349-399 (1964). The component of dynamic susceptibility involving the condensate is modelled by an equation of the form: \\chis = n n_0(T) Λ G Λ where Λ is a vertex, G the renormalized single particle Green's function, n the density of ^4He at SVP and n_0(T) the condensate fraction as a function of temperature. The dynamic susceptibility involving states above the condensate is modelled by a damped harmonic oscillator function.(H. R. Glyde, Excitation in Liquid and Solid Helium), Oxford, Clarendron Press (1994).

  7. Establishing a Consistent Theory of Transport in Strongly Correlated Fermi Superfluids (United States)

    Boyack, Rufus M.

    A diagrammatic method of obtaining exact gauge-invariant response functions in strongly correlated Fermi superfluids is implemented for several example condensed matter systems of current interest. These include: topological superfluids, high temperature superconductors, and superfluids with finite center-of-mass momentum pairing known as Fulde-Ferrell superfluids. Much of the literature on these systems has focused on single-particle properties or alternatively has invoked simple approximations to treat response functions. The goal is to show that, for this wide class of topical problems, one can compute exact response functions. This enables assessment of the validity of different physical scenarios and allows a very broad class of experiments to be addressed. The method developed is based on deriving the full electromagnetic vertex, which satisfies the Ward-Takahashi identity, and determining the collective modes in a manner compatible with the self-consistent gap equation. In the condensed phase of a superfluid and a superconductor, where gauge invariance is spontaneously broken, it is crucial to determine the collective modes from the gap equation in a manner which restores gauge invariance. Our diagrammatic framework provides a very general and powerful method for obtaining these collective modes in a variety of strongly correlated Fermi superfluids. We show that a full electromagnetic vertex satisfying the Ward-Takahashi identity ensures the f-sum rule is satisfied and thus charge is conserved. This diagrammatic method is implemented for both normal and superfluid phases. While there are no collective modes in the normal phase, the Ward-Takahashi identity plays a similarly important role. In particular, for the normal phase we study Rashba spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases with intrinsic pairing in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. Exact density and spin response functions are obtained, even in the absence of a spin conservation law, providing

  8. Surface Majorana fermions and bulk collective modes in superfluid 3He-B (United States)

    Park, YeJe; Chung, Suk Bum; Maciejko, Joseph


    The theoretical study of topological superfluids and superconductors has so far been carried out largely as a translation of the theory of noninteracting topological insulators into the superfluid language, whereby one replaces electrons by Bogoliubov quasiparticles and single-particle band Hamiltonians by Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. Band insulators and superfluids are, however, fundamentally different: While the former exist in the absence of interparticle interactions, the latter are broken symmetry states that owe their very existence to such interactions. In particular, unlike the static energy gap of a band insulator, the gap in a superfluid is due to a dynamical order parameter that is subject to both thermal and quantum fluctuations. In this work, we explore the consequences of bulk quantum fluctuations of the order parameter in the B phase of superfluid 3He on the topologically protected Majorana surface states. Neglecting the high-energy amplitude modes, we find that one of the three spin-orbit Goldstone modes in 3He-B couples to the surface Majorana fermions. This coupling in turn induces an effective short-range two-body interaction between the Majorana fermions, with coupling constant inversely proportional to the strength of the nuclear dipole-dipole interaction in bulk 3He. A mean-field theory suggests that the surface Majorana fermions in 3He-B may be in the vicinity of a metastable gapped time-reversal-symmetry-breaking phase.

  9. Dynamics of semi-superfluid fluxtubes in color-flavor locked quark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alford Mark G.


    Full Text Available At very high densities, as for example in the core of a neutron star, matter may appear in the color-flavor locked (CFL phase, which is a superfluid. This phase features topologically stable vortex solutions, which arise in a spinning superfluid as localized configurations carrying quanta of angular momentum. Despite the topological stability of these vortices they are not the lowest energy state of the system at neutron star densities and decay into triplets of semi-superfluid fluxtubes. In these proceedings we report on the progress of our numerical study in the Ginzburg-Landau approach, where we investigate lattices of semi-superfluid fluxtubes. The fluxtubes are obtained through controlled decay of global vortex configurations in the presence of a gauge field. Understanding the dynamics of semi-superfluid string configurations is important in the context of angular momentum transfer from a quark matter core of a neutron star beyond the core boundary, since not vortex-, but fluxtube pinning seems to be the relevant mechanism in this scenario.

  10. Extended s-wave superfluid of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices (United States)

    Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke


    We investigate pairing symmetry of the superfluid state in repulsively interacting three-component (colors) fermionic atoms in optical lattices. This superfluid state appears, when two of the color-dependent three repulsions are much stronger than the other close to half filling. We evaluate the effective pairing interaction by collecting random-phase-approximation-type diagrams and ladder diagrams, and solve the Eliashberg equation within weak-coupling theory in square optical lattices. We find that pairing symmetry is an extended s-wave, although in the phase diagram the superfluid state is adjacent to the color-density wave or paired Mott insulator at half filling. The k-dependence of the superfluid order parameter is caused by quantum fluctuations of the staggered color-density wave. When the difference in the three repulsions is decreased, paring symmetry changes from an extended s-wave to a d-wave. We expect 6Li, 171Yb, 173Yb atoms and their mixtures in optical lattices to be possible candidates for observing this superfluid state. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) and (B) (No. 25287104) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  11. Pulsed NMR experiments in superfluid {sup 3}He confined in aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V.V.; Kosarev, I.V.; Mulders, Norbert; Zavjalov, V.V.; Zmeev, D.Y


    Pulsed NMR experiments have been performed in both B and supercooled A phases of superfluid {sup 3}He in aerogel. Dependencies of spin precession frequency on tipping angle in B-phase of superfluid {sup 3}He in aerogel are found to be different for pure {sup 3}He and for the cell preplated with {sup 4}He. A sharp increase of the frequency for tipping angles greater than 104 deg. was observed in low temperature superfluid phase of {sup 3}He in {sup 4}He preplated aerogel as it is expected for the B-phase structure of the order parameter. Dependencies of the frequency on the tipping angle in supercooled A-phase are similar for both pure {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He preplated aerogel.

  12. Hydrodynamical model of anisotropic, polarized turbulent superfluids. I: constraints for the fluxes (United States)

    Mongiovì, Maria Stella; Restuccia, Liliana


    This work is the first of a series of papers devoted to the study of the influence of the anisotropy and polarization of the tangle of quantized vortex lines in superfluid turbulence. A thermodynamical model of inhomogeneous superfluid turbulence previously formulated is here extended, to take into consideration also these effects. The model chooses as thermodynamic state vector the density, the velocity, the energy density, the heat flux, and a complete vorticity tensor field, including its symmetric traceless part and its antisymmetric part. The relations which constrain the constitutive quantities are deduced from the second principle of thermodynamics using the Liu procedure. The results show that the presence of anisotropy and polarization in the vortex tangle affects in a substantial way the dynamics of the heat flux, and allow us to give a physical interpretation of the vorticity tensor here introduced, and to better describe the internal structure of a turbulent superfluid.

  13. Migration of bosonic particles across a Mott insulator to superfluid phase interface

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Michael J


    We consider a boundary between a Mott insulator and a superfluid region of a Bose-Hubbard model at unit filling. Initially both regions are decoupled and cooled to their respective ground states. We show that, after switching on a small tunneling rate between both regions, all particles of the Mott region migrate to the superfluid area. This migration takes place whenever the difference between the chemical potentials of both regions is less than the maximal energy of any eigenmode of the superfluid. We verify our results numerically with DMRG simulations and explain them analytically with a master equation approximation, finding good agreement between both approaches. Finally we carry out a feasibility study for the observation of the effect in coupled arrays of micro-cavities and optical lattices.

  14. Inhomogeneous superfluid phases in 6Li-40K mixtures at unitarity (United States)

    Baarsma, J. E.; Stoof, H. T. C.


    We show that the ultracold three-dimensional 6Li-40K mixture at unitarity can exhibit the highly exotic Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluid phase. We determine the phase diagram for majorities of 40K atoms within mean-field theory taking the inhomogeneities of the fermion states into account exactly. We find two different inhomogeneous superfluid phases in mixtures with a majority of 40K atoms, namely the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO ) phase with one inhomogeneous direction and a cubic phase (LO3) where three spatial translational symmetries are broken. We determine the transition between these two phases by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the superfluid LO phase. Subsequently, we calculate the atomic density modulation of the atoms in the LO phase and show that it is sufficiently large to be visible in experiment.

  15. Superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices (United States)

    Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke


    We investigate the superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component (color) fermionic atoms in optical lattices using Feynman diagrammatic approaches and the dynamical mean field theory. When the anisotropy of the three repulsive interactions is strong, atoms of two of the three colors form Cooper pairs and atoms of the third color remain a Fermi liquid. This superfluid emerges close to half filling at which the Mott insulating state characteristic of the three-component repulsive fermions appears. An effective attractive interaction is induced by density fluctuations of the third-color atoms. The superfluid state is stable against the phase separation that occurs in the strongly repulsive region. We determine the phase diagrams in terms of temperature, filling, and the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  16. Heat transfer between the superconducting cables of the LHC accelerator magnets and the superfluid helium bath

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, Pier Paolo; Tommasini, D

    In this thesis work we investigate the heat transfer through the electrical insulation of superconducting cables cooled by superfluid helium. The cable insulation constitutes the most severe barrier for heat extraction from the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We performed an experimental analysis, a theoretical modeling and a fundamental research to characterize the present LHC insulation and to develop new ideas of thermally enhanced insulations. The outcome of these studies allowed to determine the thermal stability of the magnets for the LHC and its future upgrades. An innovative measurement technique was developed to experimentally analyze the heat transfer between the cables and the superfluid helium bath. It allowed to describe the LHC coil behavior using the real cable structure, an appropriate thermometry and controlling the applied pressure. We developed a new thermally enhanced insulation scheme based on an increased porosity to superfluid helium. It aims at withstan...

  17. Pulsar spin-down: the glitch-dominated rotation of PSR J0537-6910 (United States)

    Antonopoulou, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Kuiper, L.; Andersson, N.


    The young, fast-spinning X-ray pulsar J0537-6910 displays an extreme glitch activity, with large spin-ups interrupting its decelerating rotation every ∼100 d. We present nearly 13 yr of timing data from this pulsar, obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We discovered 22 new glitches and performed a consistent analysis of all 45 glitches detected in the complete data span. Our results corroborate the previously reported strong correlation between glitch spin-up size and the time to the next glitch, a relation that has not been observed so far in any other pulsar. The spin evolution is dominated by the glitches, which occur at a rate of ∼3.5 per year, and the post-glitch recoveries, which prevail the entire interglitch intervals. This distinctive behaviour provides invaluable insights into the physics of glitches. The observations can be explained with a multicomponent model that accounts for the dynamics of the neutron superfluid present in the crust and core of neutron stars. We place limits on the moment of inertia of the component responsible for the spin-up and, ignoring differential rotation, the velocity difference it can sustain with the crust. Contrary to its rapid decrease between glitches, the spin-down rate increased over the 13 yr, and we find the long-term braking index nl = -1.22(4), the only negative braking index seen in a young pulsar. We briefly discuss the plausible interpretations of this result, which is in stark contrast to the predictions of standard models of pulsar spin-down.

  18. Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Tobias


    In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe

  19. Quantum Gas of Polar Molecules Ensembles at Ultralow Temperatures: f-wave Superfluids (United States)

    Boudjemâa, Abdelâali


    We investigate novel f-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional bilayer system with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the layers and in opposite directions in different layers. The solution of the BCS gap equation reveals that these unconventional superfluids emerge at temperatures on the level of femtokelvin which opens up new possibilities to explore the topological f+i f phase, quantum interferometry and Majorana fermions in experiments with ultracold polar molecules. The experimental realization of such interesting novel f-wave pairings is discussed.

  20. Finite element simulation of steady state and transient forced convection in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L


    The solution of transient mass, momentum and energy balances in superfluid helium are discussed by means of a finite element algorithm. A simple linearization procedure is used for the non- linear pseudo-diffusion term in the energy balance arising because of the unique counterflow heat transport mechanism in superfluid helium. The linearization algorithm is analyzed for accuracy order and stability. The reliability of the algorithm devised is shown in practical tests, comparing the numerical solutions with experimental data available in the literature. (18 refs).

  1. High-temperature atomic superfluidity in lattice Bose-Fermi mixtures. (United States)

    Illuminati, Fabrizio; Albus, Alexander


    We consider atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices and study the superfluidity of fermionic atoms due to s-wave pairing induced by boson-fermion interactions. We prove that the induced fermion-fermion coupling is always attractive if the boson-boson on-site interaction is repulsive, and predict the existence of an enhanced BEC-BCS crossover as the strength of the lattice potential is varied. We show that for direct on-site fermion-fermion repulsion, the induced attraction can give rise to superfluidity via s-wave pairing at striking variance with the case of pure systems of fermionic atoms with direct repulsive interactions.

  2. Ultra-cold neutron production with superfluid helium and spallation neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Y


    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) production in superfluid helium with spallation neutrons is discussed. A source is described, where superfluid helium is located in a cold moderator of deuterium at 20 K surrounded by a thermal moderator of heavy water at 300 K. A lead target is installed in the thermal moderator for neutron production via a medium energy proton induced spallation reaction. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that a UCN density of the order of 10 sup 5 n/cm sup 3 is achievable with an acceptable heat load for the helium cryostat.

  3. Depletion of superfluidity in a disordered non-equilibrium quantum condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, Alexander; Rosenow, Bernd [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany); Hyart, Timo [Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Eastham, Paul [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    Observations of quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We analyze the superfluid stiffness of a non-equilibrium quantum-condensate in a disordered environment taking gain and loss of particles into account. To this end a modified effective Gross-Pitaevskii equation is employed. We find that the disorder-driven depletion of superfluidity is strongly enhanced due to the gain-loss mechanism. It turns out that the condensate remains stiff at finite length scales only.

  4. Electron Bubbles in Superfluid $^3$He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction


    Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.


    When an electron is forced into liquid $^3$He it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, $R\\simeq 1.5$ nm, and mass, $M\\simeq 100\\,m_3$, where $m_3$ is the mass of a $^3$He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that p...

  5. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke


    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  6. Phase transition in anisotropic holographic superfluids with arbitrary dynamical critical exponent z and hyperscaling violation factor α (United States)

    Park, Miok; Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk


    Einstein-scalar- U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ . It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α , we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ _c for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α . However, for large values of z and α , the anisotropic phase is not favored.

  7. Thermohydraulics of a horizontal diphasic flow of superfluid helium; Thermo-hydraulique d'un ecoulement horizontal d'helium superfluide diphasique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perraud, S


    This study aims at characterizing helium two phase flows, and to identify the dependence of their characteristics on various thermo-hydraulic parameters: vapour velocity, liquid height, vapour density, specificities of superfluidity. Both the engineer and the physicist's points of view are taken into consideration: the first one in terms of optimization of a particular cooling scheme based on a two-phase flow, and these second one in terms of more fundamental atomization-related questions. It has been shown that for velocities around 3 to 4 m/s, the liquid phase that was initially stratified undergoes an atomization through the presence of a drop haze carried by the vapor phase.This happens for superfluid helium as well as for normal helium without main differences on atomization.

  8. Electronic Spectroscopy of Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Derivatives in Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets. (United States)

    Slenczka, Alkwin


    Phthalocyanine and porphyrin were among the first organic compounds investigated by means of electronic spectroscopy in superfluid helium nanodroplets. Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve as a very gentle host system for preparing cold and isolated molecules. The uniqueness of helium nanodroplets is with respect to the superfluid phase which warrants the vanishing viscosity and, thus, minimal perturbation of the dopant species at a temperature as low as 0.37 K. These are ideal conditions for the study of molecular spectra in order to analyze structures as well as dynamic processes. Besides the investigation of the dopant species itself, molecular spectroscopy in helium droplets provides information on the helium droplet and in particular on microsolvation. This article, as part of a special issue on phthalocyanines and porphyrins, reviews electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanine and porphyrin compounds in superfluid helium nanodroplets. In addition to the wide variety of medical as well as technical and synthetical aspects, this article discusses electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanines and porphyrins in helium droplets in order to learn about both the dopant and the helium environment.

  9. Time-reversal-invariant topological superfluids in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jonatan Melkaer; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.


    A mixed dimensional system of fermions in two layers immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is shown to be a promising setup to realize topological superfluids with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). The induced interaction between the fermions mediated by the BEC gives rise to a competition...

  10. Measurements of longitudinal and transverse magnetic relaxation in superfluid {sup 3}He confined to aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V.V.; Kosarev, I.V.; Mulders, Norbert; Zavjalov, V.V.; Zmeev, D.Y


    We present results of pulsed NMR measurements of magnetic relaxation in liquid {sup 3}He in aerogel. It was found that both longitudinal and transverse relaxation starts to change below the temperature of the superfluid transition of {sup 3}He in aerogel. Below T{sub c}{sup a} the longitudinal relaxation depends on the initial tipping angle.

  11. First observation and mobility measurements of negative ions in superfluid He-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasimova, A; Zuhlke, C; Jungmann, K; Putlitz, GZ

    We present the results of the first mobility measurements in superfluid helium for negative ions of different elements. Various negative ions like Cl-, F- and I- were produced by laser ablation from targets consisting of NaCl, NaF, NaI, LiF and KCl immersed in a He-4 bath. In addition to negative

  12. Superfluid helium-3 in cylindrical restricted geometries : a study with low-frequency NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benningshof, Olaf Willem Boudewijn


    This thesis concerns the symmetry, phase, and order parameter of the superfluid helium-3 in restricted geometries in combination with a magnetic field. Two cylindrical containers are constructed for which the axis is aligned with the magnetic field. The first cell has a diameter (540 nm) of only a

  13. Magnetic trapping of superconducting submicron particles produced by laser ablation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Suzuki, Junpei; Yoneyama, Naoya; Tokawa, Yurina; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Kumakura, Mitsutaka; Ashida, Masaaki; Moriwaki, Yoshiki


    We produced spherical superconducting submicron particles by laser ablation of their base metal tips in superfluid helium, and trapped them using a quadrupole magnetic field owing to the diamagnetism caused by the Meissner effect. We also measured their critical temperatures of superconductivity, by observing the threshold temperatures for the confinement of superconducting submicron particles in the trap.

  14. 3 scientists win Nobel for physics electric superconductivity, superfluidity work honoured

    CERN Multimedia


    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel prize for physics to Russian Vitaly Ginzburg, 87, and Russian-born American Alexei Abrikosov, 75, for their work on electric superconductivity, and to British-born American Anthony Leggett, 65, for describing how liquid helium can become a "superfluid." The three scientists will split $1.3 million in prize money (1 page).

  15. Staggered-vortex superfluid of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832057; de Morais Smith, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836346; Hemmerich, Andreas


    We show that the dynamics of cold bosonic atoms in a two-dimensional square optical lattice produced by a bichromatic light-shift potential is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with an additional effective staggered magnetic field. In addition to the known uniform superfluid and Mott insulating

  16. Rheology of neutron stars. Vortex-line pinning in the crust superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.W. (Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Alpar, M.A. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA)); Shaham, J. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics)


    After a discussion of the general physics of neutron stars, a brief discussion is given of the 'glitch' phenomenon and its relation to superfluidity, and finally a rather detailed study of the physics of vortex-line pinning in the crust lattice.

  17. Light dark matter in superfluid helium: Detection with multi-excitation production (United States)

    Knapen, Simon; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.


    We examine in depth a recent proposal to utilize superfluid helium for direct detection of sub-MeV mass dark matter. For sub-keV recoil energies, nuclear scattering events in liquid helium primarily deposit energy into long-lived phonon and roton quasiparticle excitations. If the energy thresholds of the detector can be reduced to the meV scale, then dark matter as light as ˜MeV can be reached with ordinary nuclear recoils. If, on the other hand, two or more quasiparticle excitations are directly produced in the dark matter interaction, the kinematics of the scattering allows sensitivity to dark matter as light as ˜keV at the same energy resolution. We present in detail the theoretical framework for describing excitations in superfluid helium, using it to calculate the rate for the leading dark matter scattering interaction, where an off-shell phonon splits into two or more higher-momentum excitations. We validate our analytic results against the measured and simulated dynamic response of superfluid helium. Finally, we apply this formalism to the case of a kinetically mixed hidden photon in the superfluid, both with and without an external electric field to catalyze the processes.

  18. Realizing Fulde-Ferrell Superfluids via a Dark-State Control of Feshbach Resonances (United States)

    He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji


    We propose that the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity with nonzero momentum pairing can be realized in ultracold two-component Fermi gases of K 40 or Li 6 atoms by optically tuning their magnetic Feshbach resonances via the creation of a closed-channel dark state with a Doppler-shifted Stark effect. In this scheme, two counterpropagating optical fields are applied to couple two molecular states in the closed channel to an excited molecular state, leading to a significant violation of Galilean invariance in the dark-state regime and hence to the possibility of Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity. We develop a field theoretical formulation for both two-body and many-body problems and predict that the Fulde-Ferrell state has remarkable properties, such as anisotropic single-particle dispersion relation, suppressed superfluid density at zero temperature, anisotropic sound velocity, and rotonic collective mode. The latter two features can be experimentally probed using Bragg spectroscopy, providing a smoking-gun proof of Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity.

  19. On the possibility of a new electric effect in ultrathin superfluid films (United States)

    Shevchenko, S. I.; Konstantinov, A. M.


    We predict that the propagation of the third sound in a film is accompanied by the emergence of the electric field in the surrounding space, which can be observed by modern methods. It has been shown that the influence of thermally activated vortices on this effect is weak even near the superfluid transition.

  20. Disproportionate entrance length in superfluid flows and the puzzle of counterflow instabilities (United States)

    Bertolaccini, J.; Lévêque, E.; Roche, P.-E.


    Systematic simulations of the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (He-II) encompassing the Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) mutual coupling have been performed in two-dimensional pipe counterflows between 1.3 and 1.96 K. The numerical scheme relies on the lattice Boltzmann method. A Boussinesq-like hypothesis is introduced to omit temperature variations along the pipe. In return, the thermomechanical forcings of the normal and superfuid components are fueled by a pressure term related to their mass-density variations under an approximation of weak compressibility. This modeling framework reproduces the essential features of a thermally driven counterflow. A generalized definition of the entrance length is introduced to suitably compare entry effects (of different nature) at opposite ends of the pipe. This definition is related to the excess of pressure loss with respect to the developed Poiseuille-flow solution. At the heated end of the pipe, it is found that the entrance length for the normal fluid follows a classical law and increases linearly with the Reynolds number. At the cooled end, the entrance length for the superfluid is enhanced as compared to the normal fluid by up to one order of magnitude. At this end, the normal fluid flows into the cooling bath of He-II and produces large-scale superfluid vortical motions in the bath that partly re-enter the pipe along its sidewalls before being damped by mutual friction. In the superfluid entry region, the resulting frictional coupling in the superfluid boundary layer distorts the velocity profiles toward tail flattening for the normal fluid and tail raising for the superfluid. Eventually, a simple analytical model of entry effects allows us to re-examine the long-debated thresholds of T 1 and T 2 instabilities in superfluid counterflows. Inconsistencies in the T 1 thresholds reported since the 1960s disappear if an aspect-ratio criterion based on our modeling is used to discard data sets with the

  1. Emission spectrum of the C sub 2 radical embedded in superfluid helium around 1.5 K

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, A


    The C sub 2 d sup 3 PI sub g -a sup 3 PI sub u (upsilon' - upsilon'') Swan band emission spectrum induced by the laser ablation of graphite in the superfluid helium around 1.5 K, was observed. Only the vibrational progression of DELTA upsilon = upsilon' - upsilon'', where DELTA upsilon less than 0 are observed, indicating fast (tau < 100 ns) vibrational relaxation in superfluid helium. This result also indicates a unique characteristic of superfluid helium as a circumstance of chemical processes. (author)

  2. Electron Bubbles in Superfluid (3) 3 He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction (United States)

    Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.


    When an electron is forced into liquid ^3He, it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, R˜eq 1.5 nm, and mass, M˜eq 100 m_3, where m_3 is the mass of a ^3He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that provides a detailed understanding of the spectrum of Weyl Fermions bound to the negative ion, as well as a theory for the forces on moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A (Shevtsov and Sauls in Phys Rev B 94:064511, 2016). This theory is shown to provide quantitative agreement with measurements reported by the RIKEN group (Ikegami et al. in Science 341(6141):59, 2013) for the drag force and anomalous Hall effect of moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A. In this report, we discuss the sensitivity of the forces on the moving ion to the effective interaction between normal-state quasiparticles and the ion. We consider models for the quasiparticle-ion (QP-ion) interaction, including the hard-sphere potential, constrained random-phase-shifts, and interactions with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction. Our results show that the transverse force responsible for the anomalous Hall effect is particularly sensitive to the structure of the QP-ion potential and that strong short-range repulsion, captured by the hard-sphere potential, provides an accurate model for computing the forces acting on the moving electron bubble in superfluid 3He-A.

  3. Rotator Cuff Exercises (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Injury Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Exercises Rotator Cuff Exercises Share Print Rotator Cuff ... Best Rotator Cuff ExercisesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, ... and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, ...

  4. Search and discovery: Nobel prize in physics to Lee, Osheroff and Richardson for discovery of superfluidity in {sup 3}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, G.B. [American Institute of Physics, 500 Sunnyside Boulevard, Woodbury, New York 11797 (United States)


    A quarter of a century ago three Cornell experimenters found that when they cooled {sup 3}He below 3 mK it had three different superfluid phases and behaved anisotropically. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models. (United States)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Pethick, C J


    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)PRVCAN0556-2813] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.

  6. Superfluid density and quasi-long-range order in the one-dimensional disordered Bose-Hubbard model (United States)

    Gerster, M.; Rizzi, M.; Tschirsich, F.; Silvi, P.; Fazio, R.; Montangero, S.


    We study the equilibrium properties of the one-dimensional disordered Bose-Hubbard model by means of a gauge-adaptive tree tensor network variational method suitable for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We compute the superfluid stiffness and superfluid correlations close to the superfluid to glass transition line, obtaining accurate locations of the critical points. By studying the statistics of the exponent of the power-law decay of the correlation, we determine the boundary between the superfluid region and the Bose glass phase in the regime of strong disorder and in the weakly interacting region, not explored numerically before. In the former case our simulations are in agreement with previous Monte Carlo calculations.

  7. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Prize Lecture: Quantum Mechanics meets Fluid Dynamics: Visualization of Vortex Reconnection in Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Paoletti, Matthew


    Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena including superfluidity, superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. While superfluidity in helium-4 was one of the earliest discovered, it is not the best understood, owing to the strong interactions present (making theoretical progress difficult) and the lack of local experimental probes. Quantum fluids, such as superfluid helium-4, are typically described as a mixture of two interpenetrating fluids with distinct velocity fields: a viscous normal fluid akin to water and an inviscid superfluid exhibiting long-range quantum order. In this "two-fluid model," there is no conventional viscous dissipation in the superfluid component and vorticity is confined to atomically-thin vortices with quantized circulation. Turbulence may occur in either fluid component with turbulence in the superfluid exhibiting a complex tangle of quantized vortices, as first envisioned by Feynman. Approximately five years ago, our group discovered that micron-sized hydrogen particles may be used for flow visualization in superfluid helium-4. The particles can trace the motions of the normal fluid or be trapped by the quantized vortices, which enables one to characterize the dynamics of both the normal fluid and superfluid components for the first time. By directly observing and tracking these particles, we have directly confirmed the two-fluid model, observed vortex rings and quantized vortex reconnection, characterized thermal counterflows, and observed the very peculiar nature of quantum turbulence. One of many surprising observations is the existence of power-law tails in the probability distribution of velocities in quantum turbulence, which are in stark contrast to the Gaussian distributions typical of classical fluid turbulence.

  8. Limitations of superfluid helium droplets as host system revealed by electronic spectroscopy of embedded molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premke, Tobias


    Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve a unique cryogenic host system ideal to prepare cold molecules and clusters. Structures as well as dynamic processes can be examined by means of high resolution spectroscopy. Dopant spectra are accompanied by helium-induced spectroscopic features which reveal information on the dopant to helium interaction. For this reason the experimental research focuses on the investigation of such helium-induced effects in order to provide new information on the microsolvation inside the droplets. Since the quantitative understanding of helium-induced spectral features is essential to interpret molecular spectra recorded in helium droplets, this study contributes further experimental details on microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. For this purpose two contrary systems were examined by means of high resolution electronic spectroscopy. The first one, phthalocyanine (Pc), is a planar organic molecule offering a huge and planar surface to the helium atoms and thus, the non-superfluid helium solvation layer can form different structures. The second system is iodine and in contrast to Pc it is of simple molecular shape. That means that in this case different complex structures of the non-superfluid helium solvation layer and the dopant can be expected to be avoided. Thus, both molecules should show clear differences in their microsolvation behavior. In this work a detailed examination of different spectroscopic properties of phthalocyanine is given by means of fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectroscopy. It raises legitimate doubts about the assignment of experimentally observed signals to features predicted by the model of the microsolvation. Even though there are no experimental observations which disprove the empirical model for the solvation in helium droplets, an unambiguous assignment of the helium-induced spectroscopic structures is often not possible. In the second part of this work, the investigation of the

  9. Ultra-cold fermions in the flatland: evolution from BCS to Bose superfluidity in two-dimensions with spin-orbit and Zeeman fields (United States)

    Han, Li; Sa de Melo, Carlos


    We discuss the evolution from BCS to Bose superfluidity for ultracold fermions in two-dimensions and in the presence of simultaneous spin-orbit and Zeeman fields. We analyze several thermodynamic properties to characterize different superfluid phases including pressure, compressibility, induced polarization, and spin susceptibility. Furthermore, we compute the momentum distribution and construct topological invariants for each of the superfluid phases. We thank ARO (Contract No. W911NF-09-1-0220) for support.

  10. Heat transfer enhancement on thin wires in superfluid helium forced flows

    CERN Document Server

    Duri, Davide; Moro, Jean-Paul; Roche, Philippe-Emmanuel; Diribarne, Pantxo


    In this paper, we report the first evidence of an enhancement of the heat transfer from a heated wire by an external turbulent flow of superfluid helium. We used a standard Pt-Rh hot-wire anemometer and overheat it up to 21 K in a pressurized liquid helium turbulent round jet at temperatures between 1.9 K and 2.12 K. The null-velocity response of the sensor can be satisfactorily modeled by the counter flow mechanism while the extra cooling produced by the forced convection is found to scale similarly as the corresponding extra cooling in classical fluids. We propose a preliminary analysis of the response of the sensor and show that -contrary to a common assumption- such sensor can be used to probe local velocity in turbulent superfluid helium.

  11. Heat transfer in electrical insulation of LHC cables cooled with superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Meuris, C; Leroy, D; Szeless, Balázs


    The electrical insulation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cables constitutes a thermal barrier between the conductor and the superfluid helium bath. This can prevent removal of the heat dissipated in the cable by the current rise in the dipoles or by the beam losses. The main experimental results, obtained with stacks of insulated conductors representing a piece of the actual coil, are given. The mock-ups vary only by the material composition and the structure of the electrical insulation. Analysis of the temperature distribution measured in the conductors as a function of the dissipated heat power makes it possible to determine the dominant heat transfer mode in each type of tested insulation and to classify these according to their permeability to superfluid helium. Thermal numerical modelling of the experimental mock-ups clarifies the heat transfer path in the complex structure of the insulation and enables calculation of values of the thermal quantities characteristic of each insulation. The results of...

  12. Velocity statistics in holographic fluids: magnetized quark-gluon plasma and superfluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areán, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Patiño, Leonardo; Villasante, Mario [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)


    We study the velocity statistics distribution of an external heavy particle in holographic fluids. We argue that when the dual supergravity background has a finite temperature horizon the velocity statistics goes generically as 1/v, compatible with the jet-quenching intuition from the quark-gluon plasma. A careful analysis of the behavior of the classical string whose apparent world sheet horizon deviates from the background horizon reveals that other regimes are possible. We numerically discuss two cases: the magnetized quark-gluon plasma and a model of superfluid flow. We explore a range of parameters in these top-down supergravity solutions including, respectively, the magnetic field and the superfluid velocity. We determine that the velocity statistics goes largely as 1/v, however, as we leave the non-relativistic regime we observe some deviations.

  13. Microscopic study of 1S0 superfluidity in dilute neutron matter (United States)

    Pavlou, G. E.; Mavrommatis, E.; Moustakidis, Ch.; Clark, J. W.


    Singlet S -wave superfluidity of dilute neutron matter is studied within the correlated BCS method, which takes into account both pairing and short-range correlations. First, the equation of state (EOS) of normal neutron matter is calculated within the Correlated Basis Function (CBF) method in the lowest cluster order using the 1 S 0 and 3 P components of the Argonne V_{18} potential, assuming trial Jastrow-type correlation functions. The 1 S 0 superfluid gap is then calculated with the corresponding component of the Argonne V_{18} potential and the optimally determined correlation functions. The dependence of our results on the chosen forms for the correlation functions is studied, and the role of the P -wave channel is investigated. Where comparison is meaningful, the values obtained for the 1 S 0 gap within this simplified scheme are consistent with the results of similar and more elaborate microscopic methods.

  14. Superfluidity of dipolar excitons in a transition metal dichalcogenide double layer (United States)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.


    We study formation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons in double layer heterostructures formed by two transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) atomically thin layers. Considering screening effects for an electron-hole interaction via the harmonic oscillator approximation for the Keldysh potential, the analytical expressions for the exciton energy spectrum and the mean field critical temperature Tc for the superfluidity are obtained. It is shown that binding energies of A excitons are larger than for B excitons. The mean field critical temperature for a two-component dilute exciton system in a TMDC double layer is analyzed and shown that the latter is an increasing function of the factor Q , determined by the effective masses of A and B excitons and their reduced mass. Comparison of the calculations for Tc performed by employing the Coulomb and Keldysh interactions demonstrates the importance of screening effects in TMDC.

  15. Subgap in the Surface Bound States Spectrum of Superfluid ^3 He-B with Rough Surface (United States)

    Nagato, Y.; Higashitani, S.; Nagai, K.


    The subgap structure in the surface bound states spectrum of superfluid ^3 He-B with rough surface is discussed. The subgap is formed by the level repulsion between the surface bound state and the continuum states in the course of multiple scattering by the surface roughness. We show that the level repulsion is originated from the nature of the wave function of the surface bound state that is now recognized as Majorana fermion. We study the superfluid ^3 He-B with a rough surface and in a magnetic field perpendicular to the surface using the quasi-classical Green function together with a random S-matrix model. We calculate the self-consistent order parameters, the spin polarization density and the surface density of states. It is shown that the subgap is found also in a magnetic field perpendicular to the surface. The magnetic field dependence of the transverse acoustic impedance is also discussed.

  16. Thermal studies of a high gradient quadrupole magnet cooled with pressurized, stagnant superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chiesa, L; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Peterson, Thomas J; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V


    A 2-m long superconducting model of an LHC Interaction Region quadrupole magnet was wound with stabrite coated cable. The resulting low interstrand resistance and high AC losses presented the opportunity to measure magnet quench performance in superfluid as a function of helium temperature and heat deposition in the coil. Our motivation was to duplicate the high radiation heat loads predicted for the inner triplet quadrupoles at LHC and study the coil cooling conditions in the magnet. At the Magnet Test Facility in Fermilab's Technical Division, the magnet quench performance was tested as a function of bulk helium temperature and current ramp rate near the planned high luminosity interaction region field gradient of 205 T/m. AC loss measurements provided a correlation between current ramp rate and heat deposition in the coil. Analysis indicates that the results are consistent with there being little participation of superfluid helium in the small channels inside the inner layer in the heat removal from the co...

  17. Engineering Weyl Superfluid in Ultracold Fermionic Gases by One-Dimensional Optical Superlattices (United States)

    Huang, Beibing


    In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate by using one-dimensional superlattices to couple two-dimensional time-reversal-breaking gapped topological superfluid models, an anomalous Weyl superfluid (WS) can be obtained. This new phase features its unique Fermi arc states (FAS) on the surfaces. In the conventional WS, FAS exist only for a part of the line connecting the projections of Weyl points and extending to the border and/or center of surface Brillouin zone. But for the anomalous WS, FAS exist for the whole line. As a proof of principle, we self-consistently at the mean-field level claim the achievement of the anomalous WS in the model with a dichromatic superlattice. In addition, inversion symmetry and band inversion in this model are analyzed to provide the unique features of identifying the anomalous WS experimentally by the momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy.

  18. Dynamical stabilization of a superfluid motion in the presence of an ac force (United States)

    Morales-Molina, L.; Arévalo, E.


    We study the superfluid behavior motion of interacting particles in a periodic potential subject to an external ac force. We observe a dynamical stabilization of the superfluid motion in the presence of ac forces around the boundary of the Brillouin zone. We analyze relevant nonlinear Floquet-Bloch states within the mean field approximation that display loops in the energy spectrum. In particular, we investigate with some detail the transport properties of these states at the edge of the Brillouin zone, showing the existence of a nonvanishing motion of particles. These findings are corroborated by a nonlinear generalization of the Hellmann-Feynman expression for the group velocity. Our results shed new light on the observation of stable persistent motion of particles in periodic potentials.

  19. Asymptotic exactness of c-number substitution in Bogolyubov's theory of superfluidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bogolyubov, Jr.


    Full Text Available The Bogolyubov model of liquid helium is considered. The validity of substituting a c-number for the k=0 mode operator â0 is established rigorously. The domain of stability of the Bogolyubov's Hamiltonian is found. We derive sufficient conditions which ensure the appearance of the Bose condensate in the model. For some temperatures and some positive values of the chemical potential, there is a gapless Bogolyubov spectrum of elementary excitations, leading to a proper microscopic interpretation of superfluidity.

  20. Inhomogeneous vortex tangles in counterflow superfluid turbulence: flow in convergent channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluto Lidia


    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution equation for the average vortex length per unit volume L of superfluid turbulence in inhomogeneous flows. Inhomogeneities in line density L andincounterflowvelocity V may contribute to vortex diffusion, vortex formation and vortex destruction. We explore two different families of contributions: those arising from asecondorder expansionofthe Vinenequationitself, andthose whichare notrelated to the original Vinen equation but must be stated by adding to it second-order terms obtained from dimensional analysis or other physical arguments.

  1. Quantized vortices in arbitrary dimensions and the normal-to-superfluid phase transition (United States)

    Bora, Florin

    The structure and energetics of superflow around quantized vortices, and the motion inherited by these vortices from this superflow, are explored in the general setting of a superfluid in arbitrary dimensions. The vortices may be idealized as objects of co-dimension two, such as one-dimensional loops and two-dimensional closed surfaces, respectively, in the cases of three- and four-dimensional superfluidity. By using the analogy between vortical superflow and Ampere-Maxwell magnetostatics, the equilibrium superflow containing any specified collection of vortices is constructed. The energy of the superflow is found to take on a simple form for vortices that are smooth and asymptotically large, compared with the vortex core size. The motion of vortices is analyzed in general, as well as for the special cases of hyper-spherical and weakly distorted hyper-planar vortices. In all dimensions, vortex motion reflects vortex geometry. In dimension four and higher, this includes not only extrinsic but also intrinsic aspects of the vortex shape, which enter via the first and second fundamental forms of classical geometry. For hyper-spherical vortices, which generalize the vortex rings of three dimensional superfluidity, the energy-momentum relation is determined. Simple scaling arguments recover the essential features of these results, up to numerical and logarithmic factors. Extending these results to systems containing multiple vortices is elementary due to the linearity of the theory. The energy for multiple vortices is thus a sum of self-energies and power-law interaction terms. The statistical mechanics of a system containing vortices is addressed via the grand canonical partition function. A renormalization-group analysis in which the low energy excitations are integrated approximately, is used to compute certain critical coefficients. The exponents obtained via this approximate procedure are compared with values obtained previously by other means. For dimensions higher

  2. Cable Insulation Scheme to Improve Heat Transfer to Superfluid Helium in Nb-Ti Accelerator Magnets


    La China, M; Tommasini, D


    In superconducting magnets operating at high heat loads as the ones for interaction region of particle colliders or for fast cycling synchrotrons, the limited heat transfer capability of state-of-the-art electrical insulation may constitute a heavy limitation to performance. In the LHC main magnets, Nb-Ti epoxy-free insulation, composed of polyimide tapes, has proved to be permeable to superfluid helium, however the heat flux is rather limited. After a review of the standard insulation scheme...

  3. Faraday waves in quasi-one-dimensional superfluid Fermi-Bose mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Ögren, Magnus; Sørensen, Mads Peter


    The generation of Faraday waves in superfluid Fermi-Bose mixtures in elongated traps is investigated. The generation of waves is achieved by periodically changing a parameter of the system in time. Two types of modulations of parameters are considered: a variation of the fermion-boson scattering...... length and the boson-boson scattering length. We predict the properties of the generated Faraday patterns and study the parameter regions where they can be excited....

  4. Unconventional Density Wave and Superfluidity in Cold Atom Systems (United States)


    species of fermions with unequal populations have also been considered in the study of quark matter [65]. With the rapid experimental advances in the...CDW in Fig. 6.2(f) is presence between two critical angles ( pink circle in Fig. 6.2(a)). When φD is closed to 45◦ at the same polar angle, the

  5. Control of the wetting properties of 4He crystals in superfluid (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Minezaki, H.; Suzuki, A.; Obara, K.; Itaka, K.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.


    To investigate whether it is possible to control the wetting of 4He crystals on a wall in superfluid, the contact angles of 4He crystals were measured on rough and smooth walls at very low temperatures. A rough wall was prepared in a simple manner in which a commercially available coating agent for car mirrors, which makes the glass surface superhydrophobic, was used to coat a glass plate. The contact angles of 4He crystals were increased by approximately 10° on the rough wall coated with the agent. Therefore, the increase in the repellency of 4He crystals in superfluid was demonstrated to be possible on a very rough surface. The enhancement of the contact angles and a scanning electron microscopy image of the coated surface both suggest that a Cassie-Baxter state of 4He crystals was realized on the surface; the crystals did not have full contact with the wall, but entrapped superfluid was present beneath the crystals in the hollow parts of the rough wall.

  6. Discovery of a New Excited Pair State in Superfluid ^3He (United States)

    Davis, John P.; Pollanen, Johannes; Choi, Hyoungsoon; Sauls, James A.; Halperin, William P.


    In superfluid ^3He, the order parameter collective modes correspond to excited states of the ^3He Cooper pairs and are classified by their total angular momentum, J = L + S. Many of these modes with J sound measurements or NMR. As a result of coupling to the collective mode with J = 2 and mJ =±1 there is an enhanced restoring force for transverse sound in superfluid ^3He-B. Previously, we have used the interference of transverse sound waves to study this collective mode. Recently we have discovered a new coupling to transverse sound near the pair-breaking threshold with the classic signatures of a collective mode. Application of a magnetic field results in circular acoustic birefringence and a new acoustic Faraday effect, from which we extract the corresponding Verdet constant. Selection rules for the coupling to transverse sound and acoustic birefringence require this mode to have J >= 4, suggesting that this mode is most likely the J = 4 (mJ =±1) mode resulting from an attractive f-wave pairing interaction in this p-wave superfluid.

  7. Self-assembly of iodine in superfluid helium droplets. Halogen bonds and nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Lei, Lei; Kong, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)


    We present evidence of halogen bond in iodine clusters formed in superfluid helium droplets based on results from electron diffraction. Iodine crystals are known to form layered structures with intralayer halogen bonds, with interatomic distances shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the two neighboring atoms. The diffraction profile of dimer dominated clusters embedded in helium droplets reveals an interatomic distance of 3.65 Aa, much closer to the value of 3.5 Aa in iodine crystals than to the van der Waals distance of 4.3 Aa. The profile from larger iodine clusters deviates from a single layer structure; instead, a bi-layer structure qualitatively fits the experimental data. This work highlights the possibility of small halogen bonded iodine clusters, albeit in a perhaps limited environment of superfluid helium droplets. The role of superfluid helium in guiding the trapped molecules into local potential minima awaits further investigation. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Galilean invariance in confined quantum systems: implications for spectral gaps, superfluid flow, and periodic order. (United States)

    Sütő, András


    Galilean invariance leaves its imprint on the energy spectrum and eigenstates of N quantum particles, bosons, or fermions, confined in a bounded domain. It endows the spectrum with a recurrent structure, which in capillaries or elongated traps of length L and cross-section area s(⊥) leads to spectral gaps n(2)h(2)s(⊥)ρ/(2 mL) at wave numbers 2nπs(⊥)ρ, where ρ is the number density and m is the particle mass. In zero temperature superfluids, in toroidal geometries, it causes the quantization of the flow velocity with the quantum h/(mL) or that of the circulation along the toroid with the known quantum h/m. Adding a "friction" potential, which breaks Galilean invariance, the Hamiltonian can have a superfluid ground state at low flow velocities but not above a critical velocity, which may be different from the velocity of sound. In the limit of infinite N and L, if N/L = s(⊥)ρ is kept fixed, translation invariance is broken, and the center of mass has a periodic distribution, while superfluidity persists at low flow velocities. This conclusion holds for the Lieb-Liniger model.

  9. Light Dark Matter in Superfluid Helium: Detection with Multi-excitation Production

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Simon; Zurek, Kathryn M


    We examine in depth a recent proposal to utilize superfluid helium for direct detection of sub-MeV mass dark matter. For sub-keV recoil energies, nuclear scattering events in liquid helium primarily deposit energy into long-lived phonon and roton quasiparticle excitations. If the energy thresholds of the detector can be reduced to the meV scale, then dark matter as light as ~MeV can be reached with ordinary nuclear recoils. If, on the other hand, two or more quasiparticle excitations are directly produced in the dark matter interaction, the kinematics of the scattering allows sensitivity to dark matter as light as ~keV at the same energy resolution. We present in detail the theoretical framework for describing excitations in superfluid helium, using it to calculate the rate for the leading dark matter scattering interaction, where an off-shell phonon splits into two or more higher-momentum excitations. We validate our analytic results against the measured and simulated dynamic response of superfluid helium. F...

  10. Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluidity in a two-dimensional imbalanced atomic Fermi gas (United States)

    Toniolo, Umberto; Mulkerin, Brendan; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui


    We present an extensive study of two-dimensional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) superfluidity in a spin-imbalanced two-component atomic Fermi gas. In the context of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase, we explore a wide and generic class of pairing gap functions with explicit spatial dependency. The mean-field theory of such phases is applied through the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in which the pairing gap can be determined self-consistently. To systematically explore the configuration space we consider both the canonical and grand canonical ensembles where we control the polarization or chemical potentials of the system, respectively. The mean-field calculations enable us to understand the nature of the phase transitions in the fully paired Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state, exotic LO phase, and partially polarized free Fermi gas (NPP). The order of the phase transitions has been examined and, in particular, we find a weak first-order phase transition between the exotic inhomogeneous LO phase and the BCS phase. In comparison to the three-dimensional case, where the phase diagram is dominated by a generic separation phase, we predict a broader parameter space for the spatially inhomogeneous LO phase. By computing the superfluid density of the LO phase at different polarization, we show how the superfluidity of the system is suppressed with increasing spin polarization.

  11. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams. (United States)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei


    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2(+) and He4(+), which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)(n)C(+), (He)(n)Cl(+), and (He)(n)CCl(+). Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  12. Coupling an Ensemble of Electrons on Superfluid Helium to a Superconducting Circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Fragner, A.; Koolstra, G.; Ocola, L.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Schuster, D. I.


    The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here, we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be approximate to 1 MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  13. Coupling an Ensemble of Electrons on Superfluid Helium to a Superconducting Circuit (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Fragner, A.; Koolstra, G.; Ocola, L.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Schuster, D. I.


    The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here, we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be ≈1 MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  14. Serial single molecule electron diffraction imaging: diffraction background of superfluid helium droplets (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Lei, Lei; Alghamdi, Maha; Oswalt, Andrew; Kong, Wei


    In an effort to solve the crystallization problem in crystallography, we have been engaged in developing a method termed "serial single molecule electron diffraction imaging" (SS-EDI). The unique features of SS-EDI are superfluid helium droplet cooling and field-induced orientation: together the two features constitute a molecular goniometer. Unfortunately, the helium atoms surrounding the sample molecule also contribute to a diffraction background. In this report, we analyze the properties of a superfluid helium droplet beam and its doping statistics, and demonstrate the feasibility of overcoming the background issue by using the velocity slip phenomenon of a pulsed droplet beam. Electron diffraction profiles and pair correlation functions of ferrocene-monomer-doped droplets and iodine-nanocluster-doped droplets are presented. The timing of the pulsed electron gun and the effective doping efficiency under different dopant pressures can both be controlled for size selection. This work clears any doubt of the effectiveness of superfluid helium droplets in SS-EDI, thereby advancing the effort in demonstrating the "proof-of-concept" one step further.

  15. Coupling an Ensemble of Electrons on Superfluid Helium to a Superconducting Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yang


    Full Text Available The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here, we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be ≈1  MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  16. Magnetization of the Several Fluid Phases of Normal and Superfluid ^3He (United States)

    Mikhalchuk, A. G.; White, K. S.; Bozler, H. M.; Gould, C. M.


    We report here the final results of our work in measuring the magnetization of liquid ^3He at saturated vapor pressure in each of its phases (normal, superfluid A, superfluid B) in magnetic fields up to 0.3T. Most of the results are derived from static magnetization measurements using a dc SQUID while passing the sample through a flux transformer. In the normal liquid we also have measured the nuclear paramagnetism directly with NMR to compare with earlier work of Ramm, et al., (J. Low Temp. Phys. 2, 539 (1970)). The results include (1) M_B(T,H), the magnetization in the superfluid B phase, (2) M_A, (3) Δ M_AB(H), (4) M_N(T) in the normal phase from TC to 1K, (5) \\chi_N(T) from low-frequency NMR, (6) \\chi_D, the core diamagnetism of ^3He liquid which is suppressed from the atomic value by several per cent, and (7) qualitative dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate upon magnetic field, temperature, and surface conditions. Further descriptions are available on our group's Web site.

  17. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation,...

  18. Rotational spectrum of cyanoacetylene solvated with helium atoms. (United States)

    Topic, W; Jäger, W; Blinov, N; Roy, P-N; Botti, M; Moroni, S


    The high resolution microwave spectra of He(N)-HCCCN clusters were studied in the size ranges of 1-18 and 25-31. In the absence of an accompanying infrared study, rotational excitation energies were computed by the reptation quantum Monte Carlo method and used to facilitate the search and assignment of R(0) transitions from N > 6, as well as R(1) transitions with N > 1. The assignments in the range of 25-31 are accurate to +/-2 cluster size units, with an essentially certain relative ordering. The rotational transition frequencies decrease with N = 1-6 and then show oscillatory behavior for larger cluster sizes, which is now recognized to be a manifestation of the onset and microscopic evolution of superfluidity. For cluster sizes beyond completion of the first solvation shell the rotational frequencies increase significantly above the large-droplet limit. This behavior, common to other linear molecules whose interaction with He features a strong nearly equatorial minimum, is analyzed using path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The He density in the incipient second solvation shell is shown to open a new channel for long permutation cycles, thus increasing the decoupling of the quantum solvent from the rotation of the dopant molecule.

  19. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  20. Modeling differential rotations of compact stars in equilibriums (United States)

    Uryū, Kōji; Tsokaros, Antonios; Baiotti, Luca; Galeazzi, Filippo; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Shin'ichirou


    Outcomes of numerical relativity simulations of massive core collapses or binary neutron star mergers with moderate masses suggest formations of rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. Subsequent fall back accretion may also amplify the degree of differential rotation. We propose new formulations for modeling the differential rotation of those compact stars, and present selected solutions of differentially rotating, stationary, and axisymmetric compact stars in equilibrium. For the cases when rotating stars reach break-up velocities, the maximum masses of such rotating models are obtained.

  1. Fluctuations of Imbalanced Fermionic Superfluids in Two Dimensions Induce Continuous Quantum Phase Transitions and Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Strack


    Full Text Available We study the nature of superfluid pairing in imbalanced Fermi mixtures in two spatial dimensions. We present evidence that the combined effect of Fermi surface mismatch and order parameter fluctuations of the superfluid condensate can lead to continuous quantum phase transitions from a normal Fermi mixture to an intermediate Sarma-Liu-Wilczek superfluid with two gapless Fermi surfaces—even when mean-field theory (incorrectly predicts a first-order transition to a phase-separated “Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer plus excess fermions” ground state. We propose a mechanism for non-Fermi-liquid behavior from repeated scattering processes between the two Fermi surfaces and fluctuating Cooper pairs. Prospects for experimental observation with ultracold atoms are discussed.

  2. Confirmation of bistable stellar differential rotation profiles (United States)

    Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Brandenburg, A.


    Context. Solar-like differential rotation is characterized by a rapidly rotating equator and slower poles. However, theoretical models and numerical simulations can also result in a slower equator and faster poles when the overall rotation is slow. Aims: We study the critical rotational influence under which differential rotation flips from solar-like (fast equator, slow poles) to an anti-solar one (slow equator, fast poles). We also estimate the non-diffusive (Λ effect) and diffusive (turbulent viscosity) contributions to the Reynolds stress. Methods: We present the results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of mildly turbulent convection in spherical wedge geometry. Here we apply a fully compressible setup which would suffer from a prohibitive time step constraint if the real solar luminosity was used. To avoid this problem while still representing the same rotational influence on the flow as in the Sun, we increase the luminosity by a factor of roughly 106 and the rotation rate by a factor of 102. We regulate the convective velocities by varying the amount of heat transported by thermal conduction, turbulent diffusion, and resolved convection. Results: Increasing the efficiency of resolved convection leads to a reduction of the rotational influence on the flow and a sharp transition from solar-like to anti-solar differential rotation for Coriolis numbers around 1.3. We confirm the recent finding of a large-scale flow bistability: contrasted with running the models from an initial condition with unprescribed differential rotation, the initialization of the model with certain kind of rotation profile sustains the solution over a wider parameter range. The anti-solar profiles are found to be more stable against perturbations in the level of convective turbulent velocity than the solar-type solutions. Conclusions: Our results may have implications for real stars that start their lives as rapid rotators implying solar-like rotation in the early main

  3. Experimental Studies of the Growth Kinetics of Methane Clathrate Hydrates & Superfluid Hydrodynamics on the Nanoscale (United States)

    Botimer, Jeffrey David

    This thesis details the experimental findings of three distinct research projects. The first studies the growth kinetics of methane clathrate hydrates grown under the influence of multiple factors including surfactants, porous media, substrate wetting properties, and salt content. The second investigates the flow behaviors of superfluid helium through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes. The third models the frequency response of a quartz tuning fork in high pressure normal and superfluid helium and demonstrates how quartz tuning forks can be used as cheap, small, in situ, cryogenic pressure gauges. The first project reports studies of the kinetics of growth of methane hydrates from liquid water containing small amounts of surfactant (water and solid phase in the reaction vessel, or in situ micro-Raman measurements or in situ NMR measurements. These diagnostics show that the uptake of methane and the conversion of liquid water to a solid phase do not occur simultaneously; the uptake of gas always lags the visual and spectroscopic signatures of the disappearance of liquid water and the formation of solid. The evidence suggests that the SDS causes water to form an intermediate immobile solid-like state before combining with the methane to form hydrate. The growth mechanism is related to the surfactant and disappears for low SDS concentrations (pipe lengths (1-30mm), and pipe radii (130--230nm). As a function of pressure we observe two distinct flow regimes above and below a critical pressure Pc. For P The second project studies pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high aspect ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0--30 atm), reservoir temperature (0.8--2.5K), pipe lengths (1--30mm), and pipe radii (130--230nm). As a function of pressure we observe two distinct flow regimes above and below a critical pressure Pc. For P.

  4. Applicability of the Atkins model to the ion behavior in superfluid helium (United States)

    Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.


    The properties of ion clusters in superfluid helium are usually treated within the model proposed by Atkins (the snowball model). However, although a solid sphere of radius Ra around the seed ion can actually exist, it is vitally important to which extent it really governs the scattering mechanisms of various thermal excitations at the cluster. Detailed analysis of available data on the phonon as well as the impurity and Stokes mobilities reveals that the true unifying factor in the discussed picture is a power-law density enhancement in the vicinity of the seed charged particle caused by the polarization forces rather than the radius Ra

  5. From cosmology to cold atoms: observation of Sakharov oscillations in a quenched atomic superfluid. (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Lung; Gurarie, Victor; Chin, Cheng


    Predicting the dynamics of many-body systems far from equilibrium is a challenging theoretical problem. A long-predicted phenomenon in hydrodynamic nonequilibrium systems is the occurrence of Sakharov oscillations, which manifest in the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale correlations of galaxies. Here, we report the observation of Sakharov oscillations in the density fluctuations of a quenched atomic superfluid through a systematic study in both space and time domains and with tunable interaction strengths. Our work suggests a different approach to the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems and the exploration of their analogs in cosmology and astrophysics.

  6. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A


    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  7. Transfer probability measurements in the superfluid 116Sn+60Ni system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari D.


    Full Text Available We measured excitation functions for the main transfer channels in the 116Sn+60Ni reaction from above to well below the Coulomb barrier. The experiment has been performed in inverse kinematics, detecting the lighter (target-like ions with the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA at very forward angles. The comparison between the data and microscopic calculations for the present case and for the previously measured 96Zr+40Ca system, namely superfluid and near closed shells nuclei, should significantly improve our understanding of nucleon-nucleon correlation properties in multinucleon transfer processes.

  8. Photothermal optomechanics in superfluid helium coupled to a fiber-based cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Kashkanova, A D; Brown, C D; Flowers-Jacobs, N E; Childress, L; Hoch, S W; Hohmann, L; Ott, K; Reichel, J; Harris, J G E


    Presented in this paper are measurements of an optomechanical device in which various acoustic modes of a sample of superfluid helium couple to a fiber-based optical cavity. In contrast with recent work on the paraxial acoustic mode confined by the cavity mirrors, we focus specifically on the acoustic modes associated with the helium surrounding the cavity. This paper provides a framework for understanding how the acoustic modes depend on device geometry. The acoustic modes are observed using the technique of optomechanically induced transparency/amplification. The optomechanical coupling to these modes is found to be predominantly photothermal.

  9. Pairing Dynamics of Polar States in a Quenched p -Wave Superfluid Fermi Gas (United States)

    Yoon, Sukjin; Watanabe, Gentaro


    We study the pairing dynamics of polar states in a single species p -wave superfluid Fermi gas following a sudden change of the interaction strength. The anisotropy of pair interaction together with the presence of the centrifugal barrier results in profoundly different pairing dynamics compared to the s -wave case. Depending on the direction of quenches, quench to the BCS regime results in large oscillatory depletion of momentum occupation inside the Fermi sea or large oscillatory filling of momentum occupation. A crucial role of the resonant state supported by the centrifugal barrier in the pairing dynamics is elucidated.

  10. Development of a Mass Flowmeter based on the Coriolis Acceleration for Liquid, Supercritical and Superfluid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    De Jonge, T; Rivetti, A; Serio, L


    Beginning in the 1980's, Coriolis meters have gained generalised acceptance in liquid applications with a worldwide installed base of over 300,000 units. To meet the demands of cryogenic applications below 20 K, off-the-shelf Coriolis meters have been used, with minor design modifications and operational changes. The meters were originally calibrated on water and tested on liquid helium at 4.5 K, supercritical helium around 5 K and superfluid helium below 2 K. The meters maintain their intrinsic robustness and accuracy of better than 1% of measured value; accuracy is independent of density and temperature.

  11. Vortex line in a neutral finite-temperature superfluid Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Nicolai; Bruun, G. M.; Schneider, B. I.


    The structure of an isolated vortex in a dilute two-component neutral superfluid Fermi gas is studied within the context of self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Various thermodynamic properties are calculated, and the shift in the critical temperature due to the presence of the vortex...... is analyzed. The gapless excitations inside the vortex core are studied, and a scheme to detect these states and thus the presence of the vortex is examined. The numerical results are compared with various analytical expressions when appropriate....

  12. Shock wave evolution and discontinuity propagation for relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sun, E-mail: [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology (J-CPNPC), PMO-NJU, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    In this Letter, we have studied the shock wave and discontinuity propagation for relativistic superfluid with spontaneous U(1) symmetry breaking in the framework of hydrodynamics. General features of shock waves are provided, the propagation of discontinuity and the sound modes of shock waves are also presented. The first sound and the second sound are identified as the propagation of discontinuity, and the results are in agreement with earlier theoretical studies. Moreover, a differential equation, called the growth equation, is obtained to describe the decay and growth of the discontinuity propagating along its normal trajectory. The solution is in an integral form and special cases of diverging waves are also discussed.

  13. Nonlinear Interaction of Zero Sound with the Order Parameter Collective Modes in Superfluid HELIUM-3-BORON. (United States)

    McKenzie, Ross Hugh

    A brief overview of past experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear and nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the order parameter collective modes in superfluid ^3He-B is given before introducing the quasiclassical (QC) theory of superfluid ^3He. A new approach to calculating the linear and nonlinear response is presented. The QC propagator is calculated by expanding the low energy Dyson's equation in powers of the nonequilibrium self energy. The expression given for the expansion coefficients, involving products of pairs of equilibrium Green's functions, has a simple diagrammatic representation, and establishes a connection between the QC theory and other theoretical formalisms which have been used to investigate the collective modes. It is shown that the expansion coefficients satisfy Onsager-like relations and some identities required by gauge and galilean invariance. Consequently, this new approach to deriving dynamical equations for the collective modes is more efficient and transparent than solving the QC transport equations. This new approach is used to investigate the linear coupling of zero sound to the order parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous superfluid ^3 He. It makes tractable the treatment of (nonlinear) parametric processes involving zero sound and the collective modes. It is shown that the approximate particle-hole symmetry of the ^3He Fermi liquid determines important selection rules for nonlinear acoustic processes, just as it is well known to do for linear processes. Analogues with nonlinear optics guide the derivation, solution and interpretation of the dynamical equations for a three-wave resonance between two zero sound waves and the J = 2 ^+ order parameter collective mode. It is shown that stimulated Raman scattering and two phonon absorption of zero sound by the J = 2^+ collective mode should be observable when the pump sound wave has energy density larger than about one percent of the superfluid

  14. A PISO-like algorithm to simulate superfluid helium flow with the two-fluid model

    CERN Document Server

    Soulaine, Cyprien; Allain, Hervé; Baudouy, Bertrand; Van Weelderen, Rob


    This paper presents a segregated algorithm to solve numerically the superfluid helium (He II) equations using the two-fluid model. In order to validate the resulting code and illustrate its potential, different simulations have been performed. First, the flow through a capillary filled with He II with a heated area on one side is simulated and results are compared to analytical solutions in both Landau and Gorter–Mellink flow regimes. Then, transient heat transfer of a forced flow of He II is investigated. Finally, some two-dimensional simulations in a porous medium model are carried out.

  15. Superfluid-Mott-insulator transition in superconducting circuits with weak anharmonicity (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Li; Li, Ke-Min; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying


    We investigate theoretically the ground-state property of a two-dimensional array of superconducting circuits including the on-site superconducting qubits (SQs) with weak anharmonicity. In particular, we analyze the influence of this anharmonicity on the Mott-insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition. The complete ground-state phase diagrams are presented under the mean-field approximation. Interestingly, the anharmonicity of SQs affects the Mott lobes enormously, and the single excitation Mott lobe disappears when the anharmonicity becomes zero. Our results can be used to guide the implementations of quantum simulations using the superconducting circuits, which have nice integrating and flexibility.

  16. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars. 21 references.

  17. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars (United States)

    Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars.

  18. Spontaneous and superfluid chiral edge states in exciton-polariton condensates (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Li, G.; Liew, T. C. H.


    We present a scheme of interaction-induced topological band structures based on the spin anisotropy of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. We predict theoretically that this scheme allows the engineering of topological gaps, without requiring a magnetic field or strong spin-orbit interaction (transverse electric-transverse magnetic splitting). Under nonresonant pumping we find that an initially topologically trivial system undergoes a topological transition upon the spontaneous breaking of phase symmetry associated with polariton condensation. Under either nonresonant or resonant coherent pumping we find that it is also possible to engineer a topological dispersion that is linear in wave vector—a property associated with polariton superfluidity.

  19. The Electrical Activity of He II with Relative Motion of Normal and Superfluid Components (United States)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, E. K.


    It is shown that in the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components of He II with velocity w, an electric potential difference arises. The causes of this phenomenon are electrical properties of quantum vortex rings (QVR) and the anisotropic QVR energy dependence on its momentum due to w. Explicit analytical expressions for the potentials arising from the second sound wave in an external electric field are derived. The comparison of calculated values with observed ones is made, and new experiments are proposed.

  20. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Sandulescu, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, F-91505 (France)


    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed.

  1. Investigation of singularities in superfluid He/sup 3/ in liquid crystals by the homotopic topology methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovik, G.E.; Mineev, V.P.


    Various singularities in the superfluid He/sup 3/ are considered: vortices, disgyrations, pointlike singularities, vortices with ends, singular surfaces, and particle-like states, as well as disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals. A classification is presented of the topologically stable singularities. The methods of homotopic topology are used and are described with examples of well known systems such as superfluid He II, an isotropic ferromagnet, and a nematic liquid crystal. The possibility of applying these methods to ordinary crytals and to liquid crytals of the smectic type is discussed.

  2. Peculiar rotation of electron vortex beams. (United States)

    Schachinger, T; Löffler, S; Stöger-Pollach, M; Schattschneider, P


    Standard electron optics predicts Larmor image rotation in the magnetic lens field of a TEM. Introducing the possibility to produce electron vortex beams with quantized orbital angular momentum brought up the question of their rotational dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field. Recently, it has been shown that electron vortex beams can be prepared as free electron Landau states showing peculiar rotational dynamics, including no and cyclotron (double-Larmor) rotation. Additionally very fast Gouy rotation of electron vortex beams has been observed. In this work a model is developed which reveals that the rotational dynamics of electron vortices are a combination of slow Larmor and fast Gouy rotations and that the Landau states naturally occur in the transition region in between the two regimes. This more general picture is confirmed by experimental data showing an extended set of peculiar rotations, including no, cyclotron, Larmor and rapid Gouy rotations all present in one single convergent electron vortex beam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Properties of relativistically rotating quark stars (United States)

    Zhou, Enping


    In this work, quasi-equilibrium models of rapidly rotating triaxially deformed quark stars are computed in general relativistic gravity, assuming a conformally flat spatial geometry (Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation) and a polynomial equation of state. Especially, since we are using a full 3-D numerical relativity initial data code, we are able to consider the triaxially deformed rotating quark stars at very high spins. Such triaxially deformed stars are possible gravitational radiation sources detectable by ground based gravitational wave observatories. Additionally, the bifurcation from axisymmetric rotating sequence to triaxially rotating sequence hints a more realistic spin up limit for rotating compact stars compared with the mass-shedding limit. With future observations such as sub-millisecond pulsars, we could possibly distinguish between equation of states of compact stars, thus better understanding strong interaction in the low energy regime.

  4. Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum (United States)

    Kirillov, Oleg N.; Levi, Mark


    One of the many surprising results found in the mechanics of rotating systems is the stabilization of a particle in a rapidly rotating planar saddle potential. Besides the counterintuitive stabilization, an unexpected precessional motion is observed. In this note, we show that this precession is due to a Coriolis-like force caused by the rotation of the potential. To our knowledge, this is the first example where such a force arises in an inertial reference frame. We also propose a simple mechanical demonstration of this effect.

  5. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction (United States)


    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules. PMID:27448887

  6. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.


    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  7. Static structures of the BCS-like holographic superfluid in AdS4 spacetime (United States)

    Lan, Shanquan; Liu, Wenbiao; Tian, Yu


    We investigate in detail the m2=0 Abelian Higgs model in AdS4 , which is considered as the holographic dual of the most BCS-like superfluid. In homogeneous and isotropic superfluid solutions, we calculate the fourth-sound speeds, the square of which approaches 1 /2 with increasing chemical potential (lowering temperature). Then we present the single dark soliton solutions, which becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. For the first time, we also find the interesting double and triple dark soliton solutions, which is unexpected and shows the possibility of more complicated static configurations. Finally, we investigate vortex solutions. For winding number n =1 , the vortex becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. At a given chemical potential, with increasing winding number, first the vortex becomes bigger and the charge density depletion becomes larger, and then the charge density depletion settles down at a certain value and the growth of the vortex size is found to obey a scaling symmetry.

  8. Development of a proof of concept low temperature 4He Superfluid Magnetic Pump (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.


    We describe the development and experimental results of a proof of concept Superfluid Magnetic Pump in this work. This novel low temperature, no moving part pump can replace the existing bellows-piston driven 4He or 3He-4He mixture compressor/circulators used in various sub Kelvin refrigeration systems such as dilution, Superfluid pulse tube, Stirling, or active magnetic regenerative refrigerators. Due to the superior thermal transport properties of sub-Lambda 4He this pump can also be used as a simple circulator to distribute cooling over large surface areas. Our pump was experimentally shown to produce a maximum flow rate of 440 mg/s (averaged over cycle), 665 mg/s (peak) and produced a maximum pressure difference of 2323 Pa using only the more common isotope of helium, 4He. This pump worked in an ;ideal; thermodynamic state: The experimental results matched with the theoretical values predicted by a computer model. Pump curves were developed to map the performance of this pump. This successful demonstration will enable this novel pump to be implemented in suitable sub Kelvin refrigeration systems.

  9. Non-linear Model Predictive Control for cooling strings of superconducting magnets using superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)673023; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    In each of eight arcs of the 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 2.5 km long strings of super-conducting magnets are cooled with superfluid Helium II at 1.9 K. The temperature stabilisation is a challenging control problem due to complex non-linear dynamics of the magnets temperature and presence of multiple operational constraints. Strong nonlinearities and variable dead-times of the dynamics originate at strongly heat-flux dependent effective heat conductivity of superfluid that varies three orders of magnitude over the range of possible operational conditions. In order to improve the temperature stabilisation, a proof of concept on-line economic output-feedback Non-linear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC) is presented in this thesis. The controller is based on a novel complex first-principles distributed parameters numerical model of the temperature dynamics over a 214 m long sub-sector of the LHC that is characterized by very low computational cost of simulation needed in real-time optimizat...

  10. Study of Temperature Wave Propagation in Superfluid Helium Focusing on Radio-Frequency Cavity Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Koettig, T; Avellino, S; Junginger, T; Bremer, J


    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Local hot spots at the cavity surface initiate temperature waves in the surrounding superfluid helium that acts as cooling fluid at typical temperatures in the range of 1.6 K to 2 K. The temperature wave is characterised by the properties of superfluid helium such as the second sound velocity. For high heat load densities second sound velocities greater than the standard literature values are observed. This fast propagation has been verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound is linked to OST signals. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the OST signal especially the incident angle dependency. The characterised OSTs are used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resolution was proven to b...

  11. Coupled electron-hole bilayer graphene sheets: Superfluidity, Charge Density Waves, and Coupled Wigner Crystals (United States)

    Zarenia, Mohammad; Peeters, Francois; Neilson, David

    The juxtaposition of superconducting and charge density wave (CDW) phases that is often observed in connection with High-Temperature Superconductors, is attracting considerable attention. In these systems, the crystal lattice provides a polarizable background, needed to drive the CDW phase. We report on a different system that exhibits the association of superfluid and CDW phases, but in which the polarizable background is uniform. Our system consists of two coupled two-dimensional bilayers of graphene, one bilayer containing electrons and the other holes interacting through the long range Coulomb interaction. To account for the inter-layer correlation energy accurately, we introduce a new approach which is based on the random phase approximation at high densities and interpolation between the weakly- and strongly-interacting regimes. We determine the zero temperature phase diagram in which the two control parameters are the equal electron and hole densities and the thickness of the insulating barrier separating the two bilayers. We find in addition to an electron-hole superfluid and a one-dimensional CDW phases that there exist also a coupled electron-hole Wigner crystal. The structure of the crystal background plays no role in determining the phase diagram. This work was supported by the Flemish Science Foundation (FWO).

  12. Experimental properties of the A-B phase boundary in superfluid sup 3 He

    CERN Document Server

    Plenderleith, G N


    This thesis describes three experiments performed on superfluid sup 3 He at 150 mu K. At ultra low temperatures, the entropy difference between the A and B phases is relatively large. This leads to observable thermodynamic effects when transforming one phase into another. The latent heat of the transition is related to the difference in entropy of the two phases by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as is the critical field of the transition. We measure the temperature dependence of the both latent heat and the critical field up to temperatures of 220 mu K. The latent heat of the transition produces observable effects when oscillating the AB interface at low frequencies. We can see the increase (decrease) in temperature of the superfluid caused by the decrease (increase) in the volume of A phase. At higher oscillation frequencies, the temperature oscillations become too fast for our thermometry time constants. However we are still able to measure the frictional dissipation of the boundary as it oscillates in the...

  13. Collective classical and quantum fields in plasmas, superconductors, superfluid $^{3}$He, and liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen Kleinert


    This is an introductory book dealing with collective phenomena in many-body systems. A gas of bosons or fermions can show oscillations of various types of density. These are described by different combinations of field variables. Especially delicate is the competition of these variables. In superfluid 3He, for example, the atoms can be attracted to each other by molecular forces, whereas they are repelled from each other at short distance due to a hardcore repulsion. The attraction gives rise to Cooper pairs, and the repulsion is overcome by paramagnon oscillations. The combination is what finally led to the discovery of superfluidity in 3He. In general, the competition between various channels can most efficiently be studied by means of a classical version of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. A gas of electrons is controlled by the interplay of plasma oscillations and pair formation. In a system of rod- or disc-like molecules, liquid crystals are observed with directional orientations that behave in ...

  14. Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid (4)He. (United States)

    Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A


    The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3 (+), He(*) ((3)S), He2 (∗) ((3)Σu), and e(-)) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid (4)He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He(*).

  15. The effect of superfluid hydrodynamics on pulsar glitch sizes and waiting times (United States)

    Haskell, B.


    Pulsar glitches, sudden jumps in frequency observed in many radio pulsars, may be the macroscopic manifestation of superfluid vortex avalanches on the microscopic scale. Small-scale quantum mechanical simulations of vortex motion in a decelerating container have shown that such events are possible and predict power-law distributions for the size of the events, and exponential distributions for the waiting time. Despite a paucity of data, this prediction is consistent with the size and waiting time distributions of most glitching pulsars. Nevertheless, a few object appear to glitch quasi-periodically, and exhibit many large glitches, while a recent study of the Crab pulsar has suggested deviations from a power-law distribution for smaller glitches. In this Letter, we incorporate the results of quantum mechanical simulations in a macroscopic superfluid hydrodynamics simulation. We show that the effect of vortex coupling to the neutron and proton fluids in the star naturally leads to deviations from power-law distributions for sizes, and from exponential distributions for waiting times, and we predict a cutoff in the size distribution for small glitches.

  16. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos


    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference...

  17. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  18. Extraction of radioactive positive ions across the surface of superfluid helium : A new method to produce cold radioactive nuclear beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    Alpha-decay recoils Rn-219 were stopped in superfluid helium and positive ions were extracted by electric field into the vapour phase. This first quantitative observation of extraction was successfully conducted using highly sensitive radioactivity detection. The efficiency for extraction across the

  19. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold


    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  20. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickermann, Andreas


    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  1. Galaxy cluster's rotation (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.


    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  2. Investigating stellar surface rotation using observations of starspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena


    information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based....... Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get...

  3. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  4. Crystallized and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Fei; Fan, Heng; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Wu-Ming


    Vortex is a topological defect with a quantized winding number of the phase in superfluids and superconductors. Here, we investigate the crystallized (triangular, square, honeycomb) and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by using the damped projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The amorphous vortices are the result of the considerable deviation induced by the interaction of atomic-molecular vortices. By changing the atom-molecule interaction from attractive to repulsive, the configuration of vortices can change from an overlapped atomic-molecular vortices to carbon-dioxide-type ones, then to atomic vortices with interstitial molecular vortices, and finally into independent separated ones. The Raman detuning can tune the ratio of the atomic vortex to the molecular vortex. We provide a phase diagram of vortices in rotating atomic-molecular BECs as a function of Raman detuning and the strength of atom-molecule interaction.

  5. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard


    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...... than the traditional local volume estimators. Furthermore, the spatial rotator can be seen as a further development of the Cavalieri estimator, which does not require randomization of sectioning or viewing direction. The tissue may thus be sectioned in any arbitrary direction, making it easy...

  6. Superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation, and structure in one-dimensional Luttinger liquids (United States)

    Vranješ Markić, L.; Vrcan, H.; Zuhrianda, Z.; Glyde, H. R.


    We report diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the properties of a one-dimensional (1D) Bose quantum fluid. The equation of state, the superfluid fraction ρS/ρ0 , the one-body density matrix n (x ) , the pair distribution function g (x ) , and the static structure factor S (q ) are evaluated. The aim is to test Luttinger liquid (LL) predictions for 1D fluids over a wide range of fluid density and LL parameter K . The 1D Bose fluid examined is a single chain of 4He atoms confined to a line in the center of a narrow nanopore. The atoms cannot exchange positions in the nanopore, the criterion for 1D. The fluid density is varied from the spinodal density where the 1D liquid is unstable to droplet formation to the density of bulk liquid 4He. In this range, K varies from K >2 at low density, where a robust superfluid is predicted, to K <0.5 , where fragile 1D superflow and solidlike peaks in S (q ) are predicted. For uniform pore walls, the ρS/ρ0 scales as predicted by LL theory. The n (x ) and g (x ) show long range oscillations and decay with x as predicted by LL theory. The amplitude of the oscillations is large at high density (small K ) and small at low density (large K ). The K values obtained from different properties agree well verifying the internal structure of LL theory. In the presence of disorder, the ρS/ρ0 does not scale as predicted by LL theory. A single vJ parameter in the LL theory that recovers LL scaling was not found. The one body density matrix (OBDM) in disorder is well predicted by LL theory. The "dynamical" superfluid fraction, ρSD/ρ0 , is determined. The physics of the deviation from LL theory in disorder and the "dynamical" ρSD/ρ0 are discussed.

  7. Extraordinary sensitivity of the internal Doppler effect in a superfluid 4-3He admixture (United States)

    Nepomnyashchy, Y. A.; Gov, N.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.


    Recently, a nontrivial T (temperature) behavior was found for the Doppler shift of the fourth and first sounds in superfluid 4He with internal motion: a plateau in the phonon region and a sharp peak in the beginning of the roton region of the Doppler parameters Γ4,1 (T)=(Δu4,1/vs)v=0. The situation is similar to the case of second sound investigated long ago for Γ2(T)=(Δu2/vn)v=0, but the signs and values of plateaus and peaks indicated some kinds of Doppler anomalies: the ``outstripping effect'' (OEF), in addition to the ``back-entrainment effect'' (BEF) described by Khalatnikov (Δui is the Doppler shift of ith sound; vs, vn, v are the velocities of superfluid and normal components and of the liquid as a whole, respectively). The Doppler anomalies mean the breaking of some ``natural'' suppositions: that Δui is intermediate between vn and vs, and that the sign of (Δui-v) is determined by the velocity of the ``dominant'' component (at low T this is the superfluid component for first and fourth sounds, vd=vs, and the normal one for second sound, vd=vn). The direction of (Δui-v) can be opposite to the direction of (vd-v) (BEF) and the center of spreading sound can move faster than the flowing dominant component when the other component is stationary: Δui>vd (OEF). The Doppler anomalies as well as the very existence of the nonkinematic (internal) Doppler shift Δui-v≠0, and its nontrivial T behavior are special manifestations of the superfluidity. Here we investigate the Doppler phenomenon in the 4-3He mixture. We find strong sensitivity of the T behavior of the Doppler shift and of the Doppler anomalies to the 3He admixture. At low T this is associated with a general peculiarity of the 4-3He mixture: the nonanalyticity of its characteristics, i.e., the inequivalence of T-->0, X-->0 to X-->0, T-->0 (X is the concentration of 3He). We find some ``key derivatives:'' ∂ρ/∂w2, ∂σ/∂w2, crucial for the T behavior of Γi whose role changes at X≠0 (ρ and

  8. Strongly correlated bosons on optical superlattices: Dynamics and relaxation in the superfluid and insulating regimes (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Olshanii, Maxim; Muramatsu, Alejandro


    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of hard-core bosons (HCB's) on one-dimensional lattices. The dynamics is analyzed after a sudden switch-on or switch-off of a superlattice potential, which can bring the system into insulating or superfluid phases, respectively. A collapse and revival of the zero-momentum peak can be seen in the first case. We study in detail the relaxation of these integrable systems towards equilibrium. We show that after relaxation time averages of physical observables, like the momentum distribution function, can be predicted by means of a generalization of the Gibbs distribution. [M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, and M. Olshanii, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053616 (2006).

  9. Superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in 2D optical lattices bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Guardian, A.; Paredes, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)


    Ultracold Fermi molecules lying in 2D square optical lattices bilayers with its dipole moment perpendicularly aligned to the layers, having interlayer finite range s-wave interactions, are shown to form superfluid phases, both, in the Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) regime of Cooper pairs, and in the condensate regime of bound dimeric molecules. We demonstrate this result using a functional integral scheme within the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the deep Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition, we predict critical temperatures around 5 nK and 20 nK for {sup 23}Na{sup 40}K and OH molecules, which are within reach of current experiments [J. W. Park, S. Will and M. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 205302 (2015)]. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Topological Fulde-Ferrell superfluid in spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gases (United States)

    Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui


    We theoretically predict a topological matter—topological inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell superfluid—in one-dimensional atomic Fermi gases with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling near s-wave Feshbach resonances. The realization of such a spin-orbit-coupled Fermi system has already been demonstrated recently by using a two-photon Raman process and the extra one-dimensional confinement is easy to achieve using a tight two-dimensional optical lattice. The topological Fulde-Ferrell superfluid phase is characterized by a nonzero center-of-mass momentum and a nontrivial Berry phase. By tuning the Rabi frequency and the detuning of Raman laser beams, we show that such an exotic topological phase occupies a significant part of parameter space and therefore it could be easily observed experimentally, by using, for example, momentum-resolved and spatially resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy.

  11. Design and Fabrication of Superfluid Heat Exchanger Tubes for the LHC Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Favre, G; Ferreira, L M A; Rossi, L; Savary, F


    The dipole and quadrupole cold masses of the LHC machine require about 1 700 heat exchanger tubes (HET). In operation the HET carries a two-phase flow of superfluid helium at sub-atmospheric pressure. The HET consists of an oxygen-free, seamless copper tube equipped with stainless steel ends. After an evaluation of different alternatives, a design based on the technologies of vacuum brazing and electron beam welding has been adopted. Presence of these multiple technologies at CERN and synergies with the cleaning, handling and transport of other 15-metre components for LHC, motivated CERN to undertake this series fabrication on site. The raw copper tubes are procured in industry, presenting challenging issues of geometric precision. Organisation of the HET fabrication includes cryomeasurements to validate cleaning procedures, characterisation of welding procedures, design and experimental verification of buckling pressure, quality control during series production. The series fabrication of these long, multi-te...

  12. Study of Transient Heat Transport Mechanisms in Superfluid Helium Cooled Rutherford-Cables

    CERN Document Server


    The Large Hadron Collider leverages superconducting magnets to focus the particle beam or keep it in its circular track. These superconducting magnets are composed of NbTi-cables with a special insulation that allows superfluid helium to enter and cool the superconducting cable. Loss mechanisms, e.g. continuous random loss of particles escaping the collimation system heating up the magnets. Hence, a local temperature increase can occur and lead to a quench of the magnets when the superconductor warms up above the critical temperature. A detailed knowledge about the temperature increases in the superconducting cable (Rutherford type) ensures a secure operation of the LHC. A sample of the Rutherford cable has been instrumented with temperature sensors. Experiments with this sample have been performed within this study to investigate the cooling performance of the helium in the cable due to heat deposition. The experiment uses a superconducting coil, placed in a cryostat, to couple with the magnetic field loss m...

  13. PIP-II Cryogenic System and the evolution of Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Anindya [Fermilab; Rane, Tejas [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab


    The PIP-II cryogenic system consists of a Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant (SHCP) and a Cryogenic Distribution System (CDS) connecting the SHCP to the Superconducting (SC) Linac consisting of 25 cryomodules. The dynamic heat load of the SC cavities for continuous wave (CW) as well as pulsed mode of operation has been listed out. The static heat loads of the cavities along with the CDS have also been discussed. Simulation study has been carried out to compute the supercritical helium (SHe) flow requirements for each cryomodule. Comparison between the flow requirements of the cryomodules for the CW and pulsed modes of operation have also been made. From the total computed heat load and pressure drop values in the CDS, the basic specifications for the SHCP, required for cooling the SC Linac, have evolved.

  14. Cable Insulation Scheme to Improve Heat Transfer to Superfluid Helium in Nb-Ti Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M


    In superconducting magnets operating at high heat loads as the ones for interaction region of particle colliders or for fast cycling synchrotrons, the limited heat transfer capability of state-of-the-art electrical insulation may constitute a heavy limitation to performance. In the LHC main magnets, Nb-Ti epoxy-free insulation, composed of polyimide tapes, has proved to be permeable to superfluid helium, however the heat flux is rather limited. After a review of the standard insulation scheme for Nb-Ti and of the associated heat transfer mechanisms, we show the existence of a large margin available to improve insulation permeability.We propose a possible way to profit of such a margin in order to increase significantly the maximum heat flux drainable from an all polyimide insulated Nb-Ti coil, as it is used in modern accelerator magnets.

  15. Rydberg States of Alkali Metal Atoms on Superfluid Helium Droplets - Theoretical Considerations (United States)

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Lackner, Florian; Hauser, Andreas W.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.


    The bound states of electrons on the surface of superfluid helium have been a research topic for several decades. One of the first systems treated was an electron bound to an ionized helium cluster. Here, a similar system is considered, which consists of a helium droplet with an ionized dopant inside and an orbiting electron on the outside. In our theoretical investigation we select alkali metal atoms (AK) as central ions, stimulated by recent experimental studies of Rydberg states for Na, Rb, and Cs attached to superfluid helium nanodroplets. Experimental spectra , obtained by electronic excitation and subsequent ionization, showed blueshifts for low lying electronic states and redshifts for Rydberg states. In our theoretical treatment the diatomic AK^+-He potential energy curves are first computed with ab initio methods. These potentials are then used to calculate the solvation energy of the ion in a helium droplet as a function of the number of atoms. Additional potential terms, derived from the obtained helium density distribution, are added to the undisturbed atomic pseudopotential in order to simulate a 'modified' potential felt by the outermost electron. This allows us to compute a new set of eigenstates and eigenenergies, which we compare to the experimentally observed energy shifts for highly excited alkali metal atoms on helium nanodroplets. A. Golov and S. Sekatskii, Physica B, 1994, 194, 555-556 E. Loginov, C. Callegari, F. Ancilotto, and M. Drabbels, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115, 6779-6788 F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 1404-1408 F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Theisen, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 18781-18788

  16. Applied string theory, hot and cold. A holographic view on quark-gluon plasma and superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samberg, Andreas Wilhelm


    This thesis deals with applications of gauge/gravity duality to strong-coupling phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma and far-from-equilibrium superfluids. In a first part we search for model-independent (universal) behavior in various non-Abelian gauge-theory plasmas at finite temperature and chemical potential. We employ the holographic duals of strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and three one-parameter families of non-conformal deformations thereof, two of which solve the equations of motion of a five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar action. We study the free energy and associated thermodynamic quantities of heavy quarks and bound quark-anti-quark (Q anti Q) pairs as well as the Q anti Q binding energy and the running coupling. We find qualitative agreement with available lattice QCD data. Moreover, we show that several observables exhibit universal behavior for all values of the chemical potential. In a second part we investigate the real-time dynamics of a bosonic superfluid in two spatial dimensions after initial quenches that take the system to far-from-equilibrium states characterized by many topological vortex defects in association with quantum turbulence. To this end we numerically solve the full equations of motion of the holographically dual Abelian Higgs model on four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We observe a universal non-equilibrium late-time regime characterized by power-law behavior in a two-point correlation function and in characteristic length scales, which we interpret as a non-thermal fixed point.

  17. Faraday rotation measure synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG


    We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2)


    Baumgarten, A.; Karalis, A.J.


    A threaded rotatable shaft is provided which rotates in response to linear movement of a nut, the shaft being surrounded by a pair of bellows members connected to either side of the nut to effectively seal the reactor from leakage and also to store up energy to shut down the reactor in the event of a power failure. (AEC)

  19. Units of rotational information (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping


    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  20. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel


    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...

  1. SMAP Faraday Rotation (United States)

    Le Vine, David


    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  2. Glitches as probes of neutron star internal structure and dynamics: Effects of the superfluid-superconducting core (United States)

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil


    Glitches, sudden spin-up of pulsars with subsequent recovery, provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate various physical processes, including the crust-core coupling, distribution of reservoir angular momentum within different internal layers, spin-up in neutral and charged superfluids and constraining the equation of state of the neutron star (NS) matter. In this work, depending on the dynamic interaction between the vortex lines and the nuclei in the inner crust, and between the vortex lines and the magnetic flux tubes in the outer core, various types of relaxation behavior are obtained and confronted with the observations. It is shown that the glitches have strong potential to deduce information about the cooling behavior and interior magnetic field configuration of NSs. Some implications of the relative importance of the external spin-down torques and the superfluid internal torques for recently observed unusual glitches are also discussed.

  3. Ultracold Atoms in a Square Lattice with Spin-Orbit Coupling: Charge Order, Superfluidity, and Topological Signatures (United States)

    Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei


    We present an ab initio, numerically exact study of attractive fermions in square lattices with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The ground state of this system is a supersolid, with coexisting charge and superfluid order. The superfluid is composed of both singlet and triplet pairs induced by spin-orbit coupling. We perform large-scale calculations using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method to provide the first full, quantitative description of the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the system. In addition to characterizing the exotic physics, our results will serve as essential high-accuracy benchmarks for the intense theoretical and especially experimental efforts in ultracold atoms to realize and understand an expanding variety of quantum Hall and topological superconductor systems.

  4. Rotating stars in relativity. (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  5. Étude analytique et numérique de la transition Superfluide - verre de Bose à deuxdimensions


    Álvarez Zúñiga, Juan Pablo


    The interplay of disorder (i.e. impurities) and interactions is one of the most fundamentalquestions in Condensed Matter Physics that has received a lot attention in the past couple ofdecades. The quantum phase transition from Superfluid to Bose glass driven by disorder haspuzzled theoreticians and experimentalists alike, leaving unresolved questions despite their bestefforts. The work presented in this thesis addresses some of these questions for two models ofdisordered hard-core bosons in t...

  6. Development of low temperature solid state detectors for ultra-cold neutrons within superfluid sup 4 He

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Green, K; Grinten, M G D; Iaydjiev, P S; Ivanov, S N; Pendlebury, J M; Shiers, D B; Tucker, M A H; Yoshiki, H; Geltenbort, P


    As part of an R and D programme for the development of a next-generation experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment, in which ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are produced and stored in superfluid sup 4 He (superthermal source), we have developed cryogenic detectors of UCN that can operate in situ within the superfluid. Surface barrier detectors and PIN diode detectors have been tested and proven to work well at temperatures as low as 80 mK. When combined with a layer of sup 6 LiF which converts neutrons to charged particles, these detectors form a reliable UCN detection system which has been tested in liquid helium down to 430 mK. The detectors have operated within superfluid helium for periods of up to 30 days with no signs of degradation. The development of this detection system has enabled us to measure the flux of UCN from a superthermal UCN source with no intervening transmission windows which can attenuate the flux. The addition of thin films of magnetically aligned iron also enables these detec...

  7. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi


    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.

  8. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Stergioulas


    Full Text Available Because of the information they can yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are one of the more possible sources of detectable gravitational waves, rotating relativistic stars have been receiving significant attention in recentyears. We review the latest theoretical and numerical methods for modeling rotating relativistic stars, including stars with a strong magnetic field and hot proto-neutron stars. We also review nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in rotating stars and summarize the latest developments regarding the gravitational wave-driven (CFS instability in both polar and axial quasi-normal modes.

  9. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  10. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators (United States)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 μm - 25 μm thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 μW at 750 mK, 977 μW at 500 mK, and 409 μW at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not

  11. Viscosity of neutron star matter and r -modes in rotating pulsars (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.


    We study viscosity of the neutron star matter and r -mode instability in rotating neutron stars. Contributions to the shear and bulk viscosities from various processes are calculated accounting for in-medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A softening of the pion mode at densities larger than the nuclear saturation density n0 and a possibility of the pion condensation at densities above 3 n0 are included. The neutron-neutron and proton-proton pairings are incorporated where necessary. In the shear viscosity we include the lepton contribution calculated taking into account the Landau damping in the photon exchange, the nucleon contribution described by the medium-modified one-pion exchange, and some other terms, such as the novel phonon contribution in the 1 S0 superfluid neutron phase and the neutrino term in the neutrino opacity region. The nucleon shear viscosity depends on the density rather moderately and proves to be much less than the lepton term. On the contrary, among the terms contributing to the bulk viscosity, induced by the delay of the relaxation of lepton concentrations in the star matter perturbed by the r -modes, the term from the two-nucleon medium-modified Urca reactions possesses strongest density dependence (rising by several orders of magnitude for massive stars) because of the pion softening. Also, contributions to the bulk viscosity arising from other reactions induced by charged weak currents, e.g., in the Urca processes on a pion condensate and in direct Urca processes, are included. The radiative bulk viscosity induced by charged and neutral weak currents in the region of the neutrino transparency of the star is also calculated accounting for in-medium effects. We exploit the equation of state, which is similar to the Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall equation of state up to 4 n0 , but is stiffer at higher densities, producing the maximum neutron star mass compatible with observations. The direct Urca processes do not appear

  12. Rotator Cuff Injuries (United States)

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  13. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow (United States)

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. The Earth's rotation problem (United States)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.


    The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  15. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  16. Rotating Workforce Scheduling


    Granfeldt, Caroline


    Several industries use what is called rotating workforce scheduling. This often means that employees are needed around the clock seven days a week, and that they have a schedule which repeats itself after some weeks. This thesis gives an introduction to this kind of scheduling and presents a review of previous work done in the field. Two different optimization models for rotating workforce scheduling are formulated and compared, and some examples are created to demonstrate how the addition of...

  17. Ipsilateral Rotational Autokeratoplasty


    Yesim Altay


    Corneal opacity is a leading cause of monocular blindness, and corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed solid organ transplantation in the world. Keratoplasty techniques for corneal opacities include lamellar allokeratoplasty and penetrating allokeratoplasty. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty can be an effective alternative to penetrating allokeratoplasty for some patients with corneal scars. This procedure involves a rotation of the patient%u2019s own cornea to move opaci...

  18. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee


    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  19. A Rotative Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F-M [St. John' s and St. Mary' s Institute of Technology, Department of computer science and information Engineering, 499, Sec. 4, Tam King Road Tamsui, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, C-N [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, F-W [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chung, H-Y [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a powerful tool for mapping the conductivity distribution of estimated objects. The EIT system is entirely implemented by electrical technique, so it is a relatively cheap system and data can be collected very rapidly. But it has few commercially medical EIT systems available. This is because impedance image unable to achieve the essential spatial resolution and this technique has an intrinsically poor signal to noise ratio. In this paper, we have developed a high performance rotative EIT system (REIT) for expanding the independent measurements. By rotate the electrodes successive, REIT could change the position of electrodes and acquire more measurement data. This rotative measurement method not only can increase the resolution of impedance images, but also reduce the complexity of measurement system. We hope the improvement of REIT will bring some help in electrical impedance tomography.

  20. On the Transition from Potential Flow to Turbulence Around a Microsphere Oscillating in Superfluid ^4{He} (United States)

    Niemetz, M.; Hänninen, R.; Schoepe, W.


    The flow of superfluid ^4{He} around a translationally oscillating sphere, levitating without mechanical support, can either be laminar or turbulent, depending on the velocity amplitude. Below a critical velocity v_c that scales as ω ^{1/2} and is temperature independent below 1 K, the flow is laminar (potential flow). Below 0.5 K, the linear drag force is caused by ballistic phonon scattering that vanishes as T^4 until background damping, measured in the empty cell, becomes dominant for T force varies as (v^2 - v_c^2). In a small velocity interval Δ v {/} v_c ≤ 3% above v_c, the flow is unstable below 0.5 K, switching intermittently between both patterns. From time series recorded at constant temperature and driving force, the lifetimes of both phases are analyzed statistically. We observe metastable states of potential flow which, after a mean lifetime of 25 min, ultimately break down due to vorticity created by natural background radioactivity. The lifetimes of the turbulent phases have an exponential distribution, and the mean increases exponentially with Δ v^2. We investigate the frequency at which the vortex rings are shed from the sphere. Our results are compared with recent data of other authors on vortex shedding by moving a laser beam through a Bose-Einstein condensate. Finally, we show that our observed transition to turbulence belongs to the class of "supertransient chaos" where lifetimes of the turbulent states increase faster than exponentially.

  1. Characterization of Prototype Superfluid Helium Safety Relief Valves for the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dufay, L; Van Weelderen, R


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will use high field superconducting magnets operating in pressurized superfluid helium (He II) at 1.9 K. Cold safety valves, with their inlet in direct contact with the He II bath, will be required to protect the cold masses in case of a magnet resistive transition. In addition to the safety function, the valves must limit their conduction heat load to the He II to below 0.3 W and limit their mass leakage when closed to below 0.01 g/s at 1.9 K with 100 mbar differential pressure. The valves must also have a high tolerance to contaminating particles in the liquid helium. The compliance with the specified performance is of crucial importance for the LHC cryogenic operation. An extensive test program is therefore being carried out on prototype industrial valves produced by four different manufacturers. The behavior of these valves has been investigated at room temperature and at 77 K. Precise heat load and mass leak measurements have been performed on a dedicated test faci...

  2. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamical Description of Superfluid Transition in Liquid Helium (United States)

    Ardizzone, Lucia; Stella Mongiovì, Maria; Saluto, Lidia


    In previous papers a phase field model for λ-transition in 4He was proposed, which is able to describe the influence of the heat flux on the temperature transition. The model presented here generalizes previous results taking into account of a homogeneous presence of quantized vortices below the λ-transition. As parameter that controls the transition, a dimensionless field f linked to the modulus of the condensate wave function is used. In addition to the field f, the resulting model chooses the following field variables: density, velocity, temperature and heat flux. Nonlocal terms to describe inhomogeneities in the field variables and dissipative effects of mechanical and thermal origin are also taken into account. Under the hypothesis that the liquid is at rest, the second sound propagation near the superfluid transition is studied. It is seen that the order parameter modifies the speed and the attenuation of the second sound, as well as the presence of a small tangle of vortices. This shows that the influence of the order parameter is not restricted to the description of the lambda transition, but its presence influences also other features, as the second sound speed and attenuation. In addition to the second sound a new mode is present, corresponding to a perturbation in the order parameter f, which is attenuated within a short number of wavelengths.

  3. A method for the three-dimensional numerical simulation of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Patankar, N A; Van Sciver, S W


    Transport phenomena in superfluid helium can be described using the two-fluid Landau-Khalatnikov model and the Gorter-Mellink mutual friction. Here we discuss a mathematical formulation of the two-fluid model that uses macroscopic conservation balances of mass, momentum and energy of each species, and assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium. A particularity of this model is that it describes the state of He II as well as that of each of the two-fluid components in terms of pressure p and temperature T, which is convenient for stable numerical solution. The equations of the model form a system of partial differential equations (PDE) that can be written in matrix form for convenience. On this base, a three-dimensional numerical model using a complete and consistent, while still practical, system of PDEs was developed. In the form described, the PDE can be solved using three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element in space supplemented by a Beam-Warming time-marching algorithm. Once validated, this solver will all...

  4. Localized Higgs modes of superfluid Bose gases in optical lattices: A Gutzwiller mean-field study (United States)

    Danshita, Ippei; Tsuchiya, Shunji


    We study effects of a potential barrier on collective modes of superfluid Bose gases in optical lattices. We assume that the barrier is created by local suppression of the hopping amplitude. When the system is in a close vicinity of the Mott transition at commensurate fillings, where an approximate particle-hole symmetry emerges, there exist bound states of Higgs amplitude mode that are localized around the barrier. By applying the Gutzwiller mean-field approximation to the Bose-Hubbard model, we analyze properties of normal modes of the system with a special focus on the Higgs bound states. We show that when the system moves away from the Mott transition point, the Higgs bound states turn into quasibound states due to inevitable breaking of the particle-hole symmetry. We use a stabilization method to compute the resonance energy and linewidth of the quasibound states. We compare the results obtained by the Gutzwiller approach with those by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We find that the Higgs bound states survive even in a parameter region far from the Mott transition, where the Ginzburg-Landau theory fails.

  5. The anisotropic Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model: supersolid, striped superfluid, and symmetry protected topological groundstates (United States)

    Hügel, Dario; Strand, Hugo U. R.; Werner, Philipp; Pollet, Lode

    We derive the reciprocal cluster mean-field method to study the strongly-interacting bosonic Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model. In terms of the hopping anisotropy and the chemical potential, the system exhibits a rich groundstate phase diagram featuring band insulating, striped superfluid, and supersolid phases. At finite anisotropy we additionally observe incompressible symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases, which are analyzed by a newly introduced measure for non-trivial many-body topological properties. The SPT phases at fillings ν = 1 , 3 exhibit the same symmetries and band fillings as the integer quantum Hall effect, in analog to non-interacting fermions. We further observe a new SPT phase at ν = 2 , which has no fermionic counterpart, and belongs to the same symmetry class as the quantum spin Hall effect due to particle-hole symmetry. Incompressible metastable states at fractional filling are also observed, indicating competing fractional quantum Hall phases. The observed SPT phases are promising candidates for realizing strongly correlated topological phases using cold atoms.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars (United States)

    Kaspi, V. M.


    ever wanted to know about pulsars but were afraid to ask. Chapter 1 begins a brief and interesting account of the discovery of pulsars, followed by an overview of the rotation-powered and accretion-powered populations. The following four chapters are fairly detailed and reasonably quantitative descriptions of neutron star interiors. This is no easy feat, given that a description of the physics of neutron stars demands a deep understanding of all major physical forces, and must include general relativity as well as detailed particle physics. The historical notes at the beginning of Chapter 2 are particularly fascinating, recounting the path to today's understanding of neutron stars in very interesting detail. Chapter 7 presents rotation-powered pulsar radio properties, and a nice description of pulsar timing, including relativistic and non-relativistic binaries and GR tests. The remaining chapters tackle a variety of topics including binary evolution, superfluidity, accretion-powered pulsar properties, magnetospheres and emission mechanisms, magnetic fields, spin evolution and strange stars. The coverage is somewhat uneven, with the strange star chapter, for example, an obvious afterthought. The utility of an encyclopedia lies in its breadth and in how up-to-date it is. Although admirable in its intentions, the Ghosh book does omit some major pulsar topics. This book leaves the impression that rotation-powered pulsars produce only radio emission; hardly (if at all) mentioned is the vast literature on their infrared, optical, and even more importantly, x-ray and gamma-ray emission, the latter being far more relevant to the pulsar 'machine' than the energetically puny radio output. Also absent are pulsar winds; this is particularly puzzling given both the lovely wind nebula that graces the book's cover, and the central role the wind plays as primary sink of the rotation power. One of the most actively pursued topics in pulsar astrophysics in the past decade, magnetars

  7. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.


    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  8. Rotational spectrum of the NH3–He van der Waals complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surin L.


    Full Text Available The interaction between ammonia and helium has attracted considerable interest over many years, partly because of the observation of interstellar ammonia. The rate coefficients of NH3–He scattering are an important ingredient for numerical modeling of astrochemical environments. Another, though quite different application in which the NH3–He interaction can play an important role is the doping of helium clusters with NH3 molecules to perform high-resolution spectroscopy. Such experiments are directed on the detection of non-classical response of molecular rotation in helium clusters addressing fundamental questions related to the microscopic nature of superfluidity. High-resolution spectroscopy on the NH3–He complex is an important tool for increasing our understanding of intermolecular forces between NH3 and He.

  9. Lineshape of rotational spectrum of CO in (4)He droplets. (United States)

    Zillich, Robert E; Whaley, K Birgitta; von Haeften, Klaus


    In a recent experiment the rovibrational spectrum of CO isotopomers in superfluid helium-4 droplets was measured, and a Lorentzian lineshape with a large line width of 0.024 K (half width at half maximum) was observed [von Haeften et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 054502 (2006)]. In the accompanying theoretical analysis it was concluded that the broadening mechanism may be homogeneous and due to coupling to collective droplet excitations (phonons). Here we generalize the lineshape analysis to account for the statistical distribution of droplet sizes present in nozzle expansion experiments. These calculations suggest an alternative explanation for the spectral broadening, namely, that the coupling to phonons can give rise to an inhomogeneous broadening as a result of averaging isolated rotation-phonon resonances over a broad cluster size distribution. This is seen to result in Lorentzian lineshapes, with a width and peak position that depend weakly on the size distribution, showing oscillatory behavior for the narrower size distributions. These oscillations decrease with droplet size and for large enough droplets ( approximately 10(4)) the line widths saturate at a value equal to the homogeneous line width calculated for the bulk limit.

  10. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  11. Ipsilateral Rotational Autokeratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Altay


    Full Text Available Corneal opacity is a leading cause of monocular blindness, and corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed solid organ transplantation in the world. Keratoplasty techniques for corneal opacities include lamellar allokeratoplasty and penetrating allokeratoplasty. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty can be an effective alternative to penetrating allokeratoplasty for some patients with corneal scars. This procedure involves a rotation of the patient%u2019s own cornea to move opacity out of the visual axis. An important consideration when selecting cases for rotational autokeratoplasty is the dimensions of the corneal scar. Although ipsilateral autokeratoplasty may not provide as good a quality of vision as penetrating allokeratoplasty because of higher astigmatism and reduced corneal pupillary clear zone, these disadvantages are often outweighed when the risk of allograft rejection is high, as in pediatric patients and those with vascularised corneas. This technique would at least partially resolve the issue of scarcity of donor corneal tissue in developing countries.

  12. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  13. Rotation of Giant Stars (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher


    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  14. Doping of Green Fluorescent Protein into Superfluid Helium Droplets: Size and Velocity of Doped Droplets. (United States)

    Alghamdi, Maha; Zhang, Jie; Oswalt, Andrew; Porter, Joseph J; Mehl, Ryan A; Kong, Wei


    We report doping of green fluorescent protein from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. From analyses of the time profiles of the doped droplets, we identify two distinct groups of droplets. The faster group has a smaller average size, on the order of 10(6) helium atoms/droplet, and the slower group is much larger, by at least an order of magnitude. The relative populations of these two groups depend on the temperature of the droplet source: from 11 to 5 K, the signal intensity of the slower droplet group gradually increases, from near the detection limit to comparable to that of the faster group. We postulate that the smaller droplets are formed via condensation of gaseous helium upon expansion from the pulsed valve, while the larger droplets develop from fragmentation of ejected liquid helium. Our results on the size and velocity of the condensation peak at higher source temperatures (>7 K) agree with previous reports, but those at lower temperatures (<7 K) seem to be off. We attribute this discrepancy to the masking effect of the exceedingly large droplets from the fragmentation peak in previous measurements of droplet sizes. Within the temperature range of our investigation, although the expansion condition changes from subcritical to supercritical, there is no abrupt change in either the velocity distribution or the size distribution of the condensation peak, and the most salient effect is in the increasing intensity of the fragmentation peak. The absolute doping efficiency, as expressed by the ratio of ion-doped droplets over the total number of ions from the ESI source, is on the order of 10(-4), while only hundreds of doped ions have been detected. Further improvements in the ESI source are key to extending the technology for future experiments. On the other hand, the separation of the two groups of droplets in velocity is beneficial for size selection of only the smaller droplets for future experiments of electron

  15. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Sixty years of broken symmetries in quantum physics (from the Bogoliubov theory of superfluidity to the Standard Model) (United States)

    Shirkov, Dmitrii V.


    This is a retrospective historical review of the ideas that led to the concept of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), the issue that has been implemented in quantum field theory in the form of the Higgs mechanism. The key stages covered include: the Bogoliubov microscopic theory of superfluidity (1946); the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bogoliubov microscopic theory of superconductivity (1957); superconductivity as superfluidity of Cooper pairs (Bogoliubov, 1958); the extension of the SSB concept to simple quantum field models (early 1960s); triumph of the Higgs model in electroweak theory (early 1980s). The role and status of the Higgs mechanism in the current Standard Model are discussed.

  16. The superfluid diffusion equation S(T)(@T/@t) = nabla ter dot (K(T)( nabla T) sup 1/3 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.


    This report deals with the superfluid diffusion equation, S(T)({partial derivative}T/{partial derivative}t) = {nabla}{center dot}(K(T)({nabla}T){sup 1/3}), which describes heat transport in turbulent helium-II (superfluid helium). Three methods of solution -- the method of similarity, the variational method, and the method of maximum/minimum principles -- are applied to this equation. The solutions discovered are helpful in addressing the use of helium-II in superconducting magnets and other applications. 22 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Hofstadter-Hubbard model with opposite magnetic fields: Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing and superfluidity in the nearly flat butterfly bands (United States)

    Iskin, M.


    Despite the multiband spectrum of the widely known Hofstadter butterfly, it turns out that the pairing correlations of the time-reversal-symmetric Hofstadter-Hubbard model are well described by a single order parameter that is uniform in real space. By exploiting a BCS mean-field theory for the nearly flat butterfly-bands regime of low magnetic-flux limit, here we reveal a number of unusual superfluid properties both in the ground state and at finite temperatures. Our thorough analysis includes but is not limited to the order parameter, condensate, and superfluid fractions, and the critical BCS and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperatures.

  18. Tuning the Interlayer Spacing of High-Tc Bi-Based Superconductors by Intercalation: Measuring the Penetration Depth and the Two-Dimensional Superfluid Density (United States)

    Baker, P. J.; Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Brooks, M. L.; Kwon, S.-J.


    Substantial control of the interlayer spacing in Bi-based high temperature superconductors has been achieved through the intercalation of guest molecules between the superconducting layers. Measurements using implanted muons reveal that the penetration depth increases with increasing layer separation while Tc does not vary appreciably, demonstrating that the bulk superfluid density is not the determining factor controlling Tc. Our results strongly suggest that for Bi-based high temperature superconductors the superfluid density appearing in the Uemura scaling relation ρs∝Tc should be interpreted as the two-dimensional density within the superconducting layers, which we find to be constant for each class of system investigated.

  19. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.


    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  20. Rotational waves in geodynamics (United States)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander


    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  1. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan


    The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...

  2. Rotator Cuff Injuries. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  3. Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing (United States)

    He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin

    accelerated the early process of visual cognition. There is a synergic effect between the effects of constant low-speed rotation and rotating speed of the background. Under certain conditions, they both served to facilitate the visual cognitive processing, and it had been started at the stage when extrastriate cortex perceiving the visual signal. Under the condition of constant low-speed rotation in higher cognitive load tasks, the rapid rotation of the background enhanced the magnitude of the signal transmission in the visual path, making signal to noise ratio increased and a higher signal to noise ratio is clearly in favor of target perception and recognition. This gave rise to the hypothesis that higher cognitive load tasks with higher top-down control had more power in counteracting the inhibition effect of higher velocity rotation background. Acknowledgements: This project was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670715) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA04Z254).

  4. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)


    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  5. Strain effects on rotational property in nanoscale rotation system. (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhang; Han, Qiang


    This paper presents a study of strain effects on nanoscale rotation system consists of double-walls carbon nanotube and graphene. It is found that the strain effects can be a real-time controlling method for nano actuator system. The strain effects on rotational property as well as the effect mechanism is studied systematically through molecular dynamics simulations, and it obtains valuable conclusions for engineering application of rotational property management of nanoscale rotation system. It founds that the strain effects tune the rotational property by influencing the intertube supporting effect and friction effect of double-walls carbon nanotube, which are two critical factors of rotational performance. The mechanism of strain effects on rotational property is investigated in theoretical level based on analytical model established through lattice dynamics theory. This work suggests great potentials of strain effects for nanoscale real-time control, and provides new ideas for design and application of real-time controllable nanoscale rotation system.

  6. Rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model (United States)

    Wei, J.-B.; Chen, H.; Burgio, G. F.; Schulze, H.-J.


    We study rapidly rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger model for quark matter and the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory with realistic two-body and three-body forces for nuclear matter. We determine the maximum gravitational mass, equatorial radius, and rotation frequency of stable stellar configurations by considering the constraints of the Keplerian limit and the secular axisymmetric instability, and compare with observational data. We also discuss the rotational evolution for constant baryonic mass and find a spin-up phenomenon for supramassive stars before they collapse to black holes.

  7. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch


    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  8. Application of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging and computer analysis to study micrometer-scale response of superfluid helium (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed; Buelna, Xavier; Eloranta, Jussi


    Application of inexpensive light emitting diodes as backlight sources for time-resolved shadowgraph imaging is demonstrated. The two light sources tested are able to produce light pulse sequences in the nanosecond and microsecond time regimes. After determining their time response characteristics, the diodes were applied to study the gas bubble formation around laser-heated copper nanoparticles in superfluid helium at 1.7 K and to determine the local cavitation bubble dynamics around fast moving metal micro-particles in the liquid. A convolutional neural network algorithm for analyzing the shadowgraph images by a computer is presented and the method is validated against the results from manual image analysis. The second application employed the red-green-blue light emitting diode source that produces light pulse sequences of the individual colors such that three separate shadowgraph frames can be recorded onto the color pixels of a charge-coupled device camera. Such an image sequence can be used to determine the moving object geometry, local velocity, and acceleration/deceleration. These data can be used to calculate, for example, the instantaneous Reynolds number for the liquid flow around the particle. Although specifically demonstrated for superfluid helium, the technique can be used to study the dynamic response of any medium that exhibits spatial variations in the index of refraction.

  9. Phase diagram of a non-Abelian Aubry-André-Harper model with p -wave superfluidity (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xia-Ji; Xianlong, Gao; Hu, Hui


    We study theoretically a one-dimensional quasiperiodic Fermi system with topological p -wave superfluidity, which can be deduced from a topologically nontrivial tight-binding model on the square lattice in a uniform magnetic field and subject to a non-Abelian gauge field. The system may be regarded as a non-Abelian generalization of the well-known Aubry-André-Harper model. We investigate its phase diagram as a function of the strength of the quasidisorder and the amplitude of the p -wave order parameter through a number of numerical investigations, including a multifractal analysis. There are four distinct phases separated by three critical lines, i.e., two phases with all extended wave functions [(I) and (IV)], a topologically trivial phase (II) with all localized wave functions, and a critical phase (III) with all multifractal wave functions. Phase (I) is related to phase (IV) by duality. It also seems to be related to phase (II) by duality. Our proposed phase diagram may be observable in current cold-atom experiments, in view of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields and topological insulators/superfluids with ultracold atoms.

  10. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  11. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission. (United States)

    Pravec, P; Vokrouhlický, D; Polishook, D; Scheeres, D J; Harris, A W; Galád, A; Vaduvescu, O; Pozo, F; Barr, A; Longa, P; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Pray, D P; Pollock, J; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; Lacluyze, A; Kusnirák, P; Henych, T; Marchis, F; Macomber, B; Jacobson, S A; Krugly, Yu N; Sergeev, A V; Leroy, A


    Pairs of asteroids sharing similar heliocentric orbits, but not bound together, were found recently. Backward integrations of their orbits indicated that they separated gently with low relative velocities, but did not provide additional insight into their formation mechanism. A previously hypothesized rotational fission process may explain their formation-critical predictions are that the mass ratios are less than about 0.2 and, as the mass ratio approaches this upper limit, the spin period of the larger body becomes long. Here we report photometric observations of a sample of asteroid pairs, revealing that the primaries of pairs with mass ratios much less than 0.2 rotate rapidly, near their critical fission frequency. As the mass ratio approaches 0.2, the primary period grows long. This occurs as the total energy of the system approaches zero, requiring the asteroid pair to extract an increasing fraction of energy from the primary's spin in order to escape. We do not find asteroid pairs with mass ratios larger than 0.2. Rotationally fissioned systems beyond this limit have insufficient energy to disrupt. We conclude that asteroid pairs are formed by the rotational fission of a parent asteroid into a proto-binary system, which subsequently disrupts under its own internal system dynamics soon after formation.

  12. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail:; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail:; Mata, Santiago, E-mail:; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  13. Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten

    the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...... with the horizontal extent of many other parts of the Danish inland waters implies that the dynamics of these should also be discussed in terms of rotational effects....

  14. Marginal deformations & rotating horizons (United States)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito


    Motivated by the near-horizon geometry of four-dimensional extremal black holes, we study a disordered quantum mechanical system invariant under a global SU(2) symmetry. As in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, this system exhibits an approximate SL(2, ℝ) symmetry at low energies, but also allows for a continuous family of SU(2) breaking marginal deformations. Beyond a certain critical value for the marginal coupling, the model exhibits a quantum phase transition from the gapless phase to a gapped one and we calculate the critical exponents of this transition. We also show that charged, rotating extremal black holes exhibit a transition when the angular velocity of the horizon is tuned to a certain critical value. Where possible we draw parallels between the disordered quantum mechanics and charged, rotating black holes.

  15. Isotropic stochastic rotation dynamics (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Strobl, Severin; Pöschel, Thorsten


    Stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) is a widely used method for the mesoscopic modeling of complex fluids, such as colloidal suspensions or multiphase flows. In this method, however, the underlying Cartesian grid defining the coarse-grained interaction volumes induces anisotropy. We propose an isotropic, lattice-free variant of stochastic rotation dynamics, termed iSRD. Instead of Cartesian grid cells, we employ randomly distributed spherical interaction volumes. This eliminates the requirement of a grid shift, which is essential in standard SRD to maintain Galilean invariance. We derive analytical expressions for the viscosity and the diffusion coefficient in relation to the model parameters, which show excellent agreement with the results obtained in iSRD simulations. The proposed algorithm is particularly suitable to model systems bound by walls of complex shape, where the domain cannot be meshed uniformly. The presented approach is not limited to SRD but is applicable to any other mesoscopic method, where particles interact within certain coarse-grained volumes.

  16. The Rotation of Europa (United States)

    Henrard, Jacques


    We present a semi-analytical theory of the rotation of Europa the Galilean satellite of Jupiter. The theory is semi-analytical in the sense that it is based on a synthetic theory of the orbit of Europa developed by Lainey. The theory is developed in the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics, using Andoyer variables and assumes that Europa is a rigid body. We consider this theory as a first step toward the modelization of a non rigid Europa covered by an ocean.

  17. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Pate, Brooks


    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  18. Method for Design Rotation (United States)


    central composite design and give the orthogonal matrix that yields the rotation, but they do not discuss how the orthogonal matrix was found. Doehlert ... Doehlert and Klee (1972) was to start with a known orthogonal matrix of simple form and then augment the matrix with additional rows and columns to get a...larger region, a symmetric treatment of the factors, or both. 114. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Orthogonal matrix Response surface design 27

  19. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel (United States)


    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  20. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, Elena, E-mail: [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Egorov, Nicolai [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, 4 Passage 4806, Moscow, Zelenograd 124460 (Russian Federation); Härkönen, Jaakko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 64 (Gustaf Hallströmin katu 2) FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)


    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2}. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment. - Highlights: • Si detectors irradiated in situ at 1.9 K by 23 GeV protons are further studied. • Trapping parameters are derived from the fits of collected charge vs. fluence data. • Acceptor-type defects are likely to be induced along with donor-type ones. • Trapping of holes has a dominating effect on the collected charge degradation. • New tests are planned to gain deeper insight

  1. A Structured Approach to Analyze the Influence of Cannel Dimensions on Heat Extraction via Superfluid Helium (Proc. 25th ICEC & ICMC2014 conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, Erwin; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Verweij, A.P.; Verweij, A.P.


    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, the final focusing quadrupole magnets will be exposed to an increased energy deposition in their coil windings. To have a higher heat transfer rate between cable and superfluid helium bath, the cable insulation has been subject of many studies. Improved

  2. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  3. Three-mode orthomax rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.


    Factor analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) are often followed by an orthomax rotation to rotate a loading matrix to simple structure. The simple structure is usually defined in terms of the simplicity of the columns of the loading matrix. In Three-made PCA, rotational freedom of the so

  4. Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex flow (United States)

    Torres, Theo; Patrick, Sam; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Maurício; Tedford, Edmund W.; Weinfurtner, Silke


    When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting energy from the scatterer. Here we describe in detail the first laboratory detection of this phenomenon, known as superradiance. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. The maximum amplification measured was 14% +/- 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to black-hole physics, since shallow water waves scattering on a draining fluid constitute an analogue of a black hole, as well as to hydrodynamics, due to the close relation to over-reflection instabilities.

  5. Decoupling of translational and rotational diffusion in quasi-2D colloidal fluids (United States)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R.


    We observe the translational and rotational diffusion of dimer tracer particles in quasi-2D colloidal samples. The dimers are in dense samples of two different sizes of spherical colloidal particles, with the area fraction ϕ of the particles varying from dilute to nearly glassy. At low ϕ, rotational and translational diffusion have a ratio set by the dimer size, as expected. At higher ϕ, dimers become caged by their neighboring particles, and both rotational and translational diffusion become slow. For short dimers, we observe rapid reorientations so that the rotational diffusion is faster than the translational diffusion: the two modes of diffusion are decoupled and have different ϕ dependence. Longer dimers do not exhibit fast rotations, and we find that their translational and rotational diffusion stay coupled for all ϕ. Our results bridge prior results that used spheres (very fast rotation) and long ellipsoids (very slow rotation).

  6. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server


    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  7. On general Earth's rotation theory (United States)

    Brumberg, V.; Ivanova, T.


    This paper dealing with the general problem of the rigid-body rotation of the three-axial Earth represents a straightforward extension of (Brumberg and Ivanova, 2007) where the simplified Poisson equations of rotation of the axially symmetrical Earth have been considered. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  8. Suppression of the antinodal coherence of superconducting (Bi,Pb)2(Sr,La)2CuO6+δ as revealed by muon spin rotation and angle-resolved photoemission (United States)

    Khasanov, R.; Kondo, Takeshi; Bendele, M.; Hamaya, Yoichiro; Kaminski, A.; Lee, S. L.; Ray, S. J.; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro


    The superfluid density ρs in underdoped (Tc≃23K) , optimally doped (Tc≃35K) , and overdoped (Tc≃29K) single-crystalline (Bi,Pb)2(Sr,La)2CuO6+δ samples was studied by means of muon spin rotation (μSR) . By combining the μSR data with the results of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on similar samples [T. Kondo , Nature (London) 457, 296 (2009)10.1038/nature07644] good self-consistent agreement is obtained between two techniques concerning the temperature and the doping evolution of ρs .

  9. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul


    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  10. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René


    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  11. ROTATING PLASMA DEVICE (United States)

    Boyer, K.; Hammel, J.E.; Longmire, C.L.; Nagle, D.E.; Ribe, F.L.; Tuck, J.L.


    ABS>A method and device are described for obtaining fusion reactions. The basic concept is that of using crossed electric and magnetic fields to induce a plasma rotation in which the ionized particles follow a circumferential drift orbit on wldch a cyclotron mode of motion is superimposed, the net result being a cycloidal motion about the axis of symmetry. The discharge tube has a radial electric field and a longitudinal magnetic field. Mirror machine geometry is utilized. The device avoids reliance on the pinch effect and its associated instability problems. (AEC)

  12. Rotating Wheel Wake (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer


    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  13. Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine (United States)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.


    A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).

  14. Pure Nano-Rotation Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee


    Full Text Available We developed and tested a novel rotation scanner for nano resolution and accurate rotary motion about the rotation center. The scanner consists of circular hinges and leaf springs so that the parasitic error at the center of the scanner in the X and Y directions is minimized, and rotation performance is optimized. Each sector of the scanner's system was devised to have nano resolution by minimizing the parasitic errors of the rotation center that arise due to displacements other than rotation. The analytic optimal design results of the proposed scanner were verified using finite element analyses. The piezoelectric actuators were used to attain nano-resolution performances, and a capacitive sensor was used to measure displacement. A feedback controller was used to minimize the rotation errors in the rotation scanner system under practical conditions. Finally, the performance evaluation test results showed that the resonance frequency was 542 Hz, the resolution was 0.09 μrad, and the rotation displacement was 497.2 μrad. Our test results revealed that the rotation scanner exhibited accurate rotation about the center of the scanner and had good nano precision.

  15. Injection of atoms and molecules in a superfluid helium fountain: Cu and Cu2He(n) (n = 1, ..., ∞). (United States)

    Vehmanen, Esa; Ghazarian, Vahan; Sams, Courtney; Khachatryan, Isahak; Eloranta, Jussi; Apkarian, V A


    We introduce an experimental platform designed around a thermomechanical helium fountain, which is aimed at investigating spectroscopy and dynamics of atoms and molecules in the superfluid and at its vapor interface. Laser ablation of copper, efficient cooling and transport of Cu and Cu(2) through helium vapor (1.5 K fountain interface. Cu(2) dimers mainly travel through the fountain unimpeded. However, the conditions of fountain flow and transport of molecules can be controlled to demonstrate injection and, in particular, injection into a nondivergent columnar fountain with a plug velocity of about 1 m/s. The experimental observables are interpreted with the aid of bosonic density functional theory calculations and ab initio interaction potentials.

  16. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...


    CERN Document Server

    Pietrowicz, S; Canfer, S; Jones, S; Baudouy, B


    In the framework of the European project EuCARD (FP7) aiming at constructing a high magnetic field accelerator magnet of 13 T with Nb3Sn superconducting cables, new electrical insulation are thermally tested. This technology will use “conventional” electrical insulation in combination with pressurized superfluid helium (He II) or saturated helium at atmospheric pressure as coolant. Two composite insulation systems composed of cyanate ester epoxy mix or a tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with fiberglass tape frame, have been chosen as potential candidates. The knowledge of their thermal properties is necessary for the thermal design and therefore samples have been tested in pressurized He II where heat is applied perpendicularly to the fibers between 1.6 K and 2.0 K. Overall thermal resistance is determined as a function of temperature and the results are compared with other electrical insulation systems used for accelerator magnets.

  18. A nonlinear model for rotationally constrained convection with Ekman pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Julien, Keith; Calkins, Michael A; Knobloch, Edgar; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan; Vasil, Geoffrey M


    It is a well established result of linear theory that the influence of differing mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., stress-free or no-slip, on the primary instability in rotating convection becomes asymptotically small in the limit of rapid rotation. This is accounted for by the diminishing impact of the viscous stresses exerted within Ekman boundary layers and the associated vertical momentum transport by Ekman pumping. By contrast, in the nonlinear regime recent experiments and supporting simulations are now providing evidence that the efficiency of heat transport remains strongly influenced by Ekman pumping in the rapidly rotating limit. In this paper, a reduced model is developed for the case of low Rossby number convection in a plane layer geometry with no-slip upper and lower boundaries held at fixed temperatures. A complete description of the dynamics requires the existence of three distinct regions within the fluid layer: a geostrophically balanced interior where fluid motions are predominately ali...

  19. Additional measurements of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Stauffer, J. R.


    New rotational-velocity measurements for pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud are reported. Rotational velocities or upper limits of 10 km/s are now available for 90 percent of the T Tauri stars with V less than 14.7 in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi. Measurements of 'continuum emission' stars, thought to be accreting high-angular-momentum material from a circumstellar disk, show that these objects are not especially rapid rotators. The results confirm earlier findings that angular-momentum loss proceeds very efficiently in the earliest stages of star formation, and suggest that stars older than about one million yr contract to the main sequence at nearly constant angular momentum. The slow rotation of T Tauri stars probably requires substantial angular-momentum loss via a magnetically coupled wind.

  20. ROTEM analysis: A significant advance in the field of rotational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of the century, a significant advance in the rapidly expanding field of rotational thrombelastography (ROTEG), known at present as thrombelastometry or ROTEM analysis, was developed at the Ludwig-Maximillian University in Munich. The measuring unit is operated by a laptop computer. There are four ...